National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liter mv millivolts

  1. Turbocharging the Chrysler 2. 2 liter engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, F.E.; Rinschler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A new turbocharged 2.2 liter engine has been developed by Chrysler Corporation. It is derived from the Chrysler 2.2 liter naturally aspirated four cylinder powerplant. A number of new and redesigned components were required to yield a durable, high performance.

  2. New 11 liter Komatsu diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizusawa, M.; Tanosaki, T.; Kawase, M.; Oguchi, T.

    1984-01-01

    New 6 cylinder direct injection 11 liter diesel engines which have naturally aspirated, turbocharged, and turbocharged-aftercooled versions have been developed and moved in production at the end of 1983. The highest output of the turbocharged-aftercooled version is 276 kW (375 ps) at 2200 RPM. Based on Komatsu new technologies 125 mm bore diesel has been designed to meet the users' demands, such as compact in size, light in weight, extremely high performance, high reliability and durability. The turbocharged and turbocharged-aftercooled engines are characterized by the adoption of the ductile cast iron piston which is the first application into the high speed, four cycle diesels in production in the world, and which was enabled by Komatsu design and precision casting technologies. This paper also covers the other design aspects and performance characteristics.

  3. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You are here Home M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts (Version 4.0) M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based ...

  4. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 4.0) M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 4.0) ...

  5. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts Version 4.0 ... Management Program November 2015 FEMP M&V Guidelines 4.0 i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...

  6. Observation of 690 MV m^-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of 690 MV m-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of 690 MV m-1...

  7. FEMP Seeking Public Comment on Draft M&V Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP is continuing its request for public comments on the Draft M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts (Version 4.0).

  8. NNSA research makes scientific impact, literally | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) research makes scientific impact, literally Thursday, June 2, 2016 - 9:09am Inside the 40-mm Impact Test Facility, a heavily instrumented gun - 40 millimeters in diameter - employs compressed helium or explosives like gunpowder to lob projectiles into small plutonium targets at impact velocities of up to 1.7 kilometers per second, all inside a protective steel glove box. At the ends of their brief trips, projectiles made of plastic or metals like aluminum or

  9. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Concepts and Options for Determining Energy and Water Savings Volume 1, April 2007. M&V Guidelines 3.0 FEMP ii Contents Section Page Section...

  10. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael; Fernandes, Samuel; Jump, David

    2015-07-01

    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.

  11. Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1996-04-25

    The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms.

  12. State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) Webinar.

  13. COMMISSIONING AND OPERATION OF THE CEBAF 100 MV CRYOMODULES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Trent; Davis, G; Drury, Michael; Harwood, Leigh; Hogan, John; Kimber, Andrew; Lahti, George; Merz, William; Nelson, Richard; Plawski, Tomasz; Seidman, David; Spata, Michael; Wilson, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of ten new 100 MV cryomodules and RF systems. The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at a maximum accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m. To support the higher gradients and higher Q{sub L} ({approx} 3 x 10{sup 7}), a new RF system has been developed and is being installed to power and control the cavities. The RF system employs digital control and 13 kW klystrons. Recently, two of these cryomodules and associated RF hardware and software have been installed and commissioned in the CEBAF accelerator. Electrons at linac currents up to 540 {micro}A have been successfully accelerated and used for nuclear physics experiments. This paper reports on the commissioning and operation of the RF system and cryomodules.

  14. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP's standard procedures and guidelines for M&V for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  15. Measurement and Verification (M&V) Guidelines for Federal Energy Projects, V3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-11

    FEMP's standard procedures and guidelines for M&V for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  16. SU-E-T-221: Investigation of Lower Energy (< 6 MV) Photon Beams for Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Ming, X; Feng, Y; Zhou, L; Ahmad, M; Deng, J; Nguyen, K; Griffin, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the potential applications of the lower energy (< 6MV) photon beams in the radiotherapeutic management of pediatric cancer and lung cancer patients. Methods: Photon beams of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6MV were first simulated with EGS4/BEAM and then used for Monte-Carlo dose calculations. For four pediatric patients with abdominal and brain lesions, six 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans were generated using single photon energy (2 to 6MV) or mixed energies (3 and 6MV). Furthermore, a virtual machine of 3 and 6MV was commissioned in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on Monte-Carlo simulated data. Three IMRT plans of a lung cancer patient were generated on this virtual machine. All plans were normalized to D95% of target dose for 6MV plan and then compared in terms of integral dose and OAR sparing. Results: For the four pediatric patients, the integral dose for the 2, 3, 4 and 5MV plans increased by 9%, 5%, 3.5%, 1.7%, respectively as compared to 6MV. Almost all OARs in the 2MV plan received more than 10% more doses than 6MV. Mixed energy 3DCRT plans were of the same quality as 6MV plans. For the lung IMRT plans, both the 3MV plan and the mixed beam plan showed better OAR sparing in comparison to 6MV plan. Specifically, the maximum and mean doses to the spinal cord in the mixed energy plan were lower by 21% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Single lower energy photon beam was found to be inferior to 6MV in the radiotherapy of pediatric patients and lung cancer patients when the integral doses and the doses to the OARs were considered. However, mixed energy plans combining low with high energy beams showed significant OAR sparing while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Investigation with more patient data is ongoing for further confirmation.

  17. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts Version 4.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-02

    Document outlines the Federal Energy Management Program's standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  18. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 4.0)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document outlines the Federal Energy Management Program's standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  19. Low-Z linac targets for low-MV gold nanoparticle radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiamas, P.; Mishra, P.; Berbeco, R. I.; Marcus, K.; Zygmanski, P. E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu; Cifter, F.; Sajo, E. E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of low-Z/low-MV (low-Z) linac targets for gold nanoparticle radiotherapy (GNPT) and to determine the microscopic dose enhancement ratio (DER) due to GNP for the alternative beamlines. In addition, to evaluate the degradation of dose enhancement arising from the increased attenuation of x rays and larger skin dose in water for the low-MV beams compared to the standard linac. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose and DER for various flattening-filter-free beams (2.5, 4, 6.5 MV). Target materials were beryllium, diamond, and tungsten-copper high-Z target. Target thicknesses were selected based on 20%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of the continuous slowing down approximation electron ranges for a given target material and energy. Evaluation of the microscopic DER was carried out for 100 nm GNP including the degradation factors due to beam attenuation. Results: The greatest increase in DER compared to the standard 6.5 MV linac was for a 2.5 MV Be-target (factor of ?2). Skin dose ranged from ?10% (Be, 6.5 MV-80%) to ?85% (Be, 2.5 MV-20%) depending on the target case. Attenuation of 2.5 MV beams at 22 cm was higher by ?75% compared with the standard beam. Taking into account the attenuation at 22 cm depth, the effective dose enhancement was up to ?60% above the DER of the high-Z target. For these cases the effective DER ranged between ?1.6 and 6 compared with the standard linac. Conclusions: Low-Z (2.5 MV) GNPT is possible even after accounting for greater beam attenuation for deep-seated tumors (22 cm) and the increased skin dose. Further, it can lead to significant sparing of normal tissue while simultaneously escalating the dose in the tumor cells.

  20. Construction of MV-6 Well Pad at the Central Nevada Test Area Completed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A new groundwater monitoring/validation (MV) well was installed at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) in September 2013. LM proposed this well to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection ...

  1. Draft M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 4.0)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document describes the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal, state, and local government energy managers and procurement officials and utility and energy service providers.

  2. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 3.0)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document describes the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  3. Measurement and verifiction (M&V) guidelines for federal energy projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    This document provides procedures and guidelines for quantifying the savings resulting from the installation of Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) implemented with federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) or task orders implemented under a federal IDIQ contract. The first section of this document provides an overview of measurement and verification (M&V) options and procedures. The second, third, and fourth sections provide standardized measurement and verification (M&V) methods for common types of ECMs.

  4. Generation of virtual monochromatic CBCT from dual kV/MV beam projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel on-board imaging technique which allows generation of virtual monochromatic (VM) cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a selected energy from combined kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) beam projections. Methods: With the current orthogonal kV/MV imaging hardware equipped in modern linear accelerators, both MV projections (from gantry angle of 0°–100°) and kV projections (90°–200°) were acquired as gantry rotated a total of 110°. A selected range of overlap projections between 90° to 100° were then decomposed into two material projections using experimentally determined parameters from orthogonally stacked aluminum and acrylic step-wedges. Given attenuation coefficients of aluminum and acrylic at a predetermined energy, one set of VM projections could be synthesized from two corresponding sets of decomposed projections. Two linear functions were generated using projection information at overlap angles to convert kV and MV projections at nonoverlap angles to approximate VM projections for CBCT reconstruction. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for different inserts in VM CBCTs of a CatPhan phantom with various selected energies and compared with those in kV and MV CBCTs. The effect of overlap projection number on CNR was evaluated. Additionally, the effect of beam orientation was studied by scanning the CatPhan sandwiched with two 5 cm solid-water phantoms on both lateral sides and an electronic density phantom with two metal bolt inserts. Results: Proper selection of VM energy [30 and 40 keV for low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polymethylpentene, 2 MeV for Delrin] provided comparable or even better CNR results as compared with kV or MV CBCT. An increased number of overlap kV and MV projection demonstrated only marginal improvements of CNR for different inserts (with the exception of LDPE) and therefore one projection overlap was found to be sufficient for the CatPhan study. It was also evident that the optimal CBCT image

  5. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  6. A 20-liter test stand with gas purification for liquid argon research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Y.; Thorn, C.; Tang, W.; Joshi, J.; Qian, X.; Diwan, M.; Kettell, S.; Morse, W.; Rao, T.; Stewart, J.; et al

    2016-06-06

    Here, we describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). Moreover, this system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. Finally, a gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  7. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Lin, Shu-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Shu-Cheng; Nath, Ravinder; Liu Wu

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time automatic method for tracking implanted radiographic markers in low-contrast cine-MV patient images used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: Intrafraction motion tracking using radiotherapy beam-line MV images have gained some attention recently in IGRT because no additional imaging dose is introduced. However, MV images have much lower contrast than kV images, therefore a robust and automatic algorithm for marker detection in MV images is a prerequisite. Previous marker detection methods are all based on template matching or its derivatives. Template matching needs to match object shape that changes significantly for different implantation and projection angle. While these methods require a large number of templates to cover various situations, they are often forced to use a smaller number of templates to reduce the computation load because their methods all require exhaustive search in the region of interest. The authors solve this problem by synergetic use of modern but well-tested computer vision and artificial intelligence techniques; specifically the authors detect implanted markers utilizing discriminant analysis for initialization and use mean-shift feature space analysis for sequential tracking. This novel approach avoids exhaustive search by exploiting the temporal correlation between consecutive frames and makes it possible to perform more sophisticated detection at the beginning to improve the accuracy, followed by ultrafast sequential tracking after the initialization. The method was evaluated and validated using 1149 cine-MV images from two prostate IGRT patients and compared with manual marker detection results from six researchers. The average of the manual detection results is considered as the ground truth for comparisons. Results: The average root-mean-square errors of our real-time automatic tracking method from the ground truth are 1.9 and 2.1 pixels for the two patients (0.26 mm/pixel). The

  8. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meng; Keil, Andreas; Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it

  9. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the design and performance of a dual energy (kV and MV) radiotherapy imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E. El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In modern radiotherapy treatment rooms, megavoltage (MV) portal imaging and kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging are performed using various active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) designs. To expand the clinical utility of MV and kV imaging, MV AMFPIs incorporating thick, segmented scintillators and, separately, kV imaging using a beams eye view geometry have been investigated by a number of groups. Motivated by these previous studies, it is of interest to explore to what extent it is possible to preserve the benefits of kV and MV imaging using a single AMFPI design, given the considerably different x ray energy spectra used for kV and MV imaging. In this paper, considerations for the design of such a dual energy imager are explored through examination of the performance of a variety of hypothetical AMFPIs based on x ray converters employing segmented scintillators. Methods: Contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio performances were characterized through simulation modeling of CBCT imaging, while modulation transfer function, Swank factor, and signal performance were characterized through simulation modeling of planar imaging. The simulations were based on a previously reported hybrid modeling technique (accounting for both radiation and optical effects), augmented through modeling of electronic additive noise. All designs employed BGO scintillator material with thicknesses ranging from 0.25 to 4 cm and element-to-element pitches ranging from 0.508 to 1.016 mm. A series of studies were performed under both kV and MV imaging conditions to determine the most advantageous imager configuration (involving front or rear x ray illumination and use of a mirror or black reflector), converter design (pitch and thickness), and operating mode (pitch-binning combination). Results: Under the assumptions of the present study, the most advantageous imager design was found to employ rear illumination of the converter in combination with a black reflector

