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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

Energy Education & Workforce Development: Energy Literacy: Essential...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education A thumbnail image of the cover of the Energy Literacy booklet. Download the guide: High Resolution Low...

2

Energy Education and Workforce Development: Energy Literacy:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education to someone by E-mail Share Energy Education and Workforce Development: Energy Literacy: Essential...

3

Energy Literacy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education A Framework for Energy Education for Learners of All Ages Intended use of this document as a...

4

The influence of the instruction of visual design principles on improving pre-service teachers' visual literacy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated whether the instruction of visual design principles had an influence on pre-service teachers' perception and analysis (interpretation) of visual materials. In addition, the relationships between pre-service teachers' visual intelligence ... Keywords: Educational technology course, Pre-service teachers, Visual design principles, Visual literacy, Visual literacy training

Hsin-Te Yeh; Yi-Chia Cheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Energy Literacy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education A Framework for Energy Education for Learners of All Ages Intended use of this document as a guide includes, but is not limited to, formal and informal energy education, standards development, curriculum design, assessment development, and educator trainings. Development of this guide began at a workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in the fall of 2010. Multiple federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and numerous individuals contributed to the development through an extensive review and comment process. Discussion and information gathered at AAAS, WestEd, and DOE-sponsored Energy Literacy workshops in the spring of 2011

6

Climate Literacy Framework  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Literacy Framework Print E-mail Climate Literacy Framework Print E-mail A Guide for Individuals and Communities The Essential Principles of Climate Science presents important information for individuals and communities to understand Earth's climate, impacts of climate change, and approaches for adapting and mitigating change. Principles in the guide can serve as discussion starters or launching points for scientific inquiry. The guide can also serve educators who teach climate science as part of their science curricula. Development of the guide began at a workshop sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Multiple science agencies, non-governmental organizations, and numerous individuals also contributed through extensive review and comment periods. Discussion at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and NOAA-sponsored Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Literacy workshop contributed substantially to the refinement of the document.

7

Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Print E-mail and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Print E-mail Explore the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) for a reviewed collection of educational resources and learn how you can build your students' understanding of climate science, climate change, and energy awareness. Use the CLEAN website to: Teach Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Find out how to develop climate literacy and energy awareness in our students. A set of essential principles frame the key science and teaching strategies. Learn more about these principles and how they can inform your teaching. Browse Reviewed Educational Resources This growing collection of teaching activities includes materials for middle and high school students as well as undergraduate classrooms. Learn how we select materials that are both scientifically sound and pedagogically effective.

8

Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 December 18, 2013 - 10:27am Addthis In celebration of Earth Day in April, elementary school students at Churchill Road Elementary School in McLean, Virginia, learned about energy literacy by riding the Energy Department’s energy bike. The bike enabled students to pedal for power and experience the difference in physical effort necessary to power incandescent, compact fluorescent, and LED lighting. This lesson highlighted Energy Principle 4, which states that various sources of energy can be used to power human activities, and often this energy must be transferred from source to destination. Check out energyliteracyprinciples.org for more Energy Literacy lessons and activities. | Photo courtesy of Churchill Road Elementary School

9

Development of an Evaluation Instrument for Green Building Literacy among College Students in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction industry accounts for a significant amount of the total carbon dioxide emissions. Promoting green building policy is one of the most effective ways to meet the national carbon reduction commitment. It is essential to increase green building ... Keywords: Ecology, Energy-Saving, Environmental Literacy, Evaluation Instrument, Evaluation Questionnaire, Green Building Literacy, Waste-Reduction, and Health EEWH System

Yi-Lin Jan; Ming-Liang Lin; Ko-Yu Shiao; Chia-Chen Wei; Li-Ting Huang; Quo-Cheng Sung

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ORISE: Health Literacy Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Literacy Development Literacy Development While health disparities may be attributed to a number of factors, health literacy development and access to health information can help special populations gain a better understanding of wellness and prevention. The Internet and other means of electronic communication have become popular tools that are allowing people to take control of their health. According to Healthy People 2010, nearly half of American adults (90 million people) are deemed "health illiterate"-an increasing problem among special populations that appears to contribute to health disparities. Health literacy refers to the ability to read and understand materials related to personal health, as well as navigate the health system. To assist government agencies and organizations educate populations facing

11

The West in Literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

identity in early Iron Age Greece and Cyprus. Oxford Journaland democratic literacy in Greece. In W. A. Johnson, & H.The culture of reading in Greece and Rome (pp. 13-45).

Bhattacharya, Usree

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The Cambridge Handbook of Literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and others. The reader of the Handbook will not only have aThe Cambridge Handbook of Literacy edited by David R. OlsonHowever, in The Cambridge Handbook of Literacy, edited by

Joaquin, Anna Dina L

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Energy Education & Workforce Development: Energy Education &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

against a background of solar panels Opportunities for Minority Students in the Solar Industry Energy Literacy Poster Energy Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental...

14

The Equivalence Principle Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A precise formulation of the strong Equivalence Principle is essential to the understanding of the relationship between gravitation and quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects are reviewed in a context including General Relativity, but allowing for the presence of torsion. For the sake of brevity, a concise statement is proposed for the Principle: "An ideal observer immersed in a gravitational field can choose a reference frame in which gravitation goes unnoticed". This statement is given a clear mathematical meaning through an accurate discussion of its terms. It holds for ideal observers (time-like smooth non-intersecting curves), but not for real, spatially extended observers. Analogous results hold for gauge fields. The difference between gravitation and the other fundamental interactions comes from their distinct roles in the equation of force.

R. Aldrovandi; P. B. Barros; J. G. Pereira

2002-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

Information in Place: Integrating Sustainability into Information Literacy Instruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Task Force. (2009). Library Information Literacy Curriculum.Research Libraries. (2004). Information literacy competencyInformation in Place: Integrating Sustainability into

Stark, Megan R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Guided and Team-Based Learning for Chemical Information Literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Web 2.0 Integration in Information Literacy Instruction: AnPOGIL Techniques in an Information Literacy Curriculum. TheInstruction Based on Information Competencies. Research

Loo, Jeffery L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Information Literacy at UCLA: The Core Competencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information Literacy at UCLACore Competencies An information-literate student at UCLA istopic and the need for information by: a. Articulating a

UCLA Library Information Literacy Program Steering Committee

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Computer Literacy Skills of Net Generation Learners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Younger learners are widely considered to be technologically savvy and computer literate because of their lifelong exposure to ubiquitous technology. Educators often rely on that assumption to justify changes to institutional curricula, technology initiatives, new classroom strategies, and calls for educators to meet the educational demands of the younger generation. This study examines the computer literacy skills of Net Generation Learners (NGLs). This dissertation is composed of a systematic literature review, an examination of learner computer literacy skills prior to completing a college level course, and an investigation of the effects of different types of instruction on learner computer literacy skills. In the systematic literature review, identified studies focused primarily on learner familiarity with emerging technologies and relied heavily on self-reported data. Few studies directly measured learner computer literacy skills, and none compared the skills of NGLs and non-NGLs. A causal-comparative examination of learner computer literacy skills prior to a college level computer literacy course found that both NGLs and non-NGLs exhibited inadequate computer literacy skill. A 1-way ANOVA indicated NGLs performed significantly better than non-NGLs on a computer literacy skills assessment; however, examining learner age as a continuous variable via regression yielded different results. There may be validity to claims regarding the comparative computer proficiency of NGLs to non-NGLs, but the level of skill exhibited by learners does not warrant calls for radical educational changes, and the imprecision of arbitrarily defining age as a dichotomous variable produces potentially erroneous results. The effect of type of instruction on learner computer literacy skills was explored. Based on the results in this study, direct instruction focused on a comprehensive scope of computer literacy skills better supports learner acquisition of skills than does informal instruction or instruction focused on a limited range of skills. Future research should use statistical methods that analyze age as a continuous variable while continuing to examine directly the comparative computer literacy skills of NGLs and non-NGLs at all levels of education. Further inquiry into the effectiveness of different types of instruction to support learner acquisition of computer literacy skills should also be conducted.

Duke, Christopher

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

First-principles Thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics: First-principles Thermodynamics Sponsored by: TMS Electronic, Magnetic, and Photonic...

20

Science Energy Literacy and Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Energy Literacy and Activities Elementary School Curriculum Created by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Click on the links below to take you to the Chapter heading: Circuit Electromagnetism Electrolysis Potato Power Fermentation Volcanoes Kites Wind Tower Solar Cars Solar Ovens and Beads Tie Dye Vanishing Resources Standards Circuits Objective: We will learn about electricity by making a simple circuit with your own bodies! Science Background Electricity is a versatile form of energy. Windmills, water wheels and coal power plants, all have generators, which convert energy from the wind, water, or coal into electricity. The electricity can then be used to make light bulbs glow and electric heaters warm. It can make the sound in speakers and the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

DIY Media: Digital Literacies and Learning through Popular Cultural Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Schools remain notorious for co-opting digital technologies to business as usual approaches to teaching new literacies. DIY Media addresses this issue head-on, and describes expansive and creative practices of digital literacy that are increasingly influential ...

Michele Knobel; Colin Lankshear

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

First Principles Modeling for Research and Design of New Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First principles computation can be used to investigate an design materials in ways that can not be achieved with experimental means. We show how computations can be used to rapidly capture the essential physics that ...

Ceder, Gerbrand

23

Principles Governing Departmental Directives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELEMENTS FROM: SAMUEL W. BODMA 4 SUBJECT: Principles Governing Departmental Directives The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish,...

24

Science literacy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science literacy Science literacy Subscribe to RSS - Science literacy Having the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes necessary to make informed decisions on scientific issues. Science on Saturday starts Jan. 11 Science fans of all ages can explore a rich variety of science and technology topics at the popular Science on Saturday lecture series hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The series marks its 30-year anniversary when it begins on Saturday, Jan. 11. Science on Saturday offers free lectures about current topics from "The physics of cancer," to "What art can tell us about the brain," that are aimed at the general public from high school age and up. Read more about Science on Saturday starts Jan. 11

25

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mach's holographic principle  

SciTech Connect

Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

Khoury, Justin [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Center for Particle Cosmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Parikh, Maulik [Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Pune 411007 (India)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Principle Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Principle Power Place San Francisco, California Zip 94120 Sector Renewable Energy Product Principle Power is a global independent power producer committed to delivering green,...

28

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Science literacy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

science-literacy Having the knowledge science-literacy Having the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes necessary to make informed decisions on scientific issues. en Science on Saturday starts Jan. 11 http://www.pppl.gov/news/2014/01/science-saturday-starts-jan-11

Science fans of all ages can explore a rich variety of science and technology topics at the popular Science on Saturday lecture series hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The series marks its 30-year anniversary when it begins on Saturday, Jan. 11.Science on Saturday offers free lectures about current

29

Supporting sociable literacy in the international children's digital library  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As each generation of children grows up in a world shaped by the affordances available to them in both physical and digital environments, their expectations of tools to support changing literacy practices make new demands on technologists and designers. ... Keywords: children, contextual inquiry, cooperative inquiry, digital libraries, participatory design, sociable literacy

Nancy Kaplan; Yoram Chisik; Kendra Knudtzon; Rahul Kulkarni; Stuart Moulthrop; Kathryn Summers; Holly Weeks

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Principles of Passive House  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principles of Passive House Principles of Passive House Speaker(s): Wolfgang Feist Date: November 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Alan Meier The Passive House ("Passivhaus") concept is a rigorous, voluntary energy performance standard for buildings that reduces heating requirements by up to 90% and overall energy use by up to 80% over standard construction. Developed in Germany in the early 1990s and drawing on Super-insulated and Passive Solar ideas from North America and "Low Energy" European building standards, the concept of a building that could be practically constructed to maintain a comfortable interior climate without conventional heating or cooling systems was devised, tested and proven. The Passive House remains comfortable without large "active"

31

A New Curriculum for Information Literacy (ANCIL)- Executive Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whatwehavedescribedastheinformationliteracylandscape. 6 Figure1:theinformationliteracylandscape ProjectoutputsThisprojecthadthreemajoroutputswhichshouldbeconsultedformoredetail:? Theoreticalbackground? Expertconsultationreport? Thecurriculumandsupportingdocumentation,comprisingo... Curriculumoverviewandimplementationguidelineso MappingtoexistingILframeworksandstandardso Evidencetoolkitforimplementingthecurriculumo Sixtipsfortransformingyourteachingo GoodpracticeininformationliteracySummaryconclusionsThekey...

Coonan, Emma; Secker, Jane

32

Literacy, orality annd the digital revolution: history and prospects for university undergraduate research fellows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For years, communications scholars have classified communication into two types, oral and literate. Oral communication is, of course, basic to humans. We are bom with the ability to speak and need no formal training in language. We simply learn the language that is spoken around us. Literate forms of communication, however, must be taught; we have no instincts as human beings for acquiring the ability to read and write. According to communications scholars such as Walter Ong and Marshall McLuhan, when an individual becomes literate, the written word became not just a vessel for communication, but a device that restructures her consciousness. Leonard Shlain extends this principle by arguing that literacy shifts a person's mental dependence from the right brain to left brain. The right hemisphere of the brain is the domain of oral communication - it is holistic and intuitive. The left hemisphere is the domain of logic, sequence and order. According to Shlain and other scholars, shifting from a right to a left brain dominance allowed for the creation of classical philosophy and the sciences as a result of the abstract thought that is made possible through literacy. The Digital Revolution, involving our new technologically advanced forms of communication such as the television, radio, the world wide web, email and others, is transforming our consciousness in a manner akin to the ways in which it was transformed by the Chirographic and Typographic revolutions. However, instead of dividing the two types of communicative devices, oral and literate, right brain and left brain, the communications revolution is fusing them. The dividing line that communications scholars have placed between oral and literate forms of communication is becoming increasingly meaningless in our "global village." Instead of thinking and speaking of new media forms in old terms such as "orality" and "literacy," we should instead be venturing forward with revised ways of thinking and speaking about our communicative devices. Instead of speaking in terms of "orality" and "literacy," we should instead be focusing on the ways in which our newest communicative forms are fusing aspects of both oral and literate communications into a hybridized structure.

Cornelison, J. Garrett

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Lighting Principles and Terms | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principles and Terms Lighting Principles and Terms July 29, 2012 - 5:20pm Addthis Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of lighting. |...

34

VOICE, POWER, TECHNOLOGY: JOINING THE TECHNOLOGY LITERACY CLUB VIA A JOURNEY FROM THE PROJECTS TO A PH.D.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??My autobiography is a critical reflective journey from my discourse of home into the Technology Literacy Club. Through the Technology Literacy Club, I overcame my (more)

Ferguson, Larry

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

A New Curriculum for Information Literacy (ANCIL)- Teaching learning: perceptions of information literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and if - as the statements in Section 1 assert - information literacy is fundamental to learning in all contexts, why does IL not form a significant element in the mainstream academic curriculum? Stubbings and Franklin identify a number of reasons for this issue, echoing... with IT competency identified both by Badke and by Stubbings & Franklin offers an example of this reductive alignment. It is an issue that has been addressed well, clearly and often in library literature. The ACRL Competency Standards (2000) recognise...

Coonan, Emma

36

Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Literacy and Energy 101 frameworks just finished up at University of Texas in Austin. More than 44,000 students all from over the world enrolled in "Energy 101: Energy...

37

Modeling from Physical Principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article, on the other hand, shall concentrate on issues relating to modeling the physical plant to be controlled. Modeling physical systems seems to be a straightforward task. Since physical systems and experiments are often reproducible in a reliable fashion, since measurements from physical systems are frequently available in abundance and of high quality, since the meta--laws of physics are mostly well understood, it seems to be a particularly easy task to come up with accurate mathematical descriptions of most physical plants. Yet, there are some typical pitfalls and frequent misconceptions about the modeling of physical systems, especially among control engineers. These shall be illustrated, and a sound methodological basis for modeling from physical principles shall then be created. 2 Common Misconceptions

Franois E. Cellier; Hilding Elmqvist; Martin Otter

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Towards first-principles electrochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...

Dabo, Ismaila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Orlando Materials Innovation Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Orlando Materials Innovation Principles calls upon the diversity of disciplines and sectors vital to the U.S. manufacturing economy. This includes...

40

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCINTILLATION COUNTING  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of scintillation counting are reviewed. The design, performance, and operation of a placed on instruments ior medical uses. (C.H.)

Harris, C.C.; Hamblen, D.P.; Francis, J.E.

1959-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

New literacies and the learning sciences: a framework for understanding youths' media arts practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper turns our attention to the arts and New Literacy Studies as an understudied area in the learning sciences. Our study documents, describes, and analyzes urban youths' Media Arts Practices within a Computer Clubhouse, drawing on the New Literacy ...

Kylie A. Peppler; Yasmin B. Kafai

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

###Operating Principles published 411.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of operating principles with S-system models Yun Lee 1 , Po-Wei Chen 1 , Eberhard O. Voit ⇑ The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech and Emory University, 313 Ferst Drive, Suite 4103, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 4 March 2011 Keywords: Biochemical Systems Theory Design principle Heat stress Operating principle S-system Trehalose a b s t r a c t Operating principles address general questions regarding the response dynamics of biological systems as we observe or hypothesize them, in comparison to a priori equally valid alternatives. In analogy to design principles, the question arises: Why are some operating strategies encountered more frequently than others and in what sense might they be superior? It is at this point impossible to study operation prin- ciples in complete generality,

43

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 1 General Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 1 General Principles Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 1 General Principles from t

44

Markov's Principle for Propositional Type Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we show how to extend a constructive type theory with a principle that captures the spirit of Markov's principle from constructive recursive mathematics. Markov's principle is especially useful for proving termination of specific computations. ...

Alexei Kopylov; Aleksey Nogin

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Characterization equipment essential drawing plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings and Support Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). Support Drawings: Are those drawings identified by facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems, or components shown on essential drawings. (HNF 1997a) The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered General drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report (Wilson 1998) is updated during fiscal year 1999. Trucks 1 and 2 drawings are not included in this revision of the essential drawing list due to uncertainty about future use.

WILSON, G.W.

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Designing mobile interfaces for novice and low-literacy users  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While mobile phones have found broad application in bringing health, financial, and other services to the developing world, usability remains a major hurdle for novice and low-literacy populations. In this article, we take two steps to evaluate and improve ... Keywords: Mobile banking, data accuracy, data entry, illiteracy, mobile health

Indrani Medhi; Somani Patnaik; Emma Brunskill; S.N. Nagasena Gautama; William Thies; Kentaro Toyama

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Computer Science vs. Computer Literacy Which to Teach?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer Science vs. Computer Literacy Which to Teach? Viera K. Proulx College of Computer Science, Northeastern University Boston, MA, 02115, USA vkp@ccs.neu.edu With the widespread use of computers in all in elementary schools) should be taught `something about computers'. The dilemma is, whether to teach `computer

Proulx, Viera K.

48

Supervisory Essentials | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supervisory Essentials Supervisory Essentials Supervisory Essentials February 24, 2014 8:30AM EST to February 27, 2014 4:30PM EST Registration link: CHRIS 002072/0038 $800.00 Course Type: Classroom Course Location: GTN A-410 Course Description: This course is designed to assist new first-line supervisors in developing the competencies they need to achieve their primary responsibilities, which include accomplishing the goals of their units through the work of their employees and ensuring that the work of their employees is of the highest possible quality. The course can also serve as a refresher for experienced supervisors and managers. This course addresses competencies in the following Executive Core Qualifications: Leading People, Leading Change, Building Coalitions, and Communication. The

49

Quality Assurance: Underlying Quality Principles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Underlying Quality Principles Underlying Quality Principles These principles are consistent with Integrated Safety Management Policy, P 450.4A and support ISM implementation. Define Policies and Objectives--Ensure they are Understood and Accepted. Management must set expectations for the organization as a whole before employees can do their jobs, satisfy their customers, and strive to improve the quality of their work. This is accomplished by developing and implementing specific policies and objectives that reflect the operating philosophy of the facility's management. Once these policies and objectives have been established, all managers must take the necessary actions to ensure that each employee shares their vision of the organization's purpose. Specify Roles and Responsibilities--Ensure they are Understood and Accepted.

50

Tank farms essential drawing plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF.

Domnoske-Rauch, L.A.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

51

Teaching Spreadsheets: Curriculum Design Principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EuSpRIG concerns direct researchers to revisit spreadsheet education, taking into account error auditing tools, checklists, and good practices. This paper aims at elaborating principles to design a spreadsheet curriculum. It mainly focuses on two important issues. Firstly, it is necessary to establish the spreadsheet invariants to be taught, especially those concerning errors and good practices. Secondly, it is important to take into account the learners' ICT experience, and to encourage them to attitudes that foster self-learning. We suggest key principles for spreadsheet teaching, and we illustrate them with teaching guidelines.

Tort, Francoise

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy principle with global invariants  

SciTech Connect

A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with low free energy in toroidal plasmas in which relaxation is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. States with current density vanishing on the boundary are constructed. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from reversed field pinches and tokamaks.

Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.; Monticello, D.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

Bethe, H. A.

1972-10-00T23:59:59.000Z

54

Family literacypredictors of program participation and goal attainment in Kentucky.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ph. D. The purpose of this study was to investigate how various components of family literacy programs such as operational characteristics (enrollment procedure, hours of (more)

Harrison, Zelma Renae Stewart

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) utilized DOE cyber security policy, industry best practices and lessons learned, and comprehensive internal needs assessments to identify fundamental cyber security functional roles and associated responsibilities. In addition, core competencies were identified that represent the core skill set needed by cyber security professionals to adequately fulfill their functional roles. This collective information was further used to define the Enterprise Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK).

56

Ethics - Fourteen Principles of Ethical Conduct for Federal Employees |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fourteen Fourteen Principles of Ethical Conduct for Federal Employees Ethics - Fourteen Principles of Ethical Conduct for Federal Employees This guide provides a brief overview of the ethics rules and standards of ethical conduct that all employees should know and follow. Discuss any question not answered here with your supervisor or ethics counsel. Your ethics counsel is: For Field Office employees, your respective field counsel. For Headquarters employees, the Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law: 202-586-1522 or Standardsofconduct@hq.doe.gov. Public service is a public trust. Federal employees must always place loyalty to high ethical standards above private gain. Understanding and observing ethics rules are essential to fulfilling that trust. Print and

57

Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) October 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) October 2011 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) A Competency and Functional Framework For Cyber Security Workforce Development Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Associate CIO for Cyber Security October 2011 DOE Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) October 2011 2 Table of Contents Executive Summary ...............................................................................................................4 DOE Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) .........................................................................5 1.1 Data Security ..............................................................................................................6

58

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book presents, in nonmathematical fashion, the principles underlying the use of surfactants in industrial products and processes, how these principles are used to select surfactants for use in a variety of industrial applications, and tables of surfac

59

Education: Digital Resource Center - TUTORIALS: Principles of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2008 ... Citation: "Principles of Biomedical Engineering," Biomedical Engineering Asynchronous Learning Web Pages, Indiana Higher Education...

60

Impact of Internet Literacy, Internet Addiction Symptoms, and Internet Activities on Academic Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the interrelationships among Internet literacy, Internet addiction symptoms, Internet activities, and academic performance. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 718 children and adolescents, aged 9-19, in Hong Kong, using ... Keywords: Internet activities, Internet addiction symptoms, Internet literacy, academic performance, adolescents and children

Louis Leung; Paul S. N. Lee

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Natural dialogue in global communication literacy: the psychosocial lexical orientation (PSLO) method for understanding attitude cultures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the global society of knowledge and digital communication technologies, the opportunities for dialogue and global communication literacy are significantly increased. This paper discusses the PSLO research and dialectic tool which is based on the universal ... Keywords: attitude communication, communication channels, communication literacy, intercultural dialogue

Vana Papalois; Maria Theodosopoulou

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Principles for interregional transmission expansion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In aiming to facilitate the siting of interregional transmission lines, some basic principles might include an approach where the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission uses a variety of tools to capture the value of new transmission, and thus increase the supply of interregional lines. There also may be opportunities for the Commission to work with localities to reduce resistance to new lines by means of economic incentives. Such a tack has the potential to be more efficient than fighting local opposition in the courts. (author)

Benjamin, Richard

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Principles of Arrangement Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper I attempt to summarize the fundamental principles which underlie to Arrangement Field Theory. In my intention the exposition would be the most possible intelligible and self-contained. However the exposed concepts are revisited in the light of the new researches, so that they could appear slightly different than in the previous works. Much emphasis is posed here to the power of theory to predict the number of fermionic families (flavours) and space-time dimensions. I also give a quick glance to the entanglement phenomenon and its interpretation as microscopic wormhole.

Diego Marin

2012-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Social Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle Social Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 10:59am Addthis Federal agencies can use social networks and communications to spark and reinforce behavior change for meeting sustainability goals. This principle is based on research findings showing that people and institutions often are strongly influenced by the behaviors and expectations of others. Methods The social network and communications behavior change principle involves informing staff about others' sustainability efforts, especially those that are successful. Methods for social networking and communicating include many internal or external media channels, such as websites, blogs, newsletters, and emails.

65

Skew Quadrupole Lattice Design Principles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skew Quadrupole Lattice Design Principles Skew Quadrupole Lattice Design Principles File set: mu_mf09a, 18-Dec-00, B. Parker ≡ Skew Quadrupole Lattice Fully Coupled Lattice The lattices presented here are uncoupled. They are special only in that the betatron eigenplanes (denoted A,B) line up with ±45° rather than the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) axes. A B X Y Useful Trick: Every dipole with bend radius, ρ, has a weak normal focusing component, k = -1/(2ρ 2 ) added in order to make the focusing cylindrically symmetric. Straight Section = 4 x Arc = 211.872 m Arc = 52.968 m for R eff = 16.86 m 16.86 m 245.6 m total length Decay Ratio = 211.872 m = 0.4 per straight section 529.680 m Ring Layout & Arc Magnet Parameters B 1 = 6.986 T, G = 0 T/m, L 1 = 1.10 m B 2 = 3.493 T, G = 20.19 T/m, L 2 = 1.55 m

66

Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

Schulte, Reinhard W. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

67

Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited. They are expected to anticipate and react quickly to prevent a potential threat while staying accountable to their public stakeholders, many of whom remain unaware of the very threats the organization is trying to address. When budgets are flush, it is easy to believe that money will solve all problems; but during times of economic hardship, managers must rely on creative and cost-effective management approaches to implement their missions. Fortunately, managers of nonproliferation organizations can draw on a wealth of research on organizational design and culture to help them identify the management strategies most appropriate for them. Such research can help nonproliferation managers think about their own organizational structures and cultures and adapt accepted management principles to their unique organizational mission. This analytical process is not straight forward, as some managers may find themselves taking risks that others might not take, such as making ostensibly risky investments for the common good, or supporting creative thinking to help mission accomplishment. Some management principles that are relatively straightforward for other organizations may be difficult to envision and implement in a nonproliferation organization. Therefore, the goal of this study is to help nonproliferation managers identify management principles that can be implemented in a nonproliferation organization and, in the process, help maximize the value of the organization's products and effectiveness of its mission.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

68

A New Curriculum for Information Literacy (ANCIL) - Expert Consultation Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

issuesincludedassessmentandassumptionsaroundstudentsfamiliaritywith technology.Thisreportsummarisesthekeyissuestoconsiderwhenimplementinganddesigninga curriculumforinformationliteracy.ThisresearchwasfundedbytheArcadiaProgrammeatCambridge UniversityLibrary;wehope... strategiesfordealingwithit(beyondthatofimposing orderonit)areneeded. Theholisticapproachledsomepeopletodescribeacoresetofmodulesorthemesthatweredeveloped andreinforcedasastudentprogressedthroughtheiracademicstudies.Theneedtobuildonknowledge overtimeandto...

Secker, Jane

69

Lighting Principles and Terms | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles and Terms Principles and Terms Lighting Principles and Terms July 29, 2012 - 5:20pm Addthis Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of lighting. | Photo courtesy of Tadson Bussey. Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of lighting. | Photo courtesy of Tadson Bussey. Learn More Find out how to shop for lights by lumens, not watts. To choose the best energy-efficient lighting options for your home, you should understand basic lighting principles and terms. Light Quantity Illumination The distribution of light on a horizontal surface. The purpose of all lighting is to produce illumination. Lumen A measurement of light emitted by a lamp. As reference, a 100-watt

70

Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and lightspeed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

M. Dima

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

M. Dima

2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

72

The fourteen principles of the Toyota Way.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thesis is aimed at discussing the principles of the Toyota Way, philosophy and system of management guidelines, by way of elaborating and evaluating upon (more)

Chacon, Andrez C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

TMS Releases Orlando Materials Innovation Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 14, 2012 ... The Principles call upon the diversity of disciplines and industrial sectors vital to the U.S. manufacturing economy to work synergistically on...

