National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lithium ion cells

  1. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  2. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

  3. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher. Di Domenico, A. Stefanopoulou, and G. Fiengo., Reduced Order Lithium-ion Battery Electrochemical

  4. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using PrintedSilicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printedfor the system and lithium-ion batteries will be used to

  5. On the Coupling Between Stress and Voltage in Lithium Ion Pouch Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    On the Coupling Between Stress and Voltage in Lithium Ion Pouch Cells John Cannarellaa, Collen Z in a commercial lithium-ion pouch cell. This coupling is characterized through measurements of a coupling factor based on intercalation materials. Keywords: load cell, force sensor, lithium-ion battery, intercalation

  6. Short communication Internal resistance matching for parallel-connected lithium-ion cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Short communication Internal resistance matching for parallel-connected lithium-ion cells a c t When assembling lithium-ion cells into functional battery packs, it is common to connect lithium ion cells are connected in parallel and cycled at high rate, matching of internal resistance

  7. Parameter Estimation and Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells Shriram Santhanagopalan,*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parameter Estimation and Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells Shriram Santhanagopalan,*,a Qi Zhang Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA Lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled at five different. The lithium-ion cell is among the most popular candidates con- sidered actively as a replacement for nickel

  8. Parameter Estimation and Model Discrimination for a Lithium-Ion Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -18 This interest has been fueled by the combination of the fast growing lithium-ion battery market and the desireParameter Estimation and Model Discrimination for a Lithium-Ion Cell Shriram Santhanagopalan parameters using nonlinear regression from experimental charge/ discharge curves of a lithium-ion cell

  9. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01

    7), A365 G. M. Ehrlich, Lithium-ion Batteries, 3rd ed ed. (High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells G. Liu a,z , H.local environment. (A) lithium-ion mass transfer in the

  10. Stress evolution and capacity fade in constrained lithium-ion pouch cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Stress evolution and capacity fade in constrained lithium-ion pouch cells John Cannarella, Craig B 28 June 2013 Accepted 30 June 2013 Available online 13 July 2013 Keywords: Lithium-ion battery stress on lithium-ion battery life are investigated by monitoring the stack pressure and capacity

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Stresses in a Lithium Ion Cell Sindhuja Renganathan,a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meeting of the Society, May 24­29, 2009. Lithium ion based rechargeable batteries LIBs have become oneTheoretical Analysis of Stresses in a Lithium Ion Cell Sindhuja Renganathan,a, * Godfrey Sikha process in a dual porous insertion electrode cell sandwich comprised of lithium cobalt oxide and carbon

  12. A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

  13. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  14. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery ..Performance of Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Introduction Assolid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively

  15. Journal of Power Sources 158 (2006) 679688 Cycle life performance of lithium-ion pouch cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    capability studies on full cells give a better understanding of the capacity fade mechanisms. 2. ExperimentalJournal of Power Sources 158 (2006) 679­688 Cycle life performance of lithium-ion pouch cells Available online 15 November 2005 Abstract Cycle life studies have been done on lithium-ion pouch cell

  16. Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells-performance and diagnostic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    PG06 Temp. (°C) Cycles Cell Power Fade NA NA Cell ASI @ EODCHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION CELLS-PERFORMANCEof capacity and power fade in the cells, suggested in Fig.

  17. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  18. Optimization of a Single Lithium-ion Battery Cell with a Gradient-based Algorithm , Wenbo Dua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Optimization of a Single Lithium-ion Battery Cell with a Gradient-based Algorithm Nansi Xuea for optimal cell designs are independent of discharge rate. Keywords Lithium ion battery Porous electrode for automating the design of lithium-ion cells to maximize cell energy density while meeting specific power

  19. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Babinec

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component â?? the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program â?? even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials â?? specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge with this material will be to maintain proven performance when this composite is coated onto a thicker electrode; as well the high temperature storage must meet application requirements. One continuing program challenge was the lack of specific performance variables for this PV application and so the low power requirements of PHEV/EV transportation markets were again used.

  1. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. Roya source of ?100 mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized

  2. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  3. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  4. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications dependence of aging of lithium ion batteries. Considered the conditions of path dependence specific October 2014 Available online 13 October 2014 Keywords: Lithium-ion battery Path dependence Thermal aging

  5. Control-oriented modeling and adaptive parameter estimation of a lithium ion intercalation cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Pierre (Pierre Yanhe)

    2015-01-01

    Battery management systems using parameter and state estimators based on electrochemical models for Lithium ion cells, are promising efficient use and safety of the battery. In this thesis, two findings related to ...

  6. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    the solid state thin-film lithium battery S8-ES ( Front EdgeLithium-Ion Polymer Battery ..Mikhaylik, "Lithium-Sulfur Secondary Battery: Chemistry and

  7. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  8. Solvent Diffusion Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Harry J. Ploehn,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solvent Diffusion Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Harry J. Ploehn,z Premanand Ramadass model of solvent diffusion describing the growth of solid-electrolyte inter- faces SEIs in Li-ion cells incorporating carbon anodes. The model assumes that a reactive solvent component diffuses through the SEI

  9. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  10. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousare presented for lithium-ion cells and modules utilizingAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  11. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    05CH11231. References 1. Lithium Ion Batteries: FundamentalsExamination of Generation 2 Lithium-Ion Cells and AssessmentDevelopment Program for Lithium Ion Batteries, U.S.

  12. Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridgway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    graphite formulations in particular, are the current standard for lithium-ion anodes for electric vehicle batteries(

  13. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  14. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  15. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  16. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  17. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF{sub 6}-bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C.

  18. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion

  19. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01

    G. M. Ehrlich, Lithium-ion Batteries, 3rd ed ed. (McGraw-Introduction Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are a prime

  20. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  1. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardwick, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    graphite anodes suffer severe surface structural damage upon prolonged cycling in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  5. I-V analysis of high-energy lithium-ion-irradiated Si and GaAs solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Meulenberg Jr; B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; A. K. Saif

    2007-09-07

    Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 and 40 MeV lithium ions. Dark-IV analysis (with and without illumination) reveals differences in the effects of such irradiation on the different cell types

  6. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    on fuel cells, advanced batteries, and ultracapacitorof Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-inAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  7. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium-Ion Batteries Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  8. Simulation of Electrolyte Composition Effects on High Energy Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gering

    2014-09-01

    An important feature of the DUALFOIL model for simulation of lithium-ion cells [1,2] is rigorous accounting for non-ideal electrolyte properties. Unfortunately, data are available on only a few electrolytes [3,4]. However, K. Gering has developed a model for estimation of electrolyte properties [5] and recently generated complete property sets (density, conductivity, activity coefficient, diffusivity, transport number) as a function of temperature and salt concentration. Here we use these properties in an enhanced version of the DUALFOIL model called DISTNP, available in Battery Design Studio [6], to examine the effect of different electrolytes on cell performance. Specifically, the behavior of a high energy LiCoO2/graphite 18650-size cell is simulated. The ability of Battery Design Studio to si

  9. Design of a testing device for quasi-confined compression of lithium-ion battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roselli, Eric (Eric J.)

    2011-01-01

    The Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory at MIT has formed a battery consortium to promote research concerning the crash characteristics of new lithium-ion battery technologies as used in automotive applications. Within ...

  10. An electrical network model for computing current distribution in a spirally wound lithium ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patnaik, Somani

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are the most viable option for electric vehicles but they still have significant limitations. Safety of these batteries is one of the concerns that need to be addressed when they are used in mainstream ...

  11. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  12. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.

    2008-01-01

    inactive materials weight (AB+PVDF) for lithium-ion cells.used to fabricate the lithium-ion coin cells. Figure 1. DCon the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite Cathode G Liu

  13. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  18. ForPeerReview A Validation Study of Lithium-ion Cell Constant C-Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    with Battery Design Studio® Journal: International Journal of Energy Research Manuscript ID: ER-12-3000.R1 and Engineering, Engineering and Public Policy Keywords: Battery Design Studio®, Lithium-ion, Battery Performance #12;ForPeerReview Sakti et al. 2012, Carnegie Mellon University List of Figures Figure 1: Flow diagram

  19. Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  20. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

  1. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    References 1. Lithium Ion Batteries: Fundamentals andProgram for Lithium Ion Batteries, U.S. Department ofas Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Li Yang a , Hanjun

  2. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    of thin- film Li-ion batteries under flexural deflection,”thin-film solar cells and batteries (2) Characterizesolar cells and batteries for multifunctional performance (

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. Actamaterials for lithium ion battery. Journal of Nanoparticle

  4. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Powersilicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longal. High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  6. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more tetravalent ion. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  7. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  9. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  10. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  11. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  12. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in) Construction of laser caliper (Keyence sensors ) system on a slot-die coater to measure thickness Thickness, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

  13. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  14. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  15. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  16. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  17. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  18. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyElectrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. MaterialsTechniques to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid

  19. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    abuse tolerant lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an important step in electrifying the drive train and facilitating widespread adoption of HEVs and PHEVs. Nanocomposite...