  11. Tracking tumor boundary in MV-EPID images without implanted markers: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Homma, Noriyasu; Ichiji, Kei; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a markerless tracking algorithm to track the tumor boundary in megavoltage (MV)-electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: A level set method (LSM)-based algorithm is developed to track tumor boundary in EPID image sequences. Given an EPID image sequence, an initial curve is manually specified in the first frame. Driven by a region-scalable energy fitting function, the initial curve automatically evolves toward the tumor boundary and stops on the desired boundary while the energy function reaches its minimum. For the subsequent frames, the tracking algorithm updates the initial curve by using the tracking result in the previous frame and reuses the LSM to detect the tumor boundary in the subsequent frame so that the tracking processing can be continued without user intervention. The tracking algorithm is tested on three image datasets, including a 4-D phantom EPID image sequence, four digitally deformable phantom image sequences with different noise levels, and four clinical EPID image sequences acquired in lung cancer treatment. The tracking accuracy is evaluated based on two metrics: centroid localization error (CLE) and volume overlap index (VOI) between the tracking result and the ground truth. Results: For the 4-D phantom image sequence, the CLE is 0.23 0.20 mm, and VOI is 95.6% 0.2%. For the digital phantom image sequences, the total CLE and VOI are 0.11 0.08 mm and 96.7% 0.7%, respectively. In addition, for the clinical EPID image sequences, the proposed algorithm achieves 0.32 0.77 mm in the CLE and 72.1% 5.5% in the VOI. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the authors proposed method both in tumor localization and boundary tracking in EPID images. In addition, compared with two existing tracking algorithms, the proposed method achieves a higher accuracy in tumor localization. Conclusions: In this paper, the authors presented a feasibility study of tracking tumor

  12. First Demonstration of Combined kV/MV Image-Guided Real-Time Dynamic Multileaf-Collimator Target Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul Poulsen, Per R.; Sloutsky, Alex; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: For intrafraction motion management, a real-time tracking system was developed by combining fiducial marker-based tracking via simultaneous kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) beam-tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated tracking system employed a Varian Trilogy system equipped with kV/MV imaging systems and a Millennium 120-leaf MLC. A gold marker in elliptical motion (2-cm superior-inferior, 1-cm left-right, 10 cycles/min) was simultaneously imaged by the kV and MV imagers at 6.7 Hz and segmented in real time. With these two-dimensional projections, the tracking software triangulated the three-dimensional marker position and repositioned the MLC leaves to follow the motion. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate time delay from image acquisition to MLC adjustment, tracking error, and dosimetric impact of target motion with and without tracking. Results: The time delay of the integrated tracking system was {approx}450 ms. The tracking error using a prediction algorithm was 0.9 {+-} 0.5 mm for the elliptical motion. The dose distribution with tracking showed better target coverage and less dose to surrounding region over no tracking. The failure rate of the gamma test (3%/3-mm criteria) was 22.5% without tracking but was reduced to 0.2% with tracking. Conclusion: For the first time, a complete tracking system combining kV/MV image-guided target tracking and DMLC beam tracking was demonstrated. The average geometric error was less than 1 mm, and the dosimetric error was negligible. This system is a promising method for intrafraction motion management.

  13. Design of a 7-MV Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) for down-hole flash x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Welch, Dale Robert; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Rose, David Vincent; Johnson, David Lee; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Leckbee, Joshua J.

    2008-09-01

    Pulsed power driven flash x-ray radiography is a valuable diagnostic for subcritical experiments at the Nevada Test Site. The existing dual-axis Cygnus system produces images using a 2.25 MV electron beam diode to produce intense x-rays from a small source. Future hydrodynamic experiments will likely use objects with higher areal mass, requiring increased x-ray dose and higher voltages while maintaining small source spot size. A linear transformer driver (LTD) is a compact pulsed power technology with applications ranging from pulsed power flash x-ray radiography to high current Z-pinch accelerators. This report describes the design of a 7-MV dual-axis system that occupies the same lab space as the Cygnus accelerators. The work builds on a design proposed in a previous report [1]. This new design provides increased diode voltage from a lower impedance accelerator to improve coupling to low impedance diodes such as the self magnetic pinch (SMP) diode. The design also improves the predicted reliability by operating at a lower charge voltage and removing components that have proven vulnerable to failure. Simulations of the new design and experimental results of the 1-MV prototype are presented.

  14. Performance and Applications of the first HVE 5MV Tandetron{sup TM} at the University of Madrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mous, D.J.W.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R.G.; Garcia Lopez, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Boerma, D.O.

    2003-08-26

    The first HVE Tandetron{sup TM} with a nominal terminal voltage of 5 MV has been put into operation at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) as part of their new IBA facility. The accelerator features a coaxial structure in which the all-solid-state power supply is constructed around the high-energy acceleration tube, thereby avoiding the T-shaped tank that has characterized the HVE Tandetrons{sup TM} so far. The new IBA facility covers a number of different ion beam analysis techniques including ERD using heavy-element time-of-flight, RBS, as well as an external micro-beam for PIXE. During installation, tests have shown a stable terminal voltage of 5.5 MV. The terminal voltage ripple was deduced to be below 6 x 10-6 (RMS) for terminal voltages above 800 kV. Terminal voltage undershoot was measured to be 1.4 x 10-3 for a {approx}1 kW beam at 3 MV and recovered to 1 x 10-4 within 800 ms. IBA experiments that require low energy hydrogen beams are supported by a stable terminal voltage down to 100 kV.

  15. Mapping the genome of meta-generalized gradient approximation density functionals: The search for B97M-V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-02-21

    A meta-generalized gradient approximation density functional paired with the VV10 nonlocal correlation functional is presented. The functional form is selected from more than 10{sup 10} choices carved out of a functional space of almost 10{sup 40} possibilities. Raw data come from training a vast number of candidate functional forms on a comprehensive training set of 1095 data points and testing the resulting fits on a comprehensive primary test set of 1153 data points. Functional forms are ranked based on their ability to reproduce the data in both the training and primary test sets with minimum empiricism, and filtered based on a set of physical constraints and an often-overlooked condition of satisfactory numerical precision with medium-sized integration grids. The resulting optimal functional form has 4 linear exchange parameters, 4 linear same-spin correlation parameters, and 4 linear opposite-spin correlation parameters, for a total of 12 fitted parameters. The final density functional, B97M-V, is further assessed on a secondary test set of 212 data points, applied to several large systems including the coronene dimer and water clusters, tested for the accurate prediction of intramolecular and intermolecular geometries, verified to have a readily attainable basis set limit, and checked for grid sensitivity. Compared to existing density functionals, B97M-V is remarkably accurate for non-bonded interactions and very satisfactory for thermochemical quantities such as atomization energies, but inherits the demonstrable limitations of existing local density functionals for barrier heights.

  16. Aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope with a sub-50-pm resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanigaki, Toshiaki Shimakura, Tomokazu; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Furutsu, Tadao; Shinada, Hiroyuki; Osakabe, Nobuyuki; Mller, Heiko; Haider, Maximilian; Tonomura, Akira

    2015-02-16

    Atomic-resolution electromagnetic field observation is critical to the development of advanced materials and to the unveiling of their fundamental physics. For this purpose, a spherical-aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope has been developed. The microscope has the following superior properties: stabilized accelerating voltage, minimized electrical and mechanical fluctuation, and coherent electron emission. These properties have enabled to obtain 43-pm information transfer. On the bases of these performances, a 43-pm resolution has been obtained by correcting lens aberrations up to the third order. Observations of GaN [411] thin crystal showed a projected atomic locations with a separation of 44?pm.

  17. Fundamental science investigations to develop a 6-MV laser triggered gas switch for ZR: first annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Van Den Avyle, James A.; Lehr, Jane Marie; Rose, David; Krompholz, Hermann G.; Vela, Russell; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Timoshkin, Igor (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Prestwich, Kenneth Randel (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Krile, John; Given, Martin (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); McKee, G. Randall; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; Struve, Kenneth William; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Benwell, Andrew L. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Kovaleski, Scott; LeChien, Keith, R.; Johnson, David (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Fouracre, R.A. (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Yeckel, Chris (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Wakeland, Peter Eric; Miller, A. R. (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Hodge, Keith Conquest (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Pasik, Michael Francis; Savage, Mark Edward; Maenchen, John Eric; Curry, Randy D.; Feltz, Greg; Bliss, David Emery; MacGregor, Scott (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Corley, J. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Anaya, Victor (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Wallace, Zachariah (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Neuber, Andreas. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2007-03-01

    In October 2005, an intensive three-year Laser Triggered Gas Switch (LTGS) development program was initiated to investigate and solve observed performance and reliability issues with the LTGS for ZR. The approach taken has been one of mission-focused research: to revisit and reassess the design, to establish a fundamental understanding of LTGS operation and failure modes, and to test evolving operational hypotheses. This effort is aimed toward deploying an initial switch for ZR in 2007, on supporting rolling upgrades to ZR as the technology can be developed, and to prepare with scientific understanding for the even higher voltage switches anticipated needed for future high-yield accelerators. The ZR LTGS was identified as a potential area of concern quite early, but since initial assessments performed on a simplified Switch Test Bed (STB) at 5 MV showed 300-shot lifetimes on multiple switch builds, this component was judged acceptable. When the Z{sub 20} engineering module was brought online in October 2003 frequent flashovers of the plastic switch envelope were observed at the increased stresses required to compensate for the programmatically increased ZR load inductance. As of October 2006, there have been 1423 Z{sub 20} shots assessing a variety of LTGS designs. Numerous incremental and fundamental switch design modifications have been investigated. As we continue to investigate the LTGS, the basic science of plastic surface tracking, laser triggering, cascade breakdown, and optics degradation remain high-priority mission-focused research topics. Significant progress has been made and, while the switch does not yet achieve design requirements, we are on the path to develop successively better switches for rolling upgrade improvements to ZR. This report summarizes the work performed in FY 2006 by the large team. A high-level summary is followed by detailed individual topical reports.

  18. Hanfords Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith S.; Dysland, Eric J.; Garfield, J. S.; Beck, T. H.; Matyas, Josef; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2008-02-22

    The GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfords low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as bulk vitrification, this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the projects fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV melter with a 10,000-liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting

  19. Hanford's Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.; Dysland, E.J.; Garfield, J.S.; Beck, T.H.; Matyas, J.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Cooley, S.K.; Pierce, E.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    The GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford's low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as 'bulk vitrification', this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV{sup TM} technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV{sup TM} process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the project's fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV{sup TM} melter with a 10,000- liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test

  20. TH-E-17A-11: Tracking Tumors Boundary in MV Image Sequences for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X; Homma, N; Ichiji, K; Abe, M; Sugita, N; Yoshizawa, M; Narita, Y; Takai, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a level set method (LSM)-based algorithm to track the tumors boundary in MV image sequences for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Method: Four MV image sequences, each of which consists of 100 frames at frame rate of 7.5 Hz, are acquired by using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) (Varian Medical Systems, Pal Alto, USA) during the treatment of lung cancer. In the first frame of each sequence, we roughly delineate an initial contour of the target tumor by hand. Using a LSM-based algorithm, the initial contour can automatically shape itself to fit the tumor, and eventually detect the tumors boundary. We then employ the tumors boundary obtained from the previous frame as the initial contour in the subsequent frame, so that the LSM-based method can drive this initial contour to the tumors boundary quickly and fulfill a tracking task. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on four MV image sequences. The mean tracking errors were 0.23, 0.29, 0.37, and 1.18 mm, and their corresponding standard deviations were 0.97, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional tumor tracking techniques, the proposed system is capable not only of tracking the tumors position, but also of detecting the tumors boundary varying with the respiration during the treatment. Considering current radiation therapy technique, for example, dynamical multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) has been widely applied in clinical treatment, this study indicates the potential for significant accuracy improvement in radiation therapy. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, California)

  1. SU-E-T-322: The Evaluation of the Gafchromic EBT3 Film in Low Dose 6 MV X-Ray Beams with Different Scanning Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H; Sung, J; Yoon, M; Kim, D; Chung, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We have evaluated the response of the Gafchromic EBT3 film in low dose for 6 MV x-ray beams with two scanning modes, the reflection scanning mode and the transmission scanning mode. Methods: We irradiated the Gafcromic EBT3 film using a 60 degree enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) with 6 MV x-ray beams from Clinac iX Linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The irradiated Gafchromic EBT3 film was scanned with different scanning modes, the reflection scanning mode and the transmission scanning mode. The scanned Gafchromic EBT3 film was analyzed with MATLAB. Results: When 7.2 cGy was irradiated to the Gafchromic EBT3 film, the uncertainty was 0.54 cGy with reflection scanning mode and was 0.88 cGy with transmission scanning mode. When 24 cGy was irradiated to the Gafchromic EBT3 film, the uncertainty was similar to the case of 7.2 cGy irradiation showing 0.51 cGy of uncertainty with reflection scanning mode and 0.87 cGy of uncertainty with transmission scanning mode. The result suggests that the reflection mode should be used in Gafchromic EBT3 film for low irradiation. Conclusion: The result suggests that the reflection mode should be used in Gafchromic EBT3 film for low irradiation.

