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1

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

3

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

4

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper… (more)

Young, Christopher Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Kraft black liquor delivery systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Kenaf Black Liquor Gasification Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vision Paper (Albuquerque, New Mexico) is considering building a pulping mill in Tennessee. This study is a first step in determining if the gasification of black liquor derived from kenaf8212an annual fiber and a substitute for softwood in the pulping process8212would allow Vision Paper to meet strict environmental regulations while generating process steam for its pulp mill. In collaboration with USDA, Vision Paper previously developed a soda-AQ (anthraquninone) process for producing high-quality pulp ...

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other process liquors are recovered and recycled. Because the black liquor fuel contains high alkali concentrations, 18.3% sodium, 3.6% sulfur, an amount typical of midwestern bituminous coal, and measurable amounts of silica, iron oxides and other species, the black liquor boiler experience was reviewed for application to MHD boiler technology.

Not Available

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3. Gasifier Supplier Perspectives 11 Black Liquor Gasifier Suppliers 12 Biomass Gasifier Suppliers 13 5 exists for Key ideas from the workshop... commercializing black liquor gasifier/ combined Techno~og~ supp!iers have not seen convIncIng evidence of cycle (BLGCC) and biomass-gasifier/combined market opportunity

17

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Mechanism of silica precipitation by lowering pH in chemi-thermomechanical pulping black liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor is a complex colloidal system obtained by chemical pulping process. It comprises of lignin, nearly 50% of the total organic and Silica approx. 2-3% (OD basis) of the total inorganic components. Black liquor is fed to chemical recovery plant ... Keywords: black liquors, desilication and concentrators, lignin, silica

Muhammad Ikram Aujla; Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman; Asad Javaid

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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21

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent ExtractionAbstract The dissolution of biomass into ionic liquids (ILs)be a promising alternative biomass pretreatment technology,

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below the limits set by the environmental permits.

Robert DeCarrera

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

Black Liquor Gasification Process Review and Status Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After more than two decades of research and development, black liquor gasification is poised to become a commercial reality in the 90's. Several promising developments are underway in North America and Europe. In fact, all major recovery boiler manufacturers are now actively involved in black liquor gasifier developments. Leading the way is Gotaverken's Chemree process. Their 3 tph solids demonstration unit has been in commercial operations since late 1991. Following a close second in the MTCI process, whose 2 tph solids demonstration is scheduled to startup this summer. BB-Combustion Engineering have reported promising test results on a 0.2 tph CFB facility and have announced plans for a pilot demonstration. Tampella and Ahlstrom each have small pilot facilities (0.2 tph) focused on developing pressurized gasifiers. Their work is complemented by research at VIT (The Technical Research Centre of Finland) who have a 0.2 tph pressurized fluid bed test facility. The purpose of this paper is to describe these processes and provide and update on their status of development.

Brown, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

Li, Mo

25

Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone powder: High shear Wet Granulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor.M. Walker, Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone method for producing organic fertiliser from Anaerobic Digestion liquor and limestone powder: High Shear

Paxton, Anthony T.

26

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

32

Kinetics of the Direct Causticizing Reaction between Black Liquor and Titanates During Low Temperature Gasification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of kraft black liquor increases the amount of Na2CO3, which needs to be converted into NaOH in the lune cycle because one mole of… (more)

Chen, Xiaowen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Hydroxide Formation and Carbon Species Distributions During High-Temperature Kraft Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work focuses on high-temperature kraft black liquor gasification in the presence of H2O and CO2 in a laboratory-scale Laminar Entrained-Flow Reactor (LEFR). The effects… (more)

Dance, Michael Raymond, Jr.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

39

SOLVENT EXTRACTION RECOVERY OF VANADIUM (AND URANIUM) FROM ACID LIQUORS WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)

Crouse, D.J.; Brown, K.B.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

40

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

43

Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

44

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

45

Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Recovery of Cr(III) from tannery spent chrome liquor for reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper embodies details on the extraction behavior of Cr(III) along with Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) from hydrochloric acid media employing the Cyanex 301-toluene system. All of these metals, except Cr(III), Mg(II), and Mn(II), are extracted into the organic phase. This property of the extractant has been used to separate Cr(III) from the binary mixtures. The partition data have been extended onto spent chrome liquor, and this waste has been treated in such a manner so that it becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. The hydrolytic stability and recycling capacity has been reported. Because the concentration of Cr(III) in the waste is much lower than that required for chromium depositions in Cr(III) plating baths, a concentration step using MgO as a precipitating agent has been appended. To summarize, this paper envisages a new approach to tannery waste management that focuses on treating spent chrome liquors using a solvent extraction technique in such a manner that the waste becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. This would not only help abate pollution but also recover the metal in a pure form.

Khwaja, A.R.; Singh, R.; Tandon, S.N.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

54

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Development of an alternative kraft black liquor recovery process based on low-temperature processing in fluidized beds. Final technical report on Annex 9, Task 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental knowledge and experimental data from pilot scale operation for an alternative black liquor recovery technology which would have a higher overall energy efficiency, would not suffer from the smelt-water explosion hazard and would be lower in capital cost. In addition, the alternative process would be more flexible and well suited for incremental recovery capacity or for new pulping processes, such as the new sulfide-sulfide-AQ process. The research program consists of number of specific research objectives with the aim to achieve the ultimate objective of developing an alternative recovery process which is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives are linked to individual unit operations and they represent the following research topics: (1) superheated steam drying of kraft black liquors; (2) fast pyrolysis of black liquor; (3) hydrogen sulfide absorption from flue gas; (4) reduction of sodium sulfate in solid phase with gaseous hydrogen; and (5) verification of the fundamental results in fluidized bed pilot plant. The accomplishments in each of these objectives are described.

Kubes, G.J.

1994-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Role of vanadium(V) in the aging of the organic phase in the extraction of uranium(VI) by Alamine 336 from acidic sulfate leach liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work is focussed on the chemical degradation of Alamine 336-tridecanol-n-dodecane solvent which used in the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction. Degradation occurs due to the presence of vanadium(V), an oxidant, in the feed solution. After a brief overview of the chemistry of vanadium, the kinetics of degradation of the solvent when contacted with acidic sulfate leach liquor was investigated and interpreted by the Michelis-Menten mechanism. GCMS analyses evidenced the presence of tridecanoic acid and dioctylamine as degradation products. A mechanism of degradation is discussed. (authors)

Chagnes, A.; Cote, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris - ENSCP Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique - UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP-Paris 6 ENSCP, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J. [AREVA-NC, Service d'Etudes de Procedes et d'Analyses (SEPA), B.P. No 71, 87250 Bessines sur Gartempe (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

66

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

67

A low-energy continuous reactor-separator for ethanol from starch, whey permeate, permeate mother liquor, molasses or cellulosics. Project final report, April 1, 1994--February 28, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, a novel bio-reactor technology in which reaction is coupled with product separation was developed to pilot/demonstration scale. Combining reaction with separation during a fermentation allows the fermentation of highly concentrated feeds and allows the fermentation of streams with high levels of salts/non-fermentable inhibitors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose can also be combined with ethanol separation in the Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS). Application of the bio-reactor to various substrates was investigated on a lab scale with fermentation of raw starch, cane molasses, xylose, whey permeate and permeate mother liquor. Flocculating yeast strains for high density sucrose/glucose fermentation were selected and adapted to form fast settling pellets. A strain of K marxianus capable of fermenting high salt permeate mother liquor was also selected and adapted. A low energy solvent ethanol recovery system was developed for ethanol recovery from the vapors leaving the reactor/separator. This Solvent Absorption/Extractive Distillation (SAED) process gives a low energy method for purifying the ethanol to an anhydrous product. The amount of energy needed to recover an anhydrous ethanol product from a CSRS stage running at 8% ethanol was calculated to be under 8,000 BTU/gallon. This process may also have further application in VOC (volatile organic carbon compounds) removal from air streams. During this project, a 24,000 Liter CSRS was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated at a small batch ethanol plant (Permeate Refining Inc) in NE Iowa. The reactor was operated on a semi-continuous basis over a period of 18 months. A Solvent Absorption Extractive Distillation (SAED) system was also recently completed and installed at the Permeate Refining Inc. site for ethanol recovery/dehydration.

Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.

1997-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hydrometallurgical Purification from Leach Liquor of Printed Circuit ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... requiring the study of recycling processes to stimulate this activity or the reuse of its components. The separation of nickel from sulphate leach solution, which ...

69

Phosphoric Acid Extraction from a Uranium-Phosphorus Liquor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The physical and ...

70

Detellurization Process of Copper Anodic Slimes Leach Liquor by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment – Eliminating CO2 Emissions · A Review of the Behavior and Deportment of Lead, Bismuth, Antimony ...

71

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

Sambandan, T. G.

72

Kinetics of Autocausticization Using Borates in a Black Liquor Gasification Process .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The path of research in the pulp and paper industry is heading towards the elimination of the lime cycle, which requires large amounts of energy,… (more)

Gershon, Daniel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical catalysis have been employed to enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomasschemical catalysis routes for the breakdown of biomass in ionic liquids would help increase the efficiency of the conversion of biomass

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12:338–345 6. Demirbas A (2008) Biofuels sources, biofuelpolicy, biofuel economyand global biofuel projections. Energy Convers Manage 7. Di

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

76

Recovery of Nickel from Leaching Liquor of Printed Circuit Board by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube Glasses by SEP -TCLP · Mechanical Recycling of Electronic Wastes for Materials Recovery.

77

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, sludge wood, spent sulfite liquor, and other wood-based liquids), and black liquor. ...

78

Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cullet Black liquor gasification Condebelt drying DirectMicroturbines Black liquor gasification Efficient cellare black liquor gasification (a potentially large self-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cullet Black liquor gasification Condebelt drying DirectBeam Sterilization Black liquor gasification Efficient cellcontrols Black liquor gasification Near net shape casting/

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wood chips (called black liquor) is normally burned in a large recovery boiler in which the black liquor combustion

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form Anticipated Questions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood Waste liquids, excluding Black Liquor, including red liquor, sludge wood, ... Report consumption in combustion turbines or IC engines on SCHEDULE 3.

82

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. World coal flows by importing and exporting regions, Reference case, 2011, 2020, and 2040 1. World coal flows by importing and exporting regions, Reference case, 2011, 2020, and 2040 (million short tons) Importers Steam Coking Total Exporters Europe/ Othera Asia Americas Totalb Europe/ Othera Asiac Americas Totalb Europe/ Othera Asia Americas Totalb 2011 Australia 1.0 157.4 3.9 163.5 20.4 118.7 4.0 146.9 21.5 276.1 7.8 310.4 United States 22.4 8.1 7.2 37.7 35.7 19.7 14.2 69.6 58.1 27.8 21.4 107.3 Southern Africad 25.8 43.6 1.8 76.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.0 25.8 43.6 2.2 77.2 Eurasia 47.5 32.6 0.0 80.1 4.6 7.6 0.0 12.2 52.0 40.2 0.0 92.3 Poland 4.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.0 4.2 Canada 0.1 6.0 0.3 6.4 5.9 20.2 4.4 30.5 6.0 26.2 4.7 36.8 China 0.0 12.0 0.0 12.0 0.1 3.9 0.0 4.0 0.1 15.8 0.0 16.0

83

The Potential for Distributed Generation in Japanese Prototype Buildings: A DER-CAM Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, wood residues, biogas or spent pulping liquor as fuels. Technologies include gas turbine generators

84

Innovation with Impact A Celebration of Graduate Student  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History Liquor Laws and Women's Campaign Against Liquor in 1850s Indiana Ashlie Henery Modern Languages Communities #12;Special Thanks to our Graduate & Professional Student Appreciation Week Sponsors: The HUB

Kurnikova, Maria

85

On Growing Better Decision Trees from Data Kolluru Venkata Sreerama Murthy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History Liquor Laws and Women's Campaign Against Liquor in 1850s Indiana Ashlie Henery Modern Languages Communities #12;Special Thanks to our Graduate & Professional Student Appreciation Week Sponsors: The HUB

Salzberg, Steven

86

Electricity Generation in the Manufacturing Sector: A ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Technologies such as the combustion turbine, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, and ... wood chips, black liquor, or different forms of gas.