74

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one (more)

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gibbs Paradox and Similarity Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As no heat effect and mechanical work are observed, we have a simple experimental resolution of the Gibbs paradox: both the thermodynamic entropy of mixing and the Gibbs free energy change are zero during the formation of any ideal mixtures. Information loss is the driving force of these spontaneous processes. Information is defined as the amount of the compressed data. Information losses due to dynamic motion and static symmetric structure formation are defined as two kinds of entropies - dynamic entropy and static entropy, respectively. There are three laws of information theory, where the first and the second laws are analogs of the two thermodynamic laws. However, the third law of information theory is different: for a solid structure of perfect symmetry (e.g., a perfect crystal), the entropy (static entropy for solid state) S is the maximum. More generally, a similarity principle is set up: if all the other conditions remain constant, the higher the similarity among the components is, the higher the value of entropy of the mixture (for fluid phases) or the assemblage (for a static structure or a system of condensed phases) or any other structure (such as quantum states in quantum mechanics) will be, the more stable the mixture or the assemblage will be, and the more spontaneous the process leading to such a mixture or an assemblage or a chemical bond will be.

Shu-Kun Lin

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Principles of software evolution: 5th international workshop on principles of software evolution (IWPSE 2002)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an overview of the 5th International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution (IWPSE 2002).

Mikio Aoyama; Katsuro Inoue; Vclav Rajlich

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Quantum Mechanics and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

Jang Young Bang; Micheal S. Berger

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Effect of Online Collaborative Learning on Middle School Student Science Literacy and Sense of Community.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy and sense of community. A quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group (more)

Wendt, Jillian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Technology literacy issues for freshmen education majors in a leading teacher program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this chapter, the literacy issues of a preservice leading teacher education program are discussed. The leading teacher program is constructed on the foundation of the three major themes of leadership, diversity, and technology. The technology theme ...

David D. Carbonara

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A New Curriculum for Information Literacy (ANCIL)- Curriculum and supporting documents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fruitfulenvironmentforenablingthistransformativeprocesstotakeplace. 8 References Biggs,J.(1996)Enhancingteachingthroughconstructivealignment,HigherEducation32(3),pp.347?64 CILIP(2004)Informationliteracy...

Coonan, Emma; Secker, Jane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability October 8, 2013 - 10:57am Addthis The following eight principles serve as the foundational building blocks for developing strategies to achieve institutional change-but they are not the strategies themselves. They are derived from academic literature and inform the framework for achieving institutional change in a Federal organization. Each statement is followed by a general strategy for how the principle can be translated into action. Social Network and Communications: Institutions and people change because they see or hear of others (individuals, groups, institutions, firms) behaving differently, so make sure staff see or hear about others who have

82

If the State provided free computer literacy, would it find takers? Evidence and propositions from the Akshaya project in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

77 Scott, E. S. (2003). Computer-based functional literacy:Challenges of Rural Computer Kiosks in Kerala." Informationexamining Children, Computers and theInformation Society'."

Pal, Joyojeet

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles Governing Departmental Directives - Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 September 10, 2007 The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. Directives help ensure that the Department operates in a safe, secure, efficient, and cost-effective manner. They promote operational consistency throughout the DOE complex, foster sound management, and

84

The Universe Adventure - The Cosmological Principle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cosmological Principle Cosmological Principle The distribution of matter across the universe is approximately even. The distribution of matter across the Universe is approximately even, homogeneous, when considered at large scales. Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity permits many possible types of universes. In applying the theory to describe the dynamics of our Universe, Einstein made a central empirical assumption to limit the number of possible solutions to the equations. He assumed that on very large scales the distribution of matter in the Universe is constant, making the Universe appear smooth. This idea is a form of the modern cosmological principle. This principle is not exact since much of the Universe's matter is found clustered together in planets, stars, and galaxies, but when considered at

85

Underlying Quality Principles | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Underlying Quality Principles Underlying Quality Principles Underlying Quality Principles These principles are consistent with Integrated Safety Management Policy, P 450.4A and support ISM implementation. Define Policies and Objectives--Ensure they are Understood and Accepted. Management must set expectations for the organization as a whole before employees can do their jobs, satisfy their customers, and strive to improve the quality of their work. This is accomplished by developing and implementing specific policies and objectives that reflect the operating philosophy of the facility's management. Once these policies and objectives have been established, all managers must take the necessary actions to ensure that each employee shares their vision of the organization's purpose. Specify Roles and Responsibilities--Ensure they are Understood and

86

Statistical Principles for Climate Change Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical principles underlying fingerprint methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is ...

Richard A. Levine; L. Mark Berliner

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Project Management Principles | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

304ProjectManagementPrinciples.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft PowerPoint - DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes Read-Only Accelerating Clean-up at...

88

Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This memo describes the principles of Traffic Engineering (TE) in the Internet. The document is intended to promote better understanding of the issues surrounding traffic engineering in IP networks, and to provide a common basis for the development ...

D. Awduche; A. Chiu; A. Elwalid; I. Widjaja; X. Xiao

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one dimensional diffusion equation. We show the uniqueness and ...

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Why first-principles calculations for alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief non-technical overview of first-principles calculations is presented, with emphasis on prediction of phase equilibria. Merits and drawbacks of various methods are briefly discussed.

de Fontaine, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Why first-principles calculations for alloys?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief non-technical overview of first-principles calculations is presented, with emphasis on prediction of phase equilibria. Merits and drawbacks of various methods are briefly discussed.

de Fontaine, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Quantal Definition of the Weak Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work analyzes the meaning of the Weak Equivalence Principle in the context of quantum mechanics. A quantal definition for this principle is introduced. This definition does not require the concept of trajectory and relies upon the phase shift induced by a gravitational field in the context of a quantum interference experiment of two coherent beams of particles. In other words, it resorts to wave properties of the system and not to classical concepts as the idea of trajectory.

Abel Camacho; Arturo Camacho-Guardian

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Need for Essential Consumer Protections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Need for Essential Consumer Protections Need for Essential Consumer Protections THE NEED FOR ESSENTIAL CONSUMER PROTECTIONS SMART METERING PROPOSALS AND THE MOVE TO TIME-BASED PRICING August 2010 NCLC NATIONAL CONSUMER L AW C E N T E R ® ® The Need for Essential Consumer Protections Copyright © 2010 AARP, National Consumer Law Center, National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates, Consumers Union, and Public Citizen. Reprinting with permission. ACkNOwLEDGMENTS The consumer organizations acknowledge the assistance of Barbara R. Alexander, Consumer Affairs Consultant, in the preparation of this paper. 1 There is widespread consensus that the U.S. distribution and transmission systems for vital electricity service need to be modernized and upgraded. This modernization has been recently promoted under the rubric of the

94

The educational electronic book as a tool for supporting children's emergent literacy in low versus middle SES groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of an educational electronic book (e-book) on 149 five- to six-year-old kindergarteners' emergent literacy levels were researched in two SES groups: low (LSES) (79 children) vs. middle (MSES) (70 children). In each SES group, children were ... Keywords: Electronic book, Emergent literacy, Kindergarteners, SES

O. Korat; A. Shamir

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principles for Fostering Sustainability to someone by E-mail Principles for Fostering Sustainability to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability on AddThis.com...

96

Federal Energy Management Program: Guiding Principles for Federal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Guiding Principles for Federal...

97

16.323 Principles of Optimal Control, Spring 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies the principles of deterministic optimal control. Variational calculus and Pontryagin's maximum principle. Applications of the theory, including optimal feedback control, time-optimal control, and others. Dynamic ...

How, Jonathan P.

98

Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:09am Addthis Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior. The physical structures, technologies, systems, and processes that constitute the infrastructure of a workplace should be aligned with sustainability goals and desired behavioral changes. For example, a rule requiring double-sided printing necessitates the availability and access to functioning duplex printers. Methods Modifying infrastructure so that it promotes sustainable behavior change is

99

Leadership Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leadership Institutional Change Principle Leadership Institutional Change Principle Leadership Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:04am Addthis For changing behavior among employees, leaders in Federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve sustainability goals in the short term and continue to provide motivation for long-term benefits. Methods Leaders should have a deep understanding of the politics of the organization and the ability to inspire and influence employees. Someone in a leadership position should demonstrate his or her direct involvement as the initial person to commit to sustainability instead of simply admiring others' efforts. Active leadership from managers as well as from other

100

Commitment Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:05am Addthis Commitment can be a crucial element that helps Federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors. Methods Explicit commitments help individuals make behavioral changes by externalizing their internal desires and goals to ensure follow-through. Conveying goals to others also increases the probability of achieving them and prevents procrastination. Precommitting to a request can lead to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles Patents · Resources with Additional Information · Wigner Honored "[Eugene P.] Wigner's great contribution to science, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, was his insight into the fundamental mathematics and physics of quantum mechanics. He applied and extended the mathematical theory of groups to the quantum world of the atom; specifically, he used group theory to organize the quantum energy levels of electrons in atoms in a way that is now standard. With that mathematical approach to the atom, Wigner became one of the first to apprehend the deep implications of symmetry, which has since emerged as one, if not the, key principle of 20th-century theoretical physics. ... Eugene P. Wigner

102

Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health and Health and EPA/600/8-91/011B Environmental Protection Environmental Assessment January 1992 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Interim Report Research and Development Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications EPA/600/8 -91/OllB January 1992 Interim Report DERMAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS Exposure Assessment Group Office of Health and Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 DISCLAIMER This document is an interim report subject to review by the Science Advisory Board. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

103

The design principles of PlanetLab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PlanetLab is a geographically distributed platform for deploying, evaluating, and accessing planetary-scale network services. PlanetLab is a shared community effort by a large international group of researchers, each of whom gets access to one or more isolated slices of PlanetLabs global resources. Because we deployed Planet-Lab and started supporting users before we fully understood what its architecture would be, being able to evolve the system became a requirement. This paper examines the set of design principles that guided this evolution. Some of these principles were explicit at the project outset, and others have become crystallized as the platform has developed. 1.

Larry Peterson; Timothy Roscoe

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.

Chen, P

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

105

Edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics  

SciTech Connect

The edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics states that nonimaging devices can be designed by the mapping of edge rays from the source to the edge of the target. However, in most nonimaging reflectors, including the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), at least part of the radiation undergoes multiple reflections, some rays even appear to be reflected infinitely many times, and closer examination reveals that some edge rays of the source are not mapped onto the edge of the target even though the CPC is indeed in two dimensions. Using a topological approach, the authors refine the formulation of the edge-ray principle to ensure its validity for all configurations. They present two different versions of the general principle. The first involves the boundaries of the different zones corresponding to a different number of reflections. The second version is stated in terms of only a single reflection, but it involves the addition of an auxiliary region of phase space. The authors discuss the use of the edge-ray principle as a design procedure for nonimaging devices. The CPC is used to illustrate all steps of the argument.

Ries, H. [Univ. of Munich (Germany); Rabl, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Heavy Vehicle Essential Power Systems Workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Essential power is a crosscutting technology area that addresses the efficient and practical management of electrical and thermal requirements on trucks. Essential Power Systems: any function on the truck, that is not currently involved in moving the truck, and requires electrical or mechanical energy; Truck Lights; Hotel Loads (HVAC, computers, appliances, lighting, entertainment systems); Pumps, starter, compressor, fans, trailer refrigeration; Engine and fuel heating; and Operation of power lifts and pumps for bulk fluid transfer. Transition from ''belt and gear driven'' to auxiliary power generation of electricity - ''Truck Electrification'' 42 volts, DC and/ or AC; All electrically driven auxiliaries; Power on demand - manage electrical loads; Benefits include: increased fuel efficiency, reduced emission both when truck is idling and moving down the road.

Susan Rogers

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON EXTRACELLULAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pityriasis capitis is a common scalp disorder caused by a fungus Malassezia globosa. The mechanism of Pityriasis capitis includes Malassezia-induced fatty acid metabolism, particularly lipase-mediated breakdown of sebaceous lipids and release of irritating free fatty acids. We report that extracellular lipase activity was detected in Malassezia globosa. The presence of lipase enzyme was performed in specific media on Petri dishes for formation of a zone.In this article, the effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Zingiber officinale essential oils on the extracellular lipase activity of Malassezia globosa had been studied by titrametric method. At the end of titration 4 mol fatty acid/ml of reaction mixture was released in the presence of Cymbopogon citratus oil and 7mol of fatty acid/ml of reaction mixture was liberated in the presence of Zingiber officinale oil. It was found that both essential oils strongly inhibit the lipase activity of M. globosa at a lower concentration.

Shubhangi Mugal; Ranjana Verma; Renu Mishra; Shikha Mandloi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Heavy Vehicle Essential Power Systems Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Essential power is a crosscutting technology area that addresses the efficient and practical management of electrical and thermal requirements on trucks. Essential Power Systems: any function on the truck, that is not currently involved in moving the truck, and requires electrical or mechanical energy; Truck Lights; Hotel Loads (HVAC, computers, appliances, lighting, entertainment systems); Pumps, starter, compressor, fans, trailer refrigeration; Engine and fuel heating; and Operation of power lifts and pumps for bulk fluid transfer. Transition from ''belt and gear driven'' to auxiliary power generation of electricity - ''Truck Electrification'' 42 volts, DC and/ or AC; All electrically driven auxiliaries; Power on demand - manage electrical loads; Benefits include: increased fuel efficiency, reduced emission both when truck is idling and moving down the road.

Susan Rogers

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

Lessons from our elders: identifying obstacles to digital literacy through direct engagement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In today's world, technological change outpaces many people's ability to comprehend or trust it, let alone embrace it. It is vitally important that developers of pervasive technology for the elderly are grounded in the needs, experience, and capabilities ... Keywords: community outreach, digital literacy, elderly, gerontechnology

Shreya Kumar, Leo C. Ureel, II, Harriet King, Charles Wallace

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Using Rubrics to Assess Information Literacy: An Examination of Methodology and Interrater Reliability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability Megan Oakleaf 326 Hinds Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244. E-mail: moakleaf@syr.edu Academic librarians rubrics have not taken a rigorous approach to methodology and interrater reliability. This article seeks,and analyzing the inter- rater reliability of information literacy rubrics in the hands of university librarians

Oakleaf, Megan

111

What to Read: A Biased Guide to AI Literacy for the Beginner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note tries to provide a quick guide to AI literacy for the beginning AI hacker and for the experienced AI hacker or two whose scholarship isn't what it should be. most will recognize it as the same old list of classic ...

Agre, Philip E.

112

Principle Power Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Principle Power Inc Principle Power Inc Address 93 S. Jackson Street Place Seattle, Washington Zip 98104 Sector Wind energy Product Developing a method so wind turbines can float on ocean waves in deeper coastal waters Website http://www.principlepowerinc.c Coordinates 47.5992095°, -122.3343564° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.5992095,"lon":-122.3343564,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

113

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Operating Principles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operating Principles Operating Principles Our wtis.sion is vitcrl ~ r i r l urgent - rue corrstnntly jOcus on missiort outconles. - US nuclear security is the fundamental mission of the NNSA and its laboratories, plants, and test site. - Mission managers bear responsibility for achieving mission outcomes. - Support managers provide technical assistance and support to enable mission delivery. - Our activities reflect a mission-focused, high performing. high reliability enterprise consistently delivering on its commitmerits and addressing national needs. - We constantly strive to drive innovation and reduce barriers to effectively and collaboratively accomplish our mission. Scierrce crnd fecltnology lie crt the hetrrt ?four mission. - The NNSA and its laboratories, plants, and test site are resources to organizations in the US Government

114

Kinetic Energy and the Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the general theory of relativity, kinetic energy contributes to gravitational mass. Surprisingly, the observational evidence for this prediction does not seem to be discussed in the literature. I reanalyze existing experimental data to test the equivalence principle for the kinetic energy of atomic electrons, and show that fairly strong limits on possible violations can be obtained. I discuss the relationship of this result to the occasional claim that ``light falls with twice the acceleration of ordinary matter.''

S. Carlip

1999-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

115

Speed-gradient principle for nonstationary processes in thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The speed-gradient variational principle (SG-principle) is formulated and applied to thermodynamical systems. It is shown that Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production and Onsager's symmetry relations can be interpreted in terms of the SG-principle and, therefore, are equivalent to each other. In both cases entropy of the system plays a role of the goal functional. The speed-gradient formulation of thermodynamic principles provide their extended versions, describing transient dynamics of nonstationary systems far from equilibrium. As an example a model of transient (relaxation) dynamics for maximum entropy principle is derived.

Alexander L. Fradkov

2007-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages to someone Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Digg

117

Chapter 31 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures Chapter 31 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 31.1CostReasonableness0.pdf 31.2AllowableFoodandBeverageCostsatDOEandCo...

118

PARABOLIC COMPARISON PRINCIPLE AND QUASIMINIMIZERS IN METRIC MEASURE SPACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PARABOLIC COMPARISON PRINCIPLE AND QUASIMINIMIZERS IN METRIC MEASURE SPACES JUHA KINNUNEN AND MATHIAS MASSON Abstract. We give several characterizations of parabolic (quasisuper)- minimizers prove a version of com- parison principle for super- and subminimizers on parabolic space-time cylinders

Kinnunen, Juha

119

First-Principles-Based Nanomaterials Design for Solar Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Energy Nanomaterials. Presentation Title, First-Principles-Based...

120

Computational Materials Science: from Basic Principles to Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 8, 2007... Thermodynamics Software/Codes, Visualization Software/Codes ... Topic Title: Computational Materials Science: from Basic Principles to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Contribution of the Home Environment to Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent and ongoing research has demonstrated the alarming likelihood of children from low-income homes and from ethnic minorities to read at much lower reading levels than their peers. Additionally, reading ability is related to the earliest of emergent literacy skills, which can be measured in young children before they enter formal schooling. The home environment, including the available resources, support for literacy and school, and the parent-child relationship, plays an important role in promoting the development of emergent literacy skills. More research is needed, however, to inform programs and researchers about the specific relationship between the home environment and emergent literacy development. The current study was conducted using a sample of 122 preschool children enrolled in ERF enriched preschool classrooms in one school located in a Southwestern state. The study investigated the power of three variables of the home literacy environment (HLE) (i.e., Family Reading and Writing, External Resources, and Daily Activities) to predict three emergent literacy outcomes (i.e., receptive oral language, alphabet knowledge, and name writing) using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The study also used commonality regression analysis to examine the shared and unique variance in these emergent literacy outcomes accounted for by the variables of the HLE and the parent-child relationship. The results of the CCA did not find the variables of the HLE to have a statistically significant relationship with the emergent literacy outcomes. Missing data techniques were used to account for incomplete data, and he results were closer to obtaining statistical significance when the more advanced method of multiple imputation was used to account for missing data, with the p-value decreasing from .751 with listwise deletion to between .094 and .504 with multiple imputation. The second analysis of the study, the commonality regression analysis, did find home variables to account for unique and shared variance in the emergent literacy outcomes, particularly in preschool name writing. Specifically, the External Resources scale of the Familia Inventory (Taylor, 2000) uniquely accounted for the smallest amount of variance (i.e., .1 percent) in name writing, while the scores of the PCRI uniquely accounted for the largest amount of variance (i.e., 3.4 percent). When combined together, however, the predictor variables accounted for larger amounts of variance in name writing ability. The Familia Inventory scale of External Resources accounted for the smallest amount of variance when combined with the other predictor variables (i.e., 21.5 percent) while the scores on the PCRI accounted for the largest combined amount of variance, accounting for 31.4 percent of the variance in name writing ability. These results complement and extend on existing research. The findings, limitations, and implications of the results of this study are discussed.

Haynes, Rebekah

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Investigation of Web Usability Based on the Dialogue Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ISO 9241-110 standard provides user-interface design rules based on 7 dialogue principles. The priority of the principles varies depending on the characteristics of the tasks, the users, and the environments. We observed the behavior of middle-aged and ... Keywords: ISO 9241-110, Web, dialogue principles, self-descriptiveness, usability

Masahiro Watanabe; Shunichi Yonemura; Yoko Asano

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Heat and Gravitation. I. The Action Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this first article of a series we formulate the thermodynamics of ideal gases in a constant gravitational field in terms of an action principle. The theory, in its simplest form, does not differ from standard practice, but it lays the foundations for a more systematic approach to the various extensions, such as the incorporation of radiation, the consideration of mixtures and the incorporation of General Relativty. An important conclusion is that a dynamical theory that incorporates the isothermal equilibrium of an ideal gas in a gravitational field does not seem to exist. The true equilibrium state of an ideal gas may in fact be adiabatic, in which case the role of solar radiation is merely to compensate for the loss of energy due to black body radiation into the cosmos. We study the interaction between an ideal gas and the photon gas, and propose a new approach to this problem. An experiment that involves a centrifuge and that has wider implications in view of the equivalence principle is proposed, to de...

Fronsdal, Christian

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Essential Innovations Technology Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Corp Technology Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name Essential Innovations Technology Corp Place Bellingham,, Washington State Zip 98225 Sector Geothermal energy, Services Product String representation "Manufactures an ... r applications." is too long. Coordinates 48.75235°, -122.471219° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.75235,"lon":-122.471219,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

125

Copyright Literacy Standards for Graduate Education: What We Know and What We Need  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the recent survey of Texas graduate schools (Larrison and Dickens, 20101), the majority of ETD professionals in the state indicated that copyright-related issues are the biggest continuing challenge facing institutions with ETD programs. These results should compel copyright educators on Texas campuses into action! It is time to seriously assess the copyright literacy needs of graduate school staff and students, and collaboratively develop high quality, well-advised copyright education programs to meet those needs. Campus information professionals with expertise in copyright management and information literacy have much to offer in the area of copyright education. But they lack widely-accepted standards that address what graduate school staff and students need to know, and they need the guidance on the best practices for promoting and teaching those standards. The U.S. higher education community has not yet addressed the need for campus copyright education in a coordinated, deliberate manner, leaving individual graduate programs and academic libraries to develop their own approaches of varying scope and quality. Some campuses have developed their own training sessions and guides, while others have relied on the resources provided freely by commercial interests such as ProQuest and the Copyright Clearance Center. The effectiveness and credibility of these various approaches is simply not known. To close the gap in copyright literacy standards, the presenter is working with professional colleagues to establish a standard copyright curriculum for use with masters and doctoral students. A list of core competencies and student outcomes for graduate student copyright literacy are being developed for consideration by the Library and Graduate School communities.

Clement, Gail

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Essential proteins discovery from weighted protein interaction networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Identifying essential proteins is important for understanding the minimal requirements for cellular survival and development. Fast growth in the amount of available protein-protein interactions has produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting protein ... Keywords: centrality, essential protein, protein interaction network

Min Li; Jianxin Wang; Huan Wang; Yi Pan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This supporting document provides a list of the Essential and Support drawings for the Interim Stabilization project equipment.

KOCH, M.R.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document provides a list of the Essential and Support drawings for the Interim Stabilization project equipment.

KOCH, M.R.

2000-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

RFID tags: Positioning principles and localization techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractRFID is an automatic identification technology that enables tracking of people and objects. Both identity and location are generally key information for indoor services. An obvious and interesting method to obtain these two types of data is to localize RFID tags attached to devices or objects or carried by people. However, signals in indoor environments are generally harshly impaired and tags have very limited capabilities which pose many challenges for positioning them. In this work, we propose a classification and survey the current state-of-art of RFID localization by first presenting this technology and positioning principles. Then, we explain and classify RFID localization techniques. Finally, we discuss future trends in this domain. Index TermsRFID, localization, positioning algorithm. I.

Mathieu Bouet; Aldri L. Dos Santos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Correspondence principle and evolution of physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the Bohr's correspondence principle it is shown that relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics may be considered as generalizations of classical mechanics. A comparative description of relativistic and classical mechanics is given using three main principles: the definition of momentum, the main law of dynamics (Newton's second law) and the law of conservation of energy. The difference of relativistic mechanics from classical mechanics is due to the new definition of momentum that is proportional to energy and velocity. It is shown that new relativistic laws of dynamics make it necessary to change kinematical relations of classical mechanics such as the law of velocity composition, coordinate transformation etc. It is demonstrated that quantum mechanics may be considered as a rational statistical generalization of classical mechanics. Statistical conformities in quantum mechanics are fundamental and are not due to the incomplete information about the system. From all possible multi-parametric statistical models the root model is most remarkable. Constructing of a root multi-parametric statistical model leads to obtaining such frequencies and base functions in Fourier decomposition so that classical laws of motion are fulfilled in average. Root model leads to a consistent condition that connects eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a mechanical system that is described by a matrix equation of Heisenberg. Matrix equation of Heisenberg leads to an operator equation. The solution of the operator equation may be considered as the construction of Hamiltonian of the system and a move to the Schrodinger representation. The considered approach naturally leads to the notion of momentum operator, fundamental commutation relations, density matrix and Liouville equation construction etc.

Yu. I. Bogdanov

2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Probable essential thrombocythemia in a dog  

SciTech Connect

Essential thrombocythemia (ET), in an 11-year-old dog was characterized by persistently high platelet counts range, 4.19 X 10(6)/microliters to 4.95 X 10(6)/microliters, abnormal platelet morphology, marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, absence of circulating megakaryoblasts, and history of splenomegaly and gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased numbers of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts (15% to 20%) in the bone marrow were confirmed by a positive acetylcholinesterase reaction. Another significant finding was the presence of a basophilia in blood (4,836/microliters) and bone marrow. The marked persistent thrombocytosis, absence of reactive (secondary) thrombocytosis, abnormal platelet morphology, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the megakaryocytic series in the bone marrow suggested the presence of a myeloproliferative disease. Cytochemical and ultrastructural findings aided in the diagnosis of ET. The dog was treated with radiophosphorus. The results was a rapid decline in the numbers of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and platelets and basophils in the peripheral blood. The dog died unexpectedly of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus before a complete remission was achieved.

Hopper, P.E.; Mandell, C.P.; Turrel, J.M.; Jain, N.C.; Tablin, F.; Zinkl, J.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

DOE Essential Body of Knowledge | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Essential Body of Knowledge Essential Body of Knowledge DOE Essential Body of Knowledge DOE Essential Body of Knowledge & Core Competency Training The Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) utilized DOE cybersecurity policy, best practices and lessons learned, and comprehensive internal needs assessments to identify fundamental cybersecurity functional roles and associated responsibilities to and define the essential body of knowledge (EBK) needed to support cybersecurity responsibilities and activities within the Department. Components of the EBK are assigned to each functional role, and customized curriculum is determined for each key role via core competency worksheets. The OCIO has determined the following roles to be key functional cyber roles within the Department:

133

Status Report, Essential System Functionality - January 2006 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Status Report, Essential System Functionality - January 2006 Status Report, Essential System Functionality - January 2006 Status Report, Essential System Functionality - January 2006 Report on Essential System Functionality In 2004 and 2005, the Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance, performed ten evaluations of essential system functionality (ESF). These ESF reviews are highly technical, detailed engineering evaluations of selected essential systems within one or more facilities at each site. This report summarizes the observations and insights from these reviews. Although most essential safety systems that were reviewed were well maintained, tested, and operated, there were significant weaknesses in some aspects of engineering design and analysis that, for some safety systems,

134

Uncertainty Principle Inequalities Related to Laguerre-Bessel Transform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, an analogous of Heisenberg inequality is established for Laguerre-Bessel transform. Also, a local uncertainty principle for this transform is investigate

Hamem, Soumeya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

First Principles Calculations of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, First Principles Calculations of Uranium and Uranium- Zirconium Alloys. Author(s), Benjamin Good, Benjamin Beeler, Chaitanya Deo, Sergey...

136

Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology Transfer: Lessons from Wind Energy in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Enabling Environment...

137

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for Policy and Project Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Free, Prior, and Informed...

138

Remote Sensing- Principles And Interpretation | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Remote Sensing- Principles And Interpretation Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0)...

139

Software Infrastructure for First-Principles Electronic Structure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Software Infrastructure for First-Principles Electronic Structure Computations. Author(s), Francois Gygi. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Francois...

140

A First Principles Study of Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phonon Studies with Inelastic Neutron Scattering and First-Principles Simulations ... Asynchronous In-Situ Neutron Diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide: Question #15 ... (D). The annealed material can be machined using less energy.

142

First-Principles Density Functional Theory Study of Grain Boundary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, First-Principles Density Functional Theory Study of Grain ... It was found that both the vacancy formation energy and diffusion activation...

143

Closure in Turbulence from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applies to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl's solutions is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscose version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns. Special attention is paid to transition from laminar to turbulent state. The analytical solution for this transition demonstrates the turbulent mean velocity profile that qualitatively similar to the celebrated logarithmic law.

Michail Zak

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

144

The principles of life-cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Heat and Gravitation. I. The Action Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This first article of a series formulates the thermodynamics of ideal gases in a constant gravitational field in terms of an action principle that is closely integrated with thermodynamics. The theory, in its simplest form, does not deviate from standard practice, but it lays the foundations for a more systematic approach to the various extensions, such as the incorporation of radiation, the consideration of mixtures and the integration with General Relativity. We study the interaction between an ideal gas and the photon gas, and propose a new approach to this problem. We study the propagation of sound in a vertical, isothermal column and are led to suggest that the theory is incomplete, and to ask whether the true equilibrium state of an ideal gas may turn out be adiabatic, in which case the role of solar radiation is merely to compensate for the loss of energy by radiation into the cosmos. An experiment with a centrifuge is proposed, to determine the influence of gravitation on the equilibrium distribution with a very high degree of precision.