  2. SU-E-T-175: Evaluation of the Relative Output Ratio for Collimator Jaw and MLC Defined Small Static 6MV Photon Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, G; Thwaites, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate relative output ratio of collimator jaw and MLC defined small photon fields. Methods: Relative output ratios were measured using Gafchromic EBT3 film for a 6 MV photon beam on a Novalis Tx with HD120 MLC. Beam collimation was achieved by the jaws for 1.0 cm and 3.0 cm and MLC defined square field sizes between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm with varying jaw settings between 2.0 and 4.0 cm. Film pieces were exposed to 4 Gy. Experiments were repeated with each session consisting of five consecutive exposures for the given MLC and/or jaw collimation and with the MLC and the jaws reset for each exposure. Films were scanned using EPSON 10000XL flatbed scanner approximately 24 hours after exposure in 48 bit RGB format at 150 dpi. Film calibration data were corrected for daily linac output variations. Doses were evaluated using the green channel with square ROI sizes of 0.1 – 0.6 cm. Converted doses were normalised for output ratio calculation using the 3.0 cm field as a machine specific reference field size. Mean output ratio and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each experimental session. Results: For the Novalis 6 MV photon beam the output ratios between 0.719 and 0.872 have been measured for the jaw/MLC combinations tested. For a jaw setting of 4.0 cm field, the mean CV of the output ratios increased from 0.77% to 1.48% with decreasing MLC field size from 1.0 cm to 0.5 cm. For a nominal MLC 1.0 cm field, the CV increased to 1.00% from 0.77% with reducing jaw field size from 4.0 cm to 2.0 cm. Conclusion: The relative output ratio and the associated CV were dependent on the collimator jaw and MLC settings. The field size dependent CV showed similar trends to those reported in the literature.

  3. Metal Buildings M&V

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Reference Slides A&S Building Systems American Buildings Architectural Testing Atlas Bolt & Screw Behlen Manufacturing Butler Manufacturing Building Research Systems Kirby ...

  4. Ab initio structures of As{sub m}V complexes and the simulation of Rutherford backscattering channeling spectra in heavily As-doped crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satta, Alessandra; Albertazzi, Eros; Lulli, Giorgio; Colombo, Luciano

    2005-12-15

    Geometrical models of neutral single vacancy-arsenic complexes are determined from first principles and used for atomistic simulation of Rutherford backscattering channeling (RBS-C) spectra in heavily As-doped crystalline silicon, both with and without compensating Si self-interstitials. The goal is to investigate whether the relaxation patterns of complexes containing different numbers (from 1 to 4) of As atoms can be used as a fingerprint in structural analysis by conventional RBS-C. Simulation of RBS-C spectra in million-atoms supercells containing a population of As{sub m}V, show the off-lattice displacement of the Si atoms neighboring the vacancy, due to Jahn-Teller effect. On the other side, As displacement is found to be similar in all clusters investigated. The present results suggest that in the case of samples equilibrated at high temperature, the lack of any significant disorder of Si atoms is consistent with the hypothesis of electrically inactive As being in the form of either As{sub 3}V or As{sub 4}V complexes.

  5. Fiducial marker and marker-less soft-tissue detection using fast MV fluoroscopy on a new generation EPID: Investigating the influence of pulsing artifacts and artifact suppression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poels, Kenneth Verellen, Dirk; Van de Vondel, Iwein; El Mazghari, Rafik; De Ridder, Mark; Depuydt, Tom

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Because frame rates on current clinical available electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are limited to 7.5 Hz, a new commercially available PerkinElmer EPID (XRD 1642 AP19) with a maximum frame rate of 30 Hz and a new scintillator (Kyokko PI200) with improved sensitivity (light output) for megavolt (MV) irradiation was evaluated. In this work, the influence of MV pulse artifacts and pulsing artifact suppression techniques on fiducial marker and marker-less detection of a lung lesion was investigated, because target localization is an important component of uncertainty in geometrical verification of real-time tumor tracking. Methods: Visicoil markers with a diameter of 0.05 and 0.075 cm were used for MV marker tracking with a frame rate of, respectively, 7.5, 15, and 30 Hz. A 30 Hz readout of the detector was obtained by a 2 2 pixel binning, reducing spatial resolution. Static marker detection was conducted in function of increasing phantom thickness. Additionally, marker-less tracking was conducted and compared with the ground-truth fiducial marker motion. Performance of MV target detection was investigated by comparing the least-square sine wave fit of the detected marker positions with the predefined sine wave motion. For fiducial marker detection, a Laplacian-of-Gaussian enhancement was applied after which normalized cross correlation was used to find the most probable marker position. Marker-less detection was performed by using the scale and orientation adaptive mean shift tracking algorithm. For each MV fluoroscopy, a free running (FR-nF) (ignoring MV pulsing during readout) acquisition mode was compared with two acquisition modes intending to reduce MV pulsing artifacts, i.e., combined wavelet-FFT filtering (FR-wF) and electronic readout synchronized with respect to MV pulses. Results: A 0.05 cm Visicoil marker resulted in an unacceptable root-mean square error (RMSE) > 0.2 cm with a maximum frame rate of 30 Hz during FR-nF readout. With a

  6. M&V 2.0 Demonstrations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Long-term: scaled adoption of cost effective, accurate, meter-based savings estimation Below: Replication of CBI Logic Model - objectives, activities, short- mid- and long-term ...

  7. T-686: IBM Tivoli Integrated Portal Java Double Literal Denial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this November 2011 IBM Downloads Addthis Related Articles V-145: IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities T-694: IBM Tivoli Federated Identity...

  8. WIPP Safety Is Paramount Top to Bottom, Literally

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M. – As part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant’s (WIPP) preventive maintenance program, four of six head ropes that suspend the waste conveyance were safely replaced recently.

  9. CHIP House Takes Design to Different Heights (Literally)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Check out the SCI-Arc/Caltech 2011 Solar Decathlon team's house to find out more about their net-zero energy use home -- the CHIP House.

  10. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    staff. The persistence of the changes can be addressed through checking performance benchmarks, conducting periodic tune-ups, or a more aggressive commissioning approach. This...

  11. MHK ISDB/Instruments/POS MV Surfmaster | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  12. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... measured (e.g., reduced solar gain and heat loss through ... The power draw on lighting, plug load, HVAC equipment, and ... controls, exterior photocells, and improved programmed ...

  13. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nEnergyPlus%2Bredirect%2B1 for discussion of simulation issues. 17 http:rredc.nrel.govsolarolddatansrdb1991-2005tmy3. 18 See ASHRAE Guideline 14-2015 and Section 4.2.2...

  14. Six novel transition-metal phosphite compounds, with structure related to yavapaiite: Crystal structures and magnetic and thermal properties of A{sup I}[M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (A=K, NH{sub 4}, Rb and M=V, Fe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Alonzo, Veronique; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne ; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-02-15

    Six new transition metal(III) phosphites A{sup I}[V{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}], where A=K (1), NH{sub 4} (2) and Rb (3) and A{sup I}[Fe{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] where A=K (4), NH{sub 4} (5) and Rb (6) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and the solid-state structures were solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. These compounds crystallize in the hexagonal system, space group P6{sub 3}mc (no. 186), with a=5.3294(2) A and c=12.3130(5) A for 1, a=5.3330(2) A and c=12.8760(4) A for 2, a=5.3459(2) A and c=12.6850(8) A for 3, a=5.3256(1) A and c=12.2362(3) A for 4, a=5.3229(2) A and c=12.8562(4) A for 5, a=5.3393(2) A and c=12.6913(5) A for 6, with Z=2 in the six phases. The crystal structures of these compounds are isotypic and exhibit a layered structure stacked along the c-axis with the A{sup +} cations located in the interlayer space. The [M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup -} sheets are formed by MO{sub 6} octahedra interconnected by HPO{sub 3} tetrahedral phosphite oxoanions through sharing vertices. Thermal analysis shows a large range of stability for compounds containing potassium and rubidium cations with decomposition starting around 550 K for stable compounds and above 840 K for the most stable compounds leading in general to pyrophosphate compounds. Triangular nets of metallic centers are observed within the layers in which antiferromagnetic interactions are evidenced by magnetic susceptibility measurements suggesting magnetic frustration. - Graphical abstract: Six new transition metal(III) phosphites A{sup I}[M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}], where A=K, NH{sub 4}, Rb and M=V, Fe, have been synthesized. The crystal structures of these compounds are isotypic and exhibit a lamellar structure related to Yavapaiite. The M(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2} layers separated by cationic species present the metallic centers in a triangular arrangement. Bulk antiferromagnetic behavior is observed for all the studied compounds. Highlights: Black

  15. Text-Alternative Webcast of the Energy Literate Citizenry from K-to-Gray

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michelle Fox: Hi, good afternoon everyone and welcome to today's webinar on energy literacy. Thank you for joining. I want to thank also the Department of Education for their Green Strides Webinar...

  16. Development of Urea Dosing System for 10 Liter Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Powered Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  17. Development of Urea Dosing System for 10 Liter Heavy Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Urea-SCR System Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials

  18. The turbocharged and intercooled 2. 3 liter engine for the Volvo 760

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Eriksson, S.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 Volvo launched the 2.1l turbocharged engine for the 240 model. Since then, the market interest for turbocharged engines has increased rapidly and along with this the demand for more efficient engines. The use of intercooler and micro-computer controlled fuel- and ignition systems in passenger car applications made it possible to develop a second generation of turbocharged engines with the capability to meet these demands. This paper describes the 2.3l turbocharged engine and its development for the US-version of the 1984 760 model.

  19. Webcast of the Energy Literate Citizenry from K-to-Gray

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Literacy Framework webinar was held on February 6, 2013 at 4 pm EST. It focused on outlining the Energy Literacy Framework, which identifies concepts every citizen should know to be...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE OF A 1600 LITER TITANIUM HYDRIDE STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.

    2010-12-14

    Titanium is used as a low pressure tritium storage material. The absorption/desorption rates and temperature rise during air passivation have been reported previously for a 4400 gram prototype titanium hydride storage vessel (HSV). A desorption limit of roughly 0.25 Q/M was obtained when heating to 700 C which represents a significant residual tritium process vessel inventory. To prepare an HSV for disposal, batchwise isotopic exchange has been proposed to reduce the tritium content to acceptable levels. A prototype HSV was loaded with deuterium and exchanged with protium to determine the effectiveness of a batch-wise isotopic exchange process. A total of seven exchange cycles were performed. Gas samples were taken nominally at the beginning, middle, and end of each desorption cycle. Sample analyses showed the isotopic exchange process does not follow the standard dilution model commonly reported. Samples taken at the start of the desorption process were lower in deuterium (the gas to be removed) than those taken later in the desorption cycle. The results are explained in terms of incomplete mixing of the exchange gas in the low pressure hydride.

  1. Deadline to Review Draft M&V Guidelines Extended to December...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is extending its request for public comment on ... FEMP has reopened the comment period and requests that new comments on this draft be sent ...

  2. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, J.; Hinnefeld, J.H.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg-day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides the strongest direct detection constraint to date on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses > 20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. A Summary of Tritium In-Bed Accountability for 1500 Liter La-Ni-Al Storage Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-31

    This paper summarizes the in-bed accountability (IBA) calibration results for all the RF LaNi4.25Al0.75 tritium storage beds.

  4. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF{sub 3}I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Hinnefeld, J. H.; Levine, I.; Shepherd, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Ramberg, E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Collar, J. I.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Szydagis, M.

    2011-01-14

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides strong direct detection constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  5. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  6. Webcast of the Energy Literate Citizenry from K-to-Gray: A Webcast on the Department of Energy's Energy Literacy Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Literacy Framework webinar was held on February 6, 2013 at 4 pm EST. The presentation, webcast and resources are available below.

  7. BrinkmanFinal_Testimony(8).pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    b. DOE (Detection) 1,520 liters 9 c. DOE (Emergency Response) 1,750 liters d. DOE (NIFNNSA) 80 liters e. DOE-Science 341 liters f. NIST 832 liters g. Oil and Gas 1,000...