87

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen PARTICULATES 4.2.2004 5-1 Chapter 5 Particulates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Apetcoke@ ~1 Leather waste ~ 5 Estonian oil shale ~ 40 OrimulsionJ ~ 1.5 Black liquor solids 30 - 40

Zevenhoven, Ron

88

Silence in the Valley of Songs: Work Songs from Sman shod Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wool, 2I would certainly make, go, some clothing for you, my lover. 3If rivers, go, were liquor, 4I would certainly serve, go, a bowl of liquor to you, my lover. Of course every cloud is not wool, nor is every river liquor, thus the lyrics...

Zla ba sgrol ma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Table 1.1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; 1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(e) LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) (billion NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,162 75,407 2 4 567 2 8 * 96 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 355 16,479 * * 119 Q 6 0 47 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 215 7,467 * * 51 * 5 0 26 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing

90

Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A Study of the Composition of Carryover Particles in Kraft Recovery Boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carryover particles are partially/completely burned black liquor particles entrained in the flue gas in kraft recovery boilers. Understanding how carryover particles form and deposit on… (more)

Khalaj-Zadeh, Asghar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Influence of MgO and C/A and Cooling System on Alumina Leaching ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on alumina leaching property of calcium aluminate slag were investigated by ... The Control of Fluoride Concentration in ET? Alüminyum Bayer Refinery Liquor.

93

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

94

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 PARTICULATES #1PARTICULATES #1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leather waste ~5 Estonian oil shale ~40 OrimulsionTM ~1.5 Black liquor solids 30 - 40 #12;HELSINKI 2 - 8 Oil oil oil

Zevenhoven, Ron

95

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This process produces a byproduct called black liquor containing the non-cellulose wood residues (lignin, hemicellulose) and Kraft process chemicals (toxic inorganics like...

96

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbonaceous substance can be gasified: fossil fuels such as coal (varying in rank) and oil, refinery waste, byproducts such as asphalt or black liquor, biomass (which is any...

97

WEDNESD A Y PM WEDNESDAY PM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 18, 1998 ... Solvent extraction of iron from zinc refinery liquors has been inves- tigated before , mainly on ...... tions and mineral oil fluids were considered.

98

sup_elec.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

gas, and blast furnace gas for utilities; and hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals, fish oil, and spent sulfite liquor. 4 Includes conventional hydroelectric, geothermal,...

99

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"2Other Renewables includes biogenic municipal solid waste, wood, black liquor, other wood waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, and other biomass...

100

The Use of Cold Crucible Induction Melters for Effectively Producing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the Calcination Process ... Viscosity of Multicomponent Glasses as a Function of Temperature and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the performance of work entitled, "Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology." In this program, Weyerhaeuser use its New Bern, North Carolina...

102

CO2 Pyrolysis and Gasification of Kraft Black.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Kraft black liquor, the bi-product of the kraft pulping process, is concentrated in evaporators and burned at high solids content in recovery boilers. The purpose… (more)

Connolly, T. Sean

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by combining the gasification of coal with the meltin black liquor gasification has not yet resulted in aof heavy fuel oil, gasification of coal, and electrolysis.

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle Black liquor gasification combined cycle RecycledAnaerobic gas digestion, Gasification Do Not Cite or Quotesee Section 7.3.7), biomass gasification, or electrolysis of

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Renewable Energy Tax Credit (Corporate) (North Carolina) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Space Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Water Heat, Wind, Spent pulping liquor Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy...

106

Chapter 1. Net Generation - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Wood/wood waste solids (including paper pellets, railroad ties, utility poles, wood chips, bark, and wood waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, ...

107

Synthesis of D-Glucose-1-C14 and D-Mannose-1-C14  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The product weighed 470 mg, rep- resenting a ... ing formation of esters, condensation products, and the ... The alco- holic liquors were neutralized with ...

2006-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Determination of Lactose Alone and in the Presence of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... liquor was separated from the crystals by means of a centrifuge, and the ... 20° C. In the original method, the solution was heated over a gas flame, but ...

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GEORGIA-PACIFIC CORPORATION...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

steam reformer at G-P's commercial wood pulping facility in Big Island, VA. Thip steam reformer will recover energy and chemicals from the entire black liquor byproduct,...

110

Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stores (including gas stations with convenience stores),including those in gas stations), liquor stores, dollarstores (including gas stations with convenience stores),

Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Maximizing the efficiency of a speed rail for the preparation of alcoholic beverages.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. Typically bartenders will arrange liquor bottles in a bar based on their own preferences. This research project describes an alternative way to arrange the… (more)

Riley, Ashley S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cyclefarms to large integrated gasifiers at petroleum refineries.BLGCC). The black liquor gasifier technology will produce a

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Technical Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2009 ... digestion liquor with in the form of S2- and the percentage of the sulphur ...... Technology Challenges for Advanced Power Generation- A UK ...

114

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

116

Types and Causes of Concrete Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Chemicals that deteriorate concrete...butter (a) Coconut oil (a) Cottonseed oil (a) Fish liquor (b) Mustard oil (a) Perchloric acid, 10% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide (>20%) Rapeseed oil (a) Slaughterhouse waste (c) Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium hydroxide (>20%) Sulfite liquor Sulfuric acid, 80% oleum (a) Tanning...

117

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

118

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet Corn Milling 217 6,851 * * 59 * 5 0 11 0 31131 Sugar 112 725 * * 22 * 2 * 46 0 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 47 1,960 * * 35 * 0 0 1 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 105 7,639 * * 45 * 1 0 11 0 3121 Beverages 85 6,426 * * 41 * * 0 10 0 3122 Tobacco 20 1,213 * * 4 * * 0 1 0 313 Textile Mills 207 25,271 1 * 73 * 1 0 15 0 314

119

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; 1.3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Trillion Btu. Shipments Economic Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Characteristic(a) Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 1,166 367 23 48 540 15 41 3 140 12 20-49 1,209 333 20 26 550 8 104 5 182 20 50-99 1,507 349 51 19 575 98 190 9 256 40 100-249 2,651 607 53 20 1,091 23 310 53 566 73 250-499 2,362 413 52 13 754 158 247 9 732 16 500 and Over

120

Table 1.2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; 2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Trillion Btu. Shipments NAICS Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States 311 Food 1,162 257 12 23 583 8 182 2 96 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 355 56 * 1 123 Q 126 0 47 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 215 25 * * 53 * 110 0 26 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 107 4 1 1 15 * 49 2 36 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 143 31 1 Q 100 1 2 0 4 0 3115 Dairy Products 105 33 2 2 67

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

table1.2_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; 2 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Trillion Btu. Shipments RSE NAICS Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 230 13 19 582 5 184 1 89 0 6.8 311221 Wet Corn Milling 217 23 * * 61 * 121 0 11 0 1.1 31131 Sugar 112 2 2 1 22 * 37 1 46 0 0.9 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 47 7 1 1 36 Q 0 0 1 0 11 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 105 26 2 2 46 1 17 0 11

122

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(e) LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) (billion NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,186 73,440 4 3 620 1 7 * 105 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 318 15,464 * * 117 * 5 0 29 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 179 6,746 * * 51 * 4 0 9 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 82 968 1 * 17 * 1 * 20 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 169 9,708 * * 123 * * 0 4 0 3115 Dairy Product 121 10,079 * * 80 * * 0 1 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 226 17,545 1 1 141 * 0 0 12 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 107

123

RFID tag antenna based sensing: Does your beverage glass need a refill?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid level detection in customer beverage glasses and liquor bottles in the service industry is important for maintaining quality of service and good approval ratings. Current sensing approaches rely either on visual ...

Bhattacharyya, Rahul

124

table3.6_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

m a s s Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and RSE NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Row Code(a) Subsector and...

125

Protecting Against Transit Crime: The Importance of the Built Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Block (1995). “Space, Place, and Crime: Hot Spot Areas andHot Places of Liquor- Related Crime,” in J. Eck and D.Weisburd (eds. ) Crime and Place, Monsey, NY: Willow Tree

Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Seven: Protecting Against Transit Crime: The Importance of the Built Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Block (1995). “Space, Place, and Crime: Hot Spot Areas andHot Places of Liquor- Related Crime,” in J. Eck and D.Weisburd (eds. ) Crime and Place, Monsey, NY: Willow Tree

Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Development of Glass Compositions for the Vitrification of Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation explores the development of a glass system intended for the ... The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the Calcination Process ... Viscosity of Multicomponent Glasses as a Function of Temperature and ...

128

HYDROMETALLURGY 2003: Proceedings of the 5th International ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... 829-842]Extraction of Nickel and Calcium from Hypersaline Solutions ... 861-868] Phosphoric Acid Extraction from a Uranium-Phosphorus Liquor[pp. .... 1937-1950 ]Adsorptive Removal of Arsenic and Fluoride by Using Orange ...

129

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009" August 2009" "Revised: October 2009" "Next MECS will be conducted in 2010" "Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,"Waste" ,,,,"Blast",,,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,,"Furnace/Coke",,,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Oven Gases","Waste Gas",,"Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

130

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste" " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

131

Case Study Evaluation of Urea Delivery and Storage Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terra Environmental Technologies conducted a commercial and technical study for the SNCR Interest Group to determine the most cost-effective urea supply scenario for planned selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations at four power-generating plants located in North Carolina. Design considerations required the availability of a 50% concentration of urea liquor at each generating facility on a year round basis by 2007. Initial water quality used to dilute the delivered urea liquor was to be dem...

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

133

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

134

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO.. DE-FC36-94GO 10002; W(A)-94-030; CH-0847 This waiver request is for domestic and foreign rights for all subject inventions made by the Babcock & Wilcox Company's (B&W's) employees under the subject cooperative agreement. The object of the work to be performed under this cooperative agreement is to develop technologies to improve high solids firing of black liquor in pulp mill recovery boilers or to recover kraft pulping or mill process chemicals by alternate means involving black liquor gasification. Principally, the work involves evaluating and selecting either the high solids advanced combustion or black liquor gasification technology, designing, constructing and using a pilot scale unit to develop

135

Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

Johnson, Jr., James S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Westmoreland, Clyde G. (Rockwood, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1980-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,"Waste",," " ,,,"Blast",,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,"Furnace/Coke",,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",9.1,"X",25,"X","X",6,55.6 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",8.9,"X",47.4,"X","X",0,0 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,"X",0,"X","X",0,"X"

138

Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Fate of Mercury Absorbed in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are known to remove a percentage of the mercury in coal flue gases. This raises several questions about the fate of mercury removed by wet FGD systems: Does the absorbed mercury stay in the FGD liquor or does it leave with the byproduct solids? What happens to mercury in the FGD liquor and solid byproducts when they leave the FGD system? To address such questions, this report describes results from an EPRI project that involves field sample collection and labora...

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

140

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RSE Table 3.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.6;" RSE Table 3.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.6;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Black Liquor","Total(b)","Waste(c)","from Trees(d)","Processing(e)","Refuse(f)"

144

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

145

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

146

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Black Liquor Gasification What is Black Liquor? Industrial paper manufacture involves a procedure known as the Kraft process, where wood is converted into wood pulp and then into paper. The process, however, produces a toxic byproduct referred to as black liquor. This primarily liquid mixture of pulping residues (like lignin and hemicellulose) and inorganic chemicals from the Kraft process (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, for example) is toxic and until the invention of recovery boilers in the early 20th century was often simply released into waterways. Recovery boilers allowed paper manufacturers to recover and reuse the inorganic chemicals and extract energy from the pulping residues. Many of these boilers were built in the 1960s and 70s and will need to be replaced sometime in the next few decades. The replacement of these boilers brings new interest in producing not only steam and electricity, but perhaps also fuels and chemicals via gasification of black liquor.