Christian Fronsdal

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Modeling dynamic developable meshes by the Hamilton principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new dynamic developable surface model is proposed. The proposed model represents developable surfaces using triangle meshes. A novel algorithm is proposed to introduce the Hamilton principle into these meshes such that the resulting ... Keywords: Developable surface, Hamilton principle, Physical-based simulation

Yong-Jin Liu; Kai Tang; Ajay Joneja

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Stability and Schottky barrier of silicides: First-principles study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using first-principles calculations, we explain why some metal atoms such as Ni produce bulk silicides and the others like Au never produce silicides, why silicides with some stoichiometry are difficult to grow on Si substrate, and why Schottky barrier ... Keywords: First-principles calculation, Schottky barrier, Silicide, Silicide/Si interfaces, Stability

T. Nakayama; S. Sotome; S. Shinji

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Evolutionary multimodal optimization using the principle of locality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of locality is one of the most widely used concepts in designing computing systems. To explore the principle in evolutionary computation, crowding differential evolution is incorporated with locality for multimodal optimization. Instead ... Keywords: Crowding differential evolution, Evolutionary Computation, Multimodal optimization, Niching, Optimization, Spatial locality, Temporal locality

Ka-Chun Wong; Chun-Ho Wu; Ricky K. P. Mok; Chengbin Peng; Zhaolei Zhang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The application of fuzzy logic to the precautionary principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the major problems in the implementation of the precautionary principle in environmental cases is the estimation of the weight of evidence. In this paper we propose a formal method that determines the weight of evidence based on the specific parameters ... Keywords: environmental law, fuzzy logic, precautionary principle

Mirit Shamir; Lior Shamir; Mary H. Durfee

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings.

KOCH, M.R.

1999-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

151

Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a].

HORNER, T.M.

2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

152

State Agreement-In-Principle Program Guidance Memorandum | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Agreement-In-Principle Program Guidance Memorandum State Agreement-In-Principle Program Guidance Memorandum State Agreement-In-Principle Program Guidance Memorandum United States GovernmentDepartment of Energy Memorandum DATE: December 22, 1995 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-75 SUBJECT: State Agreement-in-Principle Program Guidance TO: Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office Manager, Chicago Operations Office Manager, Idaho Operations Office Manager, Nevada Operations Office Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office Manager, Ohio Field Office Manager, Richland Operations Office Manager, Rocky Flats Field Office Manager, Oakland Operations Office Manager, Savannah River Operations Office The purpose of this memorandum is to provide you with guidance on the State Agreement-in-Principle (AIP) program. The guidance includes a collection of

153

Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings October 4, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides guidance and assistance for compliance with the guiding principles established by the 2006 Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which became mandatory through Executive Order (E.O.) 13423 and reinforced in E.O. 13514. The common set of guiding principles include those for: Integrated design Energy performance Water conservation Materials to help: Reduce the total ownership cost of facilities Improve energy efficiency and water conservation

154

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL AND ETHER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

essential oil from R. rugosum was investigated for further development and application. The chemical and class composition of the oils are presented in Table 1.

155

Understanding the essential work of fracture at the molecular level.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xix, 138 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis MECH 2006 Chen The essential work of fracture (EWF), a tool for characterizing (more)

Chen, Haibin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Solid-State Lighting: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages on Facebook Tweet...

157

The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

editors, IOS Press publisher The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science William JOHNSTON, Evangelos CHANIOTAKIS, Eli DART, Chin...

158

Politics and Emergency Medicine - An Essential Lesson for Every Resident  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and guide the future of emergency medicine. Volume XII, no .s S ection Politics and Emergency Medicine - An EssentialMedicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Orange, CA Every

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Science Literacy Project for Mid-Career Public Radio Producers, Reporters, Editors and News Directors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SoundVision held a post-workshop teleconference for our 2011 graduates (as we have done for all participants) to consolidate what they??d learned during the workshop. To maximize the Science Literacy Project??s impact after it ends, we strengthened and reinforced our alumni??s vibrant networking infrastructure so they can continue to connect and support each other, and updated our archive system to ensure all of our science and science journalism resources and presentations will be easy to access and use over time.

Bari Scott

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Opening up access to online documents using essentiality tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses extensions to the previously developed "essentiality and proficiency" approach to increasing usability and accessibility of websites. The existing approach is introduced, as is a new application in the processing of Doc-Book XML ... Keywords: DocBook, XML, accessibility, essentiality, proficiency, usability, web

Matthew T. Atkinson; Jatinder Dhiensa; Colin H. C. Machin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Tale of two studies: challenges in field research with low-literacy adult learners in a developed country  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efforts to address the problems of literacy are often focused on developing countries. However, functional illiteracy is a challenge encountered by up to 50% of adults in developed countries. In this paper we reflect on the challenges we faced in trying ... Keywords: assistive technology, educational interfaces, evaluation methodology, interface design, mobile computing, mobile learning, user studies

Cosmin Munteanu; Heather Molyneaux; Julie Maitland; Daniel McDonald; Rock Leung; Joanna Lumsden; Hlne Fournier

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

State Agreements-In-Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Compliance » State Compliance » State Agreements-In-Principle State Agreements-In-Principle The EM Office of Regulatory Compliance coordinates within EM offices and other Departmental organizations to review proposed Agreements-in-Principle (AIPs) with States. We review proposed agreements and, if necessary, develop program policies to support Program and Field Office implementation of the AIP program. On December 22, 1995, EM-1 released the State Agreement-In-Principle Program Guidance Memorandum. The guidance memorandum has several attachments to it, including frequently asked questions and answers regarding AIPs, mandatory and optional provisions, and model language. On August 14, 1994, EM-1 released the Delegation of Authority Memorandum, which describes authorities for various financial assistance agreements. It

163

Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Principles for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principles for Fostering Sustainability Principles for Fostering Sustainability The following eight principles serve as the foundational building blocks for developing strategies to achieve institutional change-but they are not the strategies themselves. They are derived from academic literature and inform the framework for achieving institutional change in a Federal organization. Each statement is followed by a general strategy for how the principle can be translated into action. Social Network and Communications: Institutions and people change because they see or hear of others (individuals, groups, institutions, firms) behaving differently, so make sure staff see or hear about others who have changed their office energy use or patterns of behavior. Multiple Motivations: Institutions and people almost always change their ways of doing things for more than one reason, so provide different and combined appeals.

164

Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:13am Addthis Because it takes time to establish institutional change, Federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals. Sustainability efforts ultimately may fail unless organizational change becomes "the way we do business." This principle is in line with organization research showing that institutional change is a multiyear process. Methods Institutional change is a long process that requires patience and persistence. For instance, the trial period for a new behavior must be long enough to allow people to form new habits. The key is to think long-term

165

Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle in Bekenstein's theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bekenstein has shown that violation of Weak Equivalence Principle is strongly supressed in his model of charge variation. In this paper, it is shown that nuclear magnetic energy is large enough to produce observable effects in Eotvos experiments.

L. Kraiselburd; H. Vucetich

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Energy Efficiency as a Guiding Principle in the Building Design...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency as a Guiding Principle in the Building Design Process Speaker(s): Lennart Jagemar Date: September 3, 1996 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar HostPoint of...

167

First-Principles Calculations of Binary Al Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First Principles Modeling of Shape Memory Alloy Magnetic Refrigeration Materials ... of Lithium Battery Materials LiMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni): A Comparative ... Forming-Crush Simulation Optimization Using Internal State Variable Model.

168

Inelastic transport In molecular junctions from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is dedicated to development of a first-principle approach to study electron-vibration interactions on quantum transport properties. In the first part we discuss a general implementation for inelastic transport ...

Kim, Sejoong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fenix Secure Operating System: Principles, Models and Architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper introduces design principles of Secure Operating System Fenix developed in Information Security Centre of Saint-Petersburg Technical University. Fenix is a special purpose secure operating system supposed to be a basis for secure information ...

Dmitry P. Zegzhda; Pavel G. Stepanov; Alexey D. Otavin

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

12.540 Principles of Global Positioning Systems, Spring 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this course is to introduce the principles of the Global Positioning System and to demonstrate its application to various aspects of Earth Sciences. The specific content of the course depends each year on the ...

Herring, Thomas

171

The expected metric principle for probabilistic information retrieval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditionally, information retrieval systems aim to maximize the number of relevant documents returned to a user within some window of the top. For that goal, the Probability Ranking Principle, which ranks documents in ...

Chen, Harr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Frontiers of the Gauge Principle and the Unit of Charge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the gauge principle (to be traced back to potential difference) displays a new facet as one approaches the Planck-wall: availability of naked alternatives (symbolized as () or ()), (due to "squeezing" by scaleless regime). ...

Anne Magnon

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

First-Principles Study of Lattice Dynamics and Thermodynamics of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, First-Principles Study of Lattice Dynamics and Thermodynamics of TiO2 Polymorphs. Author(s), Zhi-Gang Mei, Yi Wang, Shunli Shang, Zi-Kui...

174

Slaving Principles, Balanced Dynamics, and the Hydrostatic Boussinesq Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of finding higher-order generalizations of the quasigeostrophic and semigeostrophic models, that is, higher-order balanced models, is investigated systematically by using a slaving principle. It is shown that most existing balanced ...

Onno Bokhove

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Humidity Profile Retrieval Using a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data inversion method based on a maximum entropy principle is presented. The method is both physical since a radiative transfer model with its adjoint is needed, and also statistical since errors of the observed radiances and of a ...

Bernard Urban

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

177

Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis The multiple motivations principle suggests that a portfolio approach-rather than a single strategy-may be required to achieve change. Research demonstrates that people and institutions adopt new behaviors for many reasons. They likely need more than one reason for changing their current behavior. Therefore, people may shift to more sustainable, energy-efficient behaviors in the workplace because those actions are part of the agency's mission, lower costs, make work life easier or healthier, and are the "right thing to do." Methods Because individuals have different motivations, a variety of approaches should be used to change behavior. Such approaches can range widely, from

178

Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:04pm Addthis To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for understanding the challenge of keeping your house cool. Understanding the processes that help keep your body cool is important in understanding cooling strategies for your home. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects -- such as you and your home -- via

179

Federal Energy Management Program: Guiding Principles for Federal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings FEMP provides guidance and assistance for compliance with the guiding principles established by the 2006 Federal Leadership in High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which became mandatory through Executive Order (E.O.) 13423 and reinforced in E.O. 13514. The common set of guiding principles include those for: Integrated design Energy performance Water conservation Materials to help: Reduce the total ownership cost of facilities Improve energy efficiency and water conservation Provide safe, healthy, and productive building environments Promote sustainable environmental stewardship. See the Interagency Sustainability Working Group's 2008 High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings Guidance.

180

Essential Innovations Ekistics Town Planning Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ekistics Town Planning Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV Ekistics Town Planning Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV Jump to: navigation, search Name Essential Innovations, Ekistics Town Planning, & Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV Place China Sector Geothermal energy Product Announced in October 2006, this is a JV between Essential Innovation of Canada, Ekistics Town Planning also of Canada, and Jiangsu Sifang Culture Industry of China. The JV is to manufacture geothermal loop-field technology. References Essential Innovations, Ekistics Town Planning, & Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Essential Innovations, Ekistics Town Planning, & Jiangsu Sifang Culture JV is a company located in China .

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Essential Systems Functionality Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Essential Systems Functionality Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Essential Systems Functionality Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry, October 16, 2008 (HSS CRAD 64-11 Rev. 2) Essential Systems Functionality Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry, October 16, 2008 (HSS CRAD 64-11 Rev. 2) The Essential Systems Functionality (ESF) inspection will evaluate the effectiveness of programs and processes for engineering design and safety basis, construction and installation, configuration management, surveillance testing, maintenance, operations, cognizant system engineer (CSE) and safety system oversight (SSO), and feedback and improvement of selected safety systems. This review will evaluate the effectiveness in maintaining the functionality of these safety systems. The ESF review will be performed in the context of integrated safety management (ISM), although

182

Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

Jackson, J. G.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Empowerment Institutional Change Principle Empowerment Institutional Change Principle Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis By creating a context in which workers feel empowered to take action, Federal agencies can promote behaviors and behavior changes that support their sustainability goals. When individuals and organizations believe they can reach desirable social goals, they often do-as is shown in research studies of change. Methods Workers are socially motivated by three desires: Autonomy: They want to have control over their work. Mastery: They strive to do better at what they do. Purpose: They long to be part of something bigger than themselves. Appealing to these desires typically is more effective than implementing formal rules and regulations or giving prizes for best performance.

184

Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy May 16, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis Richard Kauffman Richard Kauffman Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Energy Editor's note: this article originally appeared in the National Journal. Boom and Bust comes at a critical moment for the future of clean energy in the US. On one hand, the recent global scale-up in clean energy deployment has significantly reduced costs in that sector, for example a 75 percent decline in the price of solar panels and a 27 percent decline in wind turbines between 2008 and 2012. On the other, at the very moment when these technologies are becoming economically competitive with traditional generation in many parts of the country, a looming 75 percent contraction

185

Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles For Clean-Energy Policy Principles For Clean-Energy Policy Two Principles For Clean-Energy Policy May 16, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis Richard Kauffman Richard Kauffman Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Energy Editor's note: this article originally appeared in the National Journal. Boom and Bust comes at a critical moment for the future of clean energy in the US. On one hand, the recent global scale-up in clean energy deployment has significantly reduced costs in that sector, for example a 75 percent decline in the price of solar panels and a 27 percent decline in wind turbines between 2008 and 2012. On the other, at the very moment when these technologies are becoming economically competitive with traditional generation in many parts of the country, a looming 75 percent contraction in federal support threatens the progress we have made at the exact moment

186

Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:07am Addthis Information alone, however, is unlikely to lead to action. Federal and commercial programs have demonstrated reductions in energy use from delivery of reports to customers. By providing actionable information and feedback that are tailored to specific workplace situations, Federal agencies can help to spur and maintain behaviors that save energy and resources. Methods However, for sustainability, providing information to create awareness and engagement may be an important component of an action plan. People often have to contend with information overload. Therefore, recipients need to see the information and resources provided as salient and, ideally, useful

187

Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data  

SciTech Connect

Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.

Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Kinetic energy principle and neoclassical toroidal torque in tokamaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that when tokamaks are perturbed, the kinetic energy principle is closely related to the neoclassical toroidal torque by the action invariance of particles. Especially when tokamaks are perturbed from scalar pressure equilibria, the imaginary part of the potential energy in the kinetic energy principle is equivalent to the toroidal torque by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity. A unified description therefore should be made for both physics. It is also shown in this case that the potential energy operator can be self-adjoint and thus the stability calculation can be simplified by minimizing the potential energy.

Park, Jong-Kyu [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Kinetic Energy Principle And Neoclassical Toroidal Torque In Tokamaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that when tokamaks are perturbed the kinetic energy principle is closely related to the neoclassical toroidal torque by the action invariance of particles. Especially when tokamaks are perturbed from scalar pressure equilibria, the imaginary part of the potential energy in the kinetic energy principle is equivalent to the toroidal torque by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV). A unified description therefore should be made for both physics. It is also shown in this case that the potential energy operator can be self-adjoint and thus the stability calculation can be simplified by minimizing the potential energy

Jong-Kyu Park

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future January 15, 2014 - 8:00am Addthis Learn how wide bandgap semiconductors could impact clean energy technology and our daily lives. | Video by Sarah Gerrity and Matty Greene, Energy Department. Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy What are the key facts? North Carolina State University will lead the Energy Department's new manufacturing innovation institute for the next generation of power electronics, focusing on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors. Building America's leadership in WBG semiconductor manufacturing while driving down the cost of the technology could lead to more affordable products for businesses and consumers, billions of dollars in energy

191

Supervisory Essentials: Strategies for Success! | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supervisory Essentials: Strategies for Success! Supervisory Essentials: Strategies for Success! Supervisory Essentials: Strategies for Success! September 11, 2013 8:30AM EDT to September 12, 2013 4:00PM EDT Registration link: CHRIS (002072/0037) $600 Course type: Classroom Course Location: DOE Headquarters, Forrestal Building, Washington, DC /Room 1E-245 Course Description: This course is designed to assist new first-line supervisors in developing the competencies they need to achieve their primary responsibilities, some of which include: Accomplishing the goals of their units through the work of their employees; ensuring that the work of their employees is of the highest possible quality. The course can also assist newly appointed managers as well as serve as a refresher for experienced supervisors and managers who would like a refresher. This

192

Redefining Customer Service is Essential to Modernizing Grid | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Redefining Customer Service is Essential to Modernizing Grid Redefining Customer Service is Essential to Modernizing Grid Redefining Customer Service is Essential to Modernizing Grid December 13, 2010 - 2:44pm Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability What does this mean for me? Utilities should be communicating to you about projects to modernize the grid that are effecting you. When was the last time you talked to your electricity provider about something besides a service or billing problem? Put another way, does your utility ask for your opinion on its plans for the future? Do you feel like your concerns are heard? There has been a lot of news lately about projects that focus on modernizing the electric grid, with some of it focused on legitimate

193

Essential lack of security proof in quantum key distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All the currently available unconditional security proofs on quantum key distribution, in particular for the BB84 protocol and its variants including continuous-variable ones, are invalid or incomplete at many points. In this paper we discuss some of the main known problems, particularly those on operational security guarantee and error correction. Most basic are the points that there is no security parameter in such protocols and it is not the case the generated key is perfect with probability $\\geq 1-\\epsilon$ under the trace distance criterion $d\\leq\\epsilon$, which is widely claimed in the technical and popular literature. The many serious security consequences of this error about the QKD generated key would be explained, including practical ramification on achievable security levels. It will be shown how the error correction problem alone may already defy rigorous quantitative analysis. Various other problems would be touched upon. It is pointed out that rigorous security guarantee of much more efficient quantum cryptosystems may be obtained by abandoning the disturbance-information tradeoff principle and utilizing instead the known KCQ (keyed communication in quantum noise) principle in conjunction with a new DBM (decoy bits method) principle that will be detailed elsewhere.

Horace P. Yuen

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

194

Energy Literacy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Energy Education A Framework for Energy Education for Learners of All Ages Intended use of this document as a guide includes, but is not limited to, formal and informal energy...

195

Computer science principles: analysis of a proposed advanced placement course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the CS Principles project, a proposed Advanced Placement course, by focusing on the second pilot that took place in 2011-2012. In a previous publication the first pilot of the course was explained, but not in a context related ... Keywords: advanced placement, national pilot, portfolio assessment

Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau; Owen Astrachan; Dwight Barnett; Matthew Bauer; Marilyn Carrell; Rebecca Dovi; Baker Franke; Christina Gardner; Jeff Gray; Jean Griffin; Richard Kick; Andy Kuemmel; Ralph Morelli; Deepa Muralidhar; R Brook Osborne; Chinma Uche

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

FSM Research Administrators' Workshop Series Cost Principles for Sponsored Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FSM Research Administrators' Workshop Series Cost Principles for Sponsored Projects October 4, 2012 degree of accuracy #12;Examples of Direct Costs · Salaries and fringe benefits of project personnel, unallowable. Other factors affecting allowability of costs: · Reasonable · Allocable to the proposed project

Chisholm, Rex L.

197

3D Reconstruction from Multiple Images Part 1: Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This issue discusses methods to extract three-dimensional (3D) models from plain images. In particular, the 3D information is obtained from images for which the camera parameters are unknown. The principles underlying such uncalibrated structure-from-motion ...

Theo Moons; Luc Van Gool; Maarten Vergauwen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Understanding nano-materials from first principles Leeor Kronik  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding nano-materials from first principles Leeor Kronik Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of science, Rehovoth 76100 Nano-sized materials often exhibit exciting new traditional solid-state physics models are applicable to the intermediate nano- size range. As a result, first

Adler, Joan

199

Energy-concious and sustainable architectural principles for cold environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper is the summary of the results of an extensive research on energy-conscious architectural elements and principles in different climates, used throughout the history, but in this paper the results of the cold climate will be presented. ... Keywords: climate, cold environment, culture, energy, history, sustainable architecture

S. M. Mofidi

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Reserve asset values and the "hotelling valuation principle"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hotelling Valuation Principle, that the in-situ value of a mineral unit equals the current net price, is a special case of a more general relation. Tested against a set of recent Canadian sales of oil and gas reserves, ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

BOR-FDTD subgridding based on finite element principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a recently developed provably passive and stable 3D FDTD subgridding technique, based on finite elements principles, is extended to body-of-revolution (BOR) FDTD. First, a suitable choice of basis functions is presented together with the ... Keywords: BOR-FDTD, Body-of-revolution, FDTD methods, Subgridding, h-Refinement

Wouter Tierens; Danil De Zutter

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The General Quantum Interference Principle and the Duality Computer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also proposed thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function

Gui Lu Long

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Black Hole Complementary Principle and The Noncommutative Membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the spirit of Black Hole Complementary Principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild Black Holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr Black Hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes is noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman Black Hole.

Zen Wei

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

204

Teaching the principles of the hacker curriculum to undergraduates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Hacker Curriculum" exists as a mostly undocumented set of principles and methods for learning about information security. Hacking, in our view, is defined by the ability to question the trust assumptions in the design and implementation of computer ... Keywords: hacker curriculum, information assurance, networking, security, sismat, teaching failure modes

Sergey Bratus; Anna Shubina; Michael E. Locasto

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Time-bounded essential localization for wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical applications of wireless sensor networks, it is crucial to accomplish the localization of sensors within a given time bound. We find that the traditional definition of relative localization is inappropriate for evaluating its actual ... Keywords: essential localization, relative localization, time-bounded localization, wireless sensor networks

Wei Cheng; Nan Zhang; Xiuzhen Cheng; Min Song; Dechang Chen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

UMSL CHINA PROGRAM -Essential In-Country Information Program Coordinator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UMSL CHINA PROGRAM - Essential In-Country Information IN BEIJING Program Coordinator Dr. Rose Xinjuan Zhang, Associate Provost of International Programs Professor of Law, China Youth University of Political Science 25 No. West Third Ring Road Beijing 10008 P.R. China Phone: 86 10 8856 7101 Seasea

Crone, Elizabeth

207

Effects of a GIS Course on Three Components of Spatial Literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigated whether completing an introductory GIS course affects college students' spatial literacy as defined by spatial habits of mind, spatial concepts and thinking skills, and critical spatial thinking. This study employed three tests (spatial habits of mind inventory, spatial concepts and skills test, critical spatial thinking oral test) to measure students' performance on these three elements. Furthermore, this research investigated the relationship among the components. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the beginning and the end of the 2010 fall semester, and Texas A&M undergraduate students participated in the research. The following four research questions were examined. The first research question investigated whether GIS learning improves spatial habits of mind (n = 168). Five sub-dimensions of spatial habits of mind (pattern recognition, spatial description, visualization, spatial concept use, and spatial tool use) were identified. Overall, GIS students' spatial habits of mind were enhanced. However, variations existed when considering students' performance by dimension. The second research question explored whether GIS learning affects students' understanding and use of spatial concepts and thinking skills (n = 171). This research found that the GIS course was beneficial in improving students' spatial cognition. Students increased their understanding of key spatial concepts and applied conceptual understanding into wider contexts with advanced spatial thinking skills. The third research question examined the effects of a GIS course through interviews on the three sub-dimensions of critical spatial thinking: data reliability, spatial reasoning, and problem-solving validity (n = 32). The quantitative analyses indicated that participants developed their ability regarding these three sub-dimensions of critical spatial thinking. In particular, their ability to assess data reliability and problem-solving validity improved, an effect not likely to be enhanced by other coursework. Findings from qualitative thematic analysis confirmed these quantitative outcomes. The final research question probed the relationships among the three components of spatial literacy. Pearson?s correlation coefficient, a 3D space (termed "score space" in this study), a test for independence, and an exploratory factor analysis suggested that the three components are positively correlated. However, more research is necessary to confirm the results reported in this study.

Kim, Minsung

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Development of international exemption principles for recycle and reuse  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control as an extension of its earlier work in the area of de minimis. Because of the potential value of scrap materials recovered during decommissioning of commercial reactors, and because of national and international efforts to minimize radioactive wastes, exemption criteria for recycle and reuse have gained attention. The IAEA has established basic principles for exemption that limit the radiation dose that individuals or population groups may receive from exempted practices or sources. This paper discusses the recent IAEA Advisory Group's recommendations on principles for radiation practices and sources in the recycling of retired components and materials from nuclear facilities. The background of the Advisory Group's work is discussed, then its methods and preliminary recommendations are summarized. Finally, a similar effort sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities is summarized and compared to the IAEA approach. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Influence of the Heisenberg Principle on the Ideal Bose Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ideal Bose gas has two major shortcomings: at zero temperature, all the particles 'condense' at zero energy or momentum, thus violating the Heisenberg principle; the second is that the pressure below the critical point is independent of density resulting in zero incompressibility (or infinite isothermal compressibility) which is unphysical. We propose a modification of the ideal Bose gas to take into account the Heisenberg principle. This modification results in a finite (in)compressibility at all temperatures and densities. The main properties of the ideal Bose gas are preserved, i.e. the relation between the critical temperature and density, but the specific heat has a maximum at the critical temperature instead of a discontinuity. Of course interactions are crucial for both cases in order to describe actual physical systems.

Hua Zheng; Gianluca Giuliani; Aldo Bonasera

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

210

First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

First-Principles Study on Electron Conduction in Sodium Nanowire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We present detailed first-principles calculations of the electron-conduction properties of a three-sodium-atom nanowire suspended between semi-infinite crystalline Na(001) electrodes during its elongation. Our investigations reveal that the conductance is ? 1 G0 before the nanowire breaks and only one channel with the characteristic of the 3s orbital of the center atom in the nanowire contributes to the electron conduction. Moreover, the channel fully opens around the Fermi level, and the behavior of the channel-current density is insensitive to the structural deformation of the nanowire. These results verify that the conductance trace as a function of the electrode spacing exhibits a flat plateau at ? 1 G0 during elongation. First-Principles Study on Electron Conduction in Sodium Nanowire 2 1.

Yoshiyuki Egami; Takashi Sasaki; Tomoya Ono

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Short-range tests of the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

We tested the equivalence principle at short length scales by rotating a 3 ton {sup 238}U attractor around a compact torsion balance containing Cu and Pb test bodies. The observed differential acceleration of the test bodies toward the attractor, a{sub Cu}-a{sub Pb}=(1.0{+-}2.8)x10{sup -13} cm/s{sup 2}, should be compared to the corresponding gravitational acceleration of 9.2x10{sup -5} cm/s{sup 2}. Our results set new constraints on equivalence-principle violating interactions with Yukawa ranges down to 1 cm, and improve by substantial factors existing limits for ranges between 10 km and 1000 km. Our data also set strong constraints on certain power-law potentials that can arise from two-boson exchange processes. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Smith, G. L. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hoyle, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Gundlach, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Adelberger, E. G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Heckel, B. R. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Swanson, H. E. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Black Hole Remnants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the current standard viewpoint small black holes are believed to emit black body radiation at the Hawking temperature, at least until they approach Planck size, after which their fate is open to conjecture. A cogent argument against the existence of remnants is that, since no evident quantum number prevents it, black holes should radiate completely away to photons and other ordinary stable particles and vacuum, like any unstable quantum system. Here we argue the contrary, that the generalized uncertainty principle may prevent their total evaporation in exactly the same way that the uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from total collapse: the collapse is prevented, not by symmetry, but by dynamics, as a minimum size and mass are approached.

Chen, Pisin

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Using NMR to Validate First-Principles Granular Flow Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are described for two granular-flow systems, the vibrofluidized bed and the gas-fluidized bed. Using pulsed field gradient, magnetic resonance imaging, and hyperpolarized gas NMR, detailed information is obtained for the density and motions of both grains and interstitial gas. For the vibrofluidized bed, the granular temperature profile is measured and compared with a first-principles formulation of granular hydrodynamics. For the gas-fluidized bed, dynamic correlations in the grain density are used to measure the bubble velocity and hyperpolarized xenon gas NMR is used to measure the bubble-emulsion exchange rate. A goal of these measurements is to verify in earth gravity first-principles theories of granular flows, which then can be used to make concrete predictions for granular flows in reduced gravity.

D. Candela; C. Huan; K. Facto; R. Wang; R. W. Mair; R. L. Walsworth

2005-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Need for Essential Consumer Protections: Smart metering proposals and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

metering metering proposals and the move to time-based pricing. August 2010 The Need for Essential Consumer Protections: Smart metering proposals and the move to time-based pricing. August 2010 There is widespread consensus that the U.S. distribution and transmission systems for vital electricity service need to be modernized and upgraded. This modernization has been recently promoted under the rubric of the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid vision has three primary parts: (1) new communication and digital sensors and automation capabilities for the distribution and transmission systems; (2) new digital metering systems for all customers; and (3) direct interfaces between the new metering systems and customers through inhome technologies. The Need for Essential Consumer Protections: Smart metering proposals and

216

Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalized Large deviation principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type was developed for weakly time inhomogeneous diffusions prove to be key tools for a treatment of the problem of diffusion exit from a domain and thus for the approach of stochastic resonance via transition probabilities between meta-stable states. We expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Freidlin and Wentzell.

Jaykov Foukzon

2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Born-Jordan Quantization and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Weyl correspondence and the related Wigner formalism lie at the core of traditional quantum mechanics. We discuss here an alternative quantization scheme, whose idea goes back to Born and Jordan, and which has recently been revived in another context, namely time-frequency analysis. We show that in particular the uncertainty principle does not enjoy full symplectic covariance properties in the Born and Jordan scheme, as opposed to what happens in the Weyl quantization.