  8. Calculations of atomic sputtering and displacement cross-sections in solid elements by electrons with energies from threshold to 1. 5 MV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, C.R.

    1988-12-01

    The kinetics of knock-on collisions of relativistic electrons with nuclei and details of the numerical evaluation of differential, recoil, and total Mott cross-sections are reviewed and discussed. The effects of electron beam induced displacement and sputtering, in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) environment, on microanalysis are analyzed with particular emphasis placed on the removal of material by knock-on sputtering. The mass loss predicted due to transmission knock-on sputtering is significant for many elements under conditions frequently encountered in microanalysis. Total Mott cross-sections are tabulated for all naturally occurring solid elements up to Z = 92 at displacement energies of one, two, four, and five times the sublimation energy and for accelerating voltages accessible in the transmission electron microscope. Fortran source code listings for the calculation of the differential Mott cross-section as a function of electron scattering angle (dMottCS), as a function of nuclear recoil angle (RECOIL), and the total Mott cross-section (TOTCS) are included. 48 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. WE-G-17A-09: Novel Magnetic Shielding Design for Inline and Perpendicular Integrated 6 MV Linac and 1.0 T MRI Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Ma, B; Kuang, Y; Diao, X

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The influence of fringe magnetic fields delivered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the beam generation and transportation in Linac is still a major challenge for the integration of linear accelerator and MRI (Linac-MRI). In this study, we investigated an optimal magnetic shielding design for Linac-MRI and further characterized the beam trajectory in electron gun. Methods: Both inline and perpendicular configurations were analyzed in this study. The configurations, comprising a Linac-MRI with a 100cm SAD and an open 1.0 T superconductive magnet, were simulated by the 3D finite element method (FEM). The steel shielding around the Linac was included in the 3D model, the thickness of which was varied from 1mm to 20mm, and magnetic field maps were acquired with and without additional shielding. The treatment beam trajectory in electron gun was evaluated using OPERA 3d SCALA with and without shielding cases. Results: When Linac was not shielded, the uniformity of diameter sphere volume (DSV) (30cm) was about 5 parts per million (ppm) and the fringe magnetic fields in electron gun were more than 0.3 T. With shielding, the magnetic fields in electron gun were reduced to less than 0.01 T. For the inline configuration, the radial magnetic fields in the Linac were about 0.02T. A cylinder steel shield used (5mm thick) altered the uniformity of DSV to 1000 ppm. For the perpendicular configuration, the Linac transverse magnetic fields were more than 0.3T, which altered the beam trajectory significantly. A 8mm-thick cylinder steel shield surrounding the Linac was used to compensate the output losses of Linac, which shifted the magnetic fields' uniformity of DSV to 400 ppm. Conclusion: For both configurations, the Linac shielding was used to ensure normal operation of the Linac. The effect of magnetic fields on the uniformity of DSV could be modulated by the shimming technique of the MRI magnet. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant Professorship.

  10. Microsoft Word - S05827_WCR_Final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ...L) Upper Piezometer Development MV-1 - Air MV-1 Well Dev. 052509 2250 WD 36.56 -1441 ...L) Upper Piezometer Development MV-3 - Air MV-3 Well Dev. 060309 2325 WD 37.56 -4324 ...

  11. Assessment of Advanced Measurement and Verification Methods ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (M&V 2.0) Assessment of Advanced Measurement and Verification Methods (M&V 2.0) Automated M&V from Noesis Automated M&V from Noesis Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley ...

  12. Microsoft Word - S07409_2010_SER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    v Measurement Abbreviations cm centimeter ft feet gpm gallons per minute kg kilogram km kilometer lb pound Lpm liters per minute m meter M gal million gallons M liters million liters mg/kg milligrams per kilogram mg/L milligrams per liter mGy/day milligray per day mrem/yr millirem per year mSv/yr millisievert per year pCi/L picocuries per liter rem roentgen equivalent man µg/L micrograms per liter

  13. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Algal Lipid Upgrading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    settling, 60 grams per liter (6%) after DAF using an organic polymer focculant (chitosan), and 200 grams per liter (20%) after centrifugation. * The algal material is next ...

  14. Automotive Accessibility and Efficiency Meet in the Innovative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Accessibility and Efficiency Meet in the Innovative MV-1 Automotive Accessibility and Efficiency Meet in the Innovative MV-1 March 11, 2011 - 4:03pm Addthis The MV-1, a ...

  15. Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement and verification (M&V) activities help agencies confirm that legally and ... When done correctly, M&V: Appropriately allocates risks Reduces uncertainty of savings ...

  16. State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) DOE's Technical Assistance Program ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Joint Venture (United States) Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office, New Orleans, ... body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to ...

  18. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  19. Structure and physical properties of single crystal PrCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} and CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (M=V, Cr): A comparison of compounds adopting the CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} structure type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kangas, Michael J.; Schmitt, Devin C.; Sakai, Akito; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 ; Chan, Julia Y.

    2012-12-15

    Crystal growth and full structure determination of compounds adopting the CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} structure type, LnTi{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (Ln=La-Pr, Sm, and Yb), LnV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (Ln=La-Pr, and Sm), and LnCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (Ln=La-Pr, Sm, and Yb), are reported. Resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of flux grown single crystals of the nonmagnetic CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (Ln=Ce, Yb; M=Ti, V) compounds are compared to PrCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20}. Of particular interest is PrCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} which does not show any phase transition down to the lowest temperature of the measurement (400 mK in resistivity measurement and 1.8 K for magnetic susceptibility measurements) and exhibits Kondo behavior at low temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of SmV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} showing the interpenetrating diamond-like samarium network and pyrochlore-like vanadium network. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystals of LnM{sub 2}Al{sub 20} were grown from a molten aluminum flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, electrical, and specific heat of single crystal LnM{sub 2}Al{sub 20} are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PrCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} exhibits evidence of Kondo effect.

  20. New York City Transit (NYCT) Hybrid (125 Order) and CNG Transit...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... diesel engine (5.9 liter versus an 8.3 or 8.9 liter engine) from Cummins, Inc. ... lb-ft @ 0 rpm Generator Type: Permanent magnet Horsepower: 160 hp continuous Energy ...

  1. Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. Witnessing of M&V activities is a part of the process of ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... properties (1) dielectric thin films (1) diffusion (1) ... onto the film surface. Surface potential decreased from about 280mV to about 100 mV and resistance decreased ...

  3. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mV (0.065 mAcm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. ... Dept. of Ecology and Evolution; Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); ...

  4. Spectroscopy of Supercapacitor Electrodes In Operando

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrode in 1 M NaCl (aq) under (a) constant dc biases between +250 and +1000 mV (green), (b) zero bias (orange), and (c) -1000 mV (dark blue). Fits to the experimental...

  5. Measurement and Verification Activities Required in the Energy Savings Performance Contract Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are four major measurement and verification (M&V) activities in the energy savings performance contract (ESPC) procurement process.

  6. Example Measurement and Verification Plan for an ESPC Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report features a comprehensive measurement and verification (M&V) plan for a fictitious energy savings performance contract (ESPC) project.

  7. Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document provides guidance pertaining to government witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. Witnessing of M&V activities is a part of the process of reviewing and approving M&V deliverables and the on-site inspections, spot measurements, short-term monitoring, and performance tests described in the M&V plan.

  8. Measurement and Verification Plan and Savings Calculations Methods Outline (IDIQ Attachment J-8)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document outlines measurement and verification (M&V) planning and savings calculation methods for an energy savings performance contract (ESPC).

  9. Microsoft Word - S05827_WCR_Final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MV-5 Data This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Well Completion Report for CAU 443 CNTA December 2009 Doc. No. S05827 Page C-1 Table C-1. MV-5 Chronology Date Time Depth (ft bgs) Activity 05/09/09 through 05/10/09 NA NA Move rig and equipment from MV-4 pad to MV-5 pad and prepare to drill MV-5. 05/10/09 12:10 0 Rig inspection and drill pad walk through inspection, continue with preparations for drilling. 05/10/09 14:00 0 Begin drilling 31-inch diameter conductor casing

  10. Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meshbesher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

  11. Cool CAVEs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment –- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives.

  12. Keystone Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Keystone Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Keystone Biofuels Place: Shiremanstown, Pennsylvania Product: Biodiesel producer that runs a 3.7m liter plant in Pennsylvania....

  13. Viralcool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Viralcool Jump to: navigation, search Name: Viralcool Place: Brazil Product: This company operates the 90m liter Viralcool I bioethanol plant located in Pitangueiras in the state...

  14. Temperature effects on airgun signatures (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Temperature effects on airgun signatures Experiments in an 850 liter water tank were performed in order to study temperature effects on airgun signatures, and to...

  15. ORISE Science Education Programs: How to Work with Us

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Work with Us The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) administers high-quality, experience-based research programs to facilitate a scientifically literate...

  16. Welcome to EMSL | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Onward... Researchers are literally taking their science onward and upward using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS).... Read More >>...

  17. Filter Specialty Bioenergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Filter Specialty Bioenergy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Filter Specialty Bioenergy Place: Autryville, NC, North Carolina Product: The company runs a 6m liter biodiesel plant...

  18. Los alamos national laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administrat...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA research makes scientific impact, literally Inside the 40-mm Impact Test Facility, a heavily instrumented gun - 40 millimeters in diameter - employs compressed helium or ...

  19. NNSA administrator shows NM congressional delegation the Albuquerque...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... What rock has the biggest impact on the San Andreas? The moon. NNSA labs continue to lead national solar power evaluation effort NNSA research makes scientific impact, literally ...

  20. Nevada | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nevada NNSA research makes scientific impact, literally Inside the 40-mm Impact Test Facility, a heavily instrumented gun - 40 millimeters in diameter - employs compressed helium ...

  1. Maryland Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Maryland Biodiesel Place: Berlin, Maryland Product: Maryland Biodiesel operates the 3.7m liter biodiesel plant in Berlin, Maryland....

  2. Heartland biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heartland biodiesel LLC Place: Rock Port, Missouri Product: Biodiesel producer which is currently developing a 113m liter plant in...

  3. When DNA Needs to Stand Up and Be Counted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomolecules must be properly oriented to perform their biological function. In other words, the DNA literally must stand up to be counted. Understanding both the attachment...

  4. SREL Reprint #3164

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an individual or population has the ability to read about, write about, and comprehend environmental issues. . . The benefits of having an environmentally literate public are...

  5. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-15-029 Washington State EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 liters of chemical waste is expected to be generated which may include organic solvents (for example: ethanol) and inorganic aqueous solutions (for example: NaOH, HCL,...

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water for future Mars astronauts? September 26, 2013 Diversity of Martian soils leaves Los ... and fine soil contains small amounts of water. "We made this discovery literally with ...

  7. Microsoft Word - fact sheet alternatives and key findings 090214...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    projected, tritium concentration at any drinking water intake would remain well below the maximum permissible EPA drinking water limit of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium ...

  8. Title:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kg Gasoline 1 liter 2.3 kg Diesel 1 gallon (USA) 9.95 kg Diesel 1 liter 2.7 kg Key Vocabulary * Acre: The easiest way to visualize an acre is as a rectangle measuring 88 yards by...

  9. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  10. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  11. How Energy Savings Performance Contracting Can Support State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    levels, best practices, energy savings examples, cost-effectiveness, EM&V and DOE support. ... Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) Developing an Evaluation Measurement and ...

  12. High Impact Technology Hub - Resources for Evaluators - General...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects (Version 4.0) Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

  13. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  14. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification Methods

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Many buildings, metered data * Split data set into hypothetical training & prediction ... M&V models, representative data set of 100s of buildings from PG&E territory ...

  15. Quadrennial Energy Review Comments by FirstFuel Software, Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution (T&D) Resource Promote Meter-Based Measurement and Verification (M&V) ... Especially as "smart meter" deployments roll out across the country, utilities and ...

  16. ARM - Datastreams - prpfrsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ( time ) Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance No-shadow record, mean signal from the broadband channel when no shadow is detected mV signalbroadband ( time )...

  17. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Spring 2011...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are determined before the project; custom savings: the savings are not pre-determined (M&V is required) UTILITY BUSINESS PRACTICES ISSUES COMPETITIVE SUBCONTRACTING - GORDON...

  18. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  19. High Impact Technology HQ - Resources for Evaluators - General...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    main phases govern demonstrations: Site Evaluation, Selection and Project Kick-Off, ... of Advanced Measurement and Verification Methods (M&V 2.0) Reviewing Measurement and ...