147

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) & assume steam generation efficiency Subtract estimated electricity use for printing (when no pulp & paper energy use data available) Calculate the ratio of estimated energy use & BAT-based best case 256 #12 distortions, regulation and plant systems optimisation Future technologies focus on black liquor gasification

148

Occurrence and Fate of Nitrosamines and Their Precursors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sludge (PS), waste-activated sludge (WAS), and anaerobic digester mixed liquor (ADML) was investigated. N of as of yet uncharacterized precursors. Overall, anaerobic sludge digestion was a sink for nitrosaminesOccurrence and Fate of Nitrosamines and Their Precursors in Municipal Sludge and Anaerobic

Huang, Ching-Hua

149

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Earthscan -Article http://www.earthscan.co.uk/news/printablearticle.asp?sp=&v=5&UAN=456 1 of 8 9/13/2005 1:12 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for processing the organic fraction of MSW to obtain biogas and a disposable digestate, a combination of liquor are feedstock, biogas yield and efficiency of utilization. The biogas produced can either support the process of the biogas and the energy required to heat the digestor). Anaerobic digestors are normally used

Columbia University

151

Process Control Plan for 242A Evaporator Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The wastes in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP are designated as feed for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 2000-1, which is currently scheduled for the week of April 17, 2000. Waste in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP is predominantly comprised of saltwell liquor from 200 West Tank Farms.

LE, E.Q.

2000-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Energy and Processing Alternative Rawmaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

March 14, 2012 ... Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By-Products: Vladimir Kazakov1; Vadim Lipin2; 1St. Petersburg State Technologic University of Vegetable Polymers; 2Saint Petersburg ... aluminate liquor and evaporation of a soda solution are united in one technological process.

153

Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

154

Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

RECOVERY OF THORIUM FROM A WYOMING ORE  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Bald Mountain, Wyo. ore was conducted in which it was found that the monazite concentrate prepared from this conglomerate can be decomposed by the conventional sulfuric acid-cure treatment. The resultant acid leach liquor can be processed by primary amine solvent extraction to yield a 99% ThO/sub 2/ product. (J.R.D.)

Borrowman, S.R.; Rosenbaum, J.B.

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Pulping lignocellulose in continuous pressurized batch digesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A batch process to produce kraft pulp is described, in which a combination of black and white liquor is used for cooking of wood chips. In the process, the steam consumption to produce 357 tons/day pulp at 50% yield was approximately 1600 lb/ton pulp, compared with 4000 lb/ton for a batch digester of conventional type.

Green, F.B.

1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen SULPHUR 6.1.2004 3-1 Chapter 3 Sulphur  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to anthracite, peat, oil shales etc., sulphur is present in two inorganic forms, being pyritic sulphur (FeS2) ~ 0.2 Auto shredder residue (ASR) ~ 0.3 Petroleum coke, "petcoke" ~ 5 Leather waste 1 - 2 Estonian oil shale ~ 2 OrimulsionTM ~ 4 Black liquor solids ~ 5 #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen SULPHUR 6.1.2004 3-5 3

Zevenhoven, Ron

158

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health Kees Kolff, MD, MPH April 21, 2012 #12;OUR #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off paper making process, black and white liquor , sludge #12;SLASH BURNING Slash burned in 2008: Jefferson

159

Sexual Misconduct Policy for Students of Michigan Technological University 2011-12 I. Guiding Principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to, buy alcohol for, or furnish alcohol to anyone under 21, even if you are the parent, legal or furnishing beer or intoxicating liquor to an person under 21 years of age, or buying it for any person under,Valium) Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) GHB Methaqualone (Quaalude) Fatigue; confusion; impaired coordination, memory, judgment

160

Alcohol and Other Drugs Office of Student Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to, buy alcohol for, or furnish alcohol to anyone under 21, even if you are the parent, legal or furnishing beer or intoxicating liquor to an person under 21 years of age, or buying it for any person under,Valium) Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) GHB Methaqualone (Quaalude) Fatigue; confusion; impaired coordination, memory, judgment

Jones, Michelle

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Process for removal of sulfur oxides from waste gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for removing sulfur oxides from waste gas is provided. The gas is contacted with a sorbent selected from sodium bicarbonate, trona and activated sodium carbonate and, utilizing an alkaline liquor containing borate ion so as to reduce flow rates and loss of alkalinity, the spent sorbent is regenerated with an alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide.

Lowell, P.S.; Phillips, J.L.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

162

EMERGINGTECHN0 LOGIES COM:MERCIALlZING BLACK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMMERCIALPRODUC710N REQUIRES WORK AND INVEST~ENT BY MANY PAR11Es. -- B LACK UQUOR AND BIOMASS GASIFIER DEVELOPMENT by the suc- by the U.S.Departmentof Energy(4), providesa mecha- cessful introduction of black liquor gasifier/combined nism for the industry to work togethertoward commer- cycle (BLGCC) and biomass gasifier/combined cycle

163

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

164

Control of gasifier operations using neural networks, Task 7.11. Topical report, September 1992--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incentive for this project was to investigate applicability of a new modeling tool -- a system of equations which emulate the human brain, called neural nets -- for chemical process modeling and control at the Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) coal gasification plant in Beulah, North Dakota. The specific goals were (1) to determine guidelines for identifying likely candidate processes for the use of neural nets, (2) to screen the various process areas of the Beulah plant, using these guidelines, (3) select a process area to study, and (4) apply neural nets to model that particular process area. The gasification area was the prominent candidate for the application of neural nets. Calculations showed that it was possible to save over $500,000 by increasing the steam-to-oxygen (S:O) ratio. The problem is that when the S:O ratio is increased, more gas liquor is produced, and there is a limit to how much gas liquor can be handled downstream. Thus, if a model were available to predict how much gas liquor would be produced, the S:O ratio could be increased to the operating limits. The performance of the neural net was apparently hindered by the type of data input used. Once the known effects of oxygen flow rate and S:O ratio were taken into account, there was no correlation left between any of the input data and the gas liquor flow rate. This result was verified using regression analysis, so there is likely no problem with the neutral net itself. Rather, the conclusion is that the data used did not give any information useful for predicting gas liquor flow. Therefore, in order to apply neural nets to go after the savings, more variables must be logged on a regular basis. The most important variable needed to continue this project is probably the volatiles content of the coal.

Cisney, S.; Erjavec, J.; Rao, C.N.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

"RSE Table N5.2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;" 2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Black Liquor","Total(b)","Waste(c)","from Trees(d)","Processing(e)","Refuse(f)"

166

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009 August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 5 0 * 0 0 4 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food Q 0 * 0 0 0 Q 3115 Dairy Product * 0 * 0 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 1 0 1 0 0 * * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products

167

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-04NT42259; W(A)-04-078; CH-1257 The Petitioner, Weyerhaeuser Company (Weyerhaeuser), was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology." In this program, Weyerhaeuser use its New Bern, North Carolina gasification facility as a test bed to investigate key factors limiting process performance and reliability and then to demonstrate certain advancements to the Chemrec black liquor gasification technology or auxiliary processes to overcome those limitations. The approach used will be to first gain a fundamental understanding of the process issues limiting process

168

BARTENDING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BARTENDING BARTENDING An introduction to mixed drinks, liquors & bar management.In-class practice ( simulated liquors ) lectures & demos. Includes book & certificate. SB Union room 081. ( N o Class March 20, 21, 27, 28 ) SEC A: Six Wednesdays, begin 2/13, FEE: 7:30pm-9:30pm [Liam Hudock] $80/SB Student SEC B: Six Thursdays, begin 2/28, $95/SB Staff 7:30pm-9:30pm [John Louis] $105/General Public H A N D B U I L D I N C L AY A great intro to ceramics! Explore alternatives to wheel throwing. Construct & combine forms to create vessels & sculptures using pinch, slab, coil, texture, glaze & stains. Includes Ceramic Membership. Five Tuesdays, begin 2/19; 7:00pm-9:00pm [Eileen Cassidy] FEE: $85/SB Student, $145/SB Staff, $155/General Public

169

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 0 1 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Products 1 0 1 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 4 0 4 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 3 0 2 0 0 1 3121 Beverages 3 0 2 0 0 1 3122 Tobacco 0 0 0 0 0 0 313 Textile Mills 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 Textile Product Mills

170

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

171

Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

Zemblevskii, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Processing cellulosic solids for methane production by a combined chemical and biological process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellulosic solids are pretreated by calcium hydroxide to produce salts of volatile organic acids and other water-soluble substances. Pure cellulose, sawdust, and waste paper are used as model substances for the study of alkaline degradation. It was found that sawdust is more difficult to degrade than the other two substances. The cooking conditions for high conversion of model substance and high yield of organic acids are found to be 275/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C with the corresponding reaction time from 30 to 15 minutes. The cooking liquor can be readily fermented in an anaerobic fluidized-bed digester for methane production. The cooking liquor from different reaction conditions can all be digested by the methanogens. Higher than 90% of COD can be removed under the conditions of low organic loading rate (<2.0 g COD/1/day) and low hydraulic retention time (1.5-2.0 days).

Tsai, G.J.; Tsao, G.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants Background Gasification provides the means to turn coal and other carbonaceous solid, liquid and gaseous feedstocks as diverse as refinery residues, biomass, and black liquor into synthesis gas and valuable byproducts that can be used to produce low-emissions power, clean-burning fuels and a wide range of commercial products to support

174

Released: May 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and"," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

175

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

176

2011 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on three EPRI-funded flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research and development projects. The three projects are focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by FGD systems; on how it partitions between the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct; and/or on factors that may affect beneficial use of FGD gypsum. The first project is collecting data at bench scale to determine the reactions that control the changes oxidized mercury can und...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Update on Enhanced Mercury Capture by SO2 Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the interim results of two projects that focus on understanding and enhancing mercury capture by wet gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first project is collecting data from bench scale experiments to determine the reactions and kinetics governing the fate of oxidized memory absorbed by wet FGD liquors. The second project is a 200-MW-scale demonstration of a low-temperature mercury oxidation catalyst at Lower Colorado River Authority's (LCRA's) Fayette Power Project.

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

178

Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Faculty & Staff Alcohol and Other Drugs Handbook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 None None Marijuana 25.0 6.7 3.1 PCP None None None Rohypnol None None None Tobacco 24.0 5.4 2.1 #12 ·Tranquilizers: Barbiturates ·GHB: Gammahydroxybutyrate ·Ruffies: Rohypnol Look for: Poor concentration, fatigue buying liquor? 12. Do you feel a sense of power when you drink? 13. Have you lost friends since you

Sze, Lawrence

180

ICC Pre-Departure Handbook Internships Abroad  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 None None Marijuana 25.0 6.7 3.1 PCP None None None Rohypnol None None None Tobacco 24.0 5.4 2.1 #12 ·Tranquilizers: Barbiturates ·GHB: Gammahydroxybutyrate ·Ruffies: Rohypnol Look for: Poor concentration, fatigue buying liquor? 12. Do you feel a sense of power when you drink? 13. Have you lost friends since you

California at Davis, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

" and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," 3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," " and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Billion Btu)" ,,,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,,,"Biomass" " "," ",," "," "," ","Wood Residues","Wood-Related"," " " "," ","Pulping Liquor",," ","Wood Harvested","and Byproducts","and","RSE" "SIC"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Directly","from","Paper-Related","Row"

182

Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Evaluation of cooling tower and wastewater treatment operations at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide a technical assessment of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Wastewater Treatment System. This Scope of Work consisted of five primary tasks described as follows: Task 1 - Determine the quantity of hydantoins in the stripped gas liquor (SGL), their precursors, and the kinetics of their formation in condensed liquor for the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) gasification facility. The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) has measured a high concentration of hydantoins in the gas liquor from their slagging gasifier. UNDERC has tested the use of SGL in a pilot cooling tower and they witnessed some adverse effects in the cooling tower and heat exchanger systems. Task 2 - Investigate the adverse Department of Energy (DOE) findings at UNDERC with regard to corrosion, foaming, biological and organic fouling, chemical attack on concrete and organic emissions resulting from the use of SGL in a pilot plant cooling tower. Task 3 - Validate the heat load on the cooling tower for both summer and winter operation and determine the adequacy of the surge pond to store the maximum predicted amount of excess water accumulated during winter operation. Task 4 - Assess potential fouling, foaming and organic carry-over problems associated with operability of the multiple-effect evaporator and develop recommendations on possible alternate use of evaporator condensate to alleviate possible problems in disposing of excess wastewater. Task 5 - Provide DOE with recommendations on the wastewater treatment backup design and test program already committed to by GPGA. This paper presents Fluor's findings regarding the five primary tasks. 12 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

Lang, R.A.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

185

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

186

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

187

MINERAL COUNTY COMMISSIONERS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Board of Board of MINERAL COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Telephone: 702-945-2446 Fax: 702-945-0706 P.O. Box 4150 Hawthorne, Nevada 89415 JACKIE WALLIS, Chairman GOVERNING BOARD FOR THE TOWNS OF DAN DILLARD, Vice Chairman HAWTHORNE, LUNING AND MINA BOB LYBARGER, Member LIQUOR BOARD GAMING BOARD U.S. Department of Energy Office of General Counsel, GC-52 1000 Independence Ave. S.W. Washington, DC 20585 Dear Sirs: Attached are the comments for modification of the Price-Anderson Act Notice of Inquiry(NOI) provided to the Board of Mineral County Commissioners, in a letter dated January

188

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

189

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

Not Available

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fate of Mercury in FGD Systems: Second Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of the fate of flue gas mercury species in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers that are used for SO2 control in coal-fired power plants. The laboratory investigations were conducted in the latter half of 2004 and in early 2005, and include bench-scale simulations of wet FGD absorbers under a range of operating conditions and fundamental investigations of the kinetics of mercury reactions in FGD liquors. Data collected in the EPA merc...