Maurice A. de Gosson

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology Transfer: Lessons from Wind Energy in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Enabling Environment and Policy Principles for Replicable Technology Transfer: Lessons from Wind Energy in India Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Wind Topics: Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices, Case studies/examples Website: tech-action.org/Perspectives/LessonsWindEnergyIndia.pdf Country: India Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Asia Coordinates: 20.593684°, 78.96288° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":20.593684,"lon":78.96288,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

219

Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Self-interstitial configurations in hcp Zr: a first principles analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and Zr alloys based on the modern radiation damage theory suggests some important features of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). Alignment of vacancy loops and voids along basal planes requires anisotropic interstitial transport with a dominant contribution along the basal plane. Under neutron irradiation this can be explained by one-dimensional mobility of SIA clusters but experiments under electron irradiation indicate unambiguously that even the single SIA should exhibit anisotropic diffusion. No experimental information is available on SIA properties in Zr and the data obtained by ab initio calculations within the last decade reported stable SIA configurations that should provide essentially three-dimensional diffusion. To clarify this issue, an extensive investigation of SIAs in Zr has been performed from first principles using two different codes. It was demonstrated that simulation cell size, type of pseudopotential, the exchange-correlation functional, and the c/a ratio are crucially important for determining the properties of interstitials in hcp Zr. The most stable SIA configurations lie in the basal plane, which should lead to SIA diffusion mainly along basal planes. The results provide a confirmation of basic mechanisms for microstructural evolution under irradiation.

Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Opportunities and challenges for first-principles materials design and applications to Li battery materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea of first-principles methods is to determine the properties of materials by solving the basic equations of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. With such an approach, one can, in principle, predict the ...

Ceder, Gerbrand

222

Design principles for the development of space technology maturation laboratories aboard the International Space Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis formulates seven design principles for the development of laboratories which utilize the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate the maturation of space technologies. The principles are derived from ...

Saenz Otero, Alvar, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Applying engineering principles to the design and construction of transcriptional devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this thesis is to consider how fundamental engineering principles might best be applied to the design and construction of engineered biological systems. I begin by applying these principles to a key application ...

Shetty, Reshma P. (Reshma Padmini)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Applying engineering principles to the design and construction of transcriptional devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this thesis is to consider how fundamental engineering principles might best be applied to the design and construction of engineered biological systems. I begin by applying these principles to a key application ...

Shetty, Reshma P

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

225

Environmental Protection for Developing Countries: The Polluter-Does-Not-Pay Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Countries: The Polluter-Does-Not-Pay Principle Abstract Thewe describe as the polluter-does- not-pay regime on theto study the polluter-does-not-pay principle, identifying

Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco; Rajagopalan, Shruti

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Minimum variational principles for time-harmonic waves in a dissipative medium and associated variational principles of Hashin--Shtrikman type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimization variational principles for linear elastodynamic, acoustic, or electromagnetic time-harmonic waves in dissipative media were obtained by Milton, Seppecher and Bouchitt\\'e generalizing the quasistatic variational principles of Cherkaev and Gibiansky. Here a further generalization is made to allow for a much wider variety of boundary conditions, and in particular Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. In addition minimization or maximization principles of the Hashin-Shtrikman type, incorporating "polarization fields", are developed.

Graeme W. Milton; John R. Willis

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Profinite Hull of Special Groups and Local-Global Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce the Profinite Hull functor of special groups, showing that it gives rise to a new (and strong) local-global principle, the subform reflection property. We also indicate applications of this principle to the abstract algebraic theory of quadratic ... Keywords: Algebraic Theory of Quadratic Forms, Boolean Hull, Local-Global Principles, Profinite Groups, Profinite Hull, Pure Embeddings, Special Groups, Subform Reflection Property

Hugo Luiz Mariano; Francisco Miraglia

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

An Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Mutation Rates at Multiple Loci  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of mutation rate evolution for multiple loci under arbitrary selection is analyzed. Results are obtained using techniques from Karlin (1982) that overcome the weak selection constraints needed for tractability in prior studies of multilocus event models. A multivariate form of the reduction principle is found: reduction results at individual loci combine topologically to produce a surface of mutation rate alterations that are neutral for a new modifier allele. New mutation rates survive if and only if they fall below this surface - a generalization of the hyperplane found by Zhivotovsky et al. (1994) for a multilocus recombination modifier. Increases in mutation rates at some loci may evolve if compensated for by decreases at other loci. The strength of selection on the modifier scales in proportion to the number of germline cell divisions, and increases with the number of loci affected. Loci that do not make a difference to marginal fitnesses at equilibrium are not subject to the reduction principle, and under fine tuning of mutation rates would be expected to have higher mutation rates than loci in mutation-selection balance. Other results include the nonexistence of 'viability analogous, Hardy-Weinberg' modifier polymorphisms under multiplicative mutation, and the sufficiency of average transmission rates to encapsulate the effect of modifier polymorphisms on the transmission of loci under selection. A conjecture is offered regarding situations, like recombination in the presence of mutation, that exhibit departures from the reduction principle. Constraints for tractability are: tight linkage of all loci, initial fixation at the modifier locus, and mutation distributions comprising transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains.

Lee Altenberg

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Perihelion Precession of Mercury and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very recently authors in [1] proposed a new Generalized Uncertainty Principle (or GUP) with a linear term in Plank length. In this Letter the effect of this linear term is studied perturbatively in the context of Keplerian orbits. The angle by which the perihelion of the orbit revolves over a complete orbital cycle is computed. The result is applied in the context of the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. As a consequence we get a lower bound of the new intermediate length scale offered by the GUP which is approximately 40 orders of magnitude below Plank length.

Barun Majumder

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Is quantum mechanics based on an invariance principle?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-relativistic quantum mechanics for a free particle is shown to emerge from classical mechanics through an invariance principle under transformations that preserve the Heisenberg position-momentum inequality. These transformations are induced by isotropic space dilations. This invariance imposes a change in the laws of classical mechanics that exactly corresponds to the transition to quantum mechanics. The Schroedinger equation appears jointly with a second nonlinear equation describing non-unitary processes. Unitary and non-unitary evolutions are exclusive and appear sequentially in time. The non-unitary equation admits solutions that seem to correspond to the collapse of the wave function.

Leon Brenig

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

231

Coherent electron cooling proof of principle instrumentation design  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Coherent Electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment being designed at RHIC is to demonstrate longitudinal (energy spread) cooling before the expected CD-2 for eRHIC. The scope of the experiment is to longitudinally cool a single bunch of 40 GeV/u gold ions in RHIC. This paper will describe the instrumentation systems proposed to meet the diagnostics challenges. These include measurements of beam intensity, emittance, energy spread, bunch length, position, orbit stability, and transverse and temporal alignment of electron and ion beams.

Gassner D. M.; Litvinenko, V.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T.; Minty, M.; Pinayev, I.

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

ANCIL in action: progress updates on A New Curriculum for Information Literacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

represents this development in four progressive bands which radiate outwards from the learner at the centre, starting with the development of practical skills and expanding through increasingly complex processes. These include establishing an evolving... for use with pilot institutions, Helen Webster designed a template for using ANCIL principles to inform lesson planning. This document was used as the basis of a session-level audit of classes in the Research Skills Programme at Cambridge University...

Coonan, Emma; Secker, Jane; Wrathall, Katy; Webster, Helen

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Does the Boltzmann principle need a dynamical correction?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an attempt to derive thermodynamics from classical mechanics, an approximate expression for the equilibrium temperature of a finite system has been derived [M. Bianucci, R. Mannella, B. J. West, and P. Grigolini, Phys. Rev. E 51, 3002 (1995)] which differs from the one that follows from the Boltzmann principle S = k log (Omega(E)) via the thermodynamic relation 1/T= dS/dE by additional terms of "dynamical" character, which are argued to correct and generalize the Boltzmann principle for small systems (here Omega(E) is the area of the constant-energy surface). In the present work, the underlying definition of temperature in the Fokker-Planck formalism of Bianucci et al. is investigated and shown to coincide with an approximate form of the equipartition temperature. Its exact form, however, is strictly related to the "volume" entropy S = k log (Phi(E)) via the thermodynamic relation above for systems of any number of degrees of freedom (Phi(E) is the phase space volume enclosed by the constant-energy surface). This observation explains and clarifies the numerical results of Bianucci et al. and shows that a dynamical correction for either the temperature or the entropy is unnecessary, at least within the class of systems considered by those authors. Explicit analytical and numerical results for a particle coupled to a small chain (N~10) of quartic oscillators are also provided to further illustrate these facts.

Artur B. Adib

2002-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

234

An Energy Principle for Ideal MHD Equilibria with Flows  

SciTech Connect

In the standard ideal MHD energy principle for equilibria with no flows, the stability criterion, which is the defi niteness of the perturbed potential energy, is usually constructed from the linearized equation of motion. Equivalently while more straightforwardly, it can also be obtained from the second variation of the Hamiltonian calculated with proper constraints. For equilibria with flows, a stability criterion was proposed from the linearized equation of motion, but not explained as an energy principle1. In this paper, the second variation of the Hamiltonian is found to provide a stability criterion equivalent to, while more straightforward than, what was constructed from the linearized equation of motion. To calculate the variations of the Hamiltonian, a complete set of constraints on the dynamics of the perturbations is derived from the Euler-Poincare structure of the ideal MHD. In addition, a previous calculation of the second variation of the Hamiltonian was claimed to give a different stability criterion2, and in this paper we argue such a claim is incorrect.

Yao Zhou and Hong Qin

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

235

Bayesian Conditioning, the Reflection Principle, and Quantum Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The probabilities a Bayesian agent assigns to a set of events typically change with time, for instance when the agent updates them in the light of new data. In this paper we address the question of how an agent's probabilities at different times are constrained by Dutch-book coherence. We review and attempt to clarify the argument that, although an agent is not forced by coherence to use the usual Bayesian conditioning rule to update his probabilities, coherence does require the agent's probabilities to satisfy van Fraassen's [1984] reflection principle (which entails a related constraint pointed out by Goldstein [1983]). We then exhibit the specialized assumption needed to recover Bayesian conditioning from an analogous reflection-style consideration. Bringing the argument to the context of quantum measurement theory, we show that "quantum decoherence" can be understood in purely personalist terms---quantum decoherence (as supposed in a von Neumann chain) is not a physical process at all, but an application of the reflection principle. From this point of view, the decoherence theory of Zeh, Zurek, and others as a story of quantum measurement has the plot turned exactly backward.

Christopher A. Fuchs; Ruediger Schack

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

236

A Comparison of Education, Business, and Engineering Undergraduate Students Internet Use and their Experience, Confidence, and Competence in Using New Literacies of the Internet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study explored beginning and advanced pre-service teachers Internet use and their experience, confidence, and competence in using new literacies of the Internet. In addition, this study compared the pre-service teachers to same-aged business and engineering students. Through using an online survey, this study recruited 1350 students from the various disciplines. This study conducted comparisons between a) underclassmen across the three majors, b) seniors across the majors, and c) underclassmen and seniors within the majors. This study found that as digital natives, education, business, and engineering students used the Internet frequently. However, they were relatively unfamiliar with using new literacies of the Internet during their high school and university educational experiences. Overall, the three majors students were confident but they were not competent in using new literacies of the Internet including locating and evaluating information on the Internet. Comparisons between and within the majors revealed that education underclassmen were less confident and competent than engineering underclassmen peers and senior education students in evaluating information on the Internet. Education seniors were comparable to business and engineering seniors in their confidence and competence in both locating and evaluating information on the Internet. The findings imply that teacher educators need to understand the weaknesses of their pre-service teachers and provide them with appropriate opportunities and training to know how to effectively use and furthermore teach new literacies of the Internet.

Kim, Su Yeon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Need for Essential Consumer Protections: Smart Metering Proposals and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Metering Metering Proposals and the Move to Time-Based Pricing The Need for Essential Consumer Protections: Smart Metering Proposals and the Move to Time-Based Pricing There is a widespread consensus that the U.S. distribution and transmission systems for vital electricity service need to be modernized and upgraded to handle not only load growth, but the integration of renewable resources and the potential for a significant increase in electric-powered vehicles. This modernization has been recently promoted under the rubric of the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid vision has three primary parts: (1) new communication and digital sensors and automation capabilities for the distribution and transmission systems, designed to make the grid more reliable and capable of integrating renewable and local-level distribution

238

Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Towards a first-principles thermodynamics of solids  

SciTech Connect

Total energy density-functional methods have made it possible to calculate, from first principles, such important properties as cohesive energies, lattice constants and elastic moduli for elemental crystals and perfectly ordered compounds. Real solids are imperfect, however, so that lattice vibrations and compositional disorder lead to entropy contributions, vibrational and configurational. When these effects are included in an appropriate manner, properties of real crystals can be computed ab initio as a function of temperature and concentration. Consequently, it is possible to obtain, virtually from the knowledge of atomic numbers alone, such basic thermodynamic properties as free energies, entropies, heats of formation, and lattice parameters for stable and metastable phases, leading, for example, to the successful computation of certain classes of phase diagrams. Recent progress in the field will be reviewed. Application is made to the Pd-Rh-V system.

de Fontaine, D.; Wolverton, C.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Are vortices in rotating superfluids breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the breaking of gauge symmetry in rotating superfluid Helium, the inertial mass of a vortex diverges with the vortex size. The vortex inertial mass is thus much higher than the classical inertial mass of the vortex core. An equal increase of the vortex gravitational mass is questioned. The possibility that the vortices in a rotating superfluid could break the weak equivalence principle in relation with a variable speed of light in the superfluid vacuum is debated. Experiments to test this possibility are investigated on the bases that superfluid Helium vortices would not fall, under the single influence of a uniform gravitational field, at the same rate as the rest of the superfluid Helium mass.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Underground oil shale retorting. [Basic principles are outlined  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic principles involved in combustion processing of oil shale are outlined. The manual is designed to serve as an introduction to the subject for the support personnel of the LLL Oil Shale Project. The material is presented in a simple two page format with one page devoted to a figure or table and the facing page contains a brief description of that material. Thus, it can serve as a self-study guide. Following a brief description of oil shale, how it was formed, and the extent of the resource, an overview of the concepts and major technical problems of Modified In-Situ (MIS) Oil Shale Retorting is presented. Finally, the liquid product, shale oil, is compared with typical petroleum crudes.

Campbell, J.H.; Raley, J.H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

(ANTI)PETER Principle - Discrete (INVERSE) Logistic Equation with Imprecisely Estimated and Stimulated Carrying Capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we consider the Peter principle and anti-Peter principle as the discrete logistic and discrete inverse logistic equation. Especially we discuss imprecisely estimated (by hierarchical control mechanism) carrying capacity, i.e. boundary (in)competence level of a hierarchy member. It implies that Peter principle holds two sub-principles. In the first one objective boundary competence level is increased for estimation error. In the second one objective boundary competence level is decreased for estimation error. Similarly, anti-Peter principle holds two sub-principles too. All this implies that paradoxical situations that follow from Peter and anti-Peter principle can be simply removed by decrease of the error of hierarchical (social) control. Also we discuss cases by Peter principle when error of the boundary competence level by estimation grows up. (Then, in fact, there is no estimation error but stimulation of the boundary level by control mechanism.) By first Peter sub-principle it implies anarchy in the social structure or, correspondingly, cancer in the biology and medicine, schizophrenia in the psychology and inflation in the economy. By second Peter sub-principle it implies a totalitary social structure (dictature or caste regime) or multiplex sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in biology and medicine, servile mentality or low value complex in psychology and depression by hyperactive political influences in economy. Finally, monotonus changes of the stimulated part of boundary level cause corresponding phase transitions discussed on the example of the introspection in the psychology.

V. Pankovic; M. Krmar; R. Glavatovic

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Healthful LipidsChapter 10 Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism to Self-Healing Agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 10 Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism to Self-Healing Agents Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Essential Fatty A

244

Water UseWater Use ater is an essential part of life and an essential part of any farm. It is necessary for growing produce and often  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. It is necessary for growing produce and often for cleaning produce before it is sold. Water may also be usedWater UseWater Use W ater is an essential part of life and an essential part of any farm to protect crops from frost or to apply fertilizers or pesticides. Ensuring that you have clean water

Liskiewicz, Maciej

245

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 6 Surfactant Applications 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 6 Surfactant Applications 1 Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 6 Surfactant Applica

246

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 7 Surfactant Applications 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 7 Surfactant Applications 2 Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 7 Surfactant Applica

247

First-principles models for radiation damage in D-T fusion power ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Duc Nguyen-Manh. Abstract Scope, We review current work on first-principles modelling of radiation defects in bcc iron-based...

248

Transforming commercial aerospace supply chain management practices by utilizing Toyota production system principles, practices, and methodologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines The Toyota Motor Corporation's core precepts, management principles, supply chain architecture, product development methods, leveraged practice of supplier partnerships and procurement practices, all ...

Patneaude, Steven M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Transforming commercial aerospace supply chain management practices by utilizing Toyota production system principles, practices, and methodologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines The Toyota Motor Corporation's core precepts, management principles, supply chain architecture, product development methods, leveraged practice of supplier partnerships and procurement practices, (more)

Patneaude, Steven M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

PRINCIPLE OF GLOBAL DECOUPLING WITH COUPLING ANGLE MODULATION.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A new scheme, coupling angle modulation, was found. By modulating two orthogonal skew quadrupole families, an extra rotating coupling is introduced into the coupled machine. The skew quadrupole modulation frequency is about 0.2Hz for the RHIC ramp, and 0.5Hz at injection and store. The eigentune changes are tracked with a high resolution phase lock loop (PLL) tune measurement system. The global coupling correction strengths are determined by the modulation skew quadrupole strengths at the minimum eigentune split multiplied by a factor k. k is determined by the uncoupled eigentune split and the maximum and the minimum tune split during the skew quadrupole modulation. This decoupling scheme is fast and robust. It had been verified at the RHIC and has been applied for the RHIC global decoupling on the ramp. In this article, the principle of the coupling angle modulation is presented in detail. Simulation results are also shown.

LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; PEGGS, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; ROSER, T.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in complex oxides  

SciTech Connect

The disordering tendencies of a series of zirconate (A{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) , hafnate (A{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), titanate (A{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and stannate (A{sub 2} Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}) pyrochlores are predicted in this study using first-principles total energy calculations. To model the disordered (A{sub 1/2}B{sub 1/2})(O{sub 7/8}/V{sub 1/8}){sub 2} fluorite structure, we have developed an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most important near-neighbor intra-sublattice and inter-sublattice pair correlation functions of the random alloy. From the calculated disordering energies, the order-disorder transition temperatures of those pyrochlores are further predicted and our results agree well with the existing experimental phase diagrams. It is clearly demonstrated that both size and electronic effects play an important role in determining the disordering tendencies of pyrochlore compounds.

Jiang, Chao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Lighting fundamentals handbook: Lighting fundamentals and principles for utility personnel  

SciTech Connect

Lighting accounts for approximately 30% of overall electricity use and demand in commercial buildings. This handbook for utility personnel provides a source of basic information on lighting principles, lighting equipment, and other considerations related to lighting design. The handbook is divided into three parts. Part One, Physics of Light, has chapters on light, vision, optics, and photometry. Part Two, Lighting Equipment and Technology, focuses on lamps, luminaires, and lighting controls. Part Three, Lighting Design Decisions, deals with the manner in which lighting design decisions are made and reviews relevant methods and issues. These include the quantity and quality of light needed for visual tasks, calculation methods for verifying that lighting needs are satisfied, lighting economics and methods for evaluating investments in efficient lighting systems, and miscellaneous design issues including energy codes, power quality, photobiology, and disposal of lighting equipment. The handbook contains a discussion of the role of the utility in promoting the use of energy-efficient lighting. The handbook also includes a lighting glossary and a list of references for additional information. This convenient and comprehensive handbook is designed to enable utility lighting personnel to assist their customers in developing high-quality, energy-efficient lighting systems. The handbook is not intended to be an up-to-date reference on lighting products and equipment.

Eley, C.; Tolen, T. (Eley (Charles) Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Benya, J.R. (Luminae Souter Lighting Design, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

Altiparmakov, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Why Web 2.0 is Good for Learning and for Research: Principles and Prototypes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why Web 2.0 is Good for Learning and for Research: Principles and Prototypes Carsten Ullrich "Web 2.0" is used to describe applications that distinguish themselves from previous generations of software by a number of principles. Existing work shows that Web 2.0 applications can be successfully

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Identification and validation of cognitive design principles for automated generation of assembly instructions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing effective instructions for everyday products is challenging. One reason is that designers lack a set of design principles for producing visually comprehensible and accessible instructions. We describe an approach for identifying such design ... Keywords: assembly instructions, design principles, diagrams, spatial ability, visual instructions

Julie Heiser; Doantam Phan; Maneesh Agrawala; Barbara Tversky; Pat Hanrahan

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research, October 2008 A. INTRODUCTION 1. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including

Pfeifer, Holger

257

Developing Biomimetic Design Principles for the Highly Optimized and Robust Design of Products and Their Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering design methods focus on developing products that are innovative, robust, and multi-functional. In this context, the term robust refers to a product's ability to accomplish successfully its predetermined functions. Owing to the abundance of optimized and robust biological systems, engineering designers are now looking to nature for inspiration. Researchers believe that biomimetic or bio-inspired engineering systems can leverage the principles, mechanisms, processes, strategies, and/or morphologies of nature's successful designs. Unfortunately, two important problems associated with biomimetic design are a designer's limited knowledge of biology and the difference in biological and engineering terminologies. This research developed a new design tool that addresses these problems and proposes to help engineering designers develop candidate bio-inspired products or solutions. A methodology that helps users infer or extract biomimetic design principles from a given natural system or biomimetic product pair is described in this thesis. The method incorporates and integrates five existing design tools and theories to comprehensively investigate a given natural system or biomimetic product. Subsequently, this method is used to extract biomimetic design principles from 23 biomimetic products and natural systems. It is proposed that these principles have the potential to inspire ideas for candidate biomimetic products that are novel, innovative, and robust. The principle extraction methodology and the identified principles are validated using two separate case studies and a detailed analysis using the validation square framework. In the first case study, two students and the author use the principle extraction methodology to extract characteristics from a natural system and a biomimetic product pair. Results from this case study showed that the methodology effectively and repeatedly identifies system characteristics that exemplify inherent biomimetic design principles. In the second case study, the developed biomimetic design principles are used to inspire a solution for an engineering design problem. The resulting solution and its evaluation show that the design's achieved usefulness is linked to applying the biomimetic design principles. Similar to the TRIZ principles, the biomimetic design principles can inspire ideas for solutions to a given problem. The key difference is that designers using TRIZ leverage the solution strategies of engineering patents, while designers using the biomimetic design principles leverage natures solution strategies. The biomimetic design principles are compared to TRIZ and the BioTRIZ matrix.

Wadia, Anosh Porus

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Proof-of-Principle Measurements on Unirradiated Zirconium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The ability to determine fuel assembly burnup has important non-proliferation implications since proliferation activities involve either irradiating fuel assemblies to a much lower level of burnup than is normal in commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) practice, and/or irradiation of separate targets. Similarly, a method of determining burnup could be used to confirm declared operation for a reactor that is operating under IAEA safeguards. It is possible to determine fuel assembly burnup by measuring gamma radiation from specific fission products; however this technique is only useable after the fuel assembly has been out of the reactor for at least a year, and is not very useful after the assembly has been out of the reactor for 10 years or more. The use of isotope ratio measurements to measure the level of neutron exposure that material has received is well-known for graphite applications. The current project is an attempt to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be performed on zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers proof-of-principle measurements done on unirradiated zirconium alloys, these measurements show that: Titanium 48/Titanium 49 ratios can be measured in zirconium alloys using a Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) - enough Titanium was present in each of 6 samples tried to allow resolving the peaks associated with each isotope, and correction of interfering ions. The Ti 48/49 ratio measured in unirradiated zirconium alloy is, within a narrow error band, the same as that found in natural, unirradiated zirconium.

Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

259

Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Duemmer, C.L. [Hull, Duemmer and Garland (United States)

1997-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

260

CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detector: Principles and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a very attractive material for using as room-temperature semiconductor detectors, because it has a wide bandgap and a high atomic number. However, due to the material's poor hole mobility, several special techniques were developed to ensure its suitability for radiation detection. Among them, the virtual Frisch-grid CZT detector is an attractive option, having a simple configuration, yet delivering an outstanding spectral performance. The goal of our group in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to improve the performance of Frisch-ring CZT detectors; most recently, that effort focused on the non-contacting Frisch-ring detector, allowing us to build an inexpensive, large-volume detector array with high energy-resolution and a large effective area. In this paper, the principles of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are described, especially BNL's innovative improvements. The potential applications of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are discussed, and as an example, a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer using a CZT virtual Frischgrid detector array is introduced, which is a self-contained device with a radiation detector, readout circuit, communication circuit, and high-voltage supply. It has good energy resolution of 1.4% (FWHM of 662-keV peak) with a total detection volume of {approx}20 cm{sup 3}. Such a portable inexpensive device can be used widely in nonproliferation applications, non-destructive detection, radiation imaging, and for homeland security. Extended systems based on the same technology have potential applications in industrial- and nuclear-medical-imaging.

Cui,Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Hossain, A.; James, R. B.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Attachment A: AIP Program Principles (Questions and Answers 1-12) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A: AIP Program Principles (Questions and Answers 1-12) A: AIP Program Principles (Questions and Answers 1-12) Attachment A: AIP Program Principles (Questions and Answers 1-12) AIP Program Principles This attachment contains twelve questions and answers that designate the mandatory AIP provisions that shall be included in new and renegotiated agreements and discusses the principles underlying these requirements. Headquarters approval is required if mandatory language is not included in a new or renegotiated AIP. Question #1: Can States use AIP funds to support State regulatory activities? Answer: No, States cannot use AIP funds to support their regulatory activities. The Office of Management and Budget and the Department's congressional oversight committees have consistently indicated that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states are required to use their current

262

616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility -- Essential/support drawing list. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the essential and supporting engineering drawings for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. The purpose of the documents is to describe the criteria used to identify and the plan for updating and maintaining their accuracy. Drawings are designated as essential if they relate to safety systems, environmental monitoring systems, effluents, and facility HVAC, electrical, and plumbing systems. Support drawings are those which are frequently used or describe a greater level of detail for equipment, components, or systems shown on essential drawings. A listing of drawings identified as essential or support is provided in Table A.

Busching, K.R.

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

The Essential Work of Fracture Method Applied to Mode II Interlaminar Fracture in Fiber Reinforced Polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a new method for determining mode II interlaminar fracture toughness in fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) using the essential work of fracture (EWF) (more)

McKinney, Scott D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Does Quantum Mechanics Clash with the Equivalence Principle - and Does it Matter?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With an eye on developing a quantum theory of gravity, many physicists have recently searched for quantum challenges to the equivalence principle of general relativity. However, as historians and philosophers of science are well aware, the principle of equivalence is not so clear. When clarified, we think quantum tests of the equivalence principle won't yield much. The problem is that the clash/not-clash is either already evident or guaranteed not to exist. Nonetheless, this work does help teach us what it means for a theory to be geometric.

Okon, Elias

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Phytologia (April 2012) 94(1) 91 SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phytologia (April 2012) 94(1) 91 SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF TAXODIUM DISTICHUM Robert_Adams@baylor.edu ABSTRACT The leaf essential oil of Taxodium distichum is dominated by -pinene (63-69%) with moderate amounts of limonene, - phellandrene, myrcene and -pinene. Oil yield increased from April (3.45 mg

Adams, Robert P.

266

Usingthe Essential Work of Fracture Method for Studying Physical Aging in Thin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Usingthe Essential Work of Fracture Method for Studying Physical Aging in Thin, Ductile, Polymeric that impact properties change significantly after 30 days of aging at 50°C. To q u a n e this deleterious effect of aging, we did small-scale laboratory experi- ments using the essential work of fracture method

Nairn, John A.

267

Competition-regulation interface in telecommunications: What's left of the essential facility doctrine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The essential facility doctrine lies at the core of telecoms regulation since its very first steps in the United States and in the European Union. Later, the doctrine spread around the world and currently stands as a key pillar of the liberalization ... Keywords: Access policy, Broadband, Competition, Essential facilities, Next generation networks, Regulation, Telecommunications

Andrea Renda

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Political and Philosophical Radicalism: The place of the utility principle in Jeremy Bentham's Early writings on critical jurisprudence.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this list of definienda is Principle of Utility. Mightlists a series of such definienda, beginning with Utility

Long, Doug

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Biological Extension of the Action Principle: Endpoint Determination beyond the Quantum Level and the Ultimate Physical Roots of Consciousness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that when we endow the action principle with the overlooked possibility to allow endpoint selection, it gains an enormous additional power, which, perhaps surprisingly, directly corresponds to biological behavior. The biological version of the least action principle is the most action principle. For the first time, we formulate here the first principle of biology in a mathematical form and present some of its applications of primary importance.

