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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, sludge wood, spent sulfite liquor, and other wood-based liquids), and black liquor. ...

2

EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form Anticipated Questions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood Waste liquids, excluding Black Liquor, including red liquor, sludge wood, ... Report consumption in combustion turbines or IC engines on SCHEDULE 3.

3

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

4

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

6

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper… (more)

Young, Christopher Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

9

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

10

Kraft black liquor delivery systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Kenaf Black Liquor Gasification Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vision Paper (Albuquerque, New Mexico) is considering building a pulping mill in Tennessee. This study is a first step in determining if the gasification of black liquor derived from kenaf8212an annual fiber and a substitute for softwood in the pulping process8212would allow Vision Paper to meet strict environmental regulations while generating process steam for its pulp mill. In collaboration with USDA, Vision Paper previously developed a soda-AQ (anthraquninone) process for producing high-quality pulp ...

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

12

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"2Other Renewables includes biogenic municipal solid waste, wood, black liquor, other wood waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, and other biomass...

14

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other process liquors are recovered and recycled. Because the black liquor fuel contains high alkali concentrations, 18.3% sodium, 3.6% sulfur, an amount typical of midwestern bituminous coal, and measurable amounts of silica, iron oxides and other species, the black liquor boiler experience was reviewed for application to MHD boiler technology.

Not Available

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Use of Wood Energy in the United States –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood for energy – including the burning of solid wood and black liquor from pulping – has been growing at a rate significantly greater than that for all other uses such as lumber, pulp, or particleboard. in the United States, the end of most wood is not lumber or pulp and paper but feed for energy. In 1983, 155. 5 M Mg of wood were used for energy. This could threaten to increase the price of wood for those other uses, or it can stimulate us to seek more creative ways of using untapped wood resources for fuel. on the basis of estimates of heavy wood energy use relative to other uses for wood, and estimates of continuing high costs for fossil fuels, we suggest here the feasibility of meeting the demand for fuelwood through small-scale cooperatives. Such an approach can improve forestry practices and can avoid unduly increasing the cost of wood for other end uses.

John W. Koning; Kenneth E. Skog

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection The Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Residuals, Sludge, and Composting program regulates the land application and post-processing of organic wastes, including sewage sludge, septage, food waste, and wood

24

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3. Gasifier Supplier Perspectives 11 Black Liquor Gasifier Suppliers 12 Biomass Gasifier Suppliers 13 5 exists for Key ideas from the workshop... commercializing black liquor gasifier/ combined Techno~og~ supp!iers have not seen convIncIng evidence of cycle (BLGCC) and biomass-gasifier/combined market opportunity

26

Jordan Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jordan Woods Windows and Envelope Materials Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90R2000 Berkeley CA 94720 Office Location: 90-2052C (510) 486-4931...

27

Drew Wood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Indoor Air Quality Research Collaborative drew@iaqrc.org This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s) shown at the links below. This...

28

The Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a former wood-treating site located in Texas that treated various wood products with chemical preservatives. These activities left behind contaminated soil and sludge, that led to contaminated groundwater. In 1990 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected incineration as the means to clean up contaminated soil at this site. In 1994 Congressman Jim Chapman (D-Texas) asked the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to review alternative technologies that might be used instead of incineration at the Texarkana site. A second, separate study to assess the safety of incineration was also requested by Representative Chapman. This report reviews technologies available for hazardous waste cleanup at wood-treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very similar in terms of the contaminants

Roger C. Herdman; Frank Avvisato

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sludge digester  

SciTech Connect

A ballasted, gas-holding, liquid sludge digester is described comprising: a main liquid sludge tank having a bottom wall and upwardly projecting sidewall; a cover having a top and depending side skirt structure which telescopes with respect to the upwardly projecting sidewall of the main tank; ballast supported near the lower edge of said side skirt; a ballast-engaging, liquid-containing well joined to said sidewall of said main tank such that said cover provides a gas-tight seal when said ballast interacts with liquid in said well so as to be partially emerged or fully submerged in the liquid; liquid fill means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is at least partially emerged from the liquid in said well; and overflow means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is submerged in the liquid in the well.