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Stewart, Albert E. (Eagle Rock, CA)

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

194

Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates  

SciTech Connect

The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY REPORT. II. PILOT PLANT WORK  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on the gross solubility of U in digestions of Mallinokrodt feed materials, studies of variables affecting U purity in a TBP hexane extraction cycle, low-acid flowsheet for TBP--hexane extraction process based on a 440 g U/liter in lM HNO/sub 3/ digest liquor, hacking studies in the pilot plant pumperdecanter system, recovery of U from residues from the dingot process, lowering the H level in dingot metal, forging of dingot bar stock, dingot extrusion, fubrication of UO/sub 2/ fuel elements, and the determination of H content of derby and ingot metal. (W.L.H.)

Kuhlman, N. ed.

1957-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Selection for Specific Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4 Corrosion ratings of wrought copper alloys in various corrosive media...E E E E E Beet-sugar syrup (a) E E G E E E E E E Benzene, benzine, benzol E E E E E E E E E Benzoic acid E E E E E E E E E Black liquor, sulfate process P P P P P P P G P Bleaching powder (wet) G G P G G G G G G Borax E E E E E E E E E Bordeaux mixture E E G E E E E E E Boric acid E E G E E E E E E...

199

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

200

SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 1963 TO MARCH 31, 1963  

SciTech Connect

A semicontinuous ion exchange column was used for the pilot-scaie production of purified uranyl chloride solutions from scrap leach liquor. Continuous box mixer-settler tests demonstrated that an Aliquot-336--Solvesso 100 system will satisfactorily extract uranium from scrap leach liquor. An airless shot blaster is being used to clean slag from debries using uranium shot as the blasting medium. Plasma-spraying equipment was installed for coating graphite crucibles and molds with refractory materials. Production-size uranium ingots having fine, evenly dispersed inclusions were produced by consumableelectrode arc meiting under vacuum. Variations in uranium billet temperatures prior to rolling were found to affect the amount of recrystallization and the texture coefficients in the alpha-rolled rods. Four HAPO I and E fuel cores that were beta treated and water quenched were examined for texture gradients. G/sub 2/, G/sub 3/, and J data are tabulated. Uranium phosphide inclusions were identified in productiongrade derby metal of high phosphorus content. (auth)

1963-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fate of pathogens in a simulated bioreduction system for livestock carcasses  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioreduction is a novel on-farm storage option for livestock carcasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Legislation demands that pathogens are contained and do not proliferate during carcass storage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the survival of key pathogens in lab-scale bioreduction vessels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pathogen numbers reduced in the resulting liquor waste and bioaerosols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that bioreduction should be validated for industry use. - Abstract: The EU Animal By-Products Regulations generated the need for novel methods of storage and disposal of dead livestock. Bioreduction prior to rendering or incineration has been proposed as a practical and potentially cost-effective method; however, its biosecurity characteristics need to be elucidated. To address this, Salmonella enterica (serovars Senftenberg and Poona), Enterococcus faecalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and a lux-marked strain of Escherichia coli O157 were inoculated into laboratory-scale bioreduction vessels containing sheep carcass constituents. Numbers of all pathogens and the metabolic activity of E. coli O157 decreased significantly within the liquor waste over time, and only E. faecalis remained detectable after 3 months. Only very low numbers of Salmonella spp. and E. faecalis were detected in bioaerosols, and only at initial stages of the trial. These results further indicate that bioreduction represents a suitable method of storing and reducing the volume of livestock carcasses prior to ultimate disposal.

Gwyther, Ceri L.; Jones, David L. [School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Golyshin, Peter N. [School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Edwards-Jones, Gareth [School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Williams, A. Prysor, E-mail: prysor.williams@bangor.ac.uk [School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Process for producing a clean hydrocarbon fuel from high calcium coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for substantially reducing the amount of at least one insoluble fluoride-forming species selected from the group consisting of Group IA species and Group IIA species. The species is present in a coal feed material comprising: forming a slurry of a coal feed; a fluoride acid in an amount to produce a first molar concentration of free-fluoride-ions; at least one fluoride-complexing species, the total of all fluoride-complexing species in the slurry being present in an amount to produce a second molar concentration, the second molar concentration being at least equal to that amount such that the ratio of the first molar concentration to the second molar concentration is substantially equal to the stoichiometric ratio of fluoride in at least one tightly-bound complexion so as to from tightly-bound complexions with substantially all free-fluoride ions in the slurry to produce a leached coal product and a spent leach liquor; and separating the leached coal product from the spent leach liquor.

Kindig, J.K.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

Processing high solids concentration of municipal solid waste by anaerobic digester for methane production  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic solids are pretreated by calcium hydroxide to produce salts of volatile orangic acids and other water-soluble substances. Pure cellulose, sawdust, and waste paper are used as model substances for the study of alkaline degradation. It is found that sawdust is more difficult to degrade than the other two substances. The cooking conditions for high conversion of model substances and high yeild of orangic acids are found to be 275/degree/C to 300/degree/C with the corresponding reaction time from 30 minutes to 15 minutes. The cooking liquor can be readily fermented in an anaerobic fluidized-bed digester for methane production. The cooking liquor from different reaction conditions can all be digested by the methanogens. Higher than 90% of COD can be removed under the conditions of low organic loading rate (<2.0 g COD/1/day) and low hydraulic retention time (1.5 to 2.0 days). 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsao, G.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Generation in the Pulp and Paper Industry FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Milano. Any use the reader makes of this report, or any reliance upon or decisions to be made based upon this report are the responsibility of the reader. Neither Navigant Consulting, Princeton University nor Politecnico di Milano accepts any responsibility for damages, if any, The U.S. pulp and paper industry, with its substantial capacity for producing and using renewable biomass energy – 1.6 quads in 2002 – has the potential to contribute significantly to addressing global warming and U.S. energy security concerns, while potentially also improving its own global competitiveness. A key requirement for substantially enhancing renewable energy use in this industry to achieve these goals is the commercialization of breakthrough technologies, especially gasification. Gasification of biomass produces a fuel gas (“syngas”) consisting largely of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) that can be cleanly converted into electricity in a gas turbine combined cycle or, in the longer term, into transportation fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen. The predominant form of biomass energy available at pulp mills today is black liquor, the ligninrich byproduct of fiber extraction from wood. Black liquor contains about half the energy of the

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Federal Register  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 21 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 226 / Friday, November 23, 2001 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Energy Technology Laboratory; Notice of Availability of a Financial Assistance Solicitation AGENCY: National Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of availability of a financial assistance solicitation. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the intent to issue Financial Assistance Solicitation No. DE-PS26-02NT41423 entitled ''Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Technology Support Research and Development.'' It is the intent of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, to solicit the submission of

208

DOE/EIS-0312; Bonneville Power Administration, Fish and Wildlife Implementation Plan Draft EIS (5/2001)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Columbia River Basin Columbia River Basin BPA Service Area NZ20027a April 02, 2001 Columbia River Basin BPA Service Area than 10 micrometers ) Maintenance Moderate Serious Maintenance Moderate Serious Maintenance Federal Class I Area Coal Oil Gas Biomass* Nuclear Municipal Solid Waste Black Liquor Raw Sulfur Biogas / Methane Multiple types Solar Wind Gas Solar Wind Geothermal * Some biomass can be considered renewable. * Locations of proposed plants are approximate and not intended represent legal or claimed locations. NZ20027b April 03, 2001 Columbia River Basin BPA Service Area Flow Limited Temperature Limited Flow and Temperature Limited NZ20027j April 03, 2001 Columbia River Basin BPA Service Area Anadromous Fish Extinct Listed Anadromous Fish Species Listed Resident Fish - Bull Trout

209

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ACI ACI Activated carbon injection AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO Annual Energy Outlook AEO2005 Annual Energy Outlook 2005 AEO2006 Annual Energy Outlook 2006 Altos Altos Partners ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge API American Petroleum Institute BLGCC Black liquor gasification coupled with a combined-cycle power plant BOE Barrels of oil equivalent BTL Biomass-to-liquids Btu British thermal units CAAA90 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAIR Clean Air Interstate Rule CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CBO Congressional Budget Office CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide CPI Consumer price index CRI Color rendering index CTL Coal-to-liquids DB Deutsche Bank AG DCL Direct coal liquefaction DOE U.S. Department of Energy E85 Fuel containing a blend of 70 to 85 percent ethanol EEA Energy and Environmental

210

Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Retail Other Than Mall) Retail Other Than Mall) Jump to: navigation, search Building Type Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) Definition Buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food. Sub Categories retail store; beer, wine, or liquor store; rental center; dealership or showroom for vehicles or boats; studio/gallery References EIA CBECS Building Types [1] References ↑ EIA CBECS Building Types U.S. Energy Information Administration (Oct 2008) Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercantile_(Retail_Other_Than_Mall)&oldid=270108" Category: CBECS Building Types What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

211

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DE-EE0000225 DE-EE0000225 GAEnvironmental Facilities Authority EERE PMC - IPOD 2009 to 2012 Jose R. Benitez 04/17/2009 to 04/30/2012 Augusta, Georgia State Energy Program - Industrial Energy Efficiency Grants The project involves the reconfiguration of an evaporator used for concentrating "black liquor" during the manufacturing process. New piping and other systems modifications will be installed. 04 02 2010 Jose R. Benitez Digitally signed by Jose R. Benitez DN: cn=Jose R. Benitez, c=us, o=u.s. government, ou=department of energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Reason: I have reviewed this document Date: 2010.04.02 13:37:37 -04'00' 04 05 2010 Jesse Garcia Digitally signed by Jesse Garcia DN: cn=Jesse Garcia, o=NETL, ou=OPFC, email=Jesse.Garcia@NETL.doe.gov, c=US

212

COUNTY\  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS ESMERALDA COUNTY, NEVADA MEMBERS STAFF SUSAN W. DUDLEY, CHAIRMAN BEVERLY J. RELYEA GARY O'CONNOR, VICE CHAIRMAN ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT BEN VILJOEN, LIQUOR BOARD (702)485-3406 January 20, 1998 U.S. Department of Energy Office of General Counsel GCS-52 1000 Independence Ave. SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: COMMENT BY ESMERALDA COUNTY, NEVADA CONCERNING THE CONTINUATION OR MODIFICATION OF DOE PRICE-ANDERSON ACT Dear Sirs: The DOE Price-Anderson indemnification is intended to provide coverage for contractors for the benefit of any victims of a nuclear accident or incident or a precautionary evacuation arising from activity under a DOE contracts. The public perception is that if there is a nuclear accident resulting in a dispersal of

213

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

214

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 6720 of 26,764 results. 11 - 6720 of 26,764 results. Download CX-004710: Categorical Exclusion Determination Highly Energy Efficient Directed-Green Liquor Pulping CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/14/2010 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004710-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004025: Categorical Exclusion Determination Indiana-St. Joseph County CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/04/2010 Location(s): St. Joseph, Indiana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004025-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002188: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cedar Hill's Development of the Energy Efficiency Conservation Strategy

215

PREPARATION OF UO$sub 2$ FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL PELLETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for preparing high-density UO/sub 2/ compacts. An aqueous uranyl fluoride solution is contacted with an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution at an ammonium to-uranium ratio of 25: 1 to 30:1 to form a precipitate. The precipitate is separated from the- mother liquor, dried, and contacted with steam at a uniform temperature within the range of 400 to 650 deg C to produce U/ sub 3/O/sub 8/. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is red uced to UO/sub 2/ with hydrogen at a uniform temperature within the range of 550 to 600 deg C. The UO/sub 2/ is then compressed into compacts and sintered. High-density compacts are fabricated to close tolerances without use of a binder and without machining or grinding. (AEC)

Googin, J.M.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

217

Economic and Policy Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency Improvements in the U. S. Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. pulp, paper and paperboard industry has made significant improvements over the past eleven years in the energy efficiency of its operations. The industry is firmly committed to: increased utilization of important renewable domestic energy sources such as wood residues, pulping liquors, and hydropower; improved energy efficiency through cogeneration, product and process improvements; and reduced national dependence on foreign energy. The achievements are substantial and will be reviewed. The potential exists to expand the industry's energy self-sufficiency, use of more energy efficient technologies, and development of hydropower and cogeneration; however, national policies play a crucial role in allowing the industry to realize this potential. These national policies include issues associated with cogeneration, licensing and relicensing of private small scale hydroelectric projects, acid rain, and federal funding of energy technology research and development. The paper industry's actions and accomplishments arising from participation in the formulation and implementation of national policy will be addressed.