Attila Grandpierre

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection at the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection at the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites

271

Proceedings of the ACM SIGOPS 22nd symposium on Operating systems principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to the Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles -- SOSP'09, held in Big Sky, Montana. The 23 papers published here explore a wide range of computer systems topics, from operating system device driver design ...

Jeanna Neefe Matthews; Thomas Anderson

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

First-Principles Prediction of the Equilibrium Shape of Nanoparticles Under Realistic Electrochemical Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-principles model of the electrochemical double layer is applied to study surface energies and surface coverage under realistic electrochemical conditions and to determine the equilibrium shape of metal nanoparticles ...

Bonnet, Nicephore

273

CSP 550: Internet Programming Andrew Tanenbaum and M. Steen, Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms, 2002.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CSP 550: Internet Programming Texts Andrew Tanenbaum and M. Steen, Distributed Systems: Principles and SOAP 9 hours Total 45 hours Edited March 2006 (html, css checks) CSP 550: Internet Programming - CS

Heller, Barbara

274

Prediction of semiconductor band edge positions in aqueous environments from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to predict a semiconductor's band edge positions in solution is important for the design of water-splitting photocatalyst materials. In this paper, we introduce a first-principles method to compute the ...

Wu, Yabi

275

Department of Energy reaches an agreement in principle on the cleanup of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

reaches an agreement in principle on the reaches an agreement in principle on the cleanup of the Santa Susana Field Lab site in Simi Valley Department of Energy reaches an agreement in principle on the cleanup of the Santa Susana Field Lab site in Simi Valley September 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy announced today that it has reached an agreement in principle with California's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and NASA on the cleanup of the Santa Susana Field Lab (SSFL) site in Simi Valley. "The Department is pleased that we have achieved a conceptual agreement for cleanup of the DOE portion of the Santa Susana Field Lab site," said Dr. Ines Triay, DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management. "By putting to one side unresolved legal issues and working together, we have

276

Energy and Enstrophy Spectra of Geostrophic Turbulent Flows Derived from a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of maximum entropy is used to obtain energy and enstrophy spectra as well as average relative vorticity fields in the context of geostrophic turbulence on a rotating sphere. In the unforced-undamped (inviscid) case, the maximization ...

W. T. M. Verkley; Peter Lynch

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reverse engineering nature : design principles for flexible protection inspired by ancient fish armor of Polypteridae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is about designing structures that combine the dual functions of mechanical protection and flexibility of motion. The structures are inspired by principles observed in the ganoid squamation (scale assembly) of ...

Reichert, Steffen H. (Steffen Heinz)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

16.410 / 16.413 Principles of Autonomy and Decision Making, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course surveys a variety of reasoning, optimization, and decision-making methodologies for creating highly autonomous systems and decision support aids. The focus is on principles, algorithms, and their applications, ...

Williams, Brian C.

279

Turtles All The Way Down: A Clean-Slate, Ground-Up, First-Principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Turtles All The Way Down: A Clean-Slate, Ground-Up, First-Principles Approach to Secure Systems- works [15,53]. Also, metrics for anomaly detection systems are notoriously unreliable [2, 38]. Although

Peisert, Sean

280

Aqueous systems from first-principles : structure, dynamics and electron-transfer reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we show for the first time how it is possible to calculated fully from first-principles the diabatic free-energy surfaces of electron-transfer reactions. The excitation energy corresponding to the transfer ...

Sit, Patrick Hoi Land

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Identification and validation of cognitive design principles for automated generation of assembly instructions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing effective instructions for everyday products is challenging. One reason is that designers lack a set of design principles for producing visually comprehensible and accessible instructions. We describe an approach for identifying such design principles through experiments investigating the production, preference, and comprehension of assembly instructions for furniture. We instantiate these principles into an algorithm that automatically generates assembly instructions. Finally, we perform a user study comparing our computergenerated instructions to factory-provided and highly rated hand-designed instructions. Our results indicate that the computer-generated instructions informed by our cognitive design principles significantly reduce assembly time an average of 35 % and error by 50%. Details of the experimental methodology and the implementation of the automated system are described.

Julie Heiser; Doantam Phan; Maneesh Agrawala; Barbara Tversky; Pat Hanrahan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Thermal conductivity from first-principles in bulk, disordered, and nanostructured materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity is an important transport property that plays a vital role in applications such as high efficiency thermoelectric devices as well as in thermal management of electronics. We present a first-principles ...

Garg, Jivtesh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to the Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP 2013), held at the Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. This year's program includes 30 papers, and touches on a wide range of computer systems ...

Michael Kaminsky, Mike Dahlin

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

First-principles investigation of Li intercalation kinetics in phospho-olivines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses broadly on characterizing and understanding the Li intercalation mechanism in phospho-olivines, namely LiFePO? and Li(Fe,Mn)PO?, using first-principles calculations. Currently Li-ion battery technology ...

Malik, Rahul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns

Sparks, Donald L.

286

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 5 Enhancing the Performance of Surfactants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 5 Enhancing the Performance of Surfactants Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents AOCS FAE922504CC49A71A893E781BCF8E9F7 Press ...

287

Quantum Fisher Information: Variational principle and simple iterative algorithm for its efficient computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a new variational principle for the quantum Fisher information leading to a simple iterative alternating algorithm, the convergence of which is proved. The case of a fixed measurement, i.e. the classical Fisher information, is also discussed.

Katarzyna Macieszczak

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

288

First principles high throughput screening of oxynitrides for water-splitting photocatalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a first principles high throughput screening system to search for new water-splitting photocatalysts. We use the approach to screen through nitrides and oxynitrides. Most of the known photocatalytic ...

Wu, Yabi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Two new proofs of the test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

The test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory is discussed in relation to the recent theory of two-time fluctuations in plasma given by Williams and Oberman. Both a new deductive and a new inductive proof of the principle are presented. The fundamental observation is that two-time expectations of one-body operators are determined completely in terms of the (x,v) phase space density autocorrelation, which to lowest order in the discreteness parameter obeys the linearized Vlasov equation with singular initial condition. For the deductive proof, this equation is solved formally using time- ordered operators, and the solution then rearranged into the superposition principle. The inductive proof is simpler than Rostoker's, although similar in some ways; it differs in that first order equations for pair correlation functions need not be invoked. It is pointed out that the superposition principle is also applicable to the short-time theory of neutral fluids. (auth)

Krommes, J.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

12.540 Principles of the Global Positioning System, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this course is to introduce the principles of the Global Positioning System and to demonstrate its application to various aspects of Earth Sciences. The specific content of the course depends each year on the ...

Herring, T. (Thomas)

291

First-principles Study Using Hybrid-density Functional Theory for the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A21: First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Chemical ... A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by ... Lithium Redox Process for Thermochemical Water-Splitting as Energy Conversion.

292

16.410 / 16.413 Principles of Autonomy and Decision Making, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course surveys a variety of reasoning, optimization, and decision-making methodologies for creating highly autonomous systems and decision support aids. The focus is on principles, algorithms, and their applications, ...

Williams, Brian

293

STEM Education Opportunities: Teachers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STEM Education Opportunities: Teachers STEM Education Opportunities: Teachers STEM Education Opportunities: Teachers Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education identifies seven Essential Principles and a set of Fundamental Concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions. The intended audience is anyone involved in energy education from K-Gray and is meant to inform the improvement and development of energy curriculum to more broadly cover the Fundamental Concepts. The Energy Literacy Framework is free to download from the website and up to five hard copies can be ordered. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy also offers lesson plans, labs, projects, and ideas for other activities for grades K-12 on

294

Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

S. Adamenko; V. Bolotov; V. Novikov

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

295

Many families of Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs are not essential for development or viability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 23 nt regulatory RNAs that posttranscriptionally inhibit the functions of protein-coding mRNAs. We previously found that most C. elegans miRNAs are individually not essential for ...

Alvarez-Saavedra, Ezequiel

296

Waste and Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) Essential and Support Drawing List  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drawings identified in this document will comprise the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility essential and support drawing list. This list will replace drawings identified as the ''WESF Essential and support drawing list''. Additionally, this document will follow the applicable requirements of HNF-PRO-242 ''Engineering Drawing Requirements'' and FSP-WESF-001, Section EN-1 ''Documenting Engineering Changes''. An essential drawing is defined as an engineering drawing identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation or maintenance of the facility. A support drawing is defined as a drawing identified by the facility staff that further describes the design details of structures, systems, or components shown on essential drawings or is frequently used by the support staff.

SHANNON, W.R.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Design criteria document, electrical system, K-Basin essential systems recovery, Project W-405  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Design Criteria Document provides the criteria for design and construction of electrical system modifications for 100K Area that are essential to protect the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in the K-Basin facilities.

Hoyle, J.R.

1994-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

298

An Assessment of Industry Data Related to Essential Variables for Fusing High Density Polyethylene Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has expressed concern about the essential variables used for fusing safety-related nuclear power plant piping systems constructed of high density polyethylene (HDPE). The essential variables detailed in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Case N-755-1, Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, were considered to be incomplete. In addition, there were questions about using data in the Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI) report TR-33 ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Dirac's hole theory and the Pauli principle: clearing up the confusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Dirac's hole theory (HT) the vacuum state is generally believed to be the state of minimum energy due to the assumption that the Pauli Exclusion Principle prevents the decay of positive energy electrons into occupied negative energy states. However recently papers have appeared that claim to show that there exist states with less energy than that of the vacuum[4][5][6]. Here we will consider a simple model of HT consisting of zero mass electrons in 1-1D space-time. It will be shown that for this model there are states with less energy than the HT vacuum state and that the Pauli Principle is obeyed. Therefore the conjecture that the Pauli Principle prevents the existence of states with less energy than the vacuum state is not correct.

Dan Solomon

2008-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

300

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for Policy and Project Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for Policy and Project Development Agency/Company /Organization: German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) Sector: Land, Climate Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.forclime.org/images/stories/RECOFTC-GIZ_FPIC_in_REDD_2011.pdf UN Region: South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Calculating Properties of Materials from First Principles-A Tool for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calculating Properties of Materials from First Principles-A Tool for Calculating Properties of Materials from First Principles-A Tool for Faster Advanced Materials Development Molecular structure of graphite Portrait of Kristin Persson August 2012 Once the domain of guesswork and intuition, the field of developing new materials for advanced batteries and other applications is taking a turn towards a more systematic and predictive approach. Predicting the properties of new materials from "first principles" has become a scientific reality, thanks to the growth in computing power, a deeper understanding of how materials work, and databases of materials properties. This will mean faster development of materials for high-energy batteries for electric vehicle applications, as well as better materials for many other applications, such as fuel cells and solar panels, high-strength

302

An almost sure invariance principle for random walks in a space-time random environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a discrete time random walk in a space-time i.i.d. random environment. We use a martingale approach to show that the walk is diffusive in almost every fixed environment. We improve on existing results by proving an invariance principle and considering environments with an annealed $L^2$ drift. We also state an a.s. invariance principle for random walks in general random environments whose hypothesis requires a subdiffusive bound on the variance of the quenched mean, under an ergodic invariant measure for the environment chain.

F. Rassoul-Agha; T. Seppalainen

2004-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

303

An attempt to value Canadian oil and natural gas reserves : an extension of the hotelling valuation principle .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The importance of the Hotelling Valuation Principle (HVP) in economic study lies in its ability to examine and drive the decision of how much of (more)

Shumlich, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Feminist perspectives on integration, progression and infusion as principles of curriculum design in life orientation / Mercy Olajumoke Kutu.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study explores teachers' beliefs, views and experiences of the design principles of integration, progression and infusion in the Life Orientation (LO) curriculum at the (more)

Kutu, Mercy Olajumoke

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Will smart meters ripen or rot? Five first principles for embracing customers as co-creators of value  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In managing the migration of electricity users to the demand response world, five first principles can help with that tricky human element. (author)

Honebein, Peter C.; Cammarano, Roy F.; Donnelly, Kat A.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Investigation of the principle of flame rectification in order to improve detection of the propane flame in absorption refrigerators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Electrical properties of a propane flame was investigated to improve detection of the flame in absorption refrigerators. The principle of flame rectification, which uses (more)

Mllberg, Andreas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Proceedings of the 30th annual ACM SIGACT-SIGOPS symposium on Principles of distributed computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume contains 34 extended abstracts and 31 brief announcements selected for the 30th Annual ACM SIGACT-SIGOPS Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), held on June 6-8, 2011, in San Jose, California, USA, as part of the 5th Federated ...

Cyril Gavoille; Pierre Fraigniaud

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Revising (multi-) media learning principles by applying a differentiated knowledge concept  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on a study investigating the effect of single-media and multimedia presentations on the resulting knowledge. First, this study investigated the stability of established multimedia learning principles by measuring acquired knowledge ... Keywords: Cognitive load, Knowledge, Learning, Multimedia, Testing

S. Guttormsen Schr; J. Kaiser

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

NIHR Carbon Guidelines -FAQs 1. Why do the guidelines address only the principles of good research?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NIHR Carbon Guidelines - FAQs 1. Why do the guidelines address only the principles of good research? The guidelines outline strategies to reduce the carbon emissions from health research. Because most publicly to reduce carbon emissions would also reduce the carbon emissions from health research. However, strategies

Diggle, Peter J.

310

FPEOS: A First-Principles Equation of State Table of Deuterium for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FPEOS: A First-Principles Equation of State Table of Deuterium for Inertial Confinement Fusion) Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation- hydrodynamics. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT- fuel needs to be kept as cold

Militzer, Burkhard

311

First principles study of Li diffusion in I-Li_{2}NiO_{2} structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First principles computations have been used to study Li mobility in the orthorhombic Li2NiO2 structure with the Immm space group (I-Li2NiO2). Understanding Li mobility in I-Li2NiO2 structure other than the conventional ...

Ceder, Gerbrand

312

Dual variational principle for a problem of heat conduction in a rectangular plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we formulate the dual variational principle for a problem of heat conduction in a rectangular domain, represented by elliptic equation with boundary conditions (Dirichlet-Neumann). The approximate solution for the dual variational problem ... Keywords: dual functional, heat transfer, weak solution

Mioara Boncu?; Dumitru Barac

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Principles of superposition for controlling pinch motions by means of robot fingers with soft tips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the dynamics and control of pinch motions generated by a pair of two multi-degrees-of-freedom robot fingers with soft and deformable tips pinching a rigid object. It is shown firstly that passivity analysis leads to an effective design ... Keywords: Pinch motion, Robot finger, Soft finger, Stable grasping, Superposition principle

S. Arimoto; K. Tahara; M. Yamaguchi; P. T. A. Nguyen; M.-Y. Han

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Quantum mechanics and gravity as preclusion principles of four dimensional geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this paper is to employ a "preclusion principle" originally suggested by Rafael Sorkin in order to come up with a relativistically covariant model of quantum mechanics and gravity. Space-time is viewed as geometry as opposed to dynamics, and "unwanted" histories in that geometry are precluded.

Roman Sverdlov

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

DRA: a new buffer management scheme for wireless atm networks using aggregative large deviation principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a buffer management scheme called Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA) that provides TCP traffic control guarantees to VCs carrying multiple dynamic discard thresholds (Multiple Dynamic Thresholds-MDT) over a wireless CDMA ATM ... Keywords: Buffer management, CDMA, Dynamic resource management, Large deviation principle, QoS, Wireless ATM

M. S. Obaidat; C. Ben Ahmed; N. Boudriga

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

On the reduction principle for differential equations with piecewise constant argument of generalized type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce a new type of differential equations with piecewise constant argument (EPCAG), more general than EPCA. The Reduction Principle is proved for EPCAG. The structure of the set of solutions is specified. We establish also the existence of global integral manifolds of quasilinear EPCAG in the so called critical case and investigate the stability of the zero solution.

M. U. Akhmet

2006-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reference architecture, metamodel, and modeling principles for architectural knowledge management in information technology services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capturing and sharing design knowledge such as architectural decisions is becoming increasingly important in firms providing professional Information Technology (IT) services such as enterprise application development and strategic outsourcing. Methods, ... Keywords: Architectural decisions, Architectural principles, DSL, Knowledge management, Model-driven engineering, Outsourcing, SOA, Workflow

Olaf Zimmermann; Christoph Miksovic; Jochen M. KSter

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Multi-level agent-based modeling with the Influence Reaction principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the specification and the implementation of multi-level agent-based models, using a formal model, IRM4MLS (an Influence Reaction Model for Multi-Level Simulation), based on the Influence Reaction principle. Proposed examples illustrate forms of top-down control in (multi-level) multi-agent based-simulations.

Morvan, Gildas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A first-principle study of B- and P-doped silicon quantum dots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doping of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) is important for realizing the potential applications of Si QDs in the fields of Si QDsbased all-Si tandem solar cells, thin-film transistors, and optoelectronic devices. Based on the first-principle calculations, ...

Jieqiong Zeng; Hong Yu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A stochastic minimum principle and an adaptive pathwise algorithm for stochastic optimal control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a numerical method for finite-horizon stochastic optimal control models. We derive a stochastic minimum principle (SMP) and then develop a numerical method based on the direct solution of the SMP. The method combines Monte Carlo pathwise simulation ... Keywords: Electric power systems, Monte Carlo simulation, Stochastic control

Panos Parpas, Mort Webster

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy Principles for Self-Gravitating Barotropic Flows: I. General Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The following principle of minimum energy may be a powerful substitute to the dynamical perturbation method, when the latter is hard to apply. Fluid elements of self-gravitating barotropic flows, whose vortex lines extend to the boundary of the fluid, are labelled in such a way that any change of trial configurations automatically preserves mass and circulation. The velocity field is given by a mass conserving Clebsch representation. With three independent Lagrangian functions, the total energy is stationary for all small variations about a flow with fixed linear and angular momenta provided Euler's equations for steady motion are satisfied. Thus, steady flows are stable if their energy is minimum. Since energy is here minimized subject to having local and global contants of the motion fixed, stability limits obtained that way are expected to be close to limits given by dynamical perturbation methods. Moreover, the stability limits are with respect to arbitrary, not necessary small, perturbations. A weaker form of the energy principle is also given which may be easier to apply. The Lagrangian functional, with the same three Lagrange variables is stationary for the fully time dependent Euler equations. It follows that the principle of minimum energy gives stability conditions that are both necessary and sufficient if terms linear in time derivatives (gyroscopic terms) are absent from the Lagrangian. The gyroscopic term for small deviations around steady flows is given explicitly. Key words: Energy variational principle; Self-gravitating systems; Stability of fluids.

Joseph Katz; Shogo Inagaki; Asher Yahalom

1995-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle Namwook Kim. INTRODUCTION he optimal control of HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) is an important topic not only because, Sukwon Cha, Huei Peng Abstract - A number of strategies for the power management of HEVs (Hybrid Electric

Peng, Huei

323

Computer Systems Principles Copyright c2009-10 by Emery Berger and Mark Corner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer Systems Principles Copyright c2009-10 by Emery Berger and Mark Corner All rights reserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2 Introduction to Operating Systems 13 2.1 A Brief History of Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 11 Networking and Distributed Systems 69 11.1 OS abstractions

Berger, Emery

324

Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on Principles and practice of programming in Java  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to Las Vegas, Nevada for the 3rd International Conference on Principles and Practice of Programming in Java.Forty one papers were submitted and a total of twenty four (58%) have been selected for presentation ...

John Waldron

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Essential Boundary Conditions with Straight C1 Finite Elements in Curved Domains  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of essential boundary conditions in C1 finite element analysis requires proper treatment of both the boundary conditions on second-order differentials of the solution and the curvature of the domain boundary. A method for the imposition of essential boundary conditions using straight elements (where the elements are not deformed to approximate a curved domain) is described. It is shown that pre-multiplication of the matrix equation by the local rotation matrix at each boundary node is not the optimal transformation. The uniquely optimal transformation is found, which does not take the form of a similarity transformation due to the non-orthogonality of the transformation to curved coordinates.

N.M. Ferraro, S.C. Jardin, X. Luo

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

326

Integrating the principles of strategic environmental assessment into local comprehensive land use plans in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of early integration with the planning and decision-making process has been a major problem in environmental assessment. Traditional project-based environmental impact assessment has inadequate incentives and capacities to incorporate critical environmental impacts at a broader temporal or spatial scale. While many applications have been geared towards implementing project-level environmental assessments, comparatively little research has been done to determine how to incorporate strategically critical environmental impacts into local planning. Although the principles of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are not yet required in local planning in the United States, these principles create a theoretical framework for local environmental assessment. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of local plans to integrate and implement the key SEA principles. This study focuses on increasing the understanding of how and where to integrate environmental impacts into the local planning and decision-making process by converting the principles of SEA into specific planning tools, policies, and implementation strategies. This study develops a protocol with 112 indicators to measure the strengths and weaknesses of integrating strategic environmental assessment into local comprehensive land use plans. A random sample of 40 California local comprehensive land use plans and associated planning processes is evaluated based on this plan quality evaluation protocol. Statistical analysis and multiple regression models identify the factors affecting the quality of plans with respect to their ability to assess environmental impacts. The results identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ability of local jurisdictions to integrate the SEA principles. The results show that many strategically important environmental issues and tools are rarely adopted by current local plans. The regression analysis results further identify the effects of planning capacity, environmental assessment capacity, public participation and contextual variables on environmental assessment plan quality. The findings extend established planning theory and practice by incorporating strategic environmental considerations into the existing framework of what constitutes a high quality local land use comprehensive plan and suggest ways to improve plan quality.

Tang, Zhenghong

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

Stapp, Henry P.

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Uncertainty Principle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Werner Heisenberg stellte im Jahre 1927 fest, dass es unmöglich ist, die Werner Heisenberg stellte im Jahre 1927 fest, dass es unmöglich ist, die Position und den Impuls eines Teilchens gleichzeitig mit beliebiger Genauigkeit zu messen. Je genauer wir die eine Grösse bestimmen, desto weniger genau kennen wir die andere. Man nennt diese grundlegende Eigenschaft der Quantenmechanik Heisenberg'sche Unschärfebeziehung, Die genaue Formulierung heisst: Die Konstante ist die Planck'sche Konstante, dividiert durch 2. Das Symbol für die Planck'sche Konstante ist , oder "h-quer", mit dem Zahlenwert von 1.05 x 10-34 joule-sekunden, oder 6.58 x 10-22 MeV-sekunden. Eine Messung des Impulses wird also die Information über den Ort des Teilchens beeinflussen - und vice-versa. Die Aussage lässt sich auch in der Form von Energie und Zeit hinschreiben.

329

FANS - Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... detecting all scattered neutrons with energy Ef energies, with moderate ... which changes to optimize intensity during the ...

330

Thermodynamic Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...A thermodynamic system that undergoes no interchange of mass (material) with its surroundings is called a closed system. A closed system, however, can interchange energy with its surroundings....

331

Abstract-Homing and navigation capabilities are essential for many Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- Homing and navigation capabilities are essential for many Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, speed bias and underwater currents affect dead-reckoning measurements. All operation need to have INTRODUCTION Actually, there is a real challenge on application of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, particularly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

This issue of Briefings focuses on one essential element of all airports. Navigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This issue of Briefings focuses on one essential element of all airports. Navigation aids navigational facilities that provide combined azimuth and glide slope guidance to a runway (pre- cision) and those that do not (nonprecision). Nonprecision refers to facilities without a glide slope and does

Minnesota, University of

333

Modeling of complex oxide materials from the first principles: systematic applications to vanadates RVO3 with distorted perovskite structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Realistic modeling" is a new direction of electronic structure calculations, where the main emphasis is made on the construction of some effective low-energy model entirely within a first-principle framework. Ideally, it is a model in form, but with ... Keywords: Effective models, First-principle calculations, Perovskite vanadates, Spin-orbital order

Igor Solovyev

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Enhanced affine invariant matching of broken boundaries based on particle swarm optimization and the dynamic migrant principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been successfully applied in identifying contours that are originated from different views of the same object. As compared with similar approaches based on simple genetic algorithms (SGA), the PSO exhibits ... Keywords: Affine invariant matching, Broken boundary, Dynamic migrant principle, Particle swarm optimization, Static migrant principle

Peter W. M. Tsang; Terry Y. F. Yuen; W. C. Situ

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 - 10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through

336

Chaotic Analog-to-Information Conversion: Principle and Reconstructability with Parameter Identifiability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a chaos-based analog-to-information conversion system for the acquisition and reconstruction of sparse analog signals. The sparse signal acts as an excitation term of a continuous-time chaotic system and the compressive measurements are performed by sampling chaotic system outputs. The reconstruction is realized through the estimation of the sparse coefficients with principle of chaotic parameter estimation. With the deterministic formulation, the analysis on the reconstructability is conducted via the sensitivity matrix from the parameter identifiability of chaotic systems. For the sparsity-regularized nonlinear least squares estimation, it is shown that the sparse signal is locally reconstructable if the columns of the sparsity-regularized sensitivity matrix are linearly independent. A Lorenz system excited by the sparse multitone signal is taken as an example to illustrate the principle and the performance.

Feng Xi; Sheng Yao Chen; Zhong Liu

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

337

The Superposition Principle of Waves Not Fulfilled under M. W. Evans' O(3) Hypothesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1992 M.W. Evans proposed a so-called O(3) symmetry of electromagnetic fields by adding a constant longitudinal "ghost field" to the well-known transversal plane em waves. He considered this symmetry as a new law of electromagnetics. Later on, since 2002, this O(3) symmetry became the center of his Generally Covariant Unified Field Theory which he recently renamed as ECE Theory. One of the best-checked laws of electrodynamics is the principle of linear superposition of electromagnetic waves, manifesting itself in interference phenomena. Its mathematical equivalent is the representation of electric and magnetic fields as vectors. By considering the superposition of two phase-shifted waves we show that the superposition principle is incompatible with M.W. Evans' O(3) hypothesis.

Erhard Wielandt

2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Relativity principles in 1+1 dimensions and differential aging reversal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the behavior of clocks in 1+1 spacetime assuming the relativity principle, the principle of constancy of the speed of light and the clock hypothesis. These requirements are satisfied by a class of Finslerian theories parametrized by a real coefficient $\\beta$, special relativity being recovered for $\\beta=0$. The effect of differential aging is studied for the different values of $\\beta$. Below the critical values $|\\beta| =1/c$ the differential aging has the usual direction - after a round trip the accelerated observer returns younger than the twin at rest in the inertial frame - while above the critical values the differential aging changes sign. The non-relativistic case is treated by introducing a formal analogy with thermodynamics.

E. Minguzzi

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation  

SciTech Connect

A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

First principles study of the Young's modulus of Si <001> nanowires  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report the results of first-principles calculations of the Young's modulus and other mechanical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si <001> nanowires. The nanowires are taken to have predominantly {l_brace}100{r_brace} surfaces, with small {l_brace}110{r_brace} facets according to the Wulff shape. The Young's modulus, the equilibrium length and the constrained residual stress of a series of prismatic beams of differing sizes is found to have a size dependence that scales like the surface area to volume ratio for all but the smallest beam. The results are compared with two different models (and the results of classical atomistic calculations based on an empirical potential). We discuss the physics of the hydrogen interactions on the surface and the charge density variations within the beam that may account for the discrepancies of the models and the first principles results.

Lee, B; Rudd, R E

2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Flat-plate solar collector handbook: a survey of principles, technical data and evaluation results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report begins with a discussion of flat plate solar collector principles. Evaluation data are presented for thirteen manufacturers of medium temperature collectors that have met the criteria: (a) intention by the manufacturer that the equipment be used only for heating and cooling buildings and for domestic hot water heating and (b) evaluation of the collector by NASA using a solar simulator as a basis for collector selection and performance prediction. (WDM)

Newkirk, H. W.

1976-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

342

First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

First principles calculations of oxygen adsorption on the UN (001) surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication, handling and disposal of nuclear fuel materials require comprehensive knowledge of their surface morphology and reactivity. Due to unavoidable contact with air components (even at low partial pressures), UN samples contain considerable amount of oxygen impurities affecting fuel properties. The basic properties of O atoms adsorbed on the UN(001) surface are simulated here combining the two first principles calculation methods based on the plane wave basis set and that of the localized atomic orbitals.

Zhukovskii, Yuri F; Kotomin, Eugene; Evarestov, Robert; Bandura, Andrey V; 10.1016/j.susc.2008.10.019

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Feynman path integral in area tensor Regge calculus and correspondence principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum measure in area tensor Regge calculus can be constructed in such the way that it reduces to the Feynman path integral describing canonical quantisation if the continuous limit along any of the coordinates is taken. This construction does not necessarily mean that Lorentzian (Euclidean) measure satisfies correspondence principle, that is, takes the form proportional to $e^{iS}$ ($e^{-S}$) where $S$ is the action. Requirement to fit this principle means some restriction on the action, or, in the context of representation of the Regge action in terms of independent rotation matrices (connections), restriction on such representation. We show that the representation based on separate treatment of the selfdual and antiselfdual rotations allows to modify the derivation and give sense to the conditionally convergent integrals to implement both the canonical quantisation and correspondence principles. If configurations are considered such that the measure is factorisable into the product of independent measures on the separate areas (thus far it was just the case in our analysis), the considered modification of the measure does not effect the vacuum expectation values.

V. M. Khatsymovsky

2004-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Gravitational Exclusion Principle and Null States in Anti-de Sitter Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS_3, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signaling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS_3. In particula...

Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Gravitational Exclusion Principle and Null States in Anti-de Sitter Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS_3, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signaling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS_3. In particular, heat kernel methods do not capture the correct spectrum of a theory with null states.

Alejandra Castro; Thomas Hartman; Alexander Maloney

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

347

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health IssuesChapter 3 The Essential Role of Vitamin A in Signal Transduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health Issues Chapter 3 The Essential Role of Vitamin A in Signal Transduction Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

348

Evaluating the effects of essential oils and condensed tannin on fermentation and methane production under in vitro conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effects of essential oils (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) on methane production and fermentation were evaluated under in vitro conditions. Experiment one screened the (more)

Pinski, Brittany

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Nutrition and Biochemistry of PhospholipidsChapter 17 Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrition and Biochemistry of Phospholipids Chapter 17 Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable

350

Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

specific transcription factors and chromatin modifiers. Molunique STAT5 targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation-basedSTAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance

Xu, Ren

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Fluxes in ;Free; and Total Zinc Are Essential for Progression of Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic fluxes in the concentration of ions and small molecules are fundamental features of cell signaling, differentiation, and development. Similar roles for fluxes in transition metal concentrations are less well established. Here, we show that massive zinc fluxes are essential in the infection cycle of an intracellular eukaryotic parasite. Using single-cell quantitative imaging, we show that growth of the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite requires acquisition of 30 million zinc atoms per erythrocyte before host cell rupture, corresponding to a 400% increase in total zinc concentration. Zinc accumulates in a freely available form in parasitophorous compartments outside the food vacuole, including mitochondria. Restriction of zinc availability via small molecule treatment causes a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and severely inhibits parasite growth. Thus, extraordinary zinc acquisition and trafficking are essential for parasite development.

Marvin, Rebecca G.; Wolford, Janet L.; Kidd, Matthew J.; Murphy, Sean; Ward, Jesse; Que, Emily L.; Mayer, Meghan L.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Haldar, Kasturi; O; Halloran, Thomas V. (Michigan); (UWASH); (NWU); (Notre)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Welding and Repair Technology Center: Essential and Emergency Service Water System Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the numerous ASME Code and Regulatory (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) documents addressing operability and repair of through-wall leakage in class 2 and 3 systems, inconsistencies exist in their interpretation and application. This report is intended to summarize and clarify the current Code and Regulatory requirements and provisions applicable to operability and repair of essential and emergency service water systems with leakage through the pressure boundary.

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Tennessee Valley Authority/Bristol Tennessee Essential Services Smart Water Heater Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results and analysis of electric consumption (demand), demographic, and customer satisfaction data collected from Smart Water Heater Pilot participants in summer 2009. The demand response control and data collection are implemented using Carina Technology Inc.'s Water Heater Information Solution for Energy (WISE) units installed at 117 residential sites within Bristol Tennessee Essential Services operating territory. The results from this study provide insight into the data col...

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

354

Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

Johnson, B.H.

1994-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

355

Resilience and survivability in communication networks: Strategies, principles, and survey of disciplines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Internet has become essential to all aspects of modern life, and thus the consequences of network disruption have become increasingly severe. It is widely recognised that the Internet is not sufficiently resilient, survivable, and dependable, and ... Keywords: Availability, Communication network, Critical infrastructure, Defence, Defense, Dependability, Detection, Diagnosis, Disruption tolerance, Fault tolerance, Future Internet resilience, Metrics, Performability, Recovery, Refinement, Reliability, Remediation, Restoration, Security, Survivability

James P. G. Sterbenz; David Hutchison; Egemen K. etinkaya; Abdul Jabbar; Justin P. Rohrer; Marcus Schller; Paul Smith

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

CRC handbook of biosolar resources. Vol. I. Basic principles. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the fundamentals of light absorption processes, photosynthetic pigments, and electron transport systems. Assimilation and dissimilation of the major elements of photosynthetic organisms are discussed. The major biosynthetic pathways essential for the production of biosolar resources are presented along with a general classification of photosynthetic organisms and information on sources and collections.

Mitsui, A.; Black, C.C. (eds.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Comparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria-and fungus-free) vs. non-cleansed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tissue culture derived and natural plants for both genotypes. Although oil yields differed, this may cultivars used for commercial essential oil production are `Sunshine' or very similar cultivars. This workComparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria- and fungus-free) vs. non

Adams, Robert P.

358

Principles and grand challenges for the future: a prospectus for the computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six principles of future learning environments have emerged from the CSCL research community. These include: greater "sightlines" into learner, teacher and peer cognition; an increasingly salient role for modeling; increased connectivity between people, ...

Eric R. Hamilton

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thermal Stabilities of Delithiated Olivine MPO[subscript 4] (M=Fe,Mn) Cathodes investigated using First Principles Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the thermal reduction of delithiated LiMnPO[subscript 4] and LiFePO[subscript 4] based on the quarternary phase diagrams as calculated from first principles. Our results confirm the recent ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

360

Energy Transports by Ocean and Atmosphere Based on an Entropy Extremum Principle. Part 1: Zonal Averaged Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Required global energy transports determined from Nimbus-7 satellite net radiation measurements have been separated into atmospheric and oceanic components by applying a maximum entropy production principle to the atmospheric system. Strong ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Nonholonomic constrains: why does not the least action principle leads to equations describing the motion consistent with the physical behaviour?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The least action principle seems not to lead to equations describing the motion consistent with the physical behavior for nonholonomic constrains. Here an answer to this question in proposed.

Umberto Lucia

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

The maximum energy dissipation principle and phenomenological cooperative and collective effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The collective phenomena in physics and cooperative phenomena in biology/chemistry is compared in terms of the variational description. The maximum energy dissipation principle is employed and the cost-like functional is chosen according to an optimal control based formulation (Moroz, 2008; Moroz, 2009). Using this approach, the variational outline has been considered for non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. The differences between the application of the proposed approach to the description of cooperative phenomena in chemical/biochemical kinetics and the Landau free energy approach to collective phenomena in physics have been investigated.

Moroz, Adam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Covaraint energy-momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recognize the natural covariant extension for energy-momentum in general relativity: energy-momentum in spacetime as opposed to space. The key indicator is the Tolman energy integral for stationary systems. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary dynamic systems reduce to the Tolman integral in the case of stationarity leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy-momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy-momentum.

Cooperstock, F I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Principles of equilibrium statistical mechanics revisited: The idea of vortex energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the law of energy conservation with the fact of matter stability imply the existence of energy complementary to that given by the function of states of interacting systems and treated, with the environment, the function of states of interacting extended systems. The complementary energy, we called it vortex, is integral, not quantized, and causes trends contrary to that prescribed by equilibrium statistical mechanics. We formulate its principles and theorems, and question traditional insights in thermodynamics, entropy law, phase transitions, persistent currents, Brownian motion.

V. E. Shapiro

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

First Principles Study of Double Photoionization of H2 UsingExterior Complex Scaling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exterior complex scaling provides a practical path forfirst-principles studies of atomic and molecular ionizationproblemssince it avoids explicit enforcement of asymptotic boundary conditionsfor 3-body Coulomb breakup. We have used the method of exterior complexscaling, implemented with both the discrete variable representation andB-splines, to obtain the first-order wave function for molecular hydrogencorresponding to a single photon having been absorbed by a correlatedinitial state. These wave functions are used to construct convergedtriple differential cross sections for double photoionization of alignedH2 molecules.

Rescigno, Thomas N.; Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin,Fernando; McCurdy, C. William

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

366

Vane fabrication for the proof-of-principle radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The electrodes for the Proof-of-Principle (POP) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator were machined on a numerically controlled, three-axis, vertical mill. These pole tips, or vanes, were prepared for, and used, in the successful demonstration of RFQ practicality at Los Alamos National Laboratory in February 1980. The data set that described the vanes contained about 10 million bits of tool position data. The vanes were cut from OFHC copper blanks. The tolerances achieved were approximately +- 0.005 cm. The design and manufacturing procedures are described.

Williams, S.W.; Potter, J.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

SRF photoinjector for proof-of-principle experiment of coherent electron cooling at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) based on Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier promises to be a very good way to cool protons and ions at high energies. A proof of principle experiment to demonstrate cooling at 40 GeV/u is under construction at BNL. One of possible sources to provide sufficient quality electron beam for this experiment is a SRF photoinjector. In this paper we discuss design and simulated performance of the photoinjector based on existing 112 MHz SRF gun and newly designed single-cavity SRF linac operating at 704 MHz.

Kayran D.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; et al

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

369

Neutrino-Matter Interaction Rates in Supernovae: The Essential Microphysics of Core Collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrino-matter interaction rates are central to the core collapse phenomenon and, perhaps, to the viability of the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions. In this paper we catalog and discuss the major neutrino scattering, absorption, and production processes that together influence the outcome of core collapse and the cooling of protoneutron stars. These are the essential inputs into the codes used to simulate the supernova phenomenon and an understanding of these processes is a prerequisite to continuing progress in supernova theory.

Adam Burrows; Todd A. Thompson

2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

370

PHMC Year 2000: Status reporting for mission essential Year 2000 projects. Revision 0, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The PHMC Year 2000 status reporting process is designed to encompass the reporting requirements of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), DOE HQ, RL and the PHMC for mission essential Year 2000 projects. Status reporting is required for all Year 2000 projects. The Year 2000 project list will be maintained current as Year 2000 projects are modified, added or deleted. Reporting is required until a Year 2000 project has completed compliance assurance. Some projects will be identified as DOE HQ reportable. These are projects determined to be the most critical and due the attention of DOE HQ.

Layfield, K.A.

1998-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

Scientific/Technical Report Science Literacy Project Award number-DE-FG02-06ER64286  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ball State University (BSU) was the recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy award to develop educational games teaching science and math. The Science Media Program will merge Ball State Universitys nationally recognized capabilities in education, technology, and communication to develop new, interactive, game-based media for the teaching and learning of science and scientific principles for K-12 students. BSU established a team of educators, researchers, scientists, animators, designers, technology specialists, and hired a professional media developer company (Outside Source Design) from Indianapolis. After six months discussions and assessments the project team selected the following 8 games in Math, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, 2 from each discipline. The assembled teams were innovative and unique. This new model of development and production included a process that integrated all needed knowledge and expertise for the development of high quality science and math games for K-12 students. This new model has potential to be used by others for the development of the educational games. The uniqueness of the model is to integrate domain experts knowledge with researchers/quality control group, and combine a professional development team from the game development company with the academic game development team from Computer Science and Art departments at Ball State University. The developed games went through feasibility tests with selected students for improvement before use in the research activities.

Nasseh, Bizhan

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

Heuristic Derivation of Blackbody Radiation Laws using Principles of Dimensional Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized form of Wien's displacement law and the blackbody radiation laws of (a) Rayleigh and Jeans, (b) Rayleigh, (c) Wien and Paschen, (d) Thiesen and (e) Planck are derived using principles of dimensional analysis. This kind of scaling is expressed in a strictly mathematical manner employing dimensional pi-invariants analysis sometimes called Buckingham's pi-theorem. It is shown that in the case of the classical radiation law of Rayleigh and Jeans only one pi number occurs that has to be considered as a non-dimensional universal constant. This pi number may be determined theoretically or/and empirically. It is also shown that dimensional pi-invariants analysis yields a generalized form of Wien's displacement law. In this instance two pi numbers generally occur. Consequently, a universal function is established that is indispensable to avoid the so-called Rayleigh-Jeans catastrophe in the ultraviolet. Unfortunately, such a universal function cannot be inferred from dimensional arguments. It has to be derived theoretically or/and empirically, too. It is shown that such a similarity function can be deduced on the basis of heuristic principles, when criteria like the maximum condition regarding the generalized form of Wien's displacement law, the requirement of the power law of Stefan and Boltzmann, and Ehrenfest's arguments regarding the red and the violet requirements are adopted.

Gerhard Kramm; Fritz Herbert

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Calculation of the electron two slit experiment using a quantum mechanical variational principle  

SciTech Connect

A nonlocal relativistic variational principle (VP) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Dirac wave equation of standard quantum mechanics. We apply that principle to the electron two-slit experiment. The detection system is modelled as a screen made of atoms, any one of which can be excited by the incident electron, but we avoid restricting the detection mechanism further. The VP is shown to predict that, at the time the electron reaches the screen, its wavefunction will be localized to the neighborhood of a single atom, resulting in a position-type measurement. In an ensemble of such experiments ('identically prepared' except that the initial phase of the wavefunction - the hidden variable in the VP formulation - is sampled over the expected uniform distribution), the distribution of measured positions will reproduce the interference pattern predicted by the Dirac equation. We also demonstrate that with a detection system designed fundamentally to detect the electron's transverse wavelength rather than its position, the VP predicts that one such mode will be detected, that is, a wavelength measurement will result. Finally, it is shown that these results are unchanged in the 'delayed choice' variant of the experiment.

Harrison, Alan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

374

First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

J. Karl Johnson

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by chameleon approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin-shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in literature which have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-lambda R_c [1-(R_c/R)^{2n}] in the regime R >> R_c. From the solar-system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter gamma, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the LambdaCDM cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-lambda R_c(R/R_c)^p with 0

Salvatore Capozziello; Shinji Tsujikawa

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

377

First-principles calculation of mechanical properties of Si <001> nanowires and comparison to nanomechanical theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations of the Young's modulus and other mechanical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si {l_angle}001{r_angle} nanowires. The nanowires are taken to have predominantly {l_brace}100{r_brace}surfaces, with small {l_brace}110{r_brace} facets according to the Wulff shape. The Young's modulus, the equilibrium length and the constrained residual stress of a series of prismatic beams of differing sizes are found to have size dependences that scale like the surface area to volume ratio for all but the smallest beam. The results are compared with a continuum model and the results of classical atomistic calculations based on an empirical potential. We attribute the size dependence to specific physical structures and interactions. In particular, the hydrogen interactions on the surface and the charge density variations within the beam are quantified and used both to parameterize the continuum model and to account for the discrepancies between the two models and the first-principles results.

Lee, B; Rudd, R E

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

378

Test of some Fundamental Principles in Physics via Quantum Interference with Neutrons and Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The limitations and possibilities that the concept of quantum interference offers as a tool for testing fundamental physics are explored here. The use of neutron interference as an instrument to confront against measurement readouts some of the principles behind metric theories of gravity will be analyzed, as well as some discrepancies between theory and experiment. The main restrictions that this model embodies for the study of some of the features of the structure of space--time will be explicitly pointed out. For instance, the conditions imposed by the necessary use of the semiclassical approximation. Additionally, the role that photon interference could play as an element in this context is also considered. In this realm we explore the differences between first-order and second-order coherence experiments, and underline the fact that the Hanbury--Brown--Twiss effect could open up some interesting experimental possibilities in the analysis of the structure of space--time. The void, in connection with the description of wave phenomena, implicit in the principles of metric theories is analyzed. The conceptual difficulties, that this void entails, are commented.

Abel Camacho; Abel Camacho-Galvan

2008-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

Essential elements of modeling gas generation from well defined plutonium materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Processing of excess plutonium oxide (and related) materials intended for long-term storage is addressed in DOE standard 3013-2000. The essential elements addressed by this standard are eliminating or reducing to an acceptable level the entities that lead to gas evolution and consequent pressurization of the intended storage container system. Based upon the need to adequately understand and quantify these relevant parameters we briefly describe the current scientific knowledge of gas evolution from such systems. These associated research efforts have included fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies of water interactions at actinide oxide surfaces, radiolytic reactions of adsorbed water, interfacial reactions of hydrogen and oxygen, and radiolytic helium production. Utilizing, where possible, experimental parameters for many of the aforementioned processes we have developed a mathematical model with a minimum number of essential components that successfully models gas generation from well-defined PuO{sub 2} materials with known amounts of deliberately added water. In this work we verify this model against real pressure versus time data (described at greater length in another manuscript in these conference proceedings) and subsequently assure the safety envelope of design criteria for both short- and long-term storage and transportation of these material classes. These modeling results predict pressures and gas phase mole fractions over well-defined DOE 3013 container test cases well in advance of actual long-term surveillance information and provide confidence in safe storage of plutonium oxide material classes.

Paffett, M. T. (Mark T.); Kelly, D. (Daniel)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A study of form-principles affording shielding from atomic fallout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States Department of Defense-Office of Civil Defense has for several years trained architects and engineers in the design of structures to resist atomic blast and for the protection from gamma radiation (hereinafter called "fallout"). The D.O.D.-O.C.D. program, for the moat part, has placed emphasis on methods of calculating "attenuation", which is a measurement of the reduction of radiation through masses of shielding materials, through distance and other means. The calculations determine the amount of shielding afforded by a given structure or design situation; and thus assess that structure's acceptability as a fallout shelter. Thus far, this pragmatic approach has usually resulted in rather strict, utilitarian solutions in the design of shelters, many of which would tend to produce claustrophobia and panic. For example, in the one publication of the D.O.D.-O.C.D. to date showing case studies of shelters incorporated into hypothetical buildings, two out of four examples shown are basement shelters, and none of the four permit any natural light or natural ventilation. None succeed in making the space functional and inhabitable primarily for its normal day-to-day use without having foreboding shelter connotations. None of the four case studies permit any psychological outlets, several of which are possible, such as a) Occupants may be permitted secondary contact with the outside through indirect natural light and direct sound; b) Occupants may, by stepping around a corner, be able to see directly out with minor exposure; c) Occupants may even be permitted a complete exposure to the out-of-doors for a moment without endangering the other shelter occupants. All of this is feasible and desirable. It appears that designing for fallout will be an increasing factor in all types of structures in the foreseeable future. To assist architects with such design problems, this thesis is being written to investigate certain form-principles supplementing those generally used in shelter design. It also tests the validity of these form-principles through application of the D.O.D.-O.C.D. procedures to provide architects with positive design tools in this specialized field of design. Finally, it shows the incorporation of the form-principles into a hypothetical design.

Lanford, Samuel Taylor

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Essential Role in Modern Science William E. Johnston, ESnet Adviser and Senior Scientist  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evolution of Research and Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science William E. Johnston, ESnet Adviser and Senior Scientist Chin Guok, Evangelos Chaniotakis, Kevin Oberman, Eli Dart, Joe Metzger and Mike O'Conner, Core Engineering, Brian Tierney, Advanced Development, Mike Helm and Dhiva Muruganantham, Federated Trust Steve Cotter, Department Head wej@es.net, this talk is available at www.es.net Energy Sciences Network Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Networking for the Future of Science TERENA Networking Conference 2009 2 DOE Office of Science and ESnet - the ESnet Mission * The Office of Science (SC) is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, providing more than 40 percent of total funding for US research programs in high-energy

382

Teaming/Subcontracting Essential to Small Business Success Presented by: Tiki Dixon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Teaming/Subcontracting Teaming/Subcontracting Essential to Small Business Success Presented by: Tiki Dixon Vice President, Tetra Tech Dating Opportunities with Large Business * Blind date * Caught my eye * Formal introduction Right time, right place 2 Building a Relationship with Large Business * Talking to the right person * Expectations of the relationship * Focusing on core company capabilities * Investing in the relationship Where are we going? 3 Engagement to Each Other * Building on a trusting relationship * Proven interest in each other * Ready for next step Send out invitations 4 Will you Marry Me? * Dating was successful * Engagement was great * Ready for formal/ informal relationship Next step ... Prime Contractor 5 Tetra Tech Mentor/Protégé Agreements

383

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS)  

SciTech Connect

During the previous quarter, it was noted that understanding the rheology of polymeric additives used in enhancing the stability of the CWS was essential in meeting the project objectives. Thus, further review of the literature was carried out to gain information on the rheology of polymeric additives, particularly at high shear rates. Philippoff and Hess [1] reported the existence of four distinct flow regions in the behavior of flow curve analysis of polymer solutions (Figure 1). These regions are characterized by (1) A Newtonian Region; (2) A non-Newtonian pseudoplastic region; (3) A second Newtonian region at high shear rates 10[sup 5] to 10[sup 6] sec[sup [minus]1]; (4) and a region of steepening slope identified as the onset of turbulence. Efforts during this past quarter were therefore directed towards the study of high shear rheology of the CWS.

Ohene, F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

DOE Office of Indian Energy Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Financing Essentials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tribal Renewable Energy Project Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Financing Essentials Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs is responsible for assisting Tribes with energy planning and development, infrastructure, energy costs, and electrification of Indian lands and homes. As part of this commitment and on behalf of DOE, the Office of Indian Energy is leading education and capacity building efforts in Indian Country. 2 About the Speaker Elizabeth Doris * Senior Project Leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) * Specializes in strategies for developing clean energy technologies in public and private markets * Project manager for the DOE Office of Indian Energy project team at NREL 3 Why Complete a Renewable Energy Project?

385

Covariant energy-momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recognize the natural covariant extension for energy-momentum in general relativity: energy-momentum in spacetime as opposed to space. The key indicator is the Tolman energy integral for stationary systems. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary dynamic systems reduce to the Tolman integral in the case of stationarity leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy-momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and it is recognized that the field of freely-falling observers extract the global Tolman energy. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy-momentum.

F. I. Cooperstock; M. J. Dupre

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

386

Substrate-induced magnetism in BN layer: A first-principles study  

SciTech Connect

We predict an accepted configuration of hexagonal boron nitride (BN) layer on Co(111) surface by first-principles calculations. The calculated adsorption energy of this configuration is around -0.51 eV with a corrugation close to 0.1 . Polarized spin states are induced in BN layer due to the hybridization of the BN layer with the substrate Co, which gives rise to a magnetic moment of 0.2 ?B on each pair of BN. The finding of high spin polarization on the absorbed BN layer ensures a high degree of passage of the preferred spin and is important in the development of nanoscale devices for spintronics applications.

Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

First-Principles Simulations of High-Speed Combustion and Detonation |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago, Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin and Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign. First-Principles Simulations of High-Speed Combustion and Detonation PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 150 Million Year: 2014

388

Cohesion enhancing effect of magnesium in aluminum grain boundary: A first-principles determination  

SciTech Connect

The effect of magnesium on grain boundary cohesion in aluminum was investigated by means of first-principles calculations using the Rice-Wang model [Rice and Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 107, 23 (1989)]. It is demonstrated that magnesium is a cohesion enhancer with a potency of -0.11 eV/atom. It is further determined through electronic structure and bonding character analysis that the cohesion enhancing property of magnesium is due to a charge transfer mechanism which is unusually strong and overcomes the negative result of the size effect mechanism. Consistent with experimental results, this work clarifies the controversy and establishes that Mg segregation does not contribute to stress corrosion cracking in Al alloys.

Zhang Shengjun; Freeman, Arthur J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Kontsevoi, Oleg Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Olson, Gregory B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

An approach to first principles electronic structure calculation by symbolic-numeric computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article is an introduction to a new approach to first principles electronic structure calculation. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equation, in which molecular integrals are approximated by polynomials by way of Taylor expansion with respect to atomic coordinates and other variables. It leads to a set of polynomial equations whose solutions are eigenstate, which is designated as algebraic molecular orbital equation. Symbolic computation, especially, Gr\\"obner bases theory, enables us to rewrite the polynomial equations into more trimmed and tractable forms with identical roots, from which we can unravel the relationship between physical parameters (wave function, atomic coordinates, and others) and numerically evaluate them one by one in order. Furthermore, this method is a unified way to solve the electronic structure calculation, the optimization of physical parameters, and the inverse problem as a forward problem.

Kikuchi, Akihito

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Whitehead's Principle of Relativity - Unpublished Lectures by J. L. Synge, FRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Appendix B, there is a proposal about the Limb Effect which could be of great significance for Solar Physics. In his PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY, Cambridge University Press, 1922 (republished Dover, 2004) A. N. Whitehead, making no use of ''curved'' space-time, derived the same values as Einstein for the red-shift, perihelion advance and the deflection of light. Synge expounds Whitehead's arguments in modern notation making it more accessible for contemporary Physicists but also obtains the Shapiro retardation of electromagnetic radiation by a gravitational field. Synge compares Einstein's GRT and Whitehead's PR, finding the observational evidence equally strong for both theories. He alluded to Whitehead's prediction of a Limb Effect remarking that to pursue its consequences would require a knowledge of QM which did not exist in 1922. Possibly this was not done because of physicist's Obsession with GRT since 1919.

John Coleman

2005-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J. [eds.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Re-thinking the Rubric for Grading the CUE: The Superposition Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While introductory electricity and magnetism (E&M) has been investigated for decades, research at the upper-division is relatively new. The University of Colorado has developed the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics (CUE) Diagnostic to test students' understanding of the content of the first semester of an upper-division E&M course. While the questions on the CUE cover many learning goals in an appropriate manner, we believe the rubric for the CUE is particularly aligned to the topics and methods of teaching at the University of Colorado. We suggest that changes to the rubric would allow for better assessment of a wider range of teaching schemes. As an example, we highlight one problem from the CUE involving the superposition principle. Using data from both Oregon State University and the University of Colorado, we discuss the limitations of the current rubric, compare results using a different analysis scheme, and discuss the implications for assessing students' understanding.

Zwolak, Justyna P; Manogue, Corinne A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

First principles T-matrix calculations for Auger spectra of hydrocarbon systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Auger spectra of hydrocarbon systems (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 6} molecules) are calculated from the first principles using Green's function method based on the many-body perturbation theory beyond the framework of the density functional theory. The ladder approximation to the two-particle Green's function (T matrix), which describes the short-range electron correlations between two holes or electrons, can accurately determine in a single calculation the whole spectrum of doubly ionized final states of the Auger process. The two-particle eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are determined from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the T matrix. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru; Solovyev, Igor; Sasaki, Taizo [Computational Materials Science Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Computational Materials Science Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Position-sensitive detection of slow neutrons: Survey of fundamental principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper sets forth the fundamental principles governing the development of position-sensitive detection systems for slow neutrons. Since neutrons are only weakly interacting with most materials, it is not generally practical to detect slow neutrons directly. Therefore all practical slow neutron detection mechanisms depend on the use of nuclear reactions to ``convert`` the neutron to one or more charged particles, followed by the subsequent detection of the charged particles. The different conversion reactions which can be used are discussed, along with the relative merits of each. This is followed with a discussion of the various methods of charged particle detection, how these lend themselves to position-sensitive encoding, and the means of position encoding which can be applied to each case. Detector performance characteristics which may be of importance to the end user are discussed and related to these various detection and position-encoding mechanisms.

Crawford, R.K.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Position-sensitive detection of slow neutrons: Survey of fundamental principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper sets forth the fundamental principles governing the development of position-sensitive detection systems for slow neutrons. Since neutrons are only weakly interacting with most materials, it is not generally practical to detect slow neutrons directly. Therefore all practical slow neutron detection mechanisms depend on the use of nuclear reactions to convert'' the neutron to one or more charged particles, followed by the subsequent detection of the charged particles. The different conversion reactions which can be used are discussed, along with the relative merits of each. This is followed with a discussion of the various methods of charged particle detection, how these lend themselves to position-sensitive encoding, and the means of position encoding which can be applied to each case. Detector performance characteristics which may be of importance to the end user are discussed and related to these various detection and position-encoding mechanisms.

Crawford, R.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Effect of Uncertainty Principle on the Thermodynamics of Early Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the concept of measurement in cosmology from the relativistic and quantum mechanical points of view. The uncertainty principle within the particle horizon, excludes the momentum of particles to be less than $\\pi\\hbar H/c$. This effect modifies the standard thermodynamics of early universe for the ultra-relativistic particles such that the equation of state as well as dependence of energy density and pressure to the temperature. We show that this modification to the thermodynamics of early universe is important for energies $E>10^{17} GeV$. During the inflation, the particle horizon inflates to a huge size and makes the uncertainty in the momentum to be negligible.

S. Rahvar; M. Sadegh Movahed; M Saadat

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

First-principles study of the critical thickness in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions  

SciTech Connect

The absent critical thickness of fully relaxed asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions is investigated by first-principles calculations. The results show that PbTiO{sub 3} thin film between Pt and SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes can still retain a significant and stable polarization down to thicknesses as small as 0.8 nm, quite unlike the case of symmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions. We trace this surprising result to the generation of a large electric field by the charge transfer between the electrodes caused by their different electronic environments, which acts against the depolarization field and enhances the ferroelectricity, leading to the reduction, or even complete elimination, for the critical thickness.

Cai Mengqiu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China); Du Yong; Huang Boyun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

398

Dose rates from induced activity in the ELMO Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle device  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Calculated results of the dose rates from induced activity in the enclosure of the ELMO Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle device (EBT-P) are presented. A cylindrical model of EBT-P is used. EBT-P will have a hydrogen plasma and thus the plasma will not produce neutrons, but substantial numbers of photoneutrons will be produced and it is the induced activity from these photoneutrons that is considered. The activation dose rates are presented for a variety of operating times and times after shutdown. Dose rates about 5 to 10 mrem/h at 1 h after shutdown are obtained and the major contributor to the dose rate at 1 h after shutdown is found to be /sup 24/Na (half-life=15.0 h).