  20. Design Principles for the Use of Electroactive Polymers for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    environment of the lithium- ion battery. The model, in bothlithium-ion batteries. The model shows how the cell is transformed upon overcharge from a battery

  1. Computer-Aided Optimization of Macroscopic Design Factors for Lithium-Ion Cell Performance and Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric-drive vehicles enabled by power- and energy-dense batteries promise to improve vehicle efficiency and help reduce society's dependence on fossil fuels. Next generation plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles may also enable vehicles to be powered by electricity generated from clean, renewable resources; however, to increase the commercial viability of such vehicles, the cost, performance and life of the vehicles batteries must be further improved. This work illustrates a virtual design process to optimize the performance and life of large-format lithium ion batteries. Beginning with material-level kinetic and transport properties, the performance and life of multiple large-format cell designs are evaluated, demonstrating the impact of macroscopic design parameters such as foil thickness, tab location, and cell size and shape under various cycling conditions. Challenges for computer-aided engineering of large-format battery cells, such as competing requirements and objectives, are discussed.

  2. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  3. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  4. Development of a constitutive model predicting the point of short-circuit within lithium-ion battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, John Earl, Jr

    2012-01-01

    The use of Lithium Ion batteries continues to grow in electronic devices, the automotive industry in hybrid and electric vehicles, as well as marine applications. Such batteries are the current best for these applications ...

  5. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  6. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more »The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  9. Intercalation-Induced Stress and Heat Generation within Single Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    Intercalation-Induced Stress and Heat Generation within Single Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode sur- faces in postmortem analysis of batteries.5-7 Stress generation results from lithium-ion, as will be discussed later. Heat transfer analyses of lithium-ion batteries have stemmed from work on full cells.10

  10. Abstract--This paper describes experimental results aiming at analyzing lithium-ion batteries performances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Abstract--This paper describes experimental results aiming at analyzing lithium-ion batteries (SOH) of cells. Index Terms--Lithium-ion batteries, Aging, EIS, State Of Charge, State Of Health, Fuzzy Logic System. I. INTRODUCTION Lithium ion secondary batteries are now being used in wide applications

  11. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used for lithium ion battery cathodes and alland copper is used for lithium ion battery anodes. After the

  12. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. ElectrochimicaCapacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizinghours. 1.4 Lithium Ion Batteries Lithium battery technology

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  14. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  15. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  16. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Capacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizingas cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Electrochimica

  17. Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

  18. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longfor high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl. Phys.as the anode for a lithium-ion battery with high coulombic

  19. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sourcesof LiFePO4 based lithium ion batteries. Mater. Lett. 2007,negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an

  1. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. ActaO 2 cathode material for lithium ion battery: Dependence of

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in anJ. R. , Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J.Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  4. Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidl, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injectortesting of an intense lithium ion source and injector for anFIG. 4. The modeled and measured lithium ion source surface

  5. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  6. Performance and degradation evaluation of five different commercial lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; Shim, Joongpyo

    2004-04-20

    The initial performance of five different types of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, from Quallion Corp, UltraLife Battery and Toshiba, was measured and compared. Cell characterization included variable-rate constant-current cycling, various USDOE pulse-test protocols and full-spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Changes in impedance and capacity were monitored during electrochemical cycling under various conditions, including constant-current cycling over 100 percent DOD at a range of temperature and pulse profile cycling over a very narrow range of DOD at room temperature. All cells were found to maintain more than 80 percent of their rated capacity for more than 400 constant current 100 percent DOD cycles. The power fade (or impedance rise) of the cells varied considerably. New methods for interpreting the pulse resistance data were evaluated for their usefulness in interpreting performance mechanism as a function of test protocol and cell design.

  7. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  8. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

  9. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  10. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand...

  11. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries nanocompositematerialsliion.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE...

  12. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  13. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  14. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 -...

  15. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  16. Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries Xiao-Guang Sun in rechargeable lithium ion battery [1-5]. In a previous publication [6] we described a series of ether sulfones electrolytes, can yield lithium button cells ?batteries with very favorable characteristics. (Refs to VC

  17. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  18. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  19. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  20. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  1. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  2. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials Patrick Sinko B.S. Materials and motivation ­ Why study lithium-ion batteries? ­ Lithium-ion battery fundamentals ­ Why study the mechanical behaviors in lithium-ion batteries? · Current work ­ Mechanical behaviors the separator ­ How do we test

  4. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  5. STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF THE SUBSTRATE INTERFACE FOR GERMANIUM AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES........................................................................................................................16 1.1 Lithium Ion Batteries...................................................................................17 1.1.2 Lithium Ion Battery Chemistry

  6. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energydecomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principlesMaterials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct. Mater. 23,

  7. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the differentin hybrids. Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, plug-in hybrid

  8. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energysolvent decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct.

  9. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyMaterials for Lithium Ion Batteries. Materials Matters. 7 4.to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid State

  10. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety

  11. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter

  12. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  13. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Roll-to-Roll...

  14. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  15. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    better mechanical durability. CIGS solar cell has about 20%5]. However, CIGS solar cells degrade with humidity andSelenide (CIGS)[3] and organic polymer[4] solar cells are

  16. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    to integrate thin-film solar cells and batteries (2)methods for thin-film solar cells and batteries (4) Developamorphous silicon thin-film solar cell. Part number TX3-25

  17. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    demonstration,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.spectroscopy,” Solar energy materials and solar cells, vol.materials[2]. Multifunctional composite structure can be applied onto building windows to harvest solar energy

  18. Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Mitigating Performance Degradation of High-Energy Lithium-Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam and Marcarechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an integral

  2. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Layered, “Li-Excess” Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materialthe surfaces of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes evolve

  3. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  4. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

  5. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C.storage using rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become

  6. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  7. Single-Particle Model for a Lithium-Ion Cell: Thermal Godfrey Sikha,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the literature; for example, Newman and Pals1,2 presented cell and battery stack thermal models incorporating inefficient for simu- lating conditions such as cycling behavior and series/parallel con- figuration of stacked cells in battery packs. To improve computational run time without compromising accuracy

  8. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode. J. Phys.Aluminum is used for lithium ion battery cathodes and alland copper is used for lithium ion battery anodes. After the

  9. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  10. Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems Liang He1 , Linghe, TX, USA ABSTRACT Large-scale Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted in many systems and heterogeneous discharging con- ditions, cells in the battery system may have differ- ent statuses

  11. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  12. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  13. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  14. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  15. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  16. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials...

  17. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing...

  18. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for...

  19. Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García, R. Edwin

    Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries R. Edwin Garci´a,a, *,z microstructure. Experi- mental measurements are reproduced. Early models for lithium-ion batteries were developed Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239-4307, USA The properties of rechargeable lithium-ion

  20. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Solid Solutions: Coupled Lithium-Ion and Electron Mobility.lithium batteries, II. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries.1/4)Ni(3/4)O(2) for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica

  1. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an ethylenelithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 1999, 37, 165-batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2001,

  3. The Influence of High-Energy Lithium Ion Irradiation on Electrical Characteristics of Silicon and GaAs Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; Anil Agrawal; Saif Ahmad Khan; A. Meulenberg

    2006-10-22

    Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 & 40 MeV Li ions. Illuminated (AM0 condition) and unilluminated I-V curves reveal that the effect of high-energy Li ion irradiation has produced similar effects to that of proton irradiation. However, an additional, and different, defect mechanism is suggested to dominate in the heavier-ion results. Comparison is made with proton-irradiated solar-cell work and with non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) radiation-damage models.

  4. Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

  5. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Rohan, James F. (Cork City, IE); Foo, Conrad C. (Dedham, MA); Pasquariello, David M. (Pawtucket, RI)

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  6. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  7. Graphite Foams for Lithium-Ion Battery Current Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Tiegs, Terry N [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Jang, Young-Il [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Graphite open-cell foams, with their very high electronic and thermal conductivities, may serve as high surface area and corrosion resistant current collectors for lithium-ion batteries. As a proof of principle, cathodes were prepared by sintering carbon-coated LiFePO4 particles into the porous graphite foams. Cycling these cathodes in a liquid electrolyte cell showed promising performance even for materials and coatings that have not been optimized. The specific capacity is not limited by the foam structure, but by the cycling performance of the coated LiFePO4 particles. Upon extended cycling for more than 100 deep cycles, no loss of capacity is observed for rates of C/2 or less. The uncoated graphite foams will slowly intercalate lithium reversibly at potentials less than 0.2 volts versus lithium.

  8. Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

    2012-01-01

    A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-ion...

  10. Material characterization of high-voltage lithium-ion battery models for crashworthiness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Joseph D. (Joseph David)

    2013-01-01

    A three-phased study of the material properties and post-impact behavior of prismatic pouch lithium-ion battery cells was conducted to refine computational finite element models and explore the mechanisms of thermal runaway ...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  12. A disiloxane-functionalized phosphonium-based ionic liquid as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Wei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Div.; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Div.; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Div.; Amine, Khalil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Div.

    2011-01-01

    A disiloxane-functionalized ionic liquid based on a phosphonium cation and a bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion was synthesized and characterized. This new ionic liquid electrolyte showed good stability with a lithium transition metal oxide cathode and a graphite anode in lithium ion cells.