Freund, S. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

Using rotating biological contactors for the treatment of coal gasification wastewaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to determine the treatability of University of North Dakota Energy Research Centers (UNDERC's) and Great Plains' coal gasification wastewaters using a bench scale four stage rotating biological contactor (RBC). The treatability testing included an evaluation of organic removal rates in the first stage and the overall rates in the last three stages using the Stover-Kincannon model. Nitrification was evaluated at various loading rates. Stage 1 accounted for most of the removal of alcohols, fatty acids, phenol, and thiocyanate from both UNDERC stripped gas liquor (SGL) and for alcohols and fatty acid removal from the Great Plains (GP) SGL. The 2, 3 and 4 stages accomplished very little additional organic removal in either system. Biodegradable organic removals remained high in the first stage of the GP SGL test run despite anaerobic conditions in the first stage. 5 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Turner, C.D.; Wernberg, K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Double-shell tank waste pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Double-shell tanks contain most of the transuranic/high-level chemical processing waste generated at the Hanford Site in recent years. A small mass fraction of this waste is responsible for its characterization as transuranic/high-level waste. Pretreatment will partition the waste into a small fraction containing most of the transuranic/high-level components and a large fraction that is a low-level waste. The operations for achieving this objective include dissolution of water-soluble salts, dissolution of precipitated metal oxides in acid, clarification of the resulting dissolver liquors, transuranium element removal by solvent extraction and cesium removal by ion exchange. The primary benefit of pretreatment is a reduction in the overall cost of waste disposal.

Orme, R.M.; Appel, J.N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

Gomiero, Luiz A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A-INB, Unidade de Caetite, P.0. Box 7, 46400-000, Caetite, BA (Brazil); Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Rua Mario Werneck, s/n, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

An integrated approach to the utilization of low rank coals and biofuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While suggesting an integrated approach for utilization of inferior low rank coals for power in India, the importance of low temperature carbonization followed by retrieval of all value-based products has been stressed. It is further suggested that tar, obtained in the process, could be hydrogenated and fractionated in a central plant for conversion to hydrocarbons. High ash char, the principal product of pyrolysis, has been experimentally found to be amenable to beneficiation, yielding suitable fractions for power generation, briquetting, or blending. Experimental studies have shown that forest litters and agricultural wastes, containing significant proportions of spore, cuticle, and exine--considered as precursors of hydrocarbon-generating coal macerals--also yield large quantities of tar, ammonical liquor, and the principal product, char, which can be respectively utilized for the production of petroleum substitutes, value-based chemicals, and source material for blending, briquette making, and char-water slurries, opening up new avenues for fuel utilization and conservation.

Sen, S.; Sen, M. [Central Fuel Research Inst., Nagpur (India); Moitra, N. [Nagpur Univ. (India)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study  

SciTech Connect

With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Preliminary feasibility study of pulping catalyst production from lignin  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of preparing anthraquinone, a pulping catalyst, from readily available lignin has been performed. The proposed process begins with a fractionation of lignin from a black liquor stream by means of a supercritical fluid or conventional solvent extraction to give a low molecular weight fraction conductive to further chemical treatment. This fraction is sequentially oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treated with a diene and dehydrogenated to give anthraquinone. The cost of the proposed process is most dependent on the overall yield of the chemical processing steps with a smaller contribution noted for lignin processing. The projections indicate that anthraquinone could be produced for as low as $1.00--$1.25/lb using this process. Details of the process, chemical reactions and calculations are included.

Power, A.J. (Power (Arthur J.) and Associates, Boulder, CO (USA)); Bozell, J.J.; Chum, H.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

Baxter, Larry L.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

Use of Wood Energy in the United States –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood for energy – including the burning of solid wood and black liquor from pulping – has been growing at a rate significantly greater than that for all other uses such as lumber, pulp, or particleboard. in the United States, the end of most wood is not lumber or pulp and paper but feed for energy. In 1983, 155. 5 M Mg of wood were used for energy. This could threaten to increase the price of wood for those other uses, or it can stimulate us to seek more creative ways of using untapped wood resources for fuel. on the basis of estimates of heavy wood energy use relative to other uses for wood, and estimates of continuing high costs for fossil fuels, we suggest here the feasibility of meeting the demand for fuelwood through small-scale cooperatives. Such an approach can improve forestry practices and can avoid unduly increasing the cost of wood for other end uses.

John W. Koning; Kenneth E. Skog

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rohm and Hass Co - PA 02  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Rohm and Hass Co - PA 02 Rohm and Hass Co - PA 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: ROHM & HASS CO. (PA.02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 5000 Richmond Street , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania PA.02-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 PA.02-2 Site Operations: Research and development on uranium recovery from carbonate leach liquors in the mid-1950s. PA.02-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria PA.02-4 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium PA.02-3 Radiological Survey(s): Yes PA.02-4 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP PA.02-5 Also see Documents Related to ROHM & HASS CO. PA.02-1 - DOE Letter; Thornton to Bjuvik; Subject: Radiological

234

Project 346  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sara Pletcher Sara Pletcher Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-385-4236 sara.pletcher@netl.doe.gov Gary M. Blythe URS Corporation PO Box 201088 Austin, TX 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com BENCH SCALE KINETICS OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN FGD LIQUORS Background When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury cannot. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have

235

EPA_T1542D4488_SCTR_Manufact  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants: An Overview of Energy Plants: An Overview of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency Opportunities Energy Use in Manufacturing Plants Manufacturing operations are among the most energy-intensive in the U.S. Whether making steel, refining oil, or canning vegetables, there is great potential for improving energy efficiency. Manufacturers produce heat and operate machinery using a variety of energy types, ranging from conventional sources such as electricity and natural gas to non-conventional fuels including shredded tires and black liquor. Industrial energy use is responsible for almost 30 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global climate change. Energy Efficiency Opportunities Manufacturers of all sizes can take several simple steps to manage energy.

236

EI Summary of All Manufacturing SIC  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Lumber (24) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone, Clay & Glass(32) Primary Metals (33) Fabricated Metals (34) Machinery (35) Electronic Equipment (36) Instruments (38) Miscellaneous Manufacturing (39) All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Lumber (24) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone, Clay & Glass(32) Primary Metals (33) Fabricated Metals (34) Machinery (35) Electronic Equipment (36) Instruments (38) Miscellaneous Manufacturing (39) The manufacturing sector includes establishments engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. These operations are generally conducted in facilities described as plants, factories, or mills, while characteristically using power-driven machines and material-handling equipment. Manufacturing also includes such activities as the assembly of components of manufactured products and the blending of materials, such as lubricating oil, plastics, resins, or liquors.

237

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1976--June 15, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of ozone treatment on spent sulfite liquor yeast plant effluent was studied. A 500 ml capacity packed column was constructed to efficiently react ozone with spent sulfite liquor (SSL) on a continuous flow basis. The SSL was reacted at pH 3.0 for 3 hours averaging an ozone consumption of 12.8 gm/1. It was found that pH tended to decrease during ozonation indicative of the formation of oxalic and other organic acids. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased 13 percent from 101,000 to 88,000 mg/1. The SSL was rendered more biologically metabolizable as indicated by the biological oxygen demand (BOD) increase of 10.5 percent from 10,500 to 11,600 mg/1. The ozonated SSL was then fed to an anaerobic fermenter for conversion to fuel gas. The average gas production was 423 ml/day from 700 ml size fermenter at a retention time of 2.8 days. The fermenter effluent gas contained approximately 65 percent CH/sub 4/ and 35 percent CO/sub 2/. Total bacterial populations were found in excess of 147 x 10/sup 7/ counts/ml and approximately 70 percent of the bacteria present was methane bacteria while 30 percent proved to be Desulfovibrio. The fermenter liquid effluent exhibited a drop in BOD of 3200 mg/l corresponding to the amount of COD in the CH/sub 4/ produced. Torula yeast were observed to grow on ozonated SSL in contrast to no growth on raw SSL thus indicating a potential for protein production.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1977--June 15, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies on desugared spent sulfite liquor, DSSL, subjected to ozonation indicate that this complex organic substrate in water solution reacts readily with ozone to produce lower molecular weight organic fragments which can be metabolized by a variety of microorganisms. Ozone uptake is complete up to approximately 15 g/l and results in an increase of 35% BOD and a reduction of 16% COD. The production of BOD is pH dependent with a maximum occurring at aroung pH 3. The production of methane via fermentation of DSSL is greatly enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Methane production on raw DSSL is only 45.3 standard cc/1 of DSSL. After ozonation of the DSSL during which 15 g/l of ozone are reacted, the resulting product yields 1239 standard cc/1. The hypothesis that methane is produced from acetic acid, held by several prior workers, could not be corroborated in this study. Liquor remaining in the fermenter after gas production has essentially ceased in much richer in acetic acid than ozonated DSSL. Continuous fermentation studies operated to optimize gas production produced a fermentate containing 3.96 g/l of acetic acid. The production of protein accomplished through the growth of Torula yeast on DSSL is also enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Two variants show minimal growth on unozonated DSSL but cell densities of 5 g/l were obtained with the rough variant when this substrate has been ozonated. In contrast to the methane fermentation which showed high ozone consumption to be beneficial, the yeast prefer very minimal ozone reaction. Yeast growth was not vigorous on methane fermentate shown to be rich in acetic acid.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1978-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new application techniques and systems were developed as part of this project to optimize the installation of this new family of refractory materials to maximize the properties of installed linings and to facilitate nuances such as hot installation and repair. Under this project, seven new shotcrete materials were developed for both primary and repair applications in aluminum, black liquor, coal gasification, and lime kiln environments. Developed materials were based on alumino-silicate, magnesia, and spinel forming systems. One of the developed materials was an insulating shotcrete to be used behind the high conductivity spinel linings developed under this project. Fundamental research work was carried out at MS&T throughout the life of the project to provide support for the development and production of the experimental refractory materials being developed. Work was also ongoing at ORNL and MS&T through the duration of the project on the measurement and characterization of key refractory properties as identified during year one of the project. Both materials currently being used in the industrial processes as identified and supplied by the industrial partners of this project and new materials being provided and developed by MINTEQ were evaluated as necessary. Additionally, energy savings estimates based on measured properties of the experimentally developed refractory systems from this project were made at MINTEQ to validate the energy savings estimates originally proposed for the project. As another part of the project, on-line inspection and hot repair techniques were considered. It was determined that although repair materials were successfully developed under this project for aluminum, black liquor, and coal gasification systems which enable hot repair, there was only minor interest from industry in implementing these materials. On-line inspection techniques were also identified under this project which are currently used in the steel industry, but implementation of these techniques in applications such as black liquor and coal gasification where higher temperature

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Correlation of Process Data and Electrocheical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Second Year at Spring Grove  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel. Since the stainless steel overlay electrodes were immune to corrosion during the exposure, the current and potential noise activity on these probes is likely related to redox processes on the electrode surfaces. Analysis of this activity as a function of position (and year) in the vessel suggests that redox chemistry/conditions vary by a significant amount on a consistent basis--even on opposite sides of the vessel at the same elevation--and that these differences are not identified by process parameters tracked at the mill. These variable environmental conditions (flow, temperature, liquor chemistry) appear to have little effect on stainless steel overlays under evaluation, but apparently can be quite corrosive to steel as determined in the initial study in the digester at Spring Grove. With the exception of start-up and shutdown activity, including brief upsets for ''hanging columns'' or brief maintenance periods, no regular correlation was observed between tracked process variables and EN activity on any of the probes. In combination with the variable redox activity, this result suggests that the liquor sampling and flow data compiled at the mill do not represent the corrosion conditions in the vessel particularly well.