Wight, J.L.; Cook, L.W.

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

Davis, Hubert G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Mechanism of silica precipitation by lowering pH in chemi-thermomechanical pulping black liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor is a complex colloidal system obtained by chemical pulping process. It comprises of lignin, nearly 50% of the total organic and Silica approx. 2-3% (OD basis) of the total inorganic components. Black liquor is fed to chemical recovery plant ... Keywords: black liquors, desilication and concentrators, lignin, silica

Muhammad Ikram Aujla; Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman; Asad Javaid

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preparations Preparations within the Tank Farm D. Bumgardner Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company 12 May 2009 2 Agenda Liquid Waste System Overview Sludge Characteristics Sludge Batch Planning Sludge Batch Preparation Sequence - Aluminum Dissolution - Sludge Washing - Sludge Batch Qualification/Acceptance Questions 3 Liquid Waste Processing at SRS ARP - Actinide Removal Process AFP - Actinide Finishing Process ASP - Actinide Strike Process CSS - Clarified Salt Solution CSSX - Caustic-side Solvent Extraction DDA - Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment DSS - Decontaminated Salt Solution DWPF - Defense Waste Processing Facility ETP - Effluent Treatment Project GWSB - Glass Waste Storage Building HLW - High-Level Waste LLW - Low-Level Waste MCU - Modular CSSX Unit

38

Wood Use Across Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?Forest products history and use ?Forest resource- the big picture ?Consumption- the big picture ?Trends forest products industry ? pulp & paper ? solid woodBack in Time ?1492 ? Columbus sailed the ocean blue! ? wood use- fuelwood American Indians ?1634: Jean Nicolet

Scott Bowe; United States Wood Use

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

40

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent ExtractionAbstract The dissolution of biomass into ionic liquids (ILs)be a promising alternative biomass pretreatment technology,

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Continuous Sludge Leaching  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Sludge Leaching Reid Peterson and Renee Russell - Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Terry Sams and Bill Brasel - Parsons 2 What is CSL? * Process diagram * Full scale...

42

Disposal of Lead Sludge - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Problems with this sludge were investigated and methods were tested with the aim of stabilizing the sludge so that is passes the EPD TCLP test ...

43

STEO October 2012 - wood  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most households using wood as their primary space heating fuel, followed by the Midwest, South and Northeast regions of the United States. Wood is also the second most common backup fuel, after electricity, that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this

44

DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below the limits set by the environmental permits.

Robert DeCarrera

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone powder: High shear Wet Granulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor.M. Walker, Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone method for producing organic fertiliser from Anaerobic Digestion liquor and limestone powder: High Shear

Paxton, Anthony T.

46

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

Li, Mo

47

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Black Liquor Gasification Process Review and Status Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After more than two decades of research and development, black liquor gasification is poised to become a commercial reality in the 90's. Several promising developments are underway in North America and Europe. In fact, all major recovery boiler manufacturers are now actively involved in black liquor gasifier developments. Leading the way is Gotaverken's Chemree process. Their 3 tph solids demonstration unit has been in commercial operations since late 1991. Following a close second in the MTCI process, whose 2 tph solids demonstration is scheduled to startup this summer. BB-Combustion Engineering have reported promising test results on a 0.2 tph CFB facility and have announced plans for a pilot demonstration. Tampella and Ahlstrom each have small pilot facilities (0.2 tph) focused on developing pressurized gasifiers. Their work is complemented by research at VIT (The Technical Research Centre of Finland) who have a 0.2 tph pressurized fluid bed test facility. The purpose of this paper is to describe these processes and provide and update on their status of development.

Brown, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Wood pellet production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

Wrathall, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the tank Designed to handle obstructions in the tank - Steel Tapes - Thermowells - Sludge mounds 11