  13. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  14. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  15. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    exception being the lithium-ion battery (Table 2.1). Tableconfiguration of a lithium-ion battery is shown in Figureof Nb 2 O 5 as a lithium-ion battery electrode and as an

  16. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    for vehicle applications. 2 Lithium-ion battery chemistriesThe lithium-ion battery technology used for consumerfrom EIG Figure 4: Lithium-ion battery modules for testing

  17. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE IN HYBRIDof high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electricthe development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric

  18. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Powerelectrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Materialsfor Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries. Advanced Energy

  19. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    O(2) Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Understanding LocalO(2) compounds for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of PowerLiCoO(2) for lithium-ion batteries. Materials Science and

  20. Design Principles for the Use of Electroactive Polymers for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Newman, Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries, ch. Modeling ofProtection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Karen E. Thomas-Alyea,protec- tion for lithium-ion batteries. The model shows how

  1. Design and Fabrication of the Lithium Beam Ion Injector for NDCX-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takakuwa, J.

    2011-01-01

    research utilizing a lithium ion (Li+) beam with a currentthe alumina- silicate lithium ion source being, among otherand Fabrication of the Lithium Beam Ion Injector for NDCX-II

  2. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systemsobstacles for their use in lithium-ion batteries. However,devices. For rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, it is

  3. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    B. Dunn. "Low-potential lithium-ion reactivity of vanadiumMn 1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Journal ofMn, Ni, Co) electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of

  4. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beyondlithiumionb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries...

  5. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable...

  6. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for...

  7. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery,...

  8. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast...

  9. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  10. In situ determination of lithium ion cathode/electrolyte interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In situ determination of lithium ion cathodeelectrolyte interface thickness and composition as a function of charge. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In situ...

  11. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a...

  12. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  13. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  14. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, it is required that

  15. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations This Clean...

  16. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    J. Y. & Farrington, G. C. Electrochemistry of Highly OrderedAurbach, D. Nonaqueous Electrochemistry (Marcel Dekker, Newlithium-ion cells–Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes.

  17. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  18. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  19. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  20. Electrode for a lithium cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  1. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low?temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high?capacity and long?cycle?life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state?of?the?art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat?treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high?temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state?of?the?art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200?350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell?voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat?treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000?1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post?treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  2. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Layered Oxides for Lithium Batteries. Nano Lett. 13, 3857–Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. n/a–n/decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principles

  3. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  4. Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrodes, full cells and batteries (sets of full cells) under a variety of operating conditions (e and batteries (sets of full cells) to simulate various operating conditions like cyclic voltammetry, constantMathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama , John W

  5. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  6. A Finite Strain Model of Stress, Diffusion, Plastic Flow and Electrochemical Reactions in a Lithium-ion Half-cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bower, Allan F; Sethuraman, Vijay A; 10.1016/j.jmps.2011.01.003

    2011-01-01

    We formulate the continuum field equations and constitutive equations that govern deformation, stress, and electric current flow in a Li-ion half-cell. The model considers mass transport through the system, deformation and stress in the anode and cathode, electrostatic fields, as well as the electrochemical reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. It extends existing analyses by accounting for the effects of finite strains and plastic flow in the electrodes, and by exploring in detail the role of stress in the electrochemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. In particular, we find that that stress directly influences the rest potential at the interface, so that a term involving stress must be added to the Nernst equation if the stress in the solid is significant. The model is used to predict the variation of stress and electric potential in a model 1-D half-cell, consisting of a thin film of Si on a rigid substrate, a fluid electrolyte layer, and a solid Li cathode. The predicted c...

  7. Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage mesoporous structure, lithium ion batteries INTRODUCTION Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been regarded to be a electrochemically active with a capacity of about 0.6 lithium ion in LixTiO2 at 1.78 V vs Li/Li+ . TiO2-B

  8. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  9. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives toCurrent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 2 (2012):J. , Rojo, T. Na-ion Batteries, Recent Advances and Present

  10. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  11. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphite and LiCoO 2 are the most commonly employed negative and positive electrodes, respectively, for lithium ion batteries.

  12. Observation of elastic collisions between lithium atoms and calcium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haze, Shinsuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We observed elastic collisions between laser-cooled fermionic lithium atoms and calcium ions at the energy range from 100 mK to 3 K. Lithium atoms in an optical-dipole trap were transported to the center of the ion trap using an optical tweezer technique, and a spatial overlap of the atoms and ions was realized in order to observe the atom-ion interactions. The elastic scattering rate was determined from the decay of atoms due to elastic collisions with ions. The collision-energy dependence of the elastic scattering cross-section was consistent with semi-classical collision theory.

  13. Cubic Spline Regression for the Open-Circuit Potential Curves of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubic Spline Regression for the Open-Circuit Potential Curves of a Lithium-Ion Battery Qingzhi Guo-circuit potential OCP of an inter- calation electrode in a lithium-ion battery on the lithium concentra- tion reaction at an electrode in a lithium- ion battery depends exponentially on the difference between

  14. Kinetics of Initial Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon Electrodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Kinetics of Initial Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon Electrodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Matt phase. KEYWORDS: Lithium-ion batteries, silicon, kinetics, plasticity Lithium-ion batteries already at the electrolyte/lithiated silicon interface, diffusion of lithium through the lithiated phase, and the chemical

  15. Analysis of Impedance Response in Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Seongkoo

    2013-12-04

    formation due to diffusion induced stress can aggravate the aging of the electrode. These mechanisms of deterioration are primary contributors on limiting the durability of Lithium-ion battery (LIB). In addition, an composition of insertion materials...

  16. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries NREL Commercialization & Tech Transfer Webinar March 27, 2011 Gi-Heon Kim gi-heon.kim@nrel.gov John Ireland, Kyu-Jin Lee,...

  17. Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...

  18. Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Kai

    2013-11-25

    Developing electric vehicles is widely considered as a direct approach to resolve the energy and environmental challenges faced by the human race. As one of the most promising power solutions to electric cars, the lithium ion battery is expected...

  19. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for...

  20. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing...

  1. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    million in Recovery Act funding to help expand its Charlotte operations and build a new lithium-ion battery separator facility in Concord. With the help of Recovery Act-funded...

  2. Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive Microcapsules M. Baginska, B.J. Blaiszik, R.J. Merriman, J.S. Moore, N. R. Sottos, and S.R. White, University of...

  3. Chemo-mechanics of lithium-ion battery electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Leo, Claudio V

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical deformation plays a crucial role both in the normal operation of a Lithium-Ion battery, as well as in its degradation and ultimate failure. This thesis addresses the theoretical formulation, numerical implementation, ...

  4. The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    HIGH POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Joongpyo Shim, Azucenaof rechargeable lithium batteries for application in hybridin consumer-size lithium batteries, such as the synthetic

  5. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  6. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Characterization of Voltage Fade in Lithium-ion Cells with Layered Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about characterization...

  8. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    for a 2 V Rechargeable Lithium Battery. Journal of Thein a rechargeable lithium battery. Journal of Power Sourcesexception being the lithium-ion battery (Table 2.1). Table

  9. Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 13461355 Online estimation of the state of charge of a lithium ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    -based models developed using ADVISOR [13] and makes them suit- able for real-time embedded system applications of the system and provides a realistic estimate of the state of charge of the cell as a function of time, for a given set of properties of the electrodes. An electrochemical cell model is used to obtain an extended

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

  11. Engineering Empty Space between Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Engineering Empty Space between Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Hui Wu, Guangyuan ABSTRACT: Silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries yet attaining long materials for lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion).1,2 In particular, they have focused on conversion oxides,1

  12. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk ion cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic in these materials is also to unravel the factors governing ion and electron transport within the lattice. Lithium de

  13. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery Kandler A. Smith a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery Kandler A. Smith a , Christopher D Available online 28 June 2007 Abstract Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density dynamics (i.e. state of charge). Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery

  14. Laser-Cooled Lithium Atoms: A New Source for Focused Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser-Cooled Lithium Atoms: A New Source for Focused Ion Beams P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jabez Mc E N T S Designed and constructed a laser-cooled, magneto-optical trap-based lithium ion source mounted on a commercial focused ion beam system, creating the world's first lithium ion microscope

  15. Diagnostic evaluation of power fade phenomena and calendar life reduction in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2004-01-01

    IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Robert Kostecki andAFM Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are being seriously

  16. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  17. Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Poneman Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, ...

  19. Pulsed field gradient magnetic resonance measurements of lithium-ion diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krsulich, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    The transport of lithium ions between the electrolyte-electrode interface and the electrode bulk is an essential and presently rate limiting process in the high-current operation of lithium-ion batteries. Despite their ...

  20. Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Title Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2014 Journal Batteries International...

  1. Modeling temperature distribution in cylindrical lithium ion batteries for use in electric vehicle cooling system design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasinski, Samuel Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Recent advancements in lithium ion battery technology have made BEV's a more feasible alternative. However, some safety concerns still exist. While the energy density of lithium ion batteries has all but made them the ...

  2. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes -...