  20. ESPC ENABLE Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document provides an overview of the Measurement and Verification (M&V) Protocol utilized within ENABLE energy savings performance contract projects.

  1. Notice of Intent: Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NGEMs combine high power density, high RPM motors with integrated power electronics. Specifically, this upcoming FOA will facilitate efforts to integrate Medium Voltage (MV) class ...

  2. Wannier90

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wannier90 Wannier90 Description Wannier90 computes maximally-localised Wannier functions (MLWF) following the method of Marzari and Vanderbilt (MV). It can be used in conjunction...

  3. Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Measurement and verification (M&V) activities help agencies confirm that legally and contractually required savings guarantees are met in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

  4. Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data Measurement & Verification with Green ... Measurement and verification (M&V) focuses on ensuring that the savings from energy ...

  5. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  6. Using Measurement and Verification to Manage Risk in Federal Energy- and Water-Saving Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Risk," in the context of measurement and verification (M&V), refers to the uncertainty that expected savings will be realized. Assumption of risk implies acceptance of the potential monetary consequences. Energy service companies (ESCOs) and agencies are each reluctant to assume responsibility for factors they cannot control, and holding certain parameters fixed in the M&V plan can match up responsibilities.

  7. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Kamali, Anatoli; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Parks, Christopher L.

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  8. Influence of Temperature on the Corrosion of Uranium Dioxide Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broczkowski, Michael E.; Noel, Jamie J.; Shoesmith, David W.

    2007-07-01

    The anodic dissolution of UO{sub 2} has been studied at 60 deg. C and the results compared to previous observations at 22 deg. C. The rate of oxidation / dissolution was determined electrochemically at constant potentials in the range -500 mV to 500 mV (vs. SCE). The composition of the electrochemically oxidized surface was determined by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The onset of oxidation (UO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2+x}) occurred at approximately the same potential (-400 mV) at both temperatures. However, the conversion of U{sub V} to U{sub VI}, and hence to soluble UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, was accelerated by temperature. This acceleration of dissolution caused the development of acidity at localized sites on the fuel surface at lower (less oxidizing) potentials ({>=} 100 mV) at 60 deg. C than at 22 deg. C ({>=} 350 mV)

  9. Report Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Large site survey with dimensions of 16.5km x 1km with ... 1223.856 1.5.2.8 Electronic control panel box --left ...Liter Estimate) 6 Releif Valves Hydraulic Components Eaton ...

  10. ORNL researcher developing robotic hand

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr.Lonnie Love

    2010-01-08

    Oak Ridge National Lab is literally giving the robotics industry a hand. One scientist there is currently working on a fluid powered hand that will help everyone from amputees to the military.

  11. Close-Out Summary: Clarification on the Use of Customer Resource...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exhibits C. By doing this, BPA is correcting for resources that otherwise (through a literal reading of the July 2007 Policy) would have been counted as "zero" in the...

  12. 5(b)/9(c) Record of Decision

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the limit. See NRP080005, at 2-3. Evaluation and Decision: BPA acknowledges that a literal reading of the calculation method referenced in Seattle et al.'s comment is...

  13. Videos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Motion Google+ STEM Hangout Webcast of the Energy Literate Citizenry from K-to-Gray What's Your Energy Pledge? Conversation on the Future of the Wind Industry Webcast of...

  14. United States Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "incredibly unlikely that literally every word" in the responsive documents is still ... See, e.g., Greg Marlowe, Case No. FIC-13-0001 (2013). The Associate Under Secretary for ...

  15. Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 Filtered Water Tank Vertical, cylindrical 1,919,204 liter (507,000 gal) 1 0 24 Makeup Water Demineralizer Multi-media filter, cartridge filter, RO membrane assembly,...

  16. Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 Filtered Water Tank Vertical, cylindrical 1,839,000 liter (486,000 gal) 1 0 24 Makeup Water Demineralizer Multi-media filter, cartridge filter, RO membrane assembly,...

  17. Hanford Site Creates One-Touch Wonder for Groundwater Treatment Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Engineers and operators supporting the Richland Operations Office at the Hanford site found a way to start and stop groundwater treatment along the Columbia River with literally the push of a button.

  18. ARM - Glossary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... El Nio Means literally, the Christ child, a name given to an extensive ocean warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific along the coast of Peru and Ecuador that often begins ...

  19. DOE Laboratory Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE national laboratories were created to support the various missions of the Department, including energy, national security, science and related environmental activities. The laboratories conduct innovative research and development in literally hundreds of technology areas, some available nowhere else.

  20. Usina Gloria | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Usina Gloria Place: Brazil Product: The company will run a 90m liter ethanol plant, together with a 30m biodiesel facility in Mato Grosso do...

  1. NSC nears move completion with outstanding safety record | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    In 2013, the NSC achieved its best safety performance on record despite moving thousands of employees and, literally, tons of equipment. The on-time, on-budget move is scheduled to ...

  2. II

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans. The oil cans were potentially from the site activities in the 1960's ...

  3. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; ...

  4. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material, enough...

  5. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material,...

  6. Evergreen Renewables LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Evergreen Renewables LLC Place: Indiana Zip: P.O. Box 565 Product: Biodiesel producer which runs a 19m liter plant in Hammond, Indiana. References: Evergreen Renewables LLC1 This...

  7. Biolix | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biolix Place: Parana, Brazil Product: Biolix is a biodiesel producer with an installed capacity of 9m liters a year, it holds the Social Fuel...

  8. Grecycle Arizona LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Grecycle Arizona LLC Place: Tucson, Arizona Product: Biodiesel producer out of cooking oil that operates a 1.2m liter plant in Tucson, Arizona....

  9. Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.

    2005-09-01

    This report discusses the development of a E7G 12-liter, lean-burn natural gas engine--using stoichiometric combustion, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and three-way catalyst technologies--for refuse haulers.

  10. Groundwater Contamination

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... List OU Operable Unit P&T Pump and Treat PBS Project Baseline Summary PCE Perchloroethylene pCiL Picocurie per Liter R&D Research and Development RCRA Resource Conservation ...

  11. Microsoft Word - Groundwater_Booklet-2008-v5 final.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... NPL National Priority List P&T Pump and Treat PBS Project Baseline Summary PCE Perchloroethylene pCiL Picocurie per Liter R&D Research and Development RCRA Resource Conservation ...

  12. Microsoft Word - S09187_1stQtr2012.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site ... Alamos National Laboratory LM Office of Legacy Management gL micrograms per liter M&M ...

  13. Soil & Groundwater Remediation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to about four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic ...

  14. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-15-024 UNLV EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is expected to be less than 10 liters per year, and is expected to consist of solvents (acid, base, andor organic) with trace amounts of rare earths and heavy metals....

  15. Aethalometer Instrument Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Power requirements: 85 to 250 VAC50 to 400 Hz Power consumption: <55 W 7.1 Units ... Sampling is optimal at air flow rates from 2 to 6 standard liters per minute. The rate of ...

  16. Appearance of thermochemical emf in some conducting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, Y.S.; Maslikhov, V.V.; Shcheglov, V.D.

    1983-05-01

    The appearance of an emf in conductors when they are heated is described by the Seebeck and Thompson effects. If some part of the surface of a conductor is covered by a pyrotechnical material and ignited, then while the pyrotechnical material is burning and after it has burned, an emf arises at the ends of the conductor. The direction of the emf depends on the location of maximum temperature of the heated section of the conductor. If the heating is terminated for some time and started up again, then the emf and current appear again, with no necessity for re-application of the pyrotechnical material. Conductors of Nichrome, Constantan and tungsten, as well as graphite rods were studied with small sections of the conductors covered with lead azide, black gunpowder, or match-head composition. The current ranged from -5 to 6 microamps, and the emf from -0.4 to 1 millivolt. The effects described can be used to convert thermal energy into electrical energy in sensors, etc.

  17. Development of thermoelectric fibers for miniature thermoelectric devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Fei; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Wang, Hsin

    2016-09-23

    Miniature thermoelectric (TE) devices may be used in a variety of applications such as power sources of small sensors, temperature regulation of precision electronics, etc. Reducing the size of TE elements may also enable design of novel devices with unique form factor and higher device efficiency. Current industrial practice of fabricating TE devices usually involves mechanical removal processes that not only lead to material loss but also limit the geometry of the TE elements. In this project, we explored a powder-processing method for the fabrication of TE fibers with large length-to-area ratio, which could be potentially used for miniature TEmore » devices. Powders were milled from Bi2Te3-based bulk materials and then mixed with a thermoplastic resin dissolved in an organic solvent. Through an extrusion process, flexible, continuous fibers with sub-millimeter diameters were formed. The polymer phase was then removed by sintering. Sintered fibers exhibited similar Seebeck coefficients to the bulk materials. Moreover, their electrical resistivity was much higher, which might be related to the residual porosity and grain boundary contamination. Prototype miniature uni-couples fabricated from these fibers showed a linear I-V behavior and could generate millivolt voltages and output power in the nano-watt range. Further development of these TE fibers requires improvement in their electrical conductivities, which needs a better understanding of the causes that lead to the low conductivity in the sintered fibers.« less

  18. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  20. Effect of sublethal concentratons of four chemicals on susceptibility of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Saprolegniosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carballo, M.; Munoz, M.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of variety of chemicals on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles to Saprolegnia parasitica infection was examined. Sublethal concentrations of un-ionized ammonia (0.05 mg/liter) and nitrite (0.12 mg/liter) increased ifsh susceptibility after 10 days of exposure to the toxin, this increase being higher for ammonia (75% and 20% morbidity) than for nitrite (20% and 0% morbidity, respectively) with inoculum doses of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 6} and 9.5 {times} 10{sup 5} zoospores per liter, respectively. Sublethal concentrations of copper (0.05 mg/liter) or cyanide (0.05 mg/liter) did not show enhancement of infection by S. parasitica, even though the toxin exposure was for 21 days and the inoculum doses were higher than those for the experiments with the nitrogen compounds (4 {times} 10{sup 6} and 3.2 {times} 10{sup 6}) zoospores per liter. However, infections began to appear in control animals.

  1. Measurement&verification reality check: A yawning gapbetween theory and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Satish; Haberl, Jeff; Claridge, David; Turner, Dan; O'Neal, Dennis; Sharp, Terry; Sifuentes, Teresa; Lopez, Felix; Taylor, Dub

    2002-06-01

    The success of an energy efficiency program should bemeasured in terms of the actual energy savings, and not against"stipulated" or estimated energy savings.Although M&V guidelines andprotocols have standardized methods for verifying energy savings accruingfrom the implementation of an energy efficiency project, M&V islargely viewed as a cost center rather than a value proposition. The jurymay still be out on the real value of M&V because it is oftenperceived as very expensive and too technical. This paper will reviewmeasured energy savings data from the Texas LoanSTAR Program and analyzeavailable data and program requirements of Federal and state performancecontracting programs that require some level of M&V to verify energysavings. The intent is to determine the role of M&V in differentprograms and what implications it has on the success or failure of theprograms. The paper concludes with suggestions to use M&V as a riskmanagement tool wherein both the service provider and the customer have avested interest to perform appropriate level of M&V to reduceuncertainty in energy savings in a cost effective manner.

  2. TH-E-17A-10: Markerless Lung Tumor Tracking Based On Beams Eye View EPID Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, T; Kearney, V; Liu, H; Jiang, L; Foster, R; Mao, W; Rozario, T; Bereg, S; Klash, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic tumor tracking or motion compensation techniques have proposed to modify beam delivery following lung tumor motion on the flight. Conventional treatment plan QA could be performed in advance since every delivery may be different. Markerless lung tumor tracking using beams eye view EPID images provides a best treatment evaluation mechanism. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of the online markerless lung tumor motion tracking method. Methods: The lung tumor could be located on every frame of MV images during radiation therapy treatment by comparing with corresponding digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR). A kV-MV CT corresponding curve is applied on planning kV CT to generate MV CT images for patients in order to enhance the similarity between DRRs and MV treatment images. This kV-MV CT corresponding curve was obtained by scanning a same CT electron density phantom by a kV CT scanner and MV scanner (Tomotherapy) or MV CBCT. Two sets of MV DRRs were then generated for tumor and anatomy without tumor as the references to tracking the tumor on beams eye view EPID images. Results: Phantom studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam linac. MV treatment images were acquired continuously during each treatment beam delivery at 12 gantry angles by iTools. Markerless tumor tracking was applied with DRRs generated from simulated MVCT. Tumors were tracked on every frame of images and compared with expected positions based on programed phantom motion. It was found that the average tracking error were 2.3 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting lung tumors at complicated environment without implanting markers. It should be noted that the CT data has a slice thickness of 3 mm. This shows the statistical accuracy is better than the spatial accuracy. This project has been supported by a Varian Research Grant.