Alsmiller, R.G.; Barish, J.; Barnes, J.M.; Santoro, R.T.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Human Factors Principles in Design of Computer-Mediated Visualization for Robot Missions  

SciTech Connect

With increased use of robots as a resource in missions supporting countermine, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and chemical, biological, radiological nuclear and conventional explosives (CBRNE), fully understanding the best means by which to complement the human operators underlying perceptual and cognitive processes could not be more important. Consistent with control and display integration practices in many other high technology computer-supported applications, current robotic design practices rely highly upon static guidelines and design heuristics that reflect the expertise and experience of the individual designer. In order to use what we know about human factors (HF) to drive human robot interaction (HRI) design, this paper reviews underlying human perception and cognition principles and shows how they were applied to a threat detection domain.

David I Gertman; David J Bruemmer

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mn Monolayer Modified Rh for Syngas-to-Ethanol Conversion: A First-Principles Study  

SciTech Connect

Rh is unique in its ability to convert syngas to ethanol with the help of promoters. We performed systematic first-principles computations to examine the catalytic performance of pure and Mn modified Rh(100) surfaces for ethanol formation from syngas. CO dissociation on the surface as well as CO insertion between the chemisorbed CH{sub 3} and the surface are the two key steps. The CO dissociation barrier on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is remarkably lowered by {approx}1.5 eV compared to that on Rh(100). Moreover, the reaction barrier of CO insertion into the chemisorbed CH{sub 3} group on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is 0.34 eV lower than that of methane formation. Thus the present work provides new mechanistic insight into the role of Mn promoters in improving Rh's selectivity to convert syngas to ethanol.

Li, Fengyu [University of Puerto Rico; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Zeng, X.C. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Chen, Zhongfang [University of Puerto Rico

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "literacy essential principles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Foundations of Special Relativity and the Principle of Conservation of Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The theory of special relativity can be generalized by means of a new principle called Conservation of Information. This allows a derivation of the constancy of the velocity of light with respect to moving frames, and, consequently, of Einstein's special relativity. The analysis is based on a review of the concept of observer. It is put forward that observers are not uniquely defined and that an observational asymmetry, defined by the different ways in which light influences observations, lies at the origin of the non-absolutism of time. This observational difference is a kinematic condition, not an exclusive result for light, implying that non-absolutism of time may have a cause different from the electromagnetic nature of light. The Lorentz transformations are rederived and different concepts of the velocity of light, relative to different classes of observers, are considered.

C. Pombo; Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen

2006-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

402

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INLs Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Jaynes' Maximum Entropy Principle, Riemannian Metrics and Generalised Least Action Bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The set of solutions inferred by the generic maximum entropy (MaxEnt) or maximum relative entropy (MaxREnt) principles of Jaynes - considered as a function of the moment constraints or their conjugate Lagrangian multipliers - is endowed with a Riemannian geometric description, based on the second differential tensor of the entropy or its Legendre transform (negative Massieu function). The analysis provides a generalised {\\it least action bound} applicable to all Jaynesian systems, which provides a lower bound to the cost (in generic entropy units) of a transition between inferred positions along a specified path, at specified rates of change of the control parameters. The analysis therefore extends the concepts of "finite time thermodynamics" to the generic Jaynes domain, providing a link between purely static (stationary) inferred positions of a system, and dynamic transitions between these positions (as a function of time or some other coordinate). If the path is unspecified, the analysis gives an absolute lower bound for the cost of the transition, corresponding to the geodesic of the Riemannian hypersurface. The analysis is applied to (i) an equilibrium thermodynamic system subject to mean internal energy and volume constraints, and (ii) a flow system at steady state, subject to constraints on the mean heat, mass and momentum fluxes and chemical reaction rates. The first example recovers the {\\it minimum entropy cost} of a transition between equilibrium positions, a widely used result of finite-time thermodynamics. The second example leads to a new {\\it minimum entropy production principle}, for the cost of a transition between steady state positions of a flow system.

Robert K. Niven; Bjarne Andresen

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

A study of pseudoresonances in the application of the Schwinger variational principle to electron scattering from atomic hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Schwinger variational principle is applied to s-wave electron-hydrogen atom scattering. Computationally, consistent with a recent paper by Apagyi et al. (1988), there are pseudoresonances at the static exchange level of approximation, but not at the static level. The T-matrix as well as the K-matrix version of the Schwinger principle is used with a real Slater basis, and the same results are obtained in both. The origin of the pseudoresonances from singularities in the separable potential that is effectively employed in the Lippman-Schwinger equation from which the Schwinger variational principle can be derived. The determination of the pseudoresonance parameters from the separable potential is computationally inexpensive and may be used to predict the pseudoresonance parameters for the scattering calculations so as to avoid them. 19 refs.

Weatherford, C.A.; Odom, G.; Tucker, R. (Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

At Rice, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) is a dynamic and broad disci-pline that uses principles in mathematics, physics, and chemistry to address the challenges in engineer-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

languages in the world have no written tradition For many others, limited literacy, or no electricity let, especially for phones Spelling and grammar checkers Online dictionaries and thesauri Translation software generated this way Upshot: lots of text needed for training... #12;An Crúbadán Web crawler that seeks out

Palem, Krishna V.

407

Superposition Principle and the Problem of the Additivity of the Energies and Momenta of Distinct Electromagnetic Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we prove in a rigorous mathematical way (using the Clifford bundle formalism) that the energies and momenta of two distinct and arbitrary free Maxwell fields (of finite energies and momenta) that are superposed are additive and thus that there is no incompatibility between the principle of superposition of fields and the principle of energy-momentum conservation, contrary to some recent claims. Our proof depends on a noticeable formula for the energy-momentum 1-form fields T^{a},namely Riesz formula, which is valid for any electromagnetic field configuration F satisfying Maxwell equation.

Eduardo Notte-Cuello; Waldyr A. Rodrigues Jr

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

Essential role of Chk1 in S phase progression through regulation of RNR2 expression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chk1 is an essential kinase for maintaining genome integrity and cell cycle checkpoints through phosphorylating several downstream targets. Recently, we demonstrated that Chk1 is also required for cell proliferation in somatic cells under unperturbed condition through regulating transcription of several genes. Here, we show that Chk1 is required for S phase progression and RNR2 is a critical downstream target of genes transcriptionally regulated by Chk1. Hence, although RNR2 expression reached maximum at S phase in the presence of Chk1, Chk1 depletion arrested the cell cycle at S phase and reduced RNR2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Ectopic expression of RNR2 failed to rescue the S phase arrest observed in Chk1 depleted cells, suggesting the presence of an additional Chk1-target(s) for completion of S phase other than RNR2. Therefore, our results suggest that Chk1 is required for DNA replication at least through regulating RNR2 gene transcription.

Naruyama, Hiromichi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori; Niida, Hiroyuki; Zineldeen, Doaa H. [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Kohri, Kenjiro [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nakanishi, Makoto [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)], E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

409

Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor  

SciTech Connect

Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (UMM)

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

410

Neutron spectrometry - An essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DT neutron yield (Y{sub n}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the redundancy required for reliable measurements of Yn, Ti and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density ({rho}R) is determined from the relationship {rho}R{sub tot} (g/cm{sup 2}) = (20.4 {+-} 0.6) x dsr{sub 10-12 MeV}. The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration. The spectrometers are now performing to the required accuracy, as indicated by the good agreement between the different measurements over several commissioning shots. In addition, recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental Ignition Threshold Factor (ITFx) which is a function of dsr (or fuel {rho}R) and Y{sub n}, has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.

Mackinnon, A J; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Seguin, F H; Petrasso, R; Ashabranner, R; Cerjan, C; Clancy, T J; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Capenter, A; Eckart, M J; Edwards, M J; Friedrich, S; Glenzer, S H; Haan, S W; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hachett, S P; McKernan, M; Jones, O; Lepape, S; Lerche, R A; Landen, O L; Moran, M; Moses, E; Munro, D; McNaney, J; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Spears, B; Springer, P; Yeamans, C; Farrell, M; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Paguio, R; Knauer, J; Glebov, V; Sangster, T; Betti, R; Stoeckl, C; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Grim, G P; Moran, G L; Murphy, T J; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

411

Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Application of exemption principles to low-level waste disposal and recycle of wastes from nuclear facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other international groups are considering exempting from regulatory control certain radiation sources and practices, initially under the general heading of de minimis. A significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that the associated risks to health are trivial. IAEA work has been conducted by Advisory Groups to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. In the second area, the main objectives have been to illustrate a methodology for developing practical radiological criteria through the application of the IAEA preliminary exemption principles, to establish generic criteria, and to determine the practicability of the preliminary exemption principles. The method used relies on a modeling assessment of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of materials. This paper describes the IAEA's assessment methodology and presents the generic results expressed in terms of the limiting activity concentration in municipal waste and in low-activity materials for recycle and reuse. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hemming, C.R.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Linsley, G.S.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Lighting Fundamentals Handbook: Lighting Fundamentals and Principals for Utility Personnel: Lighting Fundamentals and Principles for Utility Personnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This comprehensive EPRI handbook provides basic information on lighting principles, lighting equipment, and issues related to lighting design. It is intended as a primer and reference for utility personnel involved in commercial and industrial lighting programs as well as customer assistance.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

First-principles quantum transport modeling of thermoelectricity in single-molecule nanojunctions with graphene nanoribbon electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We overview the nonequilibrium Green function combined with density functional theory (NEGF-DFT) approach to modeling of independent electronic and phononic quantum transport in nanoscale thermoelectrics with examples focused on a new class of devices ... Keywords: First-principles quantum transport, Graphene nanoribbons, Molecular electronics, Thermoelectrics

Branislav K. Nikoli?; Kamal K. Saha; Troels Markussen; Kristian S. Thygesen

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

272 JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 4, APRIL 2013 First-Principle Electronic Properties of Dilute-As  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

structure, dilute-As GaNAs, First-Principle, lasers, light-emitting diodes. I. INTRODUCTION GROUP III-Nitride compound plays a critical role in the optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs for the laser and light emitting diode applications. Due to the technological importance that is potentially

Gilchrist, James F.

416

Press On: Principles of Interaction Programming by Harold Thimbleby Providing the insights, concepts and programming tools to improve usability,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems and devices if we draw on sound computer science principles. Mathematica Demystified by Jim Hoste from your very first calculation all the way to plotting complex fractals in Mathematica. Excel 2010 Lombard Covering all the features of SolidWorks, this thorough guide explains best practices, and provides

Vasilyev, Oleg V.

417

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Hollow-Anode Plasma  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

36240 36240 Plasma Sources Science and Technology 4 (1995) 571-575. Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through the anode hole and forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity (Mach number 1.2). The plasma stream can be used, for instance, in plasma-assisted deposition of thin films

418

An extended multiscale principle of virtual velocities approach for evolving microstructure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hierarchical multiscale approach is presented for modeling microstructure evolution in heterogeneous materials. Preservation of momentum across each scale transition is incorporated through the application of the principle of virtual velocities at the fine scale giving rise to the appropriate continuum momentum balance equations at the coarse scale. In addition to satisfying momentum balance and invariance of momentum among scales, invariance of elastic free energy, stored free energy, and dissipation between two scales of observation is regarded as crucial to the physics of each scale transition. The preservation of this energy partitioning scheme is obtained through construction of constitutive relations within the framework of internal state variable theory. Internal state variables that are directly computed from the fine scale response are introduced to augment the state equations and describe the inelastic energy storage and dissipation within the fine scale. Evolution equations for these internal state variables must be consistent with the observed dissipation at the fine scale. By virtue of a second gradient kinematic decomposition, the framework naturally gives rise to couple stresses.

Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Kinetics of chemical ordering in a Ag-Pt nanoalloy particle via first-principles simulations  

SciTech Connect

The energetics and kinetic energy barriers of vacancy/atom exchange in a 37-atom truncated octahedron Ag-Pt binary cluster in the Ag-rich range of compositions are investigated via a first-principles atomistic approach. The energy of the local minima obtained considering various distributions of a single vacancy and a few Pt atoms within the cluster and the energy barriers connecting them are evaluated using accurate density-functional calculations. The effects of the simultaneous presence of a vacancy and Pt atoms are found to be simply additive when their distances are larger than first-neighbors, whereas when they can be stabilizing at low Pt content due to the release of strain by the Pt/vacancy interaction or destabilizing close to a perfect Pt(core)/Ag(shell) arrangement. It is found that alloying with Pt appreciably increases the barriers for homotops transformations, thus rationalizing the issues encountered at the experimental level in producing Ag-Pt equilibrated nanoparticles and bulk phase diagram.

Negreiros, F. R.; Fortunelli, A. [CNR-IPCF, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Molecular Modeling Laboratory, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I56124 (Italy); Taherkhani, F. [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsafar, G. [Department of Chemistry and Nanotechnology Center, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caro, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Division of Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium  

SciTech Connect

While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Method of analysis of the spatial galaxy distribution at gigaparsec scales. I. Initial principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initial principles of a method of analysis of the luminous matter spatial distribution with sizes about thousands Mpc are presented. The method is based on an analysis of the photometric redshift distribution N(z) in the deep fields with large redshift bins \\Deltaz=0.1{\\div}0.3. Number density fluctuations in the bins are conditioned by the Poisson's noise, the correlated structures and the systematic errors of the photo-z determination. The method includes covering of a sufficiently large region on the sky by a net of the deep multiband surveys with the sell size about 10^{\\circ}x10^{\\circ} where individual deep fields have angular size about 10'x10' and may be observed at telescopes having diameters 3-10 meters. The distributions of photo-z within each deep field will give information about the radial extension of the super large structures while a comparison of the individual radial distributions of the net of the deep fields will give information on the tangential extension of the super large structures. ...

Nabokov, Nikita

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Water confined in nanotubes and between graphene sheets: A first principle study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water confined at the nanoscale has been the focus of numerous experimental and theoretical investigations in recent years, y yet there is no consensus on such basic properties et as diffusion and the nature of hydrogen bonding (HB) under confinement. Unraveling these properties is important to understand fluid flow and transport at the nanoscale, and to shed light on the solvation of biomolecules. Here we report on a first principle, computational study focusing on water confined between prototypical non polar substrate, i.e. , single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets, 1 to 2.5 nm apart. The results of our molecular dynamics simulations show the presence of a thin, interfacial liquid layer ({approx} 5 Angstroms) whose microscopic structure and thickness are independent of the distance between confining layers. The prop properties of the hydrogen bonded network are very similar to those of the bulk outside the interfacial region, even in the case of strong confinement , confinement. Our findings indicate that the perturbation induced by the presence of confining media is extremely local in liquid water, and we propose that many of the effects attributed to novel phases under confinement are determined by subtle electronic structure rearrangements occurring at the interface with the confining medium.

Cicero, G; Grossman, J C; Schwegler, E; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Developing Research Capabilities in Energy Biosciences: Design principles of photosynthetic biofuel production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure is not sustainable. Solar radiation is a plausible alternative, but realizing it as such will require significant technological advances in the ability to harvest light energy and convert it into suitable fuels. The biological system of photosynthesis can carry out these reactions, and in principle could be engineered using the tools of synthetic biology. One desirable implementation would be to rewire the reactions of a photosynthetic bacterium to direct the energy harvested from solar radiation into the synthesis of the biofuel H2. Proposed here is a series of experiments to lay the basic science groundwork for such an attempt. The goal is to elucidate the transcriptional network of photosynthesis using a novel driver-reporter screen, evolve more robust hydrogenases for improved catalysis, and to test the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to directly produce H2 in vivo. The results of these experiments will have broad implications for the understanding of photosynthesis, enzyme function, and the engineering of biological systems for sustainable energy production. The ultimate impact could be a fundamental transformation of the world's energy economy.

Donald D. Brown; David Savage

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Status of proof-of-principle experiment for coherent electron cooling  

SciTech Connect

Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron colliders. To verify the concept we conduct proof-of-the-principle experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we describe the current experimental setup to be installed into 2 o'clock RHIC interaction regions. We present current design, status of equipment acquisition and estimates for the expected beam parameters. We use a dogleg to merge the electron and ion beams. The ions 'imprint' their distribution into the electron beam via a space charge density modulation. The modulation is amplified in an FEL comprised of a 7-m long helical wiggler. The ions are co-propagating with electron beam through the FEL. The ion's average velocity is matched to the group velocity of the wave-packet of e-beam density modulation in the FEL. A three-pole wiggler at the exit of the FEL tune the phase of the wave-packet so the ion with the central energy experience the maximum of the e-beam density modulation, where electric field is zero. The time-of-flight dependence on ion's provides for the electrical field caused by the density modulation to reduce energy spread of the ion beam. The used electron beam is bent off the ion path and damped.

Pinayev I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Bengtsson, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Elizarov, A. et al

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Principles and practices of irradiation creep experiment using pressurized mini-bellows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is to describe the key design principles and application practices of the newly developed in-reactor irradiation creep testing technology using pressurized mini-bellows. Miniature creep test frames were designed to fit into the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) rabbit capsule whose internal diameter is slightly less than 10 mm. The most important consideration for this in-reactor creep testing technology was the ability of the small pressurized metallic bellows to survive irradiation at elevated temperatures while maintaining applied load to the specimen. Conceptual designs have been developed for inducing tension and compression stresses in specimens. Both the theoretical model and the in-furnace test confirmed that a gas-pressurized bellows can produce high enough stress to induce irradiation creep in subsize specimens. Discussion focuses on the possible stress range in specimens induced by the miniature gas-pressurized bellows and the limitations imposed by the size and structure of thin-walled bellows. A brief introduction to the in-reactor creep experiment for graphite is provided to connect to the companion paper describing the application practices and irradiation creep data. An experimental and calculation procedure to obtain in-situ applied stress values from post irradiation in-furnace force measurements is also presented.

Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Li, Meimei [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A first-principles approach to total-dose hardness assurance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-principles approach to radiation hardness assurance was described that provides the technical background to the present US and European total-dose radiation hardness assurance test methods for MOS technologies, TM 1019.4 and BS 22900. These test methods could not have been developed otherwise, as their existence depends not on a wealth of empirical comparisons of IC data from ground and space testing, but on a fundamental understanding of MOS defect growth and annealing processes. Rebound testing should become less of a problem for advanced MOS small-signal electronics technologies for systems with total dose requirements below 50--100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) because of trends toward much thinner gate oxides. For older technologies with thicker gate oxides and for power devices, rebound testing is unavoidable without detailed characterization studies to assess the impact of interface traps on devices response in space. The QML approach is promising for future hardened technologies. A sufficient understanding of process effects on radiation hardness has been developed that should be able to reduce testing costs in the future for hardened parts. Finally, it is hoped that the above discussions have demonstrated that the foundation for cost-effective hardness assurance tests is laid with studies of the basic mechanisms of radiation effects. Without a diligent assessment of new radiation effects mechanisms in future technologies, one cannot be assured that the present generation of radiation test standards will continue to apply.

Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Technology and Assurance Dept.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

The inverse conjecture for the Gowers norm over finite fields via the correspondence principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inverse conjecture for the Gowers norms $U^d(V)$ for finite-dimensional vector spaces $V$ over a finite field $\\F$ asserts, roughly speaking, that a bounded function $f$ has large Gowers norm $\\|f\\|_{U^d(V)}$ if and only if it correlates with a phase polynomial $\\phi = e_\\F(P)$ of degree at most $d-1$, thus $P: V \\to \\F$ is a polynomial of degree at most $d-1$. In this paper, we develop a variant of the Furstenberg correspondence principle which allows us to establish this conjecture in the large characteristic case $\\charac(F) \\geq d$ from an ergodic theory counterpart, which was recently established by Bergelson and the authors. In low characteristic we obtain a partial result, in which the phase polynomial $\\phi$ is allowed to be of some larger degree $C(d)$. The full inverse conjecture remains open in low characteristic; the counterexamples by Lovett-Meshulam-Samorodnitsky or Green-Tao in this setting can be avoided by a slight reformulation of the conjecture.

Tao, Terence

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Ultra-high hydrogen storage capacity of Li-decorated graphyne: A first-principles prediction  

SciTech Connect

Graphyne, consisting of sp- and sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms, is a new member of carbon allotropes which has a natural porous structure. Here, we report our first-principles calculations on the possibility of Li-decorated graphyne as a hydrogen storage medium. We predict that Li-doping significantly enhances the hydrogen storage ability of graphyne compared to that of pristine graphyne, which can be attributed to the polarization of H{sub 2} molecules induced by the charge transfer from Li atoms to graphyne. The favorite H{sub 2} molecules adsorption configurations on a single side and on both sides of a Li-decorated graphyne layer are determined. When Li atoms are adsorbed on one side of graphyne, each Li can bind four H{sub 2} molecules, corresponding to a hydrogen storage capacity of 9.26 wt. %. The hydrogen storage capacity can be further improved to 15.15 wt. % as graphyne is decorated by Li atoms on both sides, with an optimal average binding energy of 0.226 eV/H{sub 2}. The results show that the Li-decorated graphyne can serve as a high capacity hydrogen storage medium.

Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Meng; Zhao Lixia; Luo Youhua [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Mingwen; Bu Hongxia; He Xiujie [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 Shandong (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints  

SciTech Connect

The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

Munro, J.F.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of half-Heulser alloy YPdSb from first principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of ternary half-Heusler compound YPdSb are investigated using the first principle calculations. It is found that YPdSb is an indirect semiconductor. The calculated band gap is 0.161 eV with spin-orbital coupling including and 0.235 eV without spin-orbital coupling including, respectively. The electronic transport properties are obtained via Boltzman transport theory. The predicted Seebeck coefficient is 240 {mu}V/K and the thermoelectric performance can be optimized by n-type doping at room temperature. Moreover, the lattice dynamical results regarding the phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states and thermodynamic properties are reported. Thermodynamics (heat capacity and Debye temperature) as well as mean phonon free path and the thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 0-300 K are determined. - Graphical Abstract: (a) The dependence of the Seebeck coefficient on chemical potential at 300 K. (b) The dependence of the thermopower factor on chemical potential at 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Seebeck coefficient and the thermopower factor are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties are obtained.

Kong, Fanjie, E-mail: fanjiekong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Hu, Yanfei [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)] [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hou, Haijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Liu, Yanhua [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Baolin [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Lili [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Proactive Management of Materials Degradation - A Review of Principles and Programs  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken a program to lay the technical foundation for defining proactive actions so that future degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs) is limited and, thereby, does not diminish either the integrity of important LWR components or the safety of operating plants. This technical letter report was prepared by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the NRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and relies heavily on work that was completed by Dr. Joseph Muscara and documented in NUREG/CR-6923. This report concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to prognostics, provides a review of programs related to PMMD being conducted worldwide, and provides an assessment of the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed. This technical letter report is timely because the majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal, and many plants are also applying for increases in power rating. Both of these changes could increase the likelihood of materials degradation and underline, therefore, the interest in proactive management in the future.

Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Taylor, Theodore T.

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

First principles calculation of finite temperature magnetism in Fe and Fe3C  

SciTech Connect

Density functional calculations have proven to be a useful tool in the study of ground state properties of many materials. The investigation of finite temperature magnetism, on the other hand, has to rely usually on the usage of empirical models that allow the large number of evaluations of the systems Hamiltonian that are required to obtain the phase space sampling needed to obtain the free energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility, and other quantities as function of temperature. We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses the computational power of today s large massively parallel computers by combining a classical Wang Landau Monte-Carlo calculation [F. Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001)] with our first principles multiple scattering electronic structure code [Y. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2867 (1995)] that allows the energy calculation of constrained magnetic states [M. Eisenbach et al., Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, New York, 2009)]. We present our calculations of finite temperature properties of Fe and Fe3C using this approach and we find the Curie temperatures to be 980 and 425K, respectively. VC2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562218

Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Brown, Greg [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Microsoft Project: Essentials for Beginners This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials Costs Constraints and deadlines Project monitoring Printing Course Format: This is a oneMicrosoft Project: Essentials for Beginners Overview: This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing you to Microsoft Project 2007. The course covers the important

Frean, Marcus

436

CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide: Exams 220-701 (Essentials) and 220-702 (Practical Application)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Essential Study Tool for the 2009 Edition of the CompTIA A+ Exams The CompTIA A+ certification is the industry standard in terms of measuring a technician's hardware and software knowledge. As the most popular entry-level certification, it is particularly ...

Quentin Docter; Emmett Dulaney; Toby Skandier

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

First Principles Simulations fo the Supercritical Behavior of Ore Forming Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Abstract of Selected Research Progress: I. First-principles simulation of solvation structure and deprotonation reactions of ore forming metal ions in very nonideal solutions: Advances in algorithms and computational performance achieved in this grant period have allowed the atomic level dynamical simulation of complex nanoscale materials using interparticle forces calculated directly from an accurate density functional solution to the electronic Schr???????????????¶dinger equation (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). Focus of this program was on the prediction and analysis of the properties of environmentally important ions in aqueous solutions. AIMD methods have provided chemical interpretations of these very complex systems with an unprecedented level of accuracy and detail. The structure of the solvation region neighboring a highly charged metal ion (e.g., 3+) in an aqueous solution is very different from that of bulk water. The many-body behaviors (polarization, charge transfer, etc.) of the ion-water and water-water interactions in this region are difficult to capture with conventional empirical potentials. However, a large numbers of waters (up to 128 waters) are required to fully describe chemical events in the extended hydrations shells and long simulation times are needed to reliably sample the system. Taken together this makes simulation at the 1st principles level a very large computational problem. Our AIMD simulation results using these methods agree with the measured octahedral structure of the 1st solvation shell of Al3+ at the 1st shell boundary and a calculated radius of 1.937???????????????? (exp. 1.9????????????????). Our calculated average 2nd shell radius agrees remarkably well with the measured radius, 4.093 ???????????????? calculated vs. the measured value of 4.0-4.15 ????????????????. Less can be experimentally determined about the structure of the 2nd shell. Our simulations show that this shell contains roughly 12 water molecules, which are trigonally coordinated to the 1st shell waters. This structure cannot be measured directly. However, the number of 2nd shell water molecules predicted by the simulation is consistent with experimental estimates. Tetrahedral bulk water coordination reappears just after the 2nd shell. Simulations with 128 waters are close to the maximum size that can effectively be performed with present day methods. While the time scale of our simulation are not long enough to observe transfers of waters from the 1st to the 2nd shell, we do see transfers occurring on a picosecond time scale between the 2nd shell and 3rd shell via an associative mechanism. This is faster than, but consistent with, the results of measurements on the more tightly bound Cr3+ system. For high temperature simulations, proton transfers occur in the solvation shells leading to transient hydrolysis species. The reaction coordinate for proton transfer involves the coordinates of neighboring solvent waters as in the Grotis mechanism for proton transfer in bulk water. Directly removing a proton from the hexaqua Al3+ ion leads to a much more labile solvation shell and to a five coordinated Al3+ ion. This is consistent with very recent rate measurements of ligand exchange and the conjugate base labilization effect. For the Al3+-H2O system results for high but subcritical temperatures are qualitatively similar to room temperature simulations. However, preliminary simulations for supercritical temperatures (750K) suggest that there may be a dramatic change in be

Weare, John H

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

438

Proton Management as a Design Principle for Hydrogenase-inspired Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of the hydrogenase-inspired [Ni(PNP){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (PNP = Et{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}NMeCH{sub 2}PEt{sub 2}) catalyst for homogeneous hydrogen oxidation in acetonitrile solution are explored from a theoretical perspective for hydrogen production. The defining characteristic of this catalyst is the presence of pendent bases in the second coordination sphere that function as proton relays between the solution and the metal center. DFT calculations of the possible intermediates along proposed catalytic pathways are carried out and used to construct coupled Pourbaix diagrams of the redox processes and free-energy profiles along the reaction pathways. Analysis of the coupled Pourbaix diagrams reveals insights into the intermediate species and the mechanisms favored at different pH values of the solution. Consideration of the acid-base behavior of the metal hydride and H{sub 2} adduct species imposes additional constraints on the reaction mechanism, which can involve intramolecular as well as intermolecular proton-coupled electron-transfer steps. The efficacy of the catalyst is shown to depend critically on the pK{sub a} values of these potential intermediates, as they control both the species in solution at a given pH and the free-energy profile of reaction pathways. Optimal relationships among these pK{sub a} values can be identified, and it is demonstrated that 'proton management', i.e., the manipulation of these pK{sub a} values (e.g., through choice of metal or substituents on ligands), can serve as a design principle for improved catalytic behavior.

Muckerman, J.T.; Small, Y.A.; DuBois, D.L.; Fujita, E.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Vibrational signatures of OTe and OTe-VCd in CdTe: A first principles study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 035508] experimentally observed vibrational signatures related to defects in oxygen-doped CdTe using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. They observed an absorption peak at 350 cm{sup -1}. In addition, for samples grown under certain conditions, they observed two higher frequency peaks (1097 and 1108 cm{sup -1}) at low temperature that merged into one at room-temperature. They attributed the low-frequency peak (350 cm{sup -1}) to the vibration of O{sub Te} and the two higher frequency peaks to the vibrational modes of a O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex. Subsequently, they reported similar modes around 1100 cm{sup -1} in O-doped CdSe [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 195502] which were attributed to an O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} complex. We employed first-principles DFT calculations to calculate the vibrational modes of O{sub Te} and O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex in CdTe. Our calculations show that the 350 cm{sup -1} mode is consistent with O{sub Te}. However, the frequencies of the modes around 1100 cm{sup -1} are more than twice the expected frequencies for O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complexes in CdTe (or O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} in CdSe), indicating that the O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex cannot be the cause of the observed 1100 cm{sup -1} modes. A search for a new defect model is in order.