  3. The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-11-25

    The cycling performance of low-cost LiFePO4-based high-power lithium-ion cells was investigated and the components were analyzed after cycling to determine capacity fade mechanisms. Pouch type LiFePO4/natural graphite cells were assembled and evaluated by constant C/2 cycling, pulse-power and impedance measurements. From post-test electrochemical analysis after cycling, active materials, LiFePO4 and natural graphite, showed no degradation structurally or electrochemically. The main reasons for the capacity fade of cell were lithium inventory loss by side reaction and possible lithium deposition on the anode.

  4. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-05-01

    A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

  5. Cells containing solvated electron lithium negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uribe, F.A.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Incorporated, Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary work performed on a novel solvated electron lithium negative electrode which may have application in either high energy density secondary or reserve battery systems is discussed. The lithium electrode investigated consisted of lithium initially dissolved in liquid ammonia to give a solvated electron solution. Containment of this liquid negative active material from direct contact with a liquid nonaqueous electrolyte present in the cell positive electrode compartment was addressed via the use of a lithium intercalated electronically conducting ceramic membrane of the general composition Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}(0.1{lt}x{lt} 1.0). Secondary electrochemical cells having the general configuration Li,NH{sub 3}/Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}NAE/TiS{sub 2} using nonaqueous electrolytes (NAE) based upon both propylene carbonate and 2Me-THF. Depending upon initial lithium activity in the negative electrode compartments the cell possessed an initial open-circuit potential (OCP 3.44V). Both cells, which were operated at ambient pressure (low temperature) and ambient temperature (high pressure) showed evidence for electrochemical reversibility.

  6. Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization Ravi The optimal profile of charging current for a lithium-ion battery is estimated using dynamic optimization sources such as lithium-ion batteries have had significant improvements in design, modeling, and operating

  7. Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Recently, silicon-based lithium-ion battery anodes have for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries with enhanced capacity and energy density. KEYWORDS: Cost

  8. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance for higher specific energy lithium ion batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, next generation

  9. Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models and characterize capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries. As a comple- ment to approaches to mathematically model been made in developing lithium-ion battery models that incor- porate transport phenomena

  10. Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery an experimental parameter iden- tification and validation for an electrochemical lithium-ion battery model. The identification procedure is based on experimental data collected from a 6.8 Ah lithium-ion battery during charge

  11. Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z Department and Newman4 made a first attempt to model the parasitic reactions in lithium-ion batteries by incorporating a solvent oxidation into a lithium-ion battery model. Spotnitz5 developed polynomial expressions

  12. Comparison of Reduced Order Lithium-Ion Battery Models for Control Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Comparison of Reduced Order Lithium-Ion Battery Models for Control Applications C. Speltino, D. Di Domenico, G. Fiengo and A. Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion batteries are the core of new plug (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performances play an important role in the vehicle energy

  13. Reduction of Model Order Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Lithium-Ion Battery Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of Model Order Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Lithium-Ion Battery decomposition POD for a physics-based lithium-ion battery model. The methodology to obtain the proper orthogonal modes and to analyze their optimality is included. The POD-based ROM for a lithium-ion battery is used

  14. Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Manuscript submitted May 15, 2000; revised manuscript received January 15, 2001. Lithium-ion batteries effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to aid the development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid

  15. Journal of Power Sources 150 (2005) 229239 Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 150 (2005) 229­239 Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery; Lithium ion batteries 1. Introduction and motivation Theoverallperformanceofbatteriesdeterioratesovertime

  16. 2012 Jonathan G. Lange IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    1 ©2012 Jonathan G. Lange #12;1 IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING ABSTRACT Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used as energy storage devices in a variety of applications. The cathode architectures and materials have a large influence on the performance of lithium-ion batteries

  17. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  18. Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models, Berkeley, California 94720-8168, USA Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode the active materials of porous electrodes for a pseudo-two- dimensional model for lithium-ion batteries

  19. Coaxial Si/anodic titanium oxide/Si nanotube arrays for lithium-ion battery anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Nano Res 1 Coaxial Si/anodic titanium oxide/Si nanotube arrays for lithium-ion battery anode Titanium Oxide / Si Nanotube Arrays for Lithium-ion Battery Anode JiepengRong,,§Xin Fang Oxide / Si Nanotube Arrays for Lithium-ion Battery Anode Jiepeng Rong,1,§ Xin Fang,1,§ Mingyuan Ge,1

  20. Mathematical Model Reformulation for Lithium-Ion Battery Simulations: Galvanostatic Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Mathematical Model Reformulation for Lithium-Ion Battery Simulations: Galvanostatic Boundary of physics-based lithium-ion battery models to improve computational efficiency. While the additional steps, 2008. Published January 30, 2009. Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion batteries involves

  1. Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 Abstract This paper outlines a method for optimizing the design of a lithium-ion battery pack for hy- brid, volume or material cost. Keywords: Lithium-ion, Optimization, Hybrid vehicle, Battery pack design

  2. Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lithium-ion batteries are a fast-growing technology that is attractive for use in portable electronics of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The ATD Program is a joint effort

  3. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  4. Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ting

    Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries S in controlling stress generation in high-capacity electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Ó 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery; Lithiation

  5. Toward Real-Time Simulation of Physics Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Toward Real-Time Simulation of Physics Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models Venkat R. Subramanian Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505, USA Recent interest in lithium-ion batteries for electric on the computational efficiency of lithium-ion battery models. This paper presents an effective approach to simulate

  6. AN OPEN-CIRCUIT-VOLTAGE MODEL OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR EFFECTIVE INCREMENTAL CAPACITY ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    AN OPEN-CIRCUIT-VOLTAGE MODEL OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR EFFECTIVE INCREMENTAL CAPACITY ANALYSIS electrochemical properties and aging status. INTRODUCTION With the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries the com- plex battery physical behavior during the lithium-ion intercalac- tion/deintercalation process

  7. Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

  8. Performance Characteristics of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Monte Carlo Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Performance Characteristics of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Monte Carlo Strategy to study the performance of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The methodology takes into account. Published September 26, 2008. Lithium-ion batteries are state-of-the-art power sources1 for por- table

  9. Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    for energy storage. Here, we report both experimental and theoretical studies of porous doped silicon in energy storage has stimulated significant interest in lithium ion battery research. The lithium ionPorous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge

  10. Silicon nanopillar anodes for lithium-ion batteries using nanoimprint lithography with flexible molds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    ) The lithium ion battery, a preferred energy storage technology, is limited by its volumetric and gravimetric. INTRODUCTION The lithium ion battery has become the energy storage me- dium of choice for almost allSilicon nanopillar anodes for lithium-ion batteries using nanoimprint lithography with flexible

  11. Branched CNT@SnO2 nanorods@carbon hierarchical heterostructures for lithium ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    Branched CNT@SnO2 nanorods@carbon hierarchical heterostructures for lithium ion batteries with high used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries, the branched CNT@SnO2@C heterostructures exhibited of the 1D mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorods. Introduction Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have become

  12. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery Fei YAO LPICM-École Polytechnique POLYTECHNIQUE Spécialité: Physique Par Fei YAO Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery #12;I ABSTRACT In this thesis work, carbon-based nanomaterials using as an anode for lithium ion

  13. Edge-Enriched Graphitic Anodes by KOH Activation for Higher Rate Capability Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Batteries D. Zakhidov,1,2 R. Sugamata,3 T. Yasue,3 T. Hayashi,3 Y. A. Kim,3 and M. Endo4 1 successful anode for lithium ion batteries due to its low cost, safety, and ease of fabrication, but higher are expected to surpass conventional graphite anodes due to larger number of edges for lithium ion

  14. Biologically Activated Noble Metal Alloys at the Nanoscale: For Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Biologically Activated Noble Metal Alloys at the Nanoscale: For Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Yun Jung as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Using two clones, one for specificity (p8#9 virus) and one choice for lithium ion batteries, these noble metal/alloy nanowires serve as great model systems to study

  15. he mobile world depends on lithium-ion batteries --today's ultimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    T he mobile world depends on lithium- ion batteries -- today's ultimate rechargeable energy store -- a performance roughly on a par with the best Li-ion batteries. His batteries are based on lithium­sulphur (Li is applied to reverse the electron flow, which also drives the lithium ions back. In a Li­S battery

  16. Proton-Induced Dysfunction Mechanism of Cathodes in an Aqueous Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Proton-Induced Dysfunction Mechanism of Cathodes in an Aqueous Lithium Ion Battery Qiang Shu, Long: The proton-induced dysfunction mechanism of cathodes in aqueous lithium ion batteries is investigated of the Li+ and H+ in the solution. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been proved to be com- mercially

  17. Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1 A. Averbuch,2,a. We calculate the energy of configurations of one or two lithium ions in the loop and derive developed a model of lithium ion conduction in dilute and concentrated polymer electrolytes LiI:P EO n 3 n

  18. An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Maryam Yazdanpour*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Batteries Maryam Yazdanpour* , Peyman Taheri with lithium-ion chemistry are the preferred candidate to power hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), due (around 5% per month), and long cycling life [1]. Nonetheless, thermal management of large-scale lithium-ion

  19. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart

  20. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smartA

  1. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smartAA

  2. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  3. On Uncertainty Quantification of Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadigol, Mohammad; Doostan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a stochastic, physics-based model for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is presented in order to study the effects of model uncertainties on the cell capacity, voltage, and concentrations. To this end, the proposed uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach, based on sparse polynomial chaos expansions, relies on a small number of battery simulations. Within this UQ framework, the identification of most important uncertainty sources is achieved by performing a global sensitivity analysis via computing the so-called Sobol' indices. Such information aids in designing more efficient and targeted quality control procedures, which consequently may result in reducing the LIB production cost. An LiC$_6$/LiCoO$_2$ cell with 19 uncertain parameters discharged at 0.25C, 1C and 4C rates is considered to study the performance and accuracy of the proposed UQ approach. The results suggest that, for the considered cell, the battery discharge rate is a key factor affecting not only the performance variability of the ce...