  3. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batumalai, Vikneswary; Quinn, Alexandra; Jameson, Michael; Delaney, Geoff; Holloway, Lois

    2015-03-15

    Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). The mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account.

  4. March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

  5. The CAMS Accelerator Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the cams accelerator facility The CAMS Accelerator Facility Today CAMS's primary facility is a ~10,000 ft2 building that houses three state-of-the-art, accelerator-based technologies. Upper Left: The HVEC 10 MV Model FN Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator and the lighter-ion AMS beamline. Upper Right: The NEC 1.0 MV Model 3SDH-1 Tandem Accelerator for BioAMS. Lower: The NEC 1.7 MV Model 5SDH-2 Tandem Accelerator for Ion Beam Analysis and neutron production. CAMS' principal research instrument is a

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Modeling of GeoSystems;A.N. Alshawabkeh, K.R. Reddy, M.V. Khire;American Society of Civil Engineers;1028-1035 Quantitative 3D petrography using X-ray tomography 4: Assessing ...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iVsub oc) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. ...

  8. CX-009369: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Regional Innovation Cluster (M&V Equipment) CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.2 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): Multiple Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  10. Research Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Francois Hemez (X-1-MV: METHODS AND VERIFICATION) Dr. Gyuhae Park (INST-OFF: INSTITUTES) Dr. Irene Beyerlein (T-03: FLUID DYNAMICS) Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV's) are being used by ...

  11. BPA, in partnership with its customer utilities, conducted an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. 2. 1. 2. 3. BPA can improve reliability of savings estimates by clarifying BPA M&V protocols (e.g., first-year vs typical savings and current practice baseline), improve the...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... a search of new technologies to take advantage of renewable energy such as solar and wind. ... The MV4-HO-TEMPO ARFB has an exceptionally high cell voltage, 1.25 V. Prototypes of the ...

  13. Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... HEV Engine controls Integration SAE Hybrid Committee Standards development for ... testing on-going HV-LV DCDC Inverter Junction Box HV-MV DCDC HV Battery eAC Comp. ...

  14. Microsoft Word - HV-BPL Final Report to NETL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... channels that control their electrical grid. ... Line (BPL) connection operating on the in-service, 0.77 mile, 69 kV transmission line ... on MV distribution lines, making ...

  15. Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NPS Phase 1 Thesis 19,600year 23,400year Up to 50,000day* Attributes Conservation Effect Smart Building Diagnostics M&V for EE Programs EV Integration Voltage Regulation...

  16. SIC ENABLED HIGH-FREQUENCY MEDIUM VOLTAGE DRIVE FOR HIGH-SPEED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A medium voltage drive system using SiC semiconductors and a high-speed motor to reduce ... MV high frequency drive, (ii) a high-speed motor, and (iii) advanced insulation systems. ...

  17. EMGeo Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods (QMR in one case, and IDR in the other), both solvers are dominated by memory bandwidth intensive operations like sparse matrix-vector multiply (SpMV), dot...

  18. DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    We have a revolutionary product that is the only in the business that has built in Measurement & Verification (M&V). All other anti-sweat heater controls are old technology that ...

  19. FEMP Focus - Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-04-29

    Features information about Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings, Energy Rate Escalation calculator, Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project, Natural Gas Markets, GSA develops new O&M contract, and more for federal agencies.

  20. CEBAF SRF Performance during Initial 12 GeV Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Allison, Trent; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael; Hovater, J; Lahti, George; Mounts, Clyde; Nelson, Richard; Plawski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of eleven new 100 MV cryomodules (88 cavities). The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at an accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m with a QL of 3×107. Not all the cavities were operated at the minimum gradient of 19.3 MV/m with the beam. Though the initial 12 GeV milestones were achieved during the initial commissioning of CEBAF, there are still some issues to be addressed for long term reliable operation of these modules. This paper reports the operational experiences during the initial commissioning and the path forward to improve the performance of C100 (100 MV) modules.

  1. Maldives: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Maldives Population 393,500 GDP 1,944,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MV 3-letter ISO code MDV Numeric ISO...

  2. Competing charge, spin, and superconducting orders in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ruixing ; Bonn, D.A. ; Hardy, W.N. ; Gutowski, O. ; Zimmermann, M.v. ; Hayden, S.M. ; Chang, J. 1 ; Denmark) 2 ; UBC) 2 ; DESY) 2 ; Ecole) 2 ; CIFAR) 2 ; Bristol) 2 ...

  3. PSA_Well_Completion_Report.book

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... B.1-4 Geophysical Data Project Shoal Area MV-3 Spontaneous Potential and Gamma Ray . . . . ... The Vela Uniform Program was a joint effort conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission ...

  4. B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measure project, this should be the date when the M&V for all measures was completed. O Optional: Project Name Name assigned to project. Data Entry Fields: Columns B through AG...

  5. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    101001 Field Measurements Alkalinity mgL 189 182 Conductivity c mhoscm 560 560 DO c mgL 1.4 -- ORP c mV -51 -46 pH c s.u....

  6. Microsoft Word - S02459_2006Annual GW Rpt.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    101001 Field Measurements Alkalinity mgL 189 182 Conductivity b mhoscm 560 560 DO b mgL 1.4 -- ORP b mV -51 -46 pH b s.u....

  7. Bedrock Groundwaters -- Upgradient -- 92-06a,b

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    101001 Field Measurements Alkalinity mgL 189 182 Conductivity c mhoscm 560 560 DO c mgL 1.4 -- ORP c mV -51 -46 pH c s.u....

  8. Microsoft Word - S03623_2007AnnRep_091007.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    101001 Field Measurements Alkalinity mgL 189 182 Conductivity c mhoscm 560 560 DO c mgL 1.4 -- ORP c mV -51 -46 pH c s.u....

  9. SU-E-T-423: TrueBeam Small Field Dosimetry Using Commercial Plastic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system and to compare them to values measured with an IBA CC01 ionization chamber and a Sun Nuclear Edge detector diode for 6 MV photon beams. Methods: The Exradin W1 is a new...

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system and to compare them to values measured with an IBA CC01 ionization chamber and a Sun Nuclear Edge detector diode for MV photon beams Methods The Exradin W1 is a new small...

  11. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system and to compare them to values measured with an IBA CC01 ionization chamber and a Sun Nuclear Edge detector diode for 6 MV photon beams. Methods: The Exradin W1 is a new...

  12. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Braun

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

  13. Multipacting in a grooved choke joint at SRF gun for BNL ERL prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Holmes, D.; Kayran, D.; McIntyre, G.; Sheehy, B.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for BNL ERL prototype was tested at JLab with and without choke-joint and cathode stalk. Without choke-joint and cathode stalk, the gradient reached was 25 MV/m with Q{sup 0} {approx} 6E9. The gun cathode insertion port is equipped with a grooved choke joint for multipacting suppression. We carried out tests with choke-joint and cathode stalk. The test results show that there are at least two barriers at about 3.5 MV/m and 5 MV/m. We considered several possibilities and finally found that fine details of the grooved shape are important for multipacting suppression. A triangular groove with round crest may cause strong multipacting in the choke-joint at 3.5 MV/m, 5 MV/m and 10 MV/m. This paper presents the primary test results of the gun and discusses the multipacting analysis in the choke-joint. It also suggests possible solutions for the gun and multipacting suppressing for a similar structure.

  14. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  15. Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyness, E.; Doelle, H.W.

    1981-07-01

    General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate at high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. The metabolic quotients for sucrose utilization, qs, and ethanol production, qp (g/g.hr), are unsuitable for describing sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis as the logarithmic phase of growth precedes the phase of highest substrate utilization (g/liter.hr) and ethanol production (g/liter.hr) in batch culture. (Refs. 10).

  16. Cellulose fermentation by an asporogenous mutant and an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailliez, P.; Girard, H.; Longin, R.; Beguin, P.; Millet, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Clostridium thermocellum were isolated after UV light mutagenesis. Mutant A1, selected as asporogenous, exhibited a fermentation pattern similar to that of the wild type. However, at pH 6.5, the mutant degraded 12% more cellulose than did the wild type, leading to enhanced ethanol production. Mutant 647, selected as ethanol tolerant, was able to grow in medium containing 4% ethanol. During the early stage of the exponential growth phase, ethanol was produced as the main product, up to a concentration of about 9 g/liter. After 3 days of culture, 48.3 g (89% of the initial amount) of degraded cellulose per liter was fermented into 12.7 g of ethanol per liter.

  17. Current Status of the WArP Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szelc, A. M.

    2009-04-17

    The WArP Collaboration is getting ready to run the WArP 100 liter detector in the Underground laboratory in Gran Sasso, Italy. The new detector, scheduled to run in 2008, should improve the current sensitivity limits by a factor of 10. Meanwhile, an active R and D program is being conducted. The highlights of this program, namely the runs with Argon depleted in the radioactive isotope {sup 39}Ar currently in preparation and the measurements of the effects of contamination with Nitrogen and Oxygen on the Liquid Argon effective light yield will be presented as well as the current status of the 100 liter detector.

  18. Microsoft Word - KCP Final EA Draft 042913 CLEAN for Concurrence-R2.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE TRANSFER OF THE KANSAS CITY PLANT, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration May 2013 DOE/EA-1947 CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square meters 10.764 Square feet Concentration Kilograms/sq. meter 0.16667 Tons/acre Milligrams/liter 1 a Parts/million Micrograms/liter 1 a

  19. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  20. Beam generation and planar imaging at energies below 2.40 MeV with carbon and aluminum linear accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, David; Robar, James L.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Recent work has demonstrated improvement of image quality with low-Z linear accelerator targets and energies as low as 3.5 MV. In this paper, the authors lower the incident electron beam energy between 1.90 and 2.35 MeV and assess the improvement of megavoltage planar image quality with the use of carbon and aluminum linear accelerator targets. Methods: The bending magnet shunt current was adjusted in a Varian linear accelerator to allow selection of mean electron energy between 1.90 and 2.35 MeV. Linac set points were altered to increase beam current to allow experimental imaging in a practical time frame. Electron energy was determined through comparison of measured and Monte Carlo modeled depth dose curves. Planar image CNR and spatial resolution measurements were performed to quantify the improvement of image quality. Magnitudes of improvement are explained with reference to Monte Carlo generated energy spectra. Results: After modifications to the linac, beam current was increased by a factor greater than four and incident electron energy was determined to have an adjustable range from 1.90 MeV to 2.35 MeV. CNR of cortical bone was increased by a factor ranging from 6.2 to 7.4 and 3.7 to 4.3 for thin and thick phantoms, respectively, compared to a 6 MV therapeutic beam for both aluminum and carbon targets. Spatial resolution was degraded slightly, with a relative change of 3% and 10% at 0.20 lp/mm and 0.40 lp/mm, respectively, when reducing energy from 2.35 to 1.90 MV. The percentage of diagnostic x-rays for the beams examined here, ranges from 46% to 54%.Conclusion: It is possible to produce a large fraction of diagnostic energy x-rays by lowering the beam energy below 2.35 MV. By lowering the beam energy to 1.90 MV or 2.35 MV, CNR improves by factors ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 compared to a 6 MV therapy beam, with only a slight degradation of spatial resolution when lowering the energy from 2.35 MV to 1.90 MV.

  1. Current transport mechanisms in plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altuntas, Halit E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-04-21

    Here, we report on the current transport mechanisms in AlN thin films deposited at a low temperature (i.e., 200?C) on p-type Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. Structural characterization of the deposited AlN was carried out using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, revealing polycrystalline films with a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure. Al/AlN/ p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structures were fabricated and investigated under negative bias by performing current-voltage measurements. As a function of the applied electric field, different types of current transport mechanisms were observed; i.e., ohmic conduction (15.221.5 MV/m), Schottky emission (23.639.5 MV/m), Frenkel-Poole emission (63.8211.8 MV/m), trap-assisted tunneling (226280 MV/m), and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (290447 MV/m). Electrical properties of the insulating AlN layer and the fabricated Al/AlN/p-Si MIS capacitor structure such as dielectric constant, flat-band voltage, effective charge density, and threshold voltage were also determined from the capacitance-voltage measurements.

  2. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  3. The Effect of the iBEAM Evo Carbon Fiber Tabletop on Skin Sparing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, John B. Godwin, Guy A.