Thienprasert, J.T. [Kasetsart University, Thailand; Limpijumnong, Sukit [Kasetsart University, Thailand; Janotti, Anderson [University of California, Santa Barbara; Van de Walle, C.G. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Zhang, Lijun [ORNL; Du, Mao-Hua [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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441

An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles  

SciTech Connect

Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential limitations.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, Braden [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-IPSC

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

442

Surface tension of multi-phase flow with multiple junctions governed by the variational principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie, Nardone, Scardovelli, Zaleski and Zanetti (J. Comp. Phys. \\vol{113} \\yr{1994} \\pages{134-147}) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase ($N$-phase, $N\\ge2$) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation of motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

Shigeki Matsutani; Kota Nakano; Katsuhiko Shinjo

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

443

Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration  

SciTech Connect

Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.'' Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

Wells, C.V.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that ``The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.`` Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true? What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value? How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement? How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information? This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

Wells, C.V.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Hydrogenation of Acetylene-Ethylene Mixtures over Pd and Pd-Ag Alloys: First-Principles Based Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene mixtures over model Pd(111) and bimetallic Pd-Ag alloy surfaces were examined using first principles based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to elucidate the effects of alloying as well as process conditions (temperature and hydrogen partial pressure). The mechanisms that control the selective and unselective routes which included hydrogenation, dehydrogenation and C-?C bond breaking pathways were analyzed using first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results were used to construct an intrinsic kinetic database that was used in a variable time step kinetic Monte Carlo simulation to follow the kinetics and the molecular transformations in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene feeds over Pd and Pd-Ag surfaces. The lateral interactions between coadsorbates that occur through-surface and through-space were estimated using DFT-parameterized bond order conservation and van der Waal interaction models respectively. The simulation results show that the rate of acetylene hydrogenation as well as the ethylene selectivity increase with temperature over both the Pd(111) and the Pd-Ag/Pd(111) alloy surfaces. The selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene proceeds via the formation of a vinyl intermediate. The unselective formation of ethane is the result of the over-hydrogenation of ethylene as well as over-hydrogenation of vinyl to form ethylidene. Ethylidene further hydrogenates to form ethane and dehydrogenates to form ethylidyne. While ethylidyne is not reactive, it can block adsorption sites which limit the availability of hydrogen on the surface and thus act to enhance the selectivity. Alloying Ag into the Pd surface decreases the overall rated but increases the ethylene selectivity significantly by promoting the selective hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylene and concomitantly suppressing the unselective path involving the hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylidene and the dehydrogenation ethylidene to ethylidyne. This is consistent with experimental results which suggest only the predominant hydrogenation path involving the sequential addition of hydrogen to form vinyl and ethylene exists over the Pd-Ag alloys. Ag enhances the desorption of ethylene and hydrogen from the surface thus limiting their ability to undergo subsequent reactions. The simulated apparent activation barriers were calculated to be 32-44 kJ/mol on Pd(111) and 26-31 kJ/mol on Pd-Ag/Pd(111) respectively. The reaction was found to be essentially first order in hydrogen over Pd(111) and Pd-Ag/Pd(111) surfaces. The results reveal that increases in the hydrogen partial pressure increase the activity but decrease ethylene selectivity over both Pd and Pd-Ag/Pd(111) surfaces. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Mei, Donghai; Neurock, Matthew; Smith, C Michael

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

446

Conversion of essential fatty acids by Delta 6 desaturase in dog liver microsomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) are physiologically important precursors for eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and prostanoids. Desaturation of essential fatty acids (EFAs) by []6-desaturase is considered the rate-limiting step in conversion of EFAs to LCPUFA. This study was designed to study the conversion of EFAs by []6-desaturase in dog liver microsomes. Microsomes were prepared using fresh liver from healthy dogs. Microsomes were incubated with ?C labeled 18 carbon EFA substrates. Following incubation, lipids were extracted, saponified and phenacylated. The resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters (FAPES) were separated by HPLC. Radioactivity was measured with a liquid scintillation counter, converted to enzymatic activity, and expressed as pmol/min/mg protein. Using 18:3n-3 as substrate, the apparent []6-desaturase maximal velocity was 50.9 pmol/min/mg protein and using 18:2n-6 substrate, the maximal velocity was 5.4 pmol/min/mg protein. Apparent K[] values were 20.8 []M for 18:3n-3 and 41.8 []M for 18:2n-6. Maximal velocities were lower than previously reported in dogs and other species. Possible explanations include the presence of high endogenous fatty acid concentration (especially 18:2n-6) inherent in the dog liver microsome preparations providing high amounts of competitive non-radioactively labeled substrate, or methodological differences used in other studies. After accounting for endogenous 18:2n-6 fatty acids, the corrected V[] and K[] for the ?-LA substrate was 62.4 pmol/min/mg protein and 12.4 []M, respectively. Corrected values of V[] and K[] for LA substrate were not calculated due to interference from high endogenous LA ubstrate concentrations in the liver microsomes. Dog liver microsomes have the ability to desaturate EFAs. Also, the maximal velocity of []6-desaturase of 18:3n-3 is considerably higher than that of 18:2n-6 in vitro, while K[] values are similar. Physiologically, 18:3n-3 concentration in liver (2.4 []M) may never exceed the K[] for desaturation in the absence of high dietary amounts while 18:2n-6 amounts are readily converted because its concentration (64.4 []M) easily exceeds the K[]. These phenomena may explain the low in vivo conversion rate of 18:3n-3 in dogs and other species. These findings suggest that high levels of 18:3n-3 supplementation may be necessary to exceed the []6-desaturase K[] and significantly affect physiological levels of n-3 LCPUFA in the dog.

Dunbar, Brent Lee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

First principles analysis of lattice dynamics for Fe-based superconductors and entropically-stabilized phases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern calculations are becoming an essential, complementary tool to inelastic x-ray scattering studies, where x-rays are scattered inelastically to resolve meV phonons. Calculations of the inelastic structure factor for any value of Q assist in both planning the experiment and analyzing the results. Moreover, differences between the measured data and theoretical calculations help identify important new physics driving the properties of novel correlated systems. We have used such calculations to better and more e#14;ciently measure the phonon dispersion and elastic constants of several iron pnictide superconductors. This dissertation describes calculations and measurements at room temperature in the tetragonal phase of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and LaFeAsO. In both cases, spin-polarized calculations imposing the antiferromagnetic order present in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase dramatically improves the agreement between theory and experiment. This is discussed in terms of the strong antiferromagnetic correlations that are known to persist in the tetragonal phase. In addition, we discuss a relatively new approach called self-consistent ab initio lattice dynamics (SCAILD), which goes beyond the harmonic approximation to include phonon-phonon interactions and produce a temperature-dependent phonon dispersion. We used this technique to study the HCP to BCC transition in beryllium.

Hahn, Steven

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Dark Energy Model with Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Emergent, Intermediate and Logamediate Scenarios of the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al (2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy inter- acting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this inter- action. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolu- tion of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.

Rahul Ghosh; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

449

Gravity-induced phase-shift of light: outline of an interferometric test of the Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I analyze the change of the interference pattern in an optical interferometer when it passes from rest to free fall. It is shown that the "disconnection" of the gravitational field causes a jump in the phase difference that could be measured with the current sensitivity of these instruments. For this reason, I propose to the optical interferometry community the possibility of a test of the Equivalence Principle based on the aforementioned effect.

Eduardo Diaz-Miguel

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

450

SUSTAINABILITY: A Central Principle for the Electric Utility Industry Available Through Vegetation Management on Transmission Rights-of-Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sustainability is a relatively new principle based on old ideals. Basic precepts of sustainability have guided human activity for as long as there has been society150making sure that what we do today does not negatively affect what people, particularly our children, can do in the future. Over the last 20 years, much has happened that has elevated sustainability as an important consideration for industry and for society. Society's interest in sustainability is causing organizations to use the concept as ...

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a three phase program of Weiss Associates which investigates the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The focus in this particular paper is a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation technology is also examined.

Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W.; Hill, D.G. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Least-squares variational principles and the finite element method: theory, formulations, and models for solid and fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the application of least-squares variational principles and the finite element method to the numerical solution of boundary value problems arising in the fields of solidand fluidmechanics.For manyof these problems least-squares principles offer many theoretical and computational advantages in the implementation of the corresponding finite element model that are not present in the traditional weak form Galerkin finite element model.Most notably, the use of least-squares principles leads to a variational unconstrained minimization problem where stability conditions such as inf-sup conditions (typically arising in mixed methods using weak form Galerkin finite element formulations) never arise. In addition, the least-squares based finite elementmodelalways yields a discrete system ofequations witha symmetric positive definite coeffcientmatrix.These attributes, amongst manyothers highlightedand detailed in this work, allow the developmentofrobust andeffcient finite elementmodels for problems of practical importance. The research documented herein encompasses least-squares based formulations for incompressible and compressible viscous fluid flow, the bending of thin and thick plates, and for the analysis of shear-deformable shell structures.

Pontaza, Juan Pablo

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or geartrain of the engine yields efficiency improvements for the engine while freeing those accessories to perform at their individual peak efficiencies to meet instantaneous demand. The net result is a systems approach to fuel usage optimization. Unique control algorithms were specifically developed to capitalize on the flexibility afforded by the TEPS architecture. Moreover, the TEPS truck technology mixture exhibits a means to supplant current accessory power sources such as on-board or trailer-mounted gasoline-powered generators or air compressors. Such functionality further enhances the value of the electric systems beyond the fuel savings alone. To demonstrate the fuel economy improvement wrought via the TEPS components, vehicle fuel economy testing was performed on the nearly stock (baseline) truck and the TEPS truck. Table 1 illustrates the fuel economy gains produced by the TEPS truck electrification. While the fuel economy results shown in Table 1 do reflect specific test conditions, they show that electrification of accessory hardware can yield significant fuel savings. In this case, the savings equated to a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption during controlled on-road testing. Truck electrification allows engine shutdown during idle conditions as well as independent on-demand actuation of accessory systems. In some cases, independent actuation may even include lack of operation, a feature not always present in mechanically driven components. This combination of attributes allows significant improvements in system efficiency and the fuel economy improvements demonstrated by the TEPS team.

Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Design principle and calculations of a Scheffler fixed focus concentrator for medium temperature applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents a complete description about the design principle and construction details of an 8 m{sup 2} surface area Scheffler concentrator. The first part of the paper presents the mathematical calculations to design the reflector parabola curve and reflector elliptical frame with respect to equinox (solar declination = 0) by selecting a specific lateral part of a paraboloid. Crossbar equations and their ellipses, arc lengths and their radii are also calculated to form the required lateral section of the paraboloid. Thereafter, the seasonal parabola equations are calculated for two extreme positions of summer and winter in the northern hemisphere (standing reflectors). The slopes of the parabola equations for equinox (solar declination = 0), summer (solar declination = +23.5) and winter (solar declination = -23.5) for the Scheffler reflector (8 m{sup 2} surface area) are calculated to be 0.17, 0.28, and 0.13 respectively. The y-intercepts of the parabola equations for equinox, summer and winter are calculated as 0, 0.54, and -0.53 respectively. By comparing with the equinox parabola curve, the summer parabola is found to be smaller in size and uses the top part of the parabola curve while the winter parabola is bigger in size and uses the lower part of the parabola curve to give the fixed focus. For this purpose, the reflector assembly is composed of flexible crossbars and a frame to induce the required change of the parabola curves with the changing solar declination. The paper also presents the calculation procedure of seasonal parabola equations for standing reflectors in the southern hemisphere as well as for laying reflectors in the northern and southern hemispheres. Highly reflective aluminium sheets are used on the crossbar profiles to complete the concentrator. The reflector is installed at the required site by setting its axis of rotation at an angle equal to the latitude of the site. For daily tracking, these concentrators rotate along an axis parallel to the polar axis of the earth at an angular velocity of one revolution per day with the help of simpler and cheaper self-tracking devices. For seasonal tracking, the reflector rotates at half the solar declination angle with the help of a telescopic clamp mechanism. The design procedure is simple, flexible and does not need any special computational setup, thus offering the prospect of potential application in domestic as well as industrial configurations. (author)

Munir, A.; Hensel, O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering,University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1 a 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Scheffler, W. [Solar Bruecke G.v.Werdenbergstr.6 D-89344 Aislingen (Germany)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor p55 Is Essential for Intrahepatic Granuloma Formation and Hepatocellular Apoptosis in a Murine Model of Bacterium-Induced Fulminant Hepatitis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 is essential for intrahepatic granuloma formation and hepatocellular apoptosis in a murine model of bacterium-induced fulminant hepatitis.

H Tsuji; A Harada; N Mukaida; Y Nakanuma; H Bluethmann; K Yamakawa; S I Nakamura; K I Kobayashi; Hirokazu Tsuji; Akihisa Harada; Naofumi Mukaida; Yasuni Nakanuma; Horst Bluethmann; Shuichi Kaneko; Kiyotaka Yamakawa; Shin-ichi Nakamura

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Multi-Dimensional Hardy Uncertainty Principle and its Interpretation in Terms of the Wigner Distribution; Relation With the Notion of Symplectic Capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend Hardy's uncertainty principle for a square integrable function and its Fourier transform to the multidimensional case using a symplectic diagonalization. We use this extension to show that Hardy's uncertainty principle is equivalent to a statement on the Wigner distribution of the function. We give a geometric interpretation of our results in terms of the notion of symplectic capacity of an ellipsoid. Furthermore, we show that Hardy's uncertainty principle is valid for a general Lagrangian frame of the phase space. Finally, we discuss an extension of Hardy's theorem for the Wigner distribution for exponentials with convex exponents.

Maurice de Gosson; Franz Luef

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

457

A First Principles Molecular Dynamics Study Of Calcium Ion In Water  

SciTech Connect

In this work we report on Car-Parrinello simulations of the divalent calcium ion in water, aimed at understanding the structure of the hydration shell and at comparing theoretical results with a series of recent experiments. Our paper shows some of the progress in the investigation of aqueous solutions brought about by the advent of ab initio molecular dynamics and highlights the importance of accessing subtle details of ion-water interactions from first-principles. Calcium plays a vital role in many biological systems, including signal transduction, blood clotting and cell division. In particular, calcium ions are known to interact strongly with proteins as they tend to bind well to both negatively charged (e.g. in aspartate and glutamate) and uncharged oxygens (e.g. in main-chain carbonyls). The ability of calcium to coordinate multiple ligands (from 6 to 8 oxygen atoms) with an asymmetric coordination shell enables it to cross-link different segments of a protein and induce large conformational changes. The great biochemical importance of the calcium ion has led to a number of studies to determine its hydration shell and its preferred coordination number in water. Experimental studies have used a variety of techniques, including XRD, EXAFS, and neutron diffraction to elucidate the coordination of Ca{sup 2+} in water. The range of coordination numbers (n{sub C}) inferred by X-ray diffraction studies varies from 6 to 8, and is consistent with that reported in EXAFS experiments (8 and 7.2). A wider range of values (6 to 10) was found in early neutron diffraction studies, depending on concentration, while a more recent measurement by Badyal, et al. reports a value close to 7. In addition to experimental measurements, many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the solvation of Ca{sup 2+} in water and have also reported a wide range of coordination numbers. Most of the classical molecular dynamics (MD) and QM/MM simulations report n{sub C} in the range of 8 to 10; in general, n{sub C} appears to be highly sensitive to the choice of the ion-water potential used in the calculations. Even ab initio MD simulations have so far obtained conflicting values for n{sub C}. For the structure of the first salvation shell Naor, et al. found n{sub C} = 7 to 8 and a Ca{sup 2+} - oxygen average distance (r{sub Ca-O}) of 2.64 {angstrom}, while Bako, et al. found n{sub C} = 6 and r{sub Ca-O} = 2.45 {angstrom}. In view of the existing controversies, we have carried out extensive Car-Parrinello simulations of Ca{sup 2+} solvation in water, using both a rigid and a flexible water model, up to time scales of 40 ps. Our simulations show variations of coordination numbers from 6, 7 and 8 occurring over intervals of {approx} 0.3/0.4 exchanges/ps, and yielding average coordination numbers of 6.2 and 7 for flexible and rigid water models, respectively. These results are consistent with those reported in recent EXAFS and neutron diffraction experiments. In addition, our calculations show an asymmetric coordination of Ca{sup 2+} to oxygen, similar to the case of Mg{sup 2+}.

Lightstone, F; Schwegler, E; Allesch, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

CATALYSIS SCIENCE INITIATIVE: From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, we have integrated state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) models of heterogeneous catalytic processes with high-throughput screening of bimetallic catalytic candidates for important industrial problems. We have studied a new class of alloys characterized by a surface composition different from the bulk composition, and investigated their stability and activity for the water-gas shift reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. The former reaction is an essential part of hydrogen production; the latter is the rate-limiting step in low temperature H2 fuel cells. We have identified alloys that have remarkable stability and activity, while having a much lower material cost for both of these reactions. Using this knowledge of bimetallic interactions, we have also made progress in the industrially relevant areas of carbohydrate reforming and conversion of biomass to liquid alkanes. One aspect of this work is the conversion of glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) to synthesis gas. We have developed a bifunctional supported Pt catalyst that can cleave the carbon-carbon bond while also performing the water-gas shift reaction, which allows us to better control the H2:CO ratio. Knowledge gained from the theoretical metal-metal interactions was used to develop bimetallic catalysts that perform this reaction at low temperature, allowing for an efficient coupling of this endothermic reaction with other reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. In our work on liquid alkane production from biomass, we have studied deactivation and selectivity in these areas as a function of metal-support interactions and reaction conditions, with an emphasis on the bifunctionality of the catalysts studied. We have identified a stable, active catalyst for this process, where the selectivity and yield can be controlled by the reaction conditions. While complete rational design of catalysts is still elusive, this work demonstrates the power of combining the insights gained from theoretical models and the work of experiments to develop new catalysts for current and future industrial challenges.

MAVRIKAKIS, MANOS

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

459

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeCh 4 Chemical Structure and Microenvironmental Effects on Surfactant Fundamental Properties/Related Performance Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Ch 4 Chemical Structure and Microenvironmental Effects on Surfactant Fundamental Properties/Related Performance Properties Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Dete

460

An Assessment of the Degree of Implementation of the Lean Aerospace Initiative Principles and Practices within the US Aerospace and Defense Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report is a formal documentation of the results of an assessment of the degree to which Lean Principles and Practices have been implemented in the US Aerospace and Defense Industry. An Industry Association team prepared ...

Shaw, Thomas E.

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461

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 2 How the Adsorption of Surfactants Changes the Properties of Interfaces and Related Performance Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 2 How the Adsorption of Surfactants Changes the Properties of Interfaces and Related Performance Properties Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents

462

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 3 How Surfactants Change the Internal Properties of the Solution Phase and Related Performance Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 3 How Surfactants Change the Internal Properties of the Solution Phase and Related Performance Properties Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents P

463

Phonon conduction in PbSe, PbTe, and PbTe1?xSex from first-principles calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply first-principles calculations to lead selenide (PbSe) and lead telluride (PbTe) and their alloys (PbTe[subscript 1?x]Se[subscript x]), which are potentially good thermoelectric materials, to investigate their ...

Tian, Zhiting

464

First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV).

Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

First principles screening of destabilized metal hydrides for high capacity H2 storage using scandium (presentation had varying title: Accelerating Development of Destabilized Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Using First Principles Calculations)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Favorable thermodynamics are a prerequisite for practical H2 storage materials for vehicular applications. Destabilization of metal hydrides is a versatile route to finding materials that reversibly store large quantities of H2. First principles calculations have proven to be a useful tool for screening large numbers of potential destabilization reactions when tabulated thermodynamic data are unavailable. We have used first principles calculations to screen potential destabilization schemes that involve Sc-containing compounds. Our calculations use a two-stage strategy in which reactions are initially assessed based on their reaction enthalpy alone, followed by more detailed free energy calculations for promising reactions. Our calculations indicate that mixtures of ScH2 + 2LiBH4, which will release 8.9 wt.% H2 at completion and will have an equilibrium pressure of 1 bar at around 330 K, making this compound a promising target for experimental study. Along with thermodynamics, favorable kinetics are also of enormous importance for practical usage of these materials. Experiments would help identify possible kinetic barriers and modify them by developing suitable catalysts.

Alapati, S.; Johnson, J.K.; Sholl, D.S.; Dai, B. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)--last author not shown on publication, only presentation

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Does The Principle Of Equivalence Prevent Trapped Surfaces From Being Formed In The General Relativistic Collapse Process?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been recently shown (Mitra,- astro-ph/9910408, astro-ph/0207056) that the timelike spherical collapse of a radiating, physical fluid in General Relativity, as seen by an interior co-moving observer at rest in the physical fluid, does not permit formation of ``trapped surfaces''. This followed from the fact that the formation of a trapped surface in a physical fluid would cause the timelike world lines of the collapsing fluid to become null at the would be trapped surface, thus violating the Principle of Equivalence in General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we generalize and extend this result by studying the problem from the point of view of the exterior Vaidya metric of a collapsing radiating fluid as seen by an exterior stationary observer, and find that the "no trapped surface condition" becomes g00 > 0 consistent with that obtained for the interior co-moving metric. Since we have shown that the Principle of Equivalence prevents trapped surfaces from being formed in collapsing, radiating objects, then true event horizons cannot exist and Galactic Black Hole Candidates (GBHC) must have physically observable intrinsic magnetic dipole moments. Because of this fact it follows (Robertson and Leiter - astro-ph/0102381, astro-ph/0208333) that GBHC can be consistently described, within the framework of General Relativity, in terms of a magneto-spheric eternally collapsing objects (MECO) without true event horizons.

Darryl Leiter; Stanley Robertson

2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

467

A First Principles Density-Functional Calculation of the Electronic and Vibrational Structure of the Key Melanin Monomers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report first principles density functional calculations for hydroquinone (HQ), indolequinone (IQ) and semiquinone (SQ). These molecules are believed to be the basic building blocks of the eumelanins, a class of bio-macromolecules with important biological functions (including photoprotection) and with potential for certain bioengineering applications. We have used the DeltaSCF (difference of self consistent fields) method to study the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), Delta_HL. We show that Delta_HL is similar in IQ and SQ but approximately twice as large in HQ. This may have important implications for our understanding of the observed broad band optical absorption of the eumelanins. The possibility of using this difference in Delta_HL to molecularly engineer the electronic properties of eumelanins is discussed. We calculate the infrared and Raman spectra of the three redox forms from first principles. Each of the molecules have significantly different infrared and Raman signatures, and so these spectra could be used in situ to non-destructively identify the monomeric content of macromolecules. It is hoped that this may be a helpful analytical tool in determining the structure of eumelanin macromolecules and hence in helping to determine the structure-property-function relationships that control the behaviour of the eumelanins.

B. J. Powell; T. Baruah; N. Bernstein; K. Brake; Ross H. McKenzie; P. Meredith; M. R. Pederson

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

468

On the correspondence principle: implications from a study of the chaotic dynamics of a macroscopic quantum device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of classical chaotic dynamics from quantum systems has long been a subject of interest. Furthermore, recent work indicates that quantum chaos may well be significant in quantum information processing. In this paper we discuss the quantum to classical crossover of a superconducting quantum inference device (SQUID) ring. Such devices comprise of thick superconducting loop enclosing a Josephson weak link. These devices are currently strong candidates for many applications in quantum technologies. The weak link brings with it a non-linearity such that semi-classical models of this system can exhibit chaotic dynamics. For many similar systems an application of the correspondence principle together with the inclusion of environmental degrees of freedom through a quantum trajectories approach can be used to effectively recover classical dynamics. Here we show (i) that the standard expression of the correspondence principle is incompatible with the ring Hamiltonian and we present a more pragmatic and general expression which finds application here and (ii) that practical limitations to circuit parameters of the SQUID ring prevent arbitrarily accurate recovery of classical chaotic dynamics.

M. J. Everitt

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

469

Computers and literacy in Senegal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reports two exploratory studies on the use of compute:-s in education in a third world context. One study looks at elementary school children in Dakar in order to elucidate a set of research questions such as ...

Sylla, Fatimata Seye

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

A Novel Fold in the Tral Relaxase-Helicase C-Terminal Domain Is Essential for Conjugative DNA Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TraI relaxase-helicase is the central catalytic component of the multiprotein relaxosome complex responsible for conjugative DNA transfer (CDT) between bacterial cells. CDT is a primary mechanism for the lateral propagation of microbial genetic material, including the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. The 2.4-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli F (fertility) plasmid TraI protein is presented, and specific structural regions essential for CDT are identified. The crystal structure reveals a novel fold composed of a 28-residue N-terminal {alpha}-domain connected by a proline-rich loop to a compact {alpha}/{beta}-domain. Both the globular nature of the {alpha}/{beta}-domain and the presence as well as rigidity of the proline-rich loop are required for DNA transfer and single-stranded DNA binding. Taken together, these data establish the specific structural features of this noncatalytic domain that are essential to DNA conjugation.

Guogas, Laura M.; Kennedy, Sarah A.; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Redinbo, Matthew R.; (UNC)

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

471

Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans.

Ji Qiongmei [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Huang, C.-H. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail: chuang@nybloodcenter.org; Peng Jianbin [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Hashmi, Sarwar [Developmental Biology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Ye Tianzhang [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Chen Ying [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Thermodynamic properties of CexTh1-xO2 solid solution from first-principles calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic study based on first-principles calculations along with the quasi-harmonic approximation has been conducted to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution. The predicted density, thermal expansion coefficients, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution all agree well with available experimental data. The thermal expansion coefficient for ThO2 increases with CeO2 substitution, and complete substitution shows the highest expansion coefficient. On the other hand, the mixed CexTh1-xO2 (0thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution.

Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thermodynamic properties of CexTh1-xO2 solid solution from first-principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study based on first-principles calculations along with a quasi-harmonic approximation has been conducted to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1xO2 solid solution. The predicted density, thermal expansion coefficients, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for the CexTh1xO2 solid solution all agree well with the available experimental data. The thermal expansion coefficient for ThO2 increases with CeO2 substitution, and complete substitution shows the highest expansion coefficient. On the other hand, the mixed CexTh1xO2 (0 < x < 1) solid solution generally exhibits lower heat capacity and thermal conductivity than the ThO2 and CeO2 end members. Our calculations indicate a strong effect of Ce concentration on the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1xO2 solid solution.

Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

474

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS). Quarterly progress report, September 15, 1992--December 15, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During the previous quarter, it was noted that understanding the rheology of polymeric additives used in enhancing the stability of the CWS was essential in meeting the project objectives. Thus, further review of the literature was carried out to gain information on the rheology of polymeric additives, particularly at high shear rates. Philippoff and Hess [1] reported the existence of four distinct flow regions in the behavior of flow curve analysis of polymer solutions (Figure 1). These regions are characterized by (1) A Newtonian Region; (2) A non-Newtonian pseudoplastic region; (3) A second Newtonian region at high shear rates 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} sec{sup {minus}1}; (4) and a region of steepening slope identified as the onset of turbulence. Efforts during this past quarter were therefore directed towards the study of high shear rheology of the CWS.

Ohene, F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of Yersinia pestis YscD, an essential component of the type III secretion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Yersinia pestis YscD protein is an essential component of the type III secretion system. YscD consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (residues 1-121), a transmembrane linker (122-142) and a large periplasmic domain (143-419). Both the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic domains are required for the assembly of the type III secretion system. Here, the structure of the YscD cytoplasmic domain solved by SAD phasing is presented. Although the three-dimensional structure is similar to those of forkhead-associated (FHA) domains, comparison with the structures of canonical FHA domains revealed that the cytoplasmic domain of YscD lacks the conserved residues that are required for binding phosphothreonine and is therefore unlikely to function as a true FHA domain.

Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S. (SAIC); (NCI)

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

476

Essential Software Architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minor revision to my 2006 book that was written while I worked at NICTA, covering the basics of software architecture for distributed systems.

Gorton, Ian

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

477

Generalized essential telangiectasia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

patient was started on oral doxycycline and was referred forTreatment with oral doxycycline was initiated. The patient7 weeks of therapy with doxycycline, as might have been

Karen, Julie K; Mengden, Stephanie J; Kamino, Hideko; Shupack, Jerome L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Generalized essential telangiectasia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

minocycline, and doxycycline. However, a recent reportMMPs), a trial of doxycycline was initiated since

Spratt, Elizabeth A Gordon; DeFelice, Taylor; O'Reilly, Kathryn; Robinson, Maria; Patel, Rishi R; Sanchez, Miguel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The emergence of plate tectonics and the Kuhnian model of paradigm shift: a bibliometric case study based on the Anna Karenina principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How scientific progress functions in detail and what the specific prerequisites for scientific breakthroughs in a given research area are, is still unclear today. According to philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn, scientific advancement takes place ... Keywords: Anna Karenina principle, Bibliometrics, Paradigms, Plate tectonics, Scientific revolutions

Werner Marx; Lutz Bornmann

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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