  4. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  5. Kinetics-controlled growth of aligned mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorod arrays for lithium-ion batteries with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    Kinetics-controlled growth of aligned mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorod arrays for lithium-ion batteries structures, lithium-ion batteries ABSTRACT A general method for facile kinetics-controlled growth of aligned material for lithium-ion batteries. 1 Introduction Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been considered

  6. Facile Synthesis of Free-Standing Silicon Membranes with Three-Dimensional Nanoarchitecture for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries Fan Xia, Seong Been Kim, Huanyu Cheng, Jung Min Lee, Taeseup Song that is capable of accommodating the large volume changes associated with lithiation in lithium ion battery-performance lithium ion batteries. KEYWORDS: Silicon, lithium ion batteries, 3D membrane, volume expansion The demand

  7. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  8. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  9. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  10. Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell Hyung as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium- dioxygen

  11. Hemilabile Ligands in Organolithium Chemistry: Substituent Effects on Lithium Ion Chelation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Hemilabile Ligands in Organolithium Chemistry: Substituent Effects on Lithium Ion Chelation Antonio-dimethyl effect on lithium ion chelation? The gem-dimethyl effect results when destabiliz- ing interactions caused; E-mail: dbc6@cornell.edu Abstract: The lithium diisopropylamide-mediated 1,2-elimination of 1

  12. Mechanics of Electrodes in Lithium-ion Batteries A dissertation presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Mechanics of Electrodes in Lithium-ion Batteries A dissertation presented by Kejie Zhao, Joost J. Vlassak Kejie Zhao Mechanics of Electrodes in Lithium-ion Batteries Abstract This thesis investigates the mechanical behavior of electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Each electrode in a Li-ion battery

  13. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems J.battery point of view, it is essential that an ionic liquid – lithiumlead to battery short-out. The ionic-liquid / lithium-salt

  14. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence Brassart, Kejie Zhao, Zhigang Suo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Cyclic plasticity and shakedown in high-capacity electrodes of lithium-ion batteries Laurence for lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing a large amount of lithium, the electrode swells greatly rights reserved. 1. Introduction Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are energy-storage systems of choice

  16. Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy storage devices materials during the charging/discharging process. However, in previous graphene based LIB battery research

  17. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery’s components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  18. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  19. Ground state hyperfine structure in muonic lithium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martynenko, A P

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of perturbation theory in fine structure constant alpha and the ratio of electron to muon masses we calculate one-loop vacuum polarization, electron vertex corrections, nuclear structure and recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting of the ground state in muonic lithium ions $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^6_3Li)^+$ and $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^7_3Li)^+$. We obtain total results for the ground state small hyperfine splittings in $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^6_3Li)^+$ $\\Delta\

  20. Ground state hyperfine structure in muonic lithium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Martynenko; A. A. Ulybin

    2015-04-09

    On the basis of perturbation theory in fine structure constant alpha and the ratio of electron to muon masses we calculate one-loop vacuum polarization, electron vertex corrections, nuclear structure and recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting of the ground state in muonic lithium ions $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^6_3Li)^+$ and $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^7_3Li)^+$. We obtain total results for the ground state small hyperfine splittings in $(\\mu\\ e\\ ^6_3Li)^+$ $\\Delta\

  1. Electronic transport in Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide, a high-voltage cathode material for Lithium-Ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ransil, Alan Patrick Adams

    2013-01-01

    Potential routes by which the energy densities of lithium-ion batteries may be improved abound. However, the introduction of Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LixNi1i/2Mn3/2O4, or LNMO) as a positive electrode material appears ...

  2. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  3. Intercalation dynamics in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burch, Damian

    2009-01-01

    A new continuum model has been proposed by Singh, Ceder, and Bazant for the ion intercalation dynamics in a single crystal of rechargeable-battery electrode materials. It is based on the Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled to ...

  4. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire ã-MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing ã-MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the ã-MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the ã-MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into ã-MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the ã-MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  5. Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries; Irreversible capacity; Anode material; Lithium-ion batteries 1. Introduction To ensure long cycle life for the Li-ion battery. Of various carbon materials that have been tried, graphite is favored because it (i

  6. Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models materials of porous electrodes for a rigorous pseudo-2D model for lithium-ion batteries. Concentration in the solid phase. Introduction Physics based Li-ion battery models use porous electrode theory. One

  7. Adsorption and Diffusion of Lithium on Layered Silicon for Li-Ion Georgios A. Tritsaris,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dimensional silicon in the form of silicene layers for Li-ion storage. KEYWORDS: Lithium-ion battery, energy storage batteries constitute a promising energy storage technology suitable for portable and grid applicationsAdsorption and Diffusion of Lithium on Layered Silicon for Li-Ion Storage Georgios A. Tritsaris

  8. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  9. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    when exploring new materials for high-energy lithium ionA new cathode material for batteries of high energy density.

  10. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems J. Salminen a,a detrimental effect on battery performance. Introductionat 25 o C, sufficient for battery applications. The measured

  11. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 ? (1 ? X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 ? 3(1 ? X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 ? X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  12. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized ? electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-? type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  15. Towards a lithium-ion fiber battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grena, Benjamin (Benjamin Jean-Baptiste)

    2013-01-01

    One of the key objectives in the realm of flexible electronics and flexible power sources is to achieve large-area, low-cost, scalable production of flexible systems. In this thesis we propose a new Li-ion battery architecture ...

  16. Novel mixed polyanions lithium-ion battery cathode materials predicted by high-throughput ab initio computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Novel mixed polyanions lithium-ion battery cathode materials predicted by high-throughput ab initio (>700 Wh/kg) cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. 1 Introduction The widespread use of lithium compounds. Testing previously known lithium-containing compounds for battery properties can lead

  17. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  18. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  19. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  20. Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChinaC L S C O N C E PLithium Ion

  1. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionicselectrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materialsand side reactions in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of the

  2. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  3. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.

    2008-01-01

    conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite

  4. Prediction of Multi-Physics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries During Internal and External Short Circuit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama , John W of lithium and nickel battery systems developed at the University of South Carolina is presented. Models of Li/Li-ion batteries are reviewed that simulated the behavior of single electrode particles, single

  6. A Mathematical Model for a Lithium-Ion Battery/Electrochemical Capacitor Hybrid System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    A Mathematical Model for a Lithium-Ion Battery/Electrochemical Capacitor Hybrid System Godfrey those of high-energy battery systems such as lithium ion. Al- though advanced battery systems and double the performance of a battery/electrochemical capacitor-hybrid system has been developed. Simulation results

  7. Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    , anisotropic expansion A dvanced energy storage technologies are critically important for the operationArrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Taeseup Song, Jianliang Xia ABSTRACT Silicon is a promising candidate for electrodes in lithium ion batteries due to its large

  8. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Candace K. Chan, Reken N. Patel interest in using nanomaterials for advanced lithium-ion battery electrodes, par- ticularly for increasing storage capacity (theoretical values of 4200 vs 372 mAh/g for graphite). How- ever, the insertion

  9. Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Nojan Aliahmad, Mangilal Agarwal, Sudhir Shrestha, and Kody Varahramyan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Nojan Aliahmad, Mangilal Agarwal, Sudhir Shrestha, and Kody Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Lithium-ion batteries have a wide range of applications including present day portable consumer electronics and large-scale energy storage. Realization of these batteries

  10. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  11. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  12. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

  13. Thermal stability of LiPF6EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal stability of LiPF6±EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea , Ralph scanning calorimeter; Lithium ion batteries; Electrolyte; Thermal stability; Decomposition 1. Introduction Despite the improvement and developments in safety of the lithium ion batteries (PTC, CID, shutdown

  14. Stochastic 3D modeling of the microstructure of lithium-ion battery anodes via Gaussian random fields on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Stochastic 3D modeling of the microstructure of lithium-ion battery anodes via Gaussian random microstructures of lithium-ion battery anodes, which can serve as input for the simulations. We introduce the use; 1. Introduction Lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles need to fulfill a number

  15. Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman-- In this paper an averaged electrochemical lithium- ion battery model, presented and discussed in [2] and [3 estimation. I. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries play an important role in the area of hybrid vehicle design

  16. Role of Surface Oxides in the Formation of Solid-Electrolyte Interphases at Silicon Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Lauren J.