    2011-10-01

    Replicating the attenuation properties of the treatment tabletop are of primary importance for accurate treatment planning; however, the effect of the tabletop on the skin-sparing properties of x-rays can be overlooked. Under some conditions, the reaction of skin to the radiation can be so serious as to be the dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy treatment. Hence, an understanding of the magnitude of the reduction in skin sparing is important. Because of the development of image-guided radiotherapy, modern tabletops have been developed without the use of metal supports that otherwise provided the necessary level of rigidity. Rigidity is instead provided by compressed foam within a carbon-fiber shell, which, although it provides artefact-free imaging and high levels of rigidity, has an adverse affect on the dose in the build-up region. Representative of this type is the iBEAM evo tabletop, whose effect on the skin dose was determined at 6-MV, 10-MV, and 18-MV x-rays. Skin dose was found to increase by 60-70% owing to the tabletop, with the effect increasing with field size and decreasing with energy. By considering an endpoint of erythema, a radiobiological advantage of selecting 10 MV over 6 MV for applicable treatments was demonstrated.

  4. Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. M.; Liu, Kexin; Geng, Rongli

    2014-02-01

    Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6-1.6 MV/m, 21-34 MV/m, 32-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

  5. CEBAF Upgrade: Cryomodule Performance And Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, Michael A.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; Hovater, J. Curt; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joe; Reece, Charles E.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

    2014-02-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the 12 GeV Upgrade is a doubling of the available beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due in large part to the addition of ten C100 cryomodules plus associated new RF in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver 100 MeV per installed cryomodule. Each C100 cryomodule is built around a string of eight seven-cell, electro-polished, superconducting RF cavities. While an average performance of 100MV per cryomodule is needed to achieve the overall 12 GeV beam energy goal, the actual performance goal for the cryomodules is an average energy gain of 108 MV to provide operational headroom. Cryomodule production started in December 2010. All ten of the C100 cryomodules are installed in the linac tunnels and are on schedule to complete commissioning by September 2013. Performance during Commissioning has ranged from 104 MV to 118 MV. In May, 2012 a test of an early C100 achieved 108 MV with full beam loading. This paper will discuss the performance of the C100 cryomodules along with operational challenges and lessons learned for future designs.

  6. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  7. CX-006510: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500 Watthours per LiterCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/25/2011Location(s): San Diego, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-006508: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500 Watthours per LiterCX(s) Applied: A1, A8, A9Date: 08/25/2011Location(s): Midland, MichiganOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-006506: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500 Watthours per LiterCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/25/2011Location(s): Oak Ridge, TennesseeOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  11. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  12. CX-006507: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500 Watthours per LiterCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/25/2011Location(s): Lee's Summit, MissouriOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  13. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

    1959-09-01

    Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

  14. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCT VALUES FROM THE HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, T.H.

    1959-12-15

    An improved precipitation of fission products on bismuth phosphate from an aqueous mineral acid solution also containing hexavalent plutonium by incorporating, prior to bismuth phosphate precipitation, from 0.05 to 2.5 grams/ liter of zirconium phosphate, niobium oxide. and/or lanthanum fluoride is described. The plutonium remains in solution.

  15. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  16. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  17. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  18. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  19. Use of photoelectric generators to produce hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakirov, M.Ya.; Efendiev, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The basic design of a plant for the production of hydrogen from water by the use of photoelectric generators is examined. The plant consists of a solar battery made up of a modular array of silicon photocells capable of generating 8 A at 12 V at solar maximum, a cylindrical electrolyzer, and a control unit designed to regulate the pressure of the gases released and maintain a constant pressure differential between them. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics of the facility at various solar radiation intensities have shown that only 43 W out of a maximum power of 96 W is used by a single electrolyzer, and that two electrolyzers connected in series make use of 76 W of generator power. Maximum productivities of 3.3 liters of H2/hr and 1.6 liters of O2/hr and 6.4 liters of H2/hr and 3 liters of O2/hr were measured for the single and two-cell configurations, respectively, with 50 l of H2 generated during a 10-hr solar day at an overall plant efficiency of 3%. Calculations have shown that a solar battery of 1-sq m area and 20% efficiency will produce over 2000 cu m of hydrogen over a 25-year service life, sufficient for providing remote regions with hydrogen fuel. The combined use of photoelectric and wind-power generating facilities has also been proposed.

  20. A dosimetric characterization of a novel linear accelerator collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C. M.; Weston, S. J. Cosgrove, V. C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to characterize a new linear accelerator collimator which contains a single pair of sculpted diaphragms mounted orthogonally to a 160 leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). The diaphragms have “thick” regions providing full attenuation and “thin” regions where attenuation is provided by both the leaves and the diaphragm. The leaves are mounted on a dynamic leaf guide allowing rapid leaf motion and leaf travel over 350 mm. Methods: Dosimetric characterization, including assessment of leaf transmission, leaf tip transmission, penumbral width, was performed in a plotting tank. Head scatter factor was measured using a mini-phantom and the effect of leaf guide position on output was assessed using a water phantom. The tongue and groove effect was assessed using multiple exposures on radiochromic film. Leaf reproducibility was assessed from portal images of multiple abutting fields. Results: The maximum transmission through the multileaf collimator is 0.44% at 6 MV and 0.52% at 10 MV. This reduced to 0.22% and 0.27%, respectively, when the beam passes through the dynamic leaf guide in addition to the MLC. The maximum transmission through the thick part of the diaphragm is 0.32% and 0.36% at 6 and 10 MV. The combination of leaf and diaphragm transmission ranges from 0.08% to 0.010% at 6 MV and 0.10% to 0.14% depending on whether the shielding is through the thick or thin part of the diaphragm. The off-axis intertip transmission for a zero leaf gap is 2.2% at 6 and 10 MV. The leaf tip penumbra for a 100 × 100 mm field ranges from 5.4 to 4.3 mm at 6 and 10 MV across the full range of leaf motion when measured in the AB direction, which reduces to 4.0–3.4 mm at 6 MV and 4.5–3.8 mm at 10 MV when measured in the GT direction. For a 50 × 50 mm field, the diaphragm penumbra ranges from 4.3 to 3.7 mm at 6 MV and 4.5 to 4.1 mm at 10 MV in the AB direction and 3.7 to 3.2 mm at 6 MV and 4.2 to 3.7 mm when measured in the GT direction. The

  1. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLBA; Jelezov, I. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, W. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, X. [DESY, Hamburg

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the Q-drop in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  2. Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

    2010-09-30

    In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

  3. Renewable Energy and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.; Thompson, A.; Mills, D.; Kats, G. H.

    1999-04-14

    The Renewables Subcommittee for the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) is developing a section of the IPMVP treating the special issues related to performance measurement of renewable energy systems. An industry consensus framework for measuring project benefits is important in realizing the promise of renewable energy. This work represents a voluntary, consensus-building process among sponsoring organizations from 21 countries and several disciplines. Measurement and Verification (M&V) can provide a common tool for standardization to support performance-based contracting, financing, and emissions trading. M&V can ensure that savings and generation requirements in energy projects will be achieved accurately and objectively. The protocol defines procedures that are consistently applicable to similar projects, internationally accepted, and reliable. Actual M&V project results can demonstrate success and provide developers, investors, lenders, and customers with more confidence in the value of future projects.

  4. On the determination of reference levels for quality assurance of flattening filter free photon beams in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clivio, Alessandro; Belosi, Maria Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Fogliata, Antonella; Bolard, Grgory; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Krauss, Harald

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New definitions for some dosimetric parameters for use in quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators have been suggested. The present study aims to validate these suggestions and to propose possible reference levels. Methods: The main characteristics of FFF photon beams were described in terms of: field size, penumbra, unflatness, slope, and peak-position parameters. Data were collected for 6 and 10 MV-FFF beams from three different Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed with a 2D-array (Starcheck system from PTW-Freiburg) and with the portal dosimetry method GLAaS utilizing the build-in portal imager of TrueBeam. Data were also compared to ion chamber measurements. A cross check validation has been performed on a FFF beam of 6 MV generated by a Varian Clinac-iX upgraded to FFF capability. Results : All the parameters suggested to characterize the FFF beams resulted easily measurable and little variation was observed among different Linacs. Referring to two reference field sizes of 10 10 and 20 20 cm{sup 2}, at SDD = 100 cm and d = dmax, from the portal dosimetry data, the following results (averaging X and Y profiles) were obtained. Field size: 9.95 0.02 and 19.98 0.03 cm for 6 MV-FFF (9.94 0.02 and 19.98 0.03 cm for 10 MV-FFF). Penumbra: 2.7 0.3 and 2.9 0.3 mm for 6 MV-FFF (3.1 0.2 and 3.3 0.3 for 10 MV-FFF). Unflatness: 1.11 0.01 and 1.25 0.01 for 6 MV-FFF (1.21 0.01 and 1.50 0.01 for 10 MV-FFF). Slope: 0.320 0.020%/mm and 0.43 0.015%/mm for 6 MV-FFF (0.657 0.023%/mm and 0.795 0.017%/mm for 10 MV-FFF). Peak Position ?0.2 0.2 and ?0.4 0.2 mm for 6 MV-FFF (?0.3 0.2 and 0.7 0.3 mm for 10 MV-FFF). Results would depend upon measurement depth. With thresholds set to at least 95% confidence level from the measured data and to account for possible variations between detectors and methods and experimental settings, a tolerance set of: 1 mm for field

  5. Modeling the Distribution of Acidity within Nuclear Fuel (UO{sub 2}) Corrosion Product Deposits and Porous Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, W.J.; Keech, P.G.; Wren, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Qin, Z.

    2007-07-01

    A model for acidity within pores within corrosion products on anodically-dissolving UO{sub 2} was developed using Comsol Multiphysics 3.2 to complement ongoing electrochemical measurements. It was determined that a depression of pH within pores can be maintained if: electrochemically measured dissolution currents used in the calculations are attenuated to reflect very localized pores; corrosion potentials exceed -250 mV (vs. SCE); and pore depths are >1 {mu}m for 300 mV or >100 {mu}m for -50 mV (vs. SCE). Mixed diffusional-chemical equilibria control is suggested through deviations in the shapes between pH-potential and pH-pore depth plots. (authors)

  6. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in themore » LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.« less

  7. Noise suppression in reconstruction of low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jing; Robar, James; Guan Huaiqun

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To improve the image contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio for low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) using a statistical projection noise suppression algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Methods: Projection images of a contrast phantom, a CatPhan{sup Registered-Sign} 600 phantom and a head phantom were acquired by a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a low-Z (Al) target and low energy x-ray beam (2.5 MeV) at a low-dose level and at a high-dose level. The projections were then processed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The weighted least square (WLS) term models the noise of measured projection and the penalty term enforces the smoothing constraints of the projection image. The variance of projection data was chosen as the weight for the PWLS objective function and it determined the contribution of each measurement. An anisotropic quadratic form penalty that incorporates the gradient information of projection image was used to preserve edges during noise reduction. Low-Z target MV CBCT images were reconstructed by the FDK algorithm after each projection was processed by the PWLS smoothing. Results: Noise in low-Z target MV CBCT images were greatly suppressed after the PWLS projection smoothing, without noticeable sacrifice of the spatial resolution. Depending on the choice of smoothing parameter, the CNR of selected regions of interest in the PWLS processed low-dose low-Z target MV CBCT image can be higher than the corresponding high-dose image.Conclusion: The CNR of low-Z target MV CBCT images was substantially improved by using PWLS projection smoothing. The PWLS projection smoothing algorithm allows the reconstruction of high contrast low-Z target MV CBCT image with a total dose of as low as 2.3 cGy.

  8. M & V Shootout: Setting the Stage For Testing the Performance of New Energy Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael; Fernandes, Samuel; Granderson, Jessica; Jump, David; Taylor, Cody

    2015-07-01

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. A spectrum of savings calculation approaches are used, with some relying more heavily on measured data and others relying more heavily on estimated or modeled data, or stipulated information. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost, with comparable or improved accuracy. Energy management and information systems (EMIS) technologies, not only enable significant site energy savings, but are also beginning to offer M&V capabilities. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain, whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel baseline modeling approaches that leverage interval meter data. We detail a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of these new approaches using a large test dataset. We also provide conclusions regarding the accuracy, cost, and time trade-offs between more traditional M&V and these emerging streamlined methods. Finally, we discuss the potential evolution of M&V to better support the energy efficiency industry through low-cost approaches, and the long-term agenda for validation of building energy analytics.