Pawel, SJ

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable energy sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, are environmentally friendly because they emit less pollution without contributing net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Among lignocellulosic biomass, corn stover is a very useful feedstock to economically produce environmentally friendly biofuels. Corn stover was pretreated with an excess of calcium hydroxide (0.5 g Ca(OH)2/g raw biomass) in non-oxidative and oxidative conditions at 25, 35, 45, and 55oC. The optimal condition is 55oC for 4 weeks with aeration, determined by yields of glucan and xylan. The overall yields of glucose (g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g original glucan) and xylose (g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g original xylan) were 91.3 and 51.8 at 15 FPU/g cellulose, respectively. Furthermore, when considering the dissolved fragments of glucan and xylan in the pretreatment liquors, the overall yields of glucose and xylose were 93.2 and 79.5 at 15 FPU/g cellulose, respectively. The pretreatment liquor has no inhibitory effect on ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. At the recommended condition, only 0.073 g Ca(OH)2 was consumed per g of raw corn stover. Under extensive delignification conditions, 87.5% of the initial lignin was removed. Extensive delignfication required oxidative treatment and additional lime consumption. Deacetylation quickly reached a plateau within 1 week. Delignification highly depended on temperature and the presence of oxygen. Lignin and hemicellulose were selectively removed, but cellulose was not affected by lime pretreatment in mild temperatures (25 ?? 55oC). The delignification kinetic models of corn stover were empirically determined by three simultaneous first-order reactions. The activation energies for the oxidative delignification were estimated as 50.15 and 54.21 kJ/mol in the bulk and residual phases, respectively. Crystallinity slightly increased with delignification because amorphous components (lignin, hemicellulose) were removed. However, the increased crystallinity did not negatively affect the 3-d sugar yield of enzyme hydrolysis. Oxidative lime pretreatment lowered the acetyl and lignin contents to obtain high digestibility, regardless of crystallinity. The enzymatic digestibility of lime-treated biomass was affected by the change of structural features (acetylation, lignification, and crystallization) resulting from the treatment. The non-linear models for 3-d hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan were empirically established as a function of the residual lignin fraction for the corn stover pretreated with lime and air.

Kim, Se Hoon

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

243

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

244

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Illinois Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable 1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110 0.1 Total 44,127 100.0 201,352 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

245

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

63 63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

246

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

247

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

248

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Arizona Arizona Total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable 1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

249

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Illinois Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable 1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110 0.1 Total 44,127 100.0 201,352 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

250

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

251

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

48 48 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

252

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

60 60 Vermont Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable 1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 - = No data reported. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

253

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors 2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Cyclone Boiler Fluidized Bed Boiler Opposed Firing Boiler Spreader Stoker Boiler Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Dry-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Agricultural Byproducts AB Source: 1 Lbs per ton 1.20 1.20 1.20 N/A 1.20 Blast Furnace Gas BFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); EIA estimates Lbs per MMCF 15.40 15.40 15.40 N/A 15.40 Bituminous Coal BIT Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 33.00 5.00 12.00 31.00 11.00 Black Liquor BLQ Source: 1 Lbs per ton ** 1.50 1.50 1.50 N/A 1.50

254

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other 1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable 1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

255

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Nebraska Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,363 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,849 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable 1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

256

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GEORGIA-PACIFIC CORPORATION(G-P) FOR AN ADVANCE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9 2001 13:12 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO RGCP-HQ P.02/05 9 2001 13:12 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO RGCP-HQ P.02/05 STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GEORGIA-PACIFIC CORPORATION(G-P) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC26-00NT40772 ENTITLED "BLACK LIQUOR/BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY'; W(A)-00-024, CH1039. G-P has requested an advance waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights to inventions its employees may conceive or first actually reduce to practice in the performance of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40772. Fluor Enterprises, Inc., a subcontractor to G-P under the cooperative agreement, has agreed all patents rights to inventions its employees may conceive or first reduce to practice in the performance of the contract belong to G-P as per

257

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

258

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vermont profile Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. - = No data reported. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind.

259

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

34 34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

260

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alabama Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other 1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable 1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

262

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

263

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

264

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

265

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

63 63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

266

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Connecticut Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable 1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

267

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

268

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont profile Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. - = No data reported. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind.

269

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

270

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

271

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

272

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

273

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Minnesota Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,594 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable 1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

274

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

275

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

34 34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

276

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

277

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

278

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

279

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

48 48 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

280

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 New Hampshire New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable 1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

282

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Iowa Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable 1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

283

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent)

284

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

285

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

286

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Iowa Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable 1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

287

Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry  

SciTech Connect

A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.

Reister, D.B.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Use of Electrochemical Noise to Assess Corrosion in Kraft Continuous Digesters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in two continuous kraft digesters at a variety of locations representative of corrosion throughout the vessels. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of up to 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously during each experiment. The results indicate that changes in furnish composition and process upsets were invariably associated with concurrent substantial changes in EN activity throughout the vessels. Post-test evaluation of the mild steel electrode materials in both vessels confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude consistent with historical trends in the respective vessels as well as values qualitatively (and semi-quantitatively) related to EN current sums for each electrode pair. Stainless steel electrodes representing 309LSi and 312 overlay repairs exhibited zero wastage corrosion--as did the actual overlays--but the EN data indicated periodic redox activity on the stainless steel that varied with time and position within the vessel. Little or no correlation between EN probe activity and other operational variables was observed in either vessel. Additional details for each digester experiment are summarized.

Pawel, S.J.

2004-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)  

SciTech Connect

Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research efforts during the past quarter have centered on increasing yeast protein production using ozonated spent sulfite liquor (SSL) and improving the biodegradability of SSL by ultrasonic treatments. Continuous-flow fermentation experiments demonstrated the suitability of ozonated SSL as a substrate for Torula yeast growth. Yeast yields averaging between 2.0--2.2 g/l of SSL were obtained at the optimum retention time of 1.8 days. This contrasts to yeast production rates of 4.8--5.0 g/l of SSL in two day batch cultures. Lower yields were expected under continuous-flow conditions as compared to batch conditions, but production rates were sufficient to warrant further investigation. In contrast, effluent from anaerobic digestors used for methane production supported very little yeast growth even though it contains appreciable amounts of acetate. A toxic product or products apparently are synthesized during fermentation which are inhibitory to the Torula yeast. Experiments were also run to determine if sonic treatments would increase the content of fermentable substrates in SSL. Results indicated striking increases in BOD levels of SSL after sonication, especially when used in conjunction with ozonation. Such gains in available carbon would likely result in increased methane and yeast production.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1978-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Full scale field demonstration of unheated anaerobic contact stabilization. Quarterly project status report, April-June 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The City of Columbus provided funds for the preliminary shakedown of the anaerobic contact stabilization system. During the shakedown period, the sludge recycle system was tested, and the temperature control system was refurbished. At temperatures as low as 82/sup 0/F there is no noticeable loss in gas production for SRT's over 14 days. Some of the preliminary data on the overflow and underflow liquors from unit 6E suggested that substantial amounts of VS were not settling in 6E and, consequently, were not being recycled. Therefore, an examination of the settleability of the transfer sludge (4E to 6E) is underway. Some typical preliminary results are shown. The occurence of gasification in the scum layer raises the issue of where the mathanogenic bacteria are to be found in the settler (6E). Some preliminary tests have been conducted to answer this question, and a typical set of results demonstrate the relative population densities of methanogens in scum and settled digested solids. It is clear that if scum is not retained in the system, significant losses of system biomass will occur via the settler overflow.

Sykes, R.M.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The OPPA process offers three potential advantages over the DEPA-TOPO process. The OPPA extractant is much less expensive and has a higher extraction power for uranium than the DEPA-TOPO solvent. In addition it extracts U(IV), the prevailing oxidation state of uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid and this eliminates the liquor oxidation step required in the DEPA-TOPO process. However, the DEPA-TOPO solvent is known to be extremely stable and this process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at phosphate plants. It is understood that several companies are planning to commercialize this process in the near future. On the other hand, the potentially more attractive OPPA process has not been proven in a pilot plant operation and some questions about the solubility and stability of the OPPA need to be answered. Because of the wide spread interest in this process, a program was started in cooperation with Mobil and Allied Chemical companies to study this extractant, to identify and isolate the material that solubilizes the mono- and diacids, and to determine the optimum concentration and ratios for uranium extraction. In addition, a long-term cyclic test is planned to better define solubility losses and stability of the extractant. Consideration will also be given to improving the recovery of uranium lost to the gypsum during calcination. 12 figures. (auth)

Hurst, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Simplified model for determining local heat flux boundary conditions for slagging wall  

SciTech Connect

In this work, two models for calculating heat transfer through a cooled vertical wall covered with a running slag layer are investigated. The first one relies on a discretization of the velocity equation, and the second one relies on an analytical solution. The aim is to find a model that can be used for calculating local heat flux boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of such processes. Two different cases where molten deposits exist are investigated: the black liquor recovery boiler and the coal gasifier. The results show that a model relying on discretization of the velocity equation is more flexible in handling different temperature-viscosity relations. Nevertheless, a model relying on an analytical solution is the one fast enough for a potential use as a CFD submodel. Furthermore, the influence of simplifications to the heat balance in the model is investigated. It is found that simplification of the heat balance can be applied when the radiation heat flux is dominant in the balance. 9 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

Bingzhi Li; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching - A response surface modeling approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sentences/phrases were modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necessary discussions for different figures were included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More discussion have been included on the flue gas analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Queries to both the reviewers have been given. - Abstract: The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

Rath, Swagat S., E-mail: swagat.rath@gmail.com [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751 013, Odisha (India); Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P.S.; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Mishra, B.K. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751 013, Odisha (India)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Progress report, September 15, 1976--December 15, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress was made during the past quarter in establishing the operability and reliability of major pieces of equipment needed for the production of protein and methane from spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Batch ozonations of SSL were conducted at times varying from 1 to 6 hours at pH's in the range of 10 to 2. These screening experiments consistently indicate that low ph's favor the breakdown of SSL into organic fragments which are more easily assimulated by micro-organisms. Approximately 23% of the organics are oxidized at all pH levels indicated that pH has no effect on the total oxidation of SSL. As was expected total sulfur content of SSL is not measurably altered by ozonation. The intense brown color of SSL is appreciably removed during ozonation. The contents of the reactor assume a light brownish-yellow hue during the course of a 4 hour ozonation treatment. Attempts to quantify the reduction have not been successful to date.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1976-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Immobilization of Fast Reactor First Cycle Raffinate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of work to bring forward the timing for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate from reprocessing fuel from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). First cycle raffinate is the liquor which contains > 99% of the fission products separated from spent fuel during reprocessing. Approximately 203 m3 of raffinate from the reprocessing of PFR fuel is held in four tanks at the UKAEA's site at Dounreay, Scotland. Two methods of immobilization of this high level waste (HLW) have been considered: vitrification and cementation. Vitrification is the standard industry practice for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate, and many papers have been presented on this technique elsewhere. However, cementation is potentially feasible for immobilizing first cycle raffinate because the heat output is an order of magnitude lower than typical HLW from commercial reprocessing operations such as that at the Sellafield site in Cumbria, England. In fact, it falls within the upper end of the UK definition of intermediate level waste (ILW). Although the decision on which immobilization technique will be employed has yet to be made, initial development work has been undertaken to identify a suitable cementation formulation using inactive simulant of the raffinate. An approach has been made to the waste disposal company Nirex to consider the disposability of the cemented product material. The paper concentrates on the process development work that is being undertaken on cementation to inform the decision making process for selection of the immobilization method.