    for Lithium-Ion Batteries Kjell W. Schroder,,,§ Anthony G. Dylla,,§ Stephen J. Harris, Lauren J. Webb electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits of the SEI. KEYWORDS: lithium-ion batteries, solid-electrolyte interphase, SEI, TOF-SIMS, XPS, PCA 1

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Surface Heterogeneity in Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Passive Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    , but was lower at later cycles. The temperature that optimizes the active surface in a lithium-ion battery. Published February 14, 2011. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been extensively used in mobile-discharge rate. The lithium-ion battery is also promising for electric (plug-in and hybrid) vehicles

  18. Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role

  19. Model-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries for maximization of energy density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Model-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Model-based design Optimization Physics based reformulated model a b s t r for porous electrodes that are commonly used in advanced batteries such as lithium-ion systems. The approach

  20. Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using First-Principles-Based Efficient Reformulated Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using First parameters of lithium-ion batteries are estimated using a first-principles electrochemical engineering model and understanding of lithium-ion batteries using physics-based first-principles models. These models are based

  1. Cycle-Life Characterization of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiNiO2 Cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cycle-Life Characterization of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiNiO2 Cathode Yancheng Zhang of lithium- ion batteries for electric vehicles EVs and hybrid EVs HEVs . Substantial research has been- face, which is critical to the cycle life and calendar life of lithium- ion batteries.1,2 Unfortunately

  2. The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium- Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer on the overall performance of Li-ion batteries and EDLCs. SWNTs were incorporated into the anode of the Lithium is used because of its high surface area. Lithium-ion Batteries ·Higher energy density than other

  3. Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery-cost, and environ- mentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on- graphene approach should offer

  4. Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion characterized by ac-impedance spectroscopy and in lithium- ion microbatteries. Size and weight percent effects be laser transferred onto a substrate to form a solid separator/electrolyte layer for a lithium ion power

  5. Small Polaron Hopping in LixFePO4 Solid Solutions: Coupled Lithium-Ion and Electron Mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Small Polaron Hopping in LixFePO4 Solid Solutions: Coupled Lithium-Ion and Electron Mobility Brian recognized as very promising electrodes for lithium-ion batteries because of their energy storage capacity the factors governing electron and ion transport within the lattice. Lithium extraction from LiFePO4 results

  6. Improved Lithium Ion Behavior Properties of TiO2@Graphitic-like Carbon Core@Shell Nanostructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Improved Lithium Ion Behavior Properties of TiO2@Graphitic-like Carbon Core@Shell Nanostructure Min Intercalation Electrochemistry Capacitance Lithium Ion batteries A B S T R A C T We demonstrate TiO2@graphitic on the electrode surface and enhanced lithium ion intercalation, leading to lower charge transfer resistance

  7. Fast Lithium Ion Conduction in Li2SnS3: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Electronic Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Fast Lithium Ion Conduction in Li2SnS3: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Electronic conduction. The high thermal stability, significant lithium ion conductivity, and environmental stability make Li2SnS3 a promising new solid-state electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. 1. INTRODUCTION

  8. Aalborg Universitet Datasheet-based modeling of Li-Ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    SLPB 120216216 53Ah Li-Ion cell. Keywords: battery model, Lithium Ion battery, equivalent circuit model

  9. Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  11. Advanced Mitigating Measures for the Cell Internal Short Risk (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darcy, E.; Smith, K.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation describes mitigation measures for internal short circuits in lithium-ion battery cells.

  12. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  13. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  14. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large?scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all?solid?state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de?emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid?state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All?solid?state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all?solid?state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid?state electrolyte layers currently require about 30?60 minutes at 700?800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all?solid?state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small?scale, low?power cells and involve high?temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1?x?y?zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this high?voltage (i.e. 5 V) cathode material was the focus of the project. ORNL had also shown in prior work that photonic annealing can be used to anneal conventionally coated cathode metal oxide structures into the active crystalline phase. Planar Energy Devices also had demonstrated SPEED with solid electrolyte layers consisting of LiGaAlSPO4 prior to the start of the project.

  15. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions...

  16. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  17. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL] [ORNL; Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Alsem, Daan Hein [Hummingbird Scientific] [Hummingbird Scientific; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  18. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

    2014-05-13

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  19. Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high Since Sony rst commercialized lithium ion batteries in the early 1990s, the market for lithium ion of the great success of lithium ion battery technology developed for portable electronic devices, higher

  20. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-01-01

    on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF 6 -basedon samples from high power fade cells. The effect of samplecriteria based on power fade Cell disassembly was conducted

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  3. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION

  4. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  5. Computational Research on Lithium Ion Battery Materials A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Computational Research on Lithium Ion Battery Materials by Ping Tang A Dissertation Submitted Research interest in lithium battery materials 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 LiFePO4 battery material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.1 Why LiFePO4

  6. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  7. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, William R. (North Olmstead, OH)

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  8. Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing lithium, silicon swells several times its volume strength. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3525990 Lithium-ion batteries

  9. Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr; published online 8 October 2010 During charging or discharging of a lithium-ion battery, lithium batteries.3 A lithium-ion battery contains an electrolyte and two electrodes. Each electrode is an atomic

  10. Inelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in commercial lithium-ion batteries for both cathodes e.g., LiCoO2 and anodes e.g., graphite . By contrastInelastic hosts as electrodes for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Upon absorbing lithium, silicon swells several times its volume

  11. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, J.; Guerfi, A.; Zaghib, K.; Striebel, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries J. Shim a , A. Guerfi b ,material for Li rechargeable batteries because of low-cost,is a part of BATT (Batteries for Advanced Transportation

  12. Development of a representative volume element of lithium-ion batteries for thermo-mechanical integrity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard Lee, Sr

    2011-01-01

    The importance of Lithium-ion batteries continues to grow with the introduction of more electronic devices, electric cars, and energy storage. Yet the optimization approach taken by the manufacturers and system designers ...

  13. Microstructural effects on capacity-rate performance of vanadium oxide cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Robin M. (Robin Manes)

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin film cathodes were analyzed to determine whether smaller average grain size and/or a narrower average grain size distribution affects the capacity-rate performance in lithium-ion batteries. Vanadium ...

  14. Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

  15. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jun Young

    This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer ...

  16. Comprehensive Study of the CuF2 Conversion Reaction Mechanism in a Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Xiao; Robert, Rosa; Du, Lin-Shu; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Leskes, Michal; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Grey, Clare P.

    2014-06-11

    Conversion materials for lithium ion batteries have recently attracted considerable attention due to their exceptional specific capacities. Some metal fluorides, such as CuF2, are promising candidates for cathode materials owing to their high...

  17. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  18. Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion intercalation particles and their electrochemical dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery is a family of rechargeable batteries with increasing importance that is closely related to everyone's daily life. However, despite its enormously wide applications in numerous areas, the mechanism of ...

  19. Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    Many researchers have worked to develop methods to analyze and characterize capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries. As a complement to approaches to mathematically model capacity fade that require detailed understanding ...

  20. Virus constructed iron phosphate lithium ion batteries in unmanned aircraft systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolesnikov-Lindsey, Rachel

    FePO? lithium ion batteries that have cathodes constructed by viruses are scaled up in size to examine potential for use as an auxiliary battery in the Raven to power the payload equipment. These batteries are assembled ...

  1. Highly - conductive cathode for lithium-ion battery using M13 phage - SWCNT complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Melanie Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in portable electronics, and the rapid growth of mobile technology calls for an improvement in battery capabilities. Reducing the particle size of electrode materials in synthesis ...

  2. NREL: News - Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Share Printable Version News Release NR-2315 Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races May 16, 2015 Sixty-three teams from 17 Colorado middle schools...

  3. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  4. EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a Loan and Grant to A123 Systems, Inc., for Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries April 20, 2010 EA-1690: Finding of No Significant Impact...

  5. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  6. Study of Sn-Coated Graphite as Anode Material for Secondary Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of Sn-Coated Graphite as Anode Material for Secondary Lithium-Ion Batteries Basker as an alternate anode material for Li-ion batteries using an autocatalytic deposition technique. The specific have been studied as anodes for the Li-ion battery. Carbon based anodes have many desirable properties

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 3 Electrochemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 2 Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 1 Baseline Protocols and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  10. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  11. On-board state of health monitoring of lithium-ion batteries using incremental capacity analysis with support vector regressionq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    On-board state of health monitoring of lithium-ion batteries using incremental capacity analysis 2013 Accepted 5 February 2013 Available online 11 February 2013 Keywords: Electric vehicles Lithium-ion and life cycle. In this paper, we focus on the identification of Li-ion battery capacity fading

  12. Engineering nanostructured electrodes away from equilibrium for lithium-ion Yanyi Liu, Dawei Liu, Qifeng Zhang and Guozhong Cao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Engineering nanostructured electrodes away from equilibrium for lithium-ion batteries Yanyi Liu chapter. His specific research project is focused on nanostructured elec- trodes for efficient lithium ion materials, Li-ion batteries have achieved significant progress in energy storage performance since

  13. Studies of Local Degradation Phenomena in Composite Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerlau, M.; Marcinek, M.; Srinivasan, V.; Kostecki, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries Marie Kerlau, Marekfrom commercial Li-ion batteries and mode cells which

  14. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  15. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moy, Derek; Manivannan, A.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2014-11-04

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). Wemore »present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. As a result, we expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.« less

  16. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moy, Derek; Manivannan, A.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2014-11-04

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). We present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. As a result, we expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.