  9. Enrichment of Microbial Electrolysis Cell Biocathodes from Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell Bioanodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisciotta, JM; Zaybak, Z; Call, DF; Nam, JY; Logan, BE

    2012-07-18

    Electron-accepting (electrotrophic) biocathodes were produced by first enriching graphite fiber brush electrodes as the anodes in sediment-type microbial fuel cells (sMFCs) using two different marine sediments and then electrically inverting the anodes to function as cathodes in two-chamber bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Electron consumption occurred at set potentials of -439 mV and -539 mV (versus the potential of a standard hydrogen electrode) but not at -339 mV in minimal media lacking organic sources of energy. Results at these different potentials were consistent with separate linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) scans that indicated enhanced activity (current consumption) below only ca. -400 mV. MFC bioanodes not originally acclimated at a set potential produced electron-accepting (electrotrophic) biocathodes, but bioanodes operated at a set potential (+11 mV) did not. CO, was removed from cathode headspace, indicating that the electrotrophic biocathodes were autotrophic. Hydrogen gas generation, followed by loss of hydrogen gas and methane production in one sample, suggested hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. There was abundant microbial growth in the biocathode chamber, as evidenced by an increase in turbidity and the presence of microorganisms on the cathode surface. Clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated prominent sequences most similar to those of Eubacterium limosum (Butyribacterium methylotrophicum), Desulfovibrio sp. A2, Rhodococcus opacus, and Gemmata obscuriglobus. Transfer of the suspension to sterile cathodes made of graphite plates, carbon rods, or carbon brushes in new BESs resulted in enhanced current after 4 days, demonstrating growth by these microbial communities on a variety of cathode substrates. This report provides a simple and effective method for enriching autotrophic electrotrophs by the use of sMFCs without the need for set potentials, followed by the use of potentials more negative than -400 mV.

  10. CX-005298: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005298: Categorical Exclusion Determination Vehicle Production Group LLC, MV-1 Assembly Facility CX(s) Applied: B1.31, B5.1 Date: 09/23/2010 Location(s): Mishawaka, Indiana Office(s): Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program, Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed action is to issue a loan to The Vehicle Production Group LLC (VPG) for an MV-I vehicle, the assembly of which would take place in an existing

  11. Fundamental Research in Superconducting RF Cavity Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georg Hoffstaetter

    2012-11-13

    This is a 3-year SRF R&D proposal with two main goals: 1) to benefit near term high gradient SRF applications by understanding the causes of quench at high fields in present-day niobium cavities 2) to open the long-range prospects for SRF applications by experimentally verifying the recent exciting theoretical predication for new cavity materials such as Nb3Sn and MgB2. These predictions shwo that ultimately gradients of 100Mv/m to 200MV/m may become possible as material imperfections are overcome.

  12. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-04-15

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect.

  13. Microsoft Word - S05827_WCR_Final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MV-4 Data This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Well Completion Report for CAU 443 CNTA December 2009 Doc. No. S05827 Page B-1 Table B-1. MV-4 Chronology Date Time Depth (ft bgs) Activity 04/16/09 through 04/22/09 NA NA Mobilization to CNTA and rig-up to drill 04/22/09 15:45 0 Rig inspection and drill pad walk through inspection, continue with preparations for drilling. 04/22/09 21:50 0 Begin drilling 31-inch diameter conductor casing borehole 04/23/09 10:10 100 Advanced

  14. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-05-11

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  15. Meet the CAMS Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meet the cams staff Meet the CAMS Staff Members of the CAMS staff standing near the 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator at CAMS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Members of the CAMS staff standing near the 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator at CAMS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Name Title E-mail Phone Graham Bench Director bench1@llnl.gov +1-925-423-5155 Thomas A. Brown Scientific Staff tabrown@llnl.gov +1-925-423-8507 Bruce Buchholz Scientific Staff bbuchholz@llnl.gov

  16. Megavoltage imaging with a photoconductor based sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partain, Larry Dean; Zentai, George

    2011-02-08

    A photodetector for detecting megavoltage (MV) radiation comprises a semiconductor conversion layer having a first surface and a second surface disposed opposite the first surface, a first electrode coupled to the first surface, a second electrode coupled to the second surface, and a low density substrate including a detector array coupled to the second electrode opposite the semiconductor conversion layer. The photodetector includes a sufficient thickness of a high density material to create a sufficient number of photoelectrons from incident MV radiation, so that the photoelectrons can be received by the conversion layer and converted to a sufficient of recharge carriers for detection by the detector array.

  17. SU-E-T-583: Optimizing the MLC Model Parameters for IMRT in the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S; Yi, B; Xu, H; Yang, X; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To optimize the MLC model parameters for IMRT in the RayStation v.4.0 planning system and for a Varian C-series Linac with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC. Methods: The RayStation treatment planning system models rounded leaf-end MLC with the following parameters: average transmission, leaf-tip width, tongue-and-groove, and position offset. The position offset was provided by Varian. The leaf-tip width was iteratively evaluated by comparing computed and measured transverse dose profiles of MLC-defined fields at dmax in water. The profile comparison was also used to verify the MLC position offset. The transmission factor and leaf tongue width were derived iteratively by optimizing five clinical patient IMRT QA Results: brain, lung, pancreas, head-and-neck (HN), and prostate. The HN and prostate cases involved splitting fields. Verifications were performed with Mapcheck2 measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Finally, the MLC model was validated using five test IMRT cases from the AAPM TG119 report. Absolute gamma analyses (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%) were applied. In addition, computed output factors for MLC-defined small fields (22, 33, 44, 66cm) of both 6MV and 18MV were compared to those measured by the Radiological Physics Center (RPC). Results: Both 6MV and 18MV models were determined to have the same MLC parameters: 2.5% transmission, tongue-and-groove 0.05cm, and leaftip 0.3cm. IMRT QA analysis for five cases in TG119 resulted in a 100% passing rate with 3mm/3% gamma analysis for 6MV, and >97.5% for 18MV. With 2mm/2% gamma analysis, the passing rate was >94.6% for 6MV and >90.9% for 18MV. The difference between computed output factors in RayStation and RPC measurements was less than 2% for all MLCdefined fields, which meets the RPC's acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The rounded leaf-end MLC model in RayStation 4.0 planning system was verified and IMRT commissioning was clinically acceptable. The IMRT commissioning was well validated using guidance from the

  18. Josephson tunnel junctions with chemically vapor deposited polycrystalline germanium barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Jillie, D.W.; Smith, L.N.; Phaneuf, L.E.; Potter, C.N.; Shaw, D.M.; Cukauskas, E.J.; Nisenoff, M.

    1984-03-01

    High quality Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated whose tunneling barrier is polycrystalline germanium chemically vapor deposited on a NbN base electrode and covered by a Nb counterelectrode. These junctions have excellent characteristics for device applications: values of V/sub m/ (the product of the critical current and the subgap resistance measured at 2 mV and 4.2 K) ranging between 35--48 mV, ideal threshold curves, a steep current rise at the gap voltage, and Josephson current densities from 100 to 1100 A/cm/sup 2/.

  19. CAMS Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cams capabilities CAMS Capabilities HVEC 10 MV Model FN Tandem Of the three accelerators CAMS utilizes the largest is the HVEC 10 MV Model FN Tandem, which was obtained from the University of Washington and installed at LLNL in the mid-80s. During installation the accelerator's belt charging system was replaced with a NEC Pelletron, new Dowlish spiral-inclined beam tubes were installed, as were the gas-handling systems necessary for use of SF6 as the insulating tank gas. The FN accelerator is

  20. Preliminary PBFA II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. L.; VanDevender, J. P.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network.

  1. Technetium Sorption by Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Powell, Brian A.

    2012-09-28

    The objective of this study was to measure technetium ({sup 99}Tc) sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. {sup 99}Tc(VII) batch sorption experiments were conducted for 319 days in an inert glovebag with a variety of cementitious materials (aged cement, Vault 2, TR545, and TR547) containing varying amounts of blast furnace slag. Between 154 and 319 days, the {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations tended to remain constant and samples amended with different initial {sup 99}Tc concentrations, tended to merge at about 10{sup -9} M for Vault 2 (17% slag) and TR545 (90% slag) and 10{sup -8} M for TR547 (45% slag). This data provided strong evidence that solubility, and not adsorption (K{sub d} values), was controlling aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations. Laboratory data superimposed over thermodynamic speciation diagrams further supported the conclusion that solubility, and not adsorption controlled {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations. The oxidation state of the aqueous {sup 99}Tc at the end of the sorption experiment was determined by solvent extraction to be almost entirely {sup 99}Tc(VII). The pH of the present system was ~11.8. Previously proposed solubility controlling phases including Tc-sulfides may be present, but do not appear to control solubility. After the 319 day sorption period, the suspensions were removed from the glovebag and a desorption step under oxic conditions was conducted for 20 days by adding oxic, pH-buffered solutions to the suspensions. {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations increased by more than an order of magnitude and Eh increased by several hundred millivolts within 24 hours after the introduction of the oxic solutions. These desorption results are consistent with re-oxidation and dissolution/desorption of {sup 99}Tc(IV) phases possibly present in the cementitious materials after the anoxic sorption step of the experiment. Aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations continued to increase

  2. Design of RF Feed System for Standing-Wave Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.; Tantawi, S.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2012-05-25

    We are investigating a standing wave accelerator structure that uses a rf feed to each individual cell. This approach minimizes rf power flow and electromagnetic energy absorbed by an rf breakdown. The objective of this work is a robust high-gradient (above 100 MV/m) X-band accelerator structure.

  3. Road Map for Studies to Produce Consistent and High Performance SRF Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; John F. OHanlon

    2007-06-20

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINACs (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

  4. Advanced Distributor Products: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0304)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Advanced Distributor Products finding that basic model N2H348A(G)KB* + H,GE50560 + *8MPV125 and basic model N2H360A(G)KB* + H,GE50560 + MV16J22**B* do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  5. Q0 Improvement of Large-Grain Multi-Cell Cavities by Using JLab's Standard ILC EP Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, R. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Eremeev, G. V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kneisel, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, K. X. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China); Lu, X. Y. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhao, K. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    As reported previously at the Berlin workshop, applying the JLab standard ILC electropolishing (EP) recipe on previously buffered chemical polishing (BCP) etched fine-grain multi-cell cavities results in improvement both in gradient and Q{sub 0}. We recently had the opportunity to experiment with two 1300 MHz 9-cell large-gain niobium cavities manufactured by JLab and Peking University. Both cavities were initially BCP etched and further processed by using JLab's standard ILC EP recipe. Due to fabrication defects, these two cavities only reached a gradient in the range of 20-30 MV/m. Interestingly both cavities demonstrated significant Q{sub 0} improvement in the gradient range of 15-20 MV/m. At 2K, a Q{sub 0} value of 2E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. At a reduced temperature of 1.8K, a Q{sub 0} value of 3E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. These results suggest that a possible path for obtaining higher Q{sub 0} in the medium gradient range is to use the large-grain material for cavity fabrication and EP and low temperature bake for cavity processing.

  6. Multipacting-free quarter-wavelength choke joint design for BNL SRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Liaw, C. J.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, E.; Weiss, D.; Zaltsman, A.

    2015-05-03

    The BNL SRF gun cavity operated well in CW mode up to 2 MV. However, its performance suffered due to multipacting in the quarter-wavelength choke joint. A new multipacting-free cathode stalk was designed and conditioned. This paper describes RF and thermal design of the new cathode stalk and its conditioning results.

  7. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  8. AMO FOA Targets Advanced Components for Next-Generation Electric Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AMO’s Next Generation Electric Machines (NGEM) program announced up to $20 million is now available to develop a new generation of energy efficient, high power density, high speed integrated medium voltage (MV) drive systems for a wide variety of critical energy applications.

  9. Performance of a CEBAF production cavity after high-temperature heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneisel, P.; Rao, M.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF`s production cavities are tested in a vertical configuration after appropriate chemical surface treatment prior to installation into the accelerator. The performance of these cavities is excellent, often exceeding the specifications of E{sub acc}=5 MV/m at 2 K by factors of 2 to 3. In such cases the cavities are often limited by thermal-magnetic breakdown. A cavity that exhibited a limiting gradient of E{sub acc} {le} 16.4 MV/m has been heat-treated at 1400{degrees}C for 6 hours in the presence of titanium as a solid state gettering material to improve the thermal stability of the niobium. After the heat treatment a gradient of E{sub acc}=20.5 MV/m corresponding to a peak surface electric field of E{sub peak}=52 MV/m has been measured. In addition to the cavity results, data on thermal conductivity and tensile properties of samples which have undergone the same treatments as the cavity are reported.

  10. Design of RF Feed System for Standing-Wave Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, Jeffrey; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery

    2010-11-04

    We are investigating a standing wave structure with an rf feed to each individual cell. This approach minimizes rf power flow and electromagnetic energy absorbed by an rf breakdown. The objective of this work is a robust high-gradient (above 100 MV/m) X-band accelerator structure.