Langley, K. F.; Partridge, B. A.; Wise, M.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

303

Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

41 41 New Jersey New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by source, 2010 Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable 1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235 0.4 Total 18,424 100.0 65,682 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

305

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

306

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

307

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

308

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

309

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

310

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Minnesota Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,594 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable 1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

311

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

21 21 Louisiana Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable 1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3 3,281 3.2 Total 26,744 100.0 102,885 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

312

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

313

State Nuclear Profiles 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal

314

Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be controlled for co-precipitation processes include (1) feed solution concentration adjustment, (2) precipitant concentration and addition methods, (3) pH, temperature, mixing method and time, (4) valence adjustment, (5) solid precipitate separation from the filtrate 'mother liquor,' generally by means of centrifugation or filtration, and (6) temperatures and times for drying, calcination, and reduction of the MOX product powder. Also a recovery step is necessary because of low, but finite solubility of the U/TRU metals in the mother liquor. The recovery step usually involves destruction of the residual precipitant and disposal of by-product wastes. Direct denitrations of U/TRU require fewer steps, but must utilize various methods to enable production of MOX with product characteristics that are acceptable for recycle fuel fabrication. The three co-precipitation processes considered for evaluation are (1) the ammonia co-precipitation process being developed in Russia, (2) the oxalate co-precipitation process, being developed in France, and (3) the ammonium-uranyl-plutonyl-carbonate (AUPuC) process being developed in Germany. Two direct denitration processes are presented for comparison: (1) the 'Microwave Heating (MH)' automated multi-batch process developed in Japan and (2) the 'Modified Direct Denitration (MDD)' continuous process being developed in the USA. Brief comparative descriptions of the U/TRU co-conversion processes are described. More complete details are provided in the references.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is the development and commercial demonstration of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Cascade Corporation's pulp and paper mill in DeRidder, Louisiana. The advanced power generation system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as the primary fuel resource. The novel system is based on three advanced technology components: GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and 3-stage solid fuels combustion technologies coupled with one of the power generation approaches used in DOE's HIPPS program. Phase 1 of the project is a technical and economic evaluation of the system at the DeRidder site. A Continuation Application will be submitted at the conclusion of Phase 1 for authorization to proceed to testing and design in Phase 2. Phase 2 includes pilot-scale verification of selected system components and preparation of a detailed engineering design and cost estimate for retrofit of the advanced power system at the DeRidder mill. Phase 3 will complete procurement and construction of the system at the DeRidder site along with all required permitting activities. Phase 4 of the project will included plant commissioning, startup and demonstration operations. Design information for the Gasification Island was completed during the quarter. Two vendor quotations were received for the bark/hog fuel dryers. A final layout plan for the major equipment was developed and submitted to DeRidder for review and approval. The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) completed a subcontract for a laboratory study on VOC emissions from wood waste drying using bark from the DeRidder mill. Samples of DeRidder's lime mud and green liquor dregs were collected and analyzed in GTI's laboratory. It was determined that lime mud is far too fine to be utilized as inert bed material in the fluidized bed gasifier. Results for the green liquor dregs are currently being reviewed. Design analysis for the in-furnace HPHT Air Heater was completed and the external Syngas Cooler/Air Heater was begun. Materials were received for the air heater tube testing system to be installed in Boiler No. 2 at DeRidder. A refractory interference problem with the original testing system design was discovered and resolved. Analyses of the externally recuperated gas turbine cycles (air heater and booster combustor in parallel or series) were continued including the effects of steam cooling and inlet air humidification on power output and operating cost. Discussions were continued with turbine manufacturers regarding the technical, time and cost requirements for developing an externally recuperated turbine engine suitable for use in the project. A 5-month no-cost time extension was requested and received for the project to accommodate design and evaluation of externally recuperated gas turbines using HPHT air as the working fluid.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Geothermal energy development in Colorado. Appendix 7 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The term ''geothermal energy'' is a term that means different things to different people. To an increasing number, it means a practical, environmentally compatible energy resource that can, right now, help to relieve an overdependency upon fossil fuels. The potential for use of geothermal energy in Colorado seems to be substantial. As described by Barrett and Pearl (1978), at least 56 separate areas have surface manifestations of hydrothermal (hot water) resources. These areas are estimated to contain 5.914 quads (5.914 x 10{sup 15} Btu) of energy, with extractable energy of 1.48 quads. Geothermal resources already contribute to Colorado's energy supply. In fact, since the early 1900's, practical uses of geothermal resources have been common in Pagosa Springs, in Southwest Colorado. Residents there have used hot-water wells to heat numerous buildings, including the County Court House, schools, churches, the newspaper office, a liquor store, 2 hotels, 2 service stations, a drugstore, and a bank, as well as for the swimming pool and spa. Where resources are in use in other parts of the State, most are used for swimming pools or baths. A few wells or springs serve other purposes, among them space heating and agriculture, including greenhouses, a fish farm and algae-growing. Seemingly, interest in and awareness of the resources is growing. If leases and permits are made available, along with some economic incentives, some or all of the three potential power-generation sites may be developed by private industry. Perhaps with the assistance of federal programs, initially, lower temperature resources, too, will be developed by private industry. While government can provide opportunities, the outcome depends upon the decisions of numerous individuals throughout the system. Colorado does have geothermal resources that can contribute to the energy supply. It remains to be seen whether these resources will fulfill their promise.

Pearl, Richard A.; Coe, Barbara

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1979-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are milled using sulfuric acid leaching.

Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor totalb wastec" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overall, the GPGA facility has performed well, as shown by the production figures. Methanation, product gas compression, oxygen production, phenol recovery, ammonia recovery and the gasifiers are noteworthy examples of units which have been started up and operated with few problems. In other units, significant deficiencies have been uncovered which have required modification. Some of these items had a negative impact on SNG production. Additionally, GPGA undertook a program to improve reliability, safety and reduce odor emissions. Reliable high pressure steam generation is essential for maintaining acceptable plant on-stream factors. Consequently, several projects were undertaken which will improve the safety of operation and firefighting capabilities at the main boiler units. Also, a significant upgrade of the boiler instrumentation was started to ensure good control and operating flexibility. The cooling water system was designed to meet both plant cooling needs and provide treatment of wastewater streams. Plugging of tower packing and heat exchanger tubes, as well as odor emissions resulted from the heavy biological activity in this system. Fine mesh traveling screens, wind wall louvers, ceramic packing, mist eliminators, and exchanger chemical cleaning connections are the notable modifications begun during the period. Due to condensate problems and the greater than expected production of gas liquor, wastewater treatment systems were operated at near capacity. Additional pumping capability, a second deepwell, additional storage ponds, modifications to the evaporator distillate system and the vacuum deaerator are several projects undertaken to reduce loading on the system. The on-stream factor of ash handling has been low due to pluggage problems.

Not Available

1984-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Recovery of plutonium from HEPA filters by Ce(IV): promoted dissolution of PuO/sub 2/ and recycle of the cerium promoter  

SciTech Connect

Studies carried out in this investigation included (1) electrolytic production of Ce(IV) from Ce(III), (2) leaching of refractory PuO/sub 2/ from HEPA filters with maintenance of Ce(IV) by anodic oxidation during leaching, and (3) evaluation of methods for contacting the HEPA solids with the leaching solution and for separating the solid residue from the leaching liquor. Anodic oxidation of Ce(III) was accomplished with an electric current efficiency of about 85% at current densities of 0.04 to 0.4 A/dm/sup 2/ at Pt anode. Refractory PuO/sub 2/ was dissolved by a 4.0 M HNO/sub 3/ - 0.1 M Ce(IV) solution in 1.5 h at 100/sup 0/C using stirred-contact leaching of the solids or by recirculating the leachant through a packed column of the solids. Cerium(IV) concentrations were maintained continuously by anodic oxidation throughout leaching. Dissolution times up to 10 h were required unless the HEPA media were oxidized initially in air at 300/sup 0/C to destroy carbonaceous species which consumed Ce(IV) more rapidly than it could be regenerated be anodic oxidation. Leaching solids in packed columns avoided the relatively difficult liquid-solids separation by centrifugation which was required after stirred-contact leaching; however, the solids handling difficulties remain. A flowsheet is proposed for the recovery of actinides from HEPA filters. A 4 M HNO/sub 3/ - 0.1 M Ce(IV) nitrate solution is used as the leachant and the Ce(III) is recycled to the leaching operation using bidentate solvent extraction.

Scheitlin, F.M.; Bond, W.D.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Energy Analysis of a Kraft Pulp Mill: Potential for Energy Efficiency and Advanced Biomass Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy use at a Kraft pulp mill in the United States is analyzed in detail. Annual average process steam and electricity demands in the existing mill are 19.3 MMBtu per ADST and 687 kWh per ADST, respectively. This is relatively high by industry standards. The mill meets nearly all its electricity needs with a back-pressure steam turbine. Higher electricity to heat ratios is an industry wide trend and anticipated at the mill. The potential for self-sufficiency in energy using only black liquor and bark available on-site is assessed based on the analysis of the present energy situation and potential process changes. The analysis here suggests that steam and electricity demand could be reduced by 89% by operating consistently at high production rates. Process modifications and retrofits using commercially proven technologies could reduce steam and electricity demand to as low as 9.7 MMBtu per ADST, a 50% reduction, and 556 kWh per ADST, a 19% reduction, respectively. Electricity demand could increase to about 640 kWh per ADST due to closed-cycle operation of the bleach plant and other efforts to improve environmental performance. The retrofitted energy efficient mill with low environmental impact could be self-sufficient in steam and electricity using conventional technology, such as a back pressure steam turbine or a condensing extraction steam turbine. In addition to meeting mill energy demand, about 1,000 kWh per ADST would be available for export from the mill if gasification/combined cycle technology were used instead.

Subbiah, A.; Nilsson, L. J.; Larson, E. D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Polytechnic University of Marche, Department of Marine Sciences, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it; Veglio, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment is required to realize high yields vital to commercial success. The focus of the pretreatment step is to methodically change key features of the biomass to favor enzymatic hydrolysis. This work assesses the compositional changes due to oxidative and non-oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25ºC to 65ºC), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g lignin in raw biomass, and was accomplished for 4-week lime pretreatment at 65ºC in oxidative conditions. The corresponding pretreatment yields of glucan and xylan were 85.9 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 80.2 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65ºC and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan and xylan, were 80.7 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 66.9 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis yields were 94.0 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in treated biomass and 83.5 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in treated biomass respectively. Because there is a previous study of long-term lime pretreatment of corn stover (Kim, 2004), the data obtained in this work show the effect of using woody lignocellulose as substrate. From the comparison, resulted that in the case of poplar wood oxidatively pretreated at 65ºC for 4 weeks, less lignin was removed and more carbohydrates were solubilized, however the hydrolysis yield of glucan was almost equal and the hydrolysis yield of xylan was higher than the reported by Kim for corn stover oxidatively pretreated at 55ºC for 4 weeks. The overall yield of glucan resulted lower in the case of poplar wood because of the lower pretreatment yield of glucan. Thus, it is important to complete the mass balances including an analysis on the pretreatment liquor to determine if the solubilized glucan was degraded.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

ANIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND VANADIUM FROM CARBONATE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uranium and vanadium can be economically purified and recovered from non- salt roast carbonate leach liquors by adsorption on a strongly basic anionic exchange resin and subsequent selective elution by one of three alternative methods. Method 1 comprises selectively eluting uranium from the resin with an ammonium sulfate solution followed by eluting vanadium from the resin with either 5 M NaCl, saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, saturated NaHCO/sub 3/, 1 M NaOH, or saturated S0/sub 2/ solutions. Method II comprises selectively eluting vanadium from the resin with either concentrated NaCl or S0/sub 2/ solutions subsequent to pretreatment of the column with either S0/sub 2/ gas, 1 N HCl, or 0.1 N H/sub 2/8O/sub 4/ followed by eluting uranium from the resin with solutions containing 0.9 M NH/sub 4/Cl or NaCl and 0.1 Cl. Method III comprises flowing the carbonate leac solutlon through a first column of a strongly basic anlonlc exchange resin untll vanadium breakthrough occurs, so that the effluent solution is enriched ln uranium content and the vanadium is chiefly retalned by the resln, absorbing the uranlum from the enriched effluent solution on a second column of a strongly basic anionic exchange resin, pretreating the first column with either 0.1 N HCl, 0.1 H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, C0/sub 2/ gas, or ammonium sulfate, selectively eluting the vanadlum from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, pretreatlng the second column with either 0.1 N HCl or S0/sub 2/ gas, selectively eluting residual vanadium from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, and then eluting the uranium from the column with either 0.1 N HCl and 1 N NaCl orO.l N HCl and 1 N NH/sub 4/Cl.

Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.; Long, R.S.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

Gary Blythe

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Differential Reactivity between Two Copper Sites in Peptidylglycine r-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase  

SciTech Connect

Peptidylglycine {alpha}-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of the C{alpha} of C-terminal glycine-extended peptides and proteins, the first step in the activation of many peptide hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. The crystal structure of the enzyme revealed two nonequivalent Cu sites (Cu{sub M} and Cu{sub H}) separated by {approx}11 {angstrom}. In the resting state of the enzyme, Cu{sub M} is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral geometry by one methionine, two histidines, and a water molecule. The coordination site of the water molecule is the position where external ligands bind. The Cu{sub H} has a planar T-shaped geometry with three histidines residues and a vacant position that could potentially be occupied by a fourth ligand. Although the catalytic mechanism of PHM and the role of the metals are still being debated, Cu{sub M} is identified as the metal involved in catalysis, while Cu{sub H} is associated with electron transfer. To further probe the role of the metals, we studied how small molecules such as nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}), azide (N{sub 3}{sup -}), and carbon monoxide (CO) interact with the PHM copper ions. The crystal structure of an oxidized nitrite-soaked PHMcc, obtained by soaking for 20 h in mother liquor supplemented with 300 mM NaNO{sub 2}, shows that nitrite anion coordinates Cu{sub M} in an asymmetric bidentate fashion. Surprisingly, nitrite does not bind Cu{sub H}, despite the high concentration used in the experiments (nitrite/protein > 1000). Similarly, azide and carbon monoxide coordinate Cu{sub M} but not Cu{sub H} in the PHMcc crystal structures obtained by cocrystallization with 40 mM NaN{sub 3} and by soaking CO under 3 atm of pressure for 30 min. This lack of reactivity at the Cu{sub H} is also observed in the reduced form of the enzyme: CO binds Cu{sub M} but not Cu{sub H} in the structure of PHMcc obtained by exposure of a crystal to 3 atm CO for 15 min in the presence of 5 mM ascorbic acid (reductant). The necessity of Cu{sub H} to maintain its redox potential in a narrow range compatible with its role as an electron-transfer site seems to explain the lack of coordination of small molecules to Cu{sub H}; coordination of any external ligand will certainly modify its redox potential.

E Chufan; S Prigge; X Siebert; B Eipper; R Mains; L Amzel

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology also addressed safety concerns associated with thermochemical process operation that constrain the location and configuration of potential gas analysis equipment. Initial analyzer costs, reliability, accuracy, and operating and maintenance costs were also considered prior to the assembly of suitable analyzers for this work. Initial tests at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) in late 2004 and early 2005 successfully demonstrated the transport and subsequent analysis of a single depressurized, heat-traced syngas stream to a single analyzer (an Industrial Machine and Control Corporation (IMACC) Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)) provided by GTI. In March 2005, our sampling approach was significantly expanded when this project participated in the U.S. DOE’s Novel Gas Cleaning (NGC) project. Syngas sample streams from three process locations were transported to a distribution manifold for selectable analysis by the IMACC FT-IR, a Stanford Research Systems QMS300 Mass Spectrometer (SRS MS) obtained under this Cooperative Agreement, and a Varian micro gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector (?GC) provided by GTI. A syngas stream from a fourth process location was transported to an Agilent Model 5890 Series II gas chromatograph for highly sensitive gas analyses. The on-line analyses made possible by this sampling system verified the syngas cleaning achieved by the NGC process. In June 2005, GTI collaborated with Weyerhaeuser to characterize the ChemrecTM black liquor gasifier at Weyerhaeuser’s New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill. Over a ten-day period, a broad range of process operating conditions were characterized with the IMACC FT-IR, the SRS MS, the Varian ?GC, and an integrated Gas Chromatograph, Mass Selective Detector, Flame Ionization Detector and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (GC/MSD/FID/SCD) system acquired under this Cooperative Agreement from Wasson-ECE. In this field application, a single sample stream was extracted from this low-pressure, low-temperature process and successfully analyzed by these devices. In late 2005,

Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Program Pu Futures 2006  

SciTech Connect

The coordination chemistry of plutonium remains relatively unexplored. Thus, the fundamental coordination chemistry of plutonium is being studied using simple multi-dentate ligands with the intention that the information gleaned from these studies may be used in the future to develop plutonium-specific sequestering agents. Towards this goal, hard Lewis-base donors are used as model ligands. Maltol, an inexpensive natural product used in the commercial food industry, is an ideal ligand because it is an all-oxygen bidentate donor, has a rigid structure, and is of small enough size to impose little steric strain, allowing the coordination preferences of plutonium to be the deciding geometric factor. Additionally, maltol is the synthetic precursor of 3,4-HOPO, a siderophore-inspired bidentate moiety tested by us previously as a possible sequestering agent for plutonium under acidic conditions. As comparisons to the plutonium structure, Ce(IV) complexes of the same and related ligands were examined as well. Cerium(IV) complexes serve as good models for plutonium(IV) structures because Ce(IV) has the same ionic radius as Pu(IV) (0.94 {angstrom}). Plutonium(IV) maltol crystals were grown out of a methanol/water solution by slow evaporation to afford red crystals that were evaluated at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Cerium(IV) complexes with maltol and bromomaltol were crystallized via slow evaporation of the mother liquor to afford tetragonal, black crystals. All three complexes crystallize in space group I4{sub 1}/a. The Ce(IV) complex is isostructural with the Pu(IV) complex, in which donating oxygens adopt a trigonal dodecahedral geometry around the metal with the maltol rings parallel to the crystallographic S{sub 4} axis and lying in a non-crystallographic mirror plane of D{sub 2d} molecular symmetry (Fig 1). The metal-oxygen bonds in both maltol complexes are equal to within 0.04 {angstrom} for each oxygen type. In contrast to the maltol structures, the cerium(IV) bromomaltol complex arranges the maltol rings in a drastically different manner while maintaining the S{sub 4} crystallographic symmetry (Fig 2). The coordination geometry around the cerium remains a trigonal dodecahedron, but the chelating ligands span a different set of edges as in the maltol structures; the two-fold related bromomaltol ligands twist away from planarity, breaking the D{sub 2d} molecular symmetry. It is unlikely that steric interaction with a bromine on the same molecule would have caused the observed rearrangement, as there would be sufficient separation between them to accommodate their bulk in the geometry of the plutonium and cerium maltol complexes. The extended packing in the unit cell of both the plutonium and cerium maltol crystals indicates that pi stacking occurs throughout the lattice via the maltol rings with close contacts between rings of approximately 3.6 {angstrom}. Introduction of the bromine to this structure would disrupt the packing that would allow these interactions, causing the molecule to adopt the geometry present in the bromomaltol structure. In this unexpected arrangement the complex is still able to maintain some pi stacking with the maltol rings of adjacent molecules with a close contact of approximately 3.3 {angstrom}. Additionally, the bromine on each ligand is arranged such that its next closest contact is with a bromine 3.64 {angstrom} away on another molecule. Despite the different ligand geometry, the bromomaltol structure exhibits metal-oxygen bond distances that are within 0.06 {angstrom} of those in the maltol complexes.

Fluss, M

2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Probe Holes C3830, C3831, C3832 and 299-W10-27  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area T-TX-TY. This report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from three probe holes (C3830, C3831, and C3832) in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27. Sediments from borehole 299-W-10-27 are considered to be uncontaminated sediments that can be compared with contaminated sediments. This report also presents our interpretation of the sediment lithologies, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the TX Tank Farm. Sediment from the probe holes was analyzed for: moisture, radionuclide and carbon contents;, one-to-one water extracts (soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), and 8 M nitric acid extracts. Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We did not observe significant indications of caustic alteration of the sediment mineralogy or porosity, or significant zones of slightly elevated pH values in the probe holes. The sediments do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms. Three primary stratigraphic units were encountered in each probe hole: (1) backfill material, (2) the Hanford formation, and (3) the Cold Creek unit. Each of the probe holes contain thin fine-grained layers in the Hanford H2 stratigraphic unit that may impact the flow of leaked fluids and effect irregular and horizontal flow. The probe holes could not penetrate below the enriched calcium carbonate strata of the Cold Creek lower subunit; therefore, we did not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. However, the more elevated portions of the electrical conductivity (EC) profile at probe hole C3830 currently resides at the bottom of a fine-grained thin lens in the Hanford H2 unit at 87 ft bgs. At C3831, we lack good sample coverage to ascertain whether the salt plume has significantly descended into the Cold Creek Unit. There is strong indication at probe hole C3832 that the saline plume has descended into the Cold Creek Unit. The profiles do collectively suggest that the deepest penetration of tank related fluids is found in probe hole C3832. The water potential data from 299-W10-27?s H2 unit, the unit where most of the contaminants reside in the TX probe holes, are consistent with a draining profile. Despite the evidence that elevated EC values may be present in all three probe holes to their depth of refusal, the concentrations of long-term risk drivers are not large. The inventories of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium-99, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In addition, in situ desorption Kd values for these contaminants are provided. For conservative modeling purposes, we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate and technetium-99, a value of 1 mL/g for uranium, and 10 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. These conservative Kd values along with the provided inventories in the vadose zone sediments obtained from the three probe holes can be used in long-term risk projections that rely on estimates of water recharge and vadose zone and aquifer transport calculations.

Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

337

Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three contaminated boreholes around T-106 do not clearly identify the leading edge of the plume. However, the profiles do collectively suggest that bulk of tank-related fluids (center of mass) still resides in Ringold Formation Taylor Flats member fine-grained sediments. Most of the chemical data, especially the nitrate and technetium-99 distributions with depth, support a flow conceptual model that suggests vertical percolation through the Hanford formation H2 unit near T-106 and then a strong horizontal spreading within the CCUu unit followed by more slow vertical percolation, perhaps via diffusion, into the deeper strata. Slow flushing by enhanced recharge and rapid snow melt events (Feb. 1979) appear to lead to more horizontal movement of the tank fluids downgradient towards C4105. The inventories as a function of depth of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In-situ Kd values were calculated from water and acid extract measurements. For conservative modeling purposes we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate, Co-60, and technetium-99, a value of 0.1 mL/g for uranium near borehole C4104 and 10 mL/g for U near borehole C4105, and 1 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. A technetium-99 groundwater plume exists northeast and east of T WMA. The highest technetium-99 concentration in fiscal year 2003 was 9,200 pCi/L in well 299-W11-39. The most probable source for the technetium-99 is the T waste management area. Groundwater from wells in the west (upgradient) and north of WMA T appear to be highly influenced by wastes disposed to the cribs and trenches on the west side of the WMA. Groundwater from wells at the northeast corner and the east side of the WMA appears to be evolving towards tank waste that has leaked from T-101 or T-106.

Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z