  17. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moy, Derek [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute.; Manivannan, A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Narayanan, S. R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute.

    2014-11-01

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). We present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. We expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.

  18. Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F) as cathode materials for lithium ion battery from atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sanghun Park, Sung Soo

    2013-08-15

    Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) have been investigated from atomistic simulation. In order to predict the characteristics of these materials as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, structural property, defect chemistry, and Li{sup +} ion transportation property are characterized. The core–shell model with empirical force fields is employed to reproduce the unit-cell parameters of crystal structure, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the formation energies of intrinsic defects (Frenkel and antisite) are determined by energetics calculation. From migration energy calculations, it is found that these flurophosphates have a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network forecasting good Li{sup +} ion conducting performances. Accordingly, we expect that this study provides an atomic scale insight as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) are investigated from classical atomistic simulation. • The unit-cell parameters from experimental studies are reproduced by the core–shell model. • Li{sup +} ion conducting Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F has a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network. • It is predicted that Li/Co or Li/Ni antisite defects are well-formed at a substantial concentration level.

  19. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  20. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

    2013-03-14

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  1. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer battery, lithium-ion batteries, and lithium-basedElectrolyte For Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," LithiumK. Ozawa, "Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with LiCo0 and

  2. Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1 , Wen Chao Lee1 This study demonstrates the feasibility of using water and the contents of waste Li-ion batteries for the electrodes in a Li-liquid battery system. Li metal was collected electrochemically from a waste Li

  3. Two dimensional silicon nanowalls for lithium ion Jiayu Wan,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    batteries are one of the most important electrochemical energy storage devices and are widely usedTwo dimensional silicon nanowalls for lithium ion batteries Jiayu Wan,a Alex F. Kaplan,b Jia Zheng with silicon for Li-ion batteries. Excellent performance for the first Coulombic efficiency (CE) has been

  4. Power and capacity fade mechanism of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.0502 composite cathodes in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2003-01-01

    IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Robert Kostecki andAFM Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are being seriously

  5. Coated porous carbon cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Coated porous carbon cathodes for automotive lithium batteries are being developed with the goal of overcoming the problems with capacity fade and poor thermal management in conventional polymer-bonded cathodes. The active cathode material (lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles) is carbon-bonded to the porous carbon support material. Cathodes have been developed with high specific energy and power and with good cycling behavior.

  6. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore »oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  7. On the Accuracy and Simplifications of Battery Models using In Situ Measurements of Lithium Concentration in Operational Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    . INTRODUCTION Accurate estimates of Lithium Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) are critical for constraining of the critical limitations of Lithium ion batteries is the rate at which they can safely be charged

  8. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  9. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Haitao

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

  10. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive 48128, USA h i g h l i g h t s Proposed a dynamic universal battery model based on second-order RC a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness

  11. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Hang; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current collector instead of a rigid and heavy metal foil enables us to demonstrate a very thin Lithium-Ion Battery into ultra-thin (total thickness including encapsulation layers of less than 250 {\\mu}m) that is also light weight and highly flexible.

  12. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  13. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J. Li, R. Born, L.C. Maxey, R.B. Dinwiddie, C. Daniel, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in-line laser...

  14. 1614 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014 The State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on a Proportional-Integral Observer Jun Xu, Student Member, IEEE--With the development of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation for lithium-ion (Li of lithium-ion batteries in EDVs. The structure of the proposed PI observer is analyzed, and the con

  15. Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns*, Ruthvik Basavaraj**, Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan***, Folarin Latinwo**, Ravi N. Methekar***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns- + 6C LixC6 Lithium-ion battery, chemistry and reactions Electric motor Engine Fuel tank Electric, military, mobile applications, and space. Lithium-ion chemistry has been identified as the preferred

  16. Facile and Green Preparation for the Formation of MoO2GO Composites as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the MoO2-GO composites exhibited an improved storage capacity for lithium-ion batteries. 1. INTRODUCTION With the fast-growing demand on petroleum resources and gaseous cycling life, and environmental benignity, lithium- ion batteries (LIBs) have been regarded as one

  17. 1020 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering Zheng Chen. Index Terms--Extended Kalman filter (EKF), hardware-in- the-loop, lithium-ion battery, nonlinear battery], a modeling approach for the scale-up of a lithium- ion polymer battery (LIPB) is reported. A comparison

  18. Synthesis of Na1.25V3O8 Nanobelts with Excellent Long-Term Stability for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    by the calcination temperatures. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the Na1.25V3O8 nanobelts synthesized vanadium oxide, nanobelts, sol-gel, lithium-ion batteries, long-term stability 1. INTRODUCTION Because of their high energy density, long life cycle, environmentally benign, lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been

  19. High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs), energy storage, Coulombic efficiency, dendrite-free magnesium

  20. PSM: Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) and Critical Surface Charge (CSC) Estimation using an Electrochemical Model-driven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    PSM: Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) and Critical Surface Charge (CSC) Estimation using. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion battery is the core of new plug-in hybrid- electrical vehicles (PHEV) as well transient loads [22]. The importance of lithium-ion battery has grown in the past years. Based

  1. Effect of Porosity on the Capacity Fade of a Lithium-Ion Godfrey Sikha,* Branko N. Popov,** and Ralph E. White***,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of Porosity on the Capacity Fade of a Lithium-Ion Battery Theory Godfrey Sikha,* Branko N of a lithium-ion battery. It includes the changes in the porosity of the material due to the reversible the capacity fade in a lithium-ion battery based on the unwanted parasitic reaction that consumes Li along

  2. AbstractFirst-principles models that incorporate all of the key physics that affect the internal states of a lithium-ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    states of a lithium-ion battery are in the form of coupled nonlinear PDEs. While these models are very systems (BMS) to design and implement better monitoring and control strategies. I. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion are the main issues that need to be addressed in order to use a lithium-ion battery efficiently and safely

  3. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  4. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  5. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  6. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  7. Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  8. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a “V-shaped” lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an “H-shaped” lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  9. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  10. High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-02-27

    Berkeley Lab’s High Performance Silicon Monoxide Electrode has a capacity retention of more than 90% after ~500 cycles, which translates into a ~20% improvement over the limited energy density of conventional graphite anode-based lithium-ion batteries, enabling next-generation mobile electronics and electric/plug-in vehicles....

  11. Doped LiFePO? cathodes for high power density lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloking, Jason T. (Jason Thompson), 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Olivine LiFePO4 has received much attention recently as a promising storage compound for cathodes in lithium ion batteries. It has an energy density similar to that of LiCoO 2, the current industry standard for cathode ...

  12. Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

  13. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  14. One dimensional Si/Sn -based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    One dimensional Si/Sn - based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials Nam of advanced energy storage applications. In this feature article, we review recent progress on Si-based NWs to their uneven energy production. From this perspective, the interest in energy storage technology is on the rise

  15. Mesoporous Hydrous Manganese Dioxide Nanowall Arrays with Large Lithium Ion Energy Storage Capacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Mesoporous Hydrous Manganese Dioxide Nanowall Arrays with Large Lithium Ion Energy Storage Capacities By Dawei Liu, Betzaida Battalla Garcia, Qifeng Zhang, Qing Guo, Yunhuai Zhang, Saghar Sepehri and alkaline batteries for decades, is a well accepted electrode material for clean energy storage because

  16. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  17. Engineering nanostructured electrodes and fabrication of film electrodes for efficient lithium ion intercalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    922656g Lithium ion batteries have been one of the major power supplies for small electronic devices challenges associated with fossil fuels. Although renewable or sustainable energy including solar, wind materials and devices,5,6 to reduce and recover the ``waste'' heat through developing smart building

  18. Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr; published online 8 October 2010 During charging or discharging of a lithium-ion battery, lithium the electrodes to deform. An electrode is often composed of small active particles in a matrix. If the battery

  19. Carbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V2(PO4)3 as both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V2(PO4)3 as both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion batteries: electrochemical performance and lithium storage mechanism Zelang Jian,a Wenze Han,b Yanliang performance and storage mechanism of a symmetrical lithium-ion battery made of carbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V

  20. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    microdiffraction. Lithium ion batteries have made a greatthose used in lithium-ion batteries. Dynamic potentiometricrechargeable lithium ion batteries consist of many layers of

  1. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variouselectrodes for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of MaterialsAdvances in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Chapter 4), Kluwer

  2. Diagnostic Evaluation of Detrimental Phenomena in High-PowerLithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, Robert; Lei, Jinglei; McLarnon, Frank; Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn

    2005-11-01

    A pouch-type lithium-ion cell, with graphite anode and LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathode, was cycled at C/2 over 100% depth of discharge (DOD) at ambient temperature. The LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} composite cathode was primarily responsible for the significant impedance rise and capacity fade observed in that cell. The processes that led to this impedance rise were assessed by investigating the cathode surface electronic conductance, surface structure, composition, and state of charge at the microscopic level with the use of local probe techniques. Raman microscopy mapping of the cathode surface provided evidence that the state of charge of individual LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} particles was non-uniform despite the deep discharge at the end of cell testing. Current-sensing atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the cathode surface electronic conductance diminished significantly in the tested cells. Loss of contact of active material particles with the carbon matrix and thin film formation via electrolyte decomposition not only led to LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} particle isolation and contributed to cathode interfacial charge-transfer impedance but also accounted for the observed cell power and capacity loss.

  3. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  4. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  5. Biologically enhanced cathode design for improved capacity and cycle life for lithium-oxygen batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Dahyun

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have a great potential to enhance the gravimetric energy density of fully packaged batteries by two to three times that of lithium ion cells. Recent studies have focused on finding stable electrolytes ...

  6. Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Heat generation rate measurement Heat flux sensor Thermal conduction Battery safety a b s t r a c t Understanding the rate of heat generation in a Li-ion cell is critical

  7. Evaluation of Tavorite-Structured Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using High-Throughput Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Tim

    Cathode materials with structure similar to the mineral tavorite have shown promise for use in lithium-ion batteries, but this class of materials is relatively unexplored. We use high-throughput density-functional-theory ...

  8. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  9. The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer into the anode of the Li-ion battery and the electrodes of the EDLC to observe the effects it would have on their respective efficiencies. We will measure the current capacity of the Li-ion battery and the capacitance

  10. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Offices DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop longer-lifetime, lower-cost Li-ion batteries. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are...

  11. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  12. Some comments on the Butler-Volmer equation for modeling Lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, A M

    2015-01-01

    In this article the Butler-Volmer equation used in describing Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is discussed. First, a complete mathematical model based on a macro-homogeneous approach developed by Neuman is presented. Two common mistakes found in the literature regarding a sign in a boundary conditions and the use of the transfer coefficient are mentioned. The paper focuses on the form of the Butler-Volmer equation in the model. It is shown how practical problems can be avoided by taking care in the form used, particularly to avoid difficulties when the solid particle in the electrodes approaches a fully charged or discharged state or the electrolyte gets depleted. This shows that the open circuit voltage and the exchange current density must depend on the lithium concentration in both the solid and the electrolyte in a particular way at the extremes of the concentration ranges.

  13. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  14. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Whether any of the lithium battery chemistries can meetgeneral the higher cost lithium battery chemistries have thecosts for various lithium battery chemistries Electrode

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. Ion-lithium collision dynamics studied with an in-ring MOTReMi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, D; Goullon, J; Grieser, M; Hubele, R; de Jesus, V L B; Kelkar, A; LaForge, A; Lindenblatt, H; Misra, D; Najjari, B; Schneider, K; Schulz, M; Sell, M; Wang, X

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel experimental tool allowing for kinematically complete studies of break-up processes of laser-cooled atoms. This apparatus, the 'MOTReMi', is a combination of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a Reaction Microscope (ReMi). Operated in an ion-storage ring, the new setup enables to study the dynamics in swift ion-atom collisions on an unprecedented level of precision and detail. In first experiments on collisions with 1.5 MeV/amu O$^{8+}$-Li the pure ionization of the valence electron as well as ionization-excitation of the lithium target has been investigated.

  18. Integrated Lithium-Ion Battery Model Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Scales: An Integrated Computer Simulation Tool for Design and Development of EDV Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the physics of lithium-ion battery systems in different length scales, from atomic scale to system scale.

  19. Internal Short Circuit Device Helps Improve Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    some failures simply result in the cells getting very hot, in extreme cases cells go into thermal runaway, igniting the device in which they are installed. The most publicized...

  20. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  1. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (heterogeneous), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, defects, charge transport, membrane, materials and chemistry by design,...

  7. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10??m were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  8. Cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lennox, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  9. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Daniell, G. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-28

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

  10. Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres: Solvothermal synthesis and lithium ion storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhen Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Fan, Fan; Wang, Chenyan; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres via solvothermal reaction. • The formation process was investigated in detail. • The obtained hierarchical SnS microspheres exhibit superior capacity (1650 mAh g{sup ?1}) when used as lithium battery for the hierarchical microsphere structure. - Abstract: Hierarchical SnS microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a mild solvothermal process using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as surfactant in this work. The morphology and composition of the microspheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of reaction parameters, such as sulfur sources, reaction temperature and the concentration of PVP, on the final morphology of the products are investigated. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, the growth mechanism has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the 3D hierarchitectured SnS microspheres were investigated by using nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. Lithium ion storage performances of the synthesized materials as anodes for Lithium-ion battery were investigated in detail and it exhibits excellent electrochemical properties.

  11. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt015eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  12. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt015eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion...

  13. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es006gardner2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced...

  14. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  15. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  16. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  17. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  18. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  19. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  20. A hyperbolic problem with non-local constraint describing ion-rearrangement in a model for ion-lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Scrobogna; Juan J. L. Velázquez

    2015-02-20

    In this paper we study the Fokker-Plank equation arising in a model which describes the charge and discharge process of ion-lithium batteries. In particular we focus our attention on slow reaction regimes with non-negligible entropic effects, which triggers the mass-splitting transition. At first we prove that the problem is globally well-posed. After that we prove a stability result under some hypothesis of improved regularity and a uniqueness result for the stability under some additional condition of

  1. Voltage, Stability and Diffusion Barrier Differences between Sodium-ion and Lithium-ion Intercalation Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Shyue Ping

    To evaluate the potential of Na-ion batteries, we contrast in this work the difference between Na-ion and Li-ion based intercalation chemistries in terms of three key battery properties—voltage, phase stability and diffusion ...

  2. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  3. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  4. Modeling and Experimental Study of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Carlos F

    2015-04-28

    . (a) Temperature and heating rate, (b) amount of meta-stable SEI, (c) cathode degree of conversion, and (d) anode lithium content during oven tests at 150 and 170 °C with a convection coefficient of 7.17 W/m2K. ............... 32 Figure 6. Heat.... ........................................................................................................... 35 Figure 8. Temperature response and heating rate during simulated oven test for the cylindrical and prismatic spiral-wound cells. ....................................................... 37 Figure 9. (a) Amount of meta-stable SEI, (b), cathode...

  5. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  6. A Unified Open-Circuit-Voltage Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for State-of-Charge Estimation and State-of-Health Monitoring $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    A Unified Open-Circuit-Voltage Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for State-of-Charge Estimation. Keywords: Electric vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Open-Circuit-Voltage, State-of-Charge, State is widely used for characterizing battery properties under different conditions. It contains important

  7. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    -based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator Ajit K. Sharma a , Prateek Khare a , Jayant with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro

  8. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  9. Enhanced performance of sulfone-based electrolytes at lithium ion battery electrodes, including the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 high voltage cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Enhanced performance of sulfone-based electrolytes at lithium ion battery electrodes, including 2014 Available online 27 March 2014 Keywords: Lithium ion battery Sulfone-based electrolytes High in the performance (safety, energy density, and power) of the standard lithium ion batteries e which approach

  10. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atfor use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities andFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, we require that any

  11. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    of LiMnO2 microcubes for lithium ion battery application[J].battery systems The lithium-ion battery was developed inneed. The first lithium-ion battery was created in Japan by

  12. Local-probe studies of degradation of composite LiNi0.8Co 0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes in high-power lithium-ion cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2004-01-01

    accounts for the observed cell power and capacity loss. Keyresponsible for the observed cell power and capacity fade. Aresponsible for the cell power loss that accompanies life

  13. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Linden, D. , Handbook of Batteries. 2nd ed. 1995, New York:rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(6861): p.of rechargeable lithium batteries, I. Lithium manganese

  14. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    of LiFePO(4) as lithium battery cathode and comparison withImproved LiFePO(4) Lithium Battery Cathode. ElectrochemicalOptimized LiFePO(4) for lithium battery cathodes. Journal of

  15. Modeling Electrochemical Decomposition of Fluoroethylene Carbonate on Silicon Anode Surfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kevin; Foster, Michael E; Ma, Yuguang; del la Hoz, Julibeth M Martinez; Sai, Na; Balbuena, Perla B

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implication...

  16. On the well-posedness of a mathematical model for Lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angel Manuel Ramos

    2015-05-29

    In this article we discuss the well-posedness of a mathematical model that is used in the literature for the simulation of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. First, a mathematical model based on a macro-homogeneous approach is presented, following previous works. Then it is showed, from a physical and a mathematical point of view, that a boundary condition widely used in the literature is not correct. Although these errors could be just sign typos (that can be explained as carelessness over d/d$x$ versus d/d$n$, with $n$ the outward unit vector) and authors using this model probably use the correct boundary condition when they solve it in order to do simulations, readers should be aware of the right choice. Therefore, the deduction of the correct boundary condition and a mathematical study of the well-posedness of the corresponding problem is carried out here.

  17. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using lead–acid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling and ensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.

  18. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ?2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  19. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using lead–acid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling andmore »ensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.« less

  20. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    2 H 3 O 2 Li·2H 2 O (lithium acetate, Sigma Aldrich), and HThe iron nitrate and lithium acetate were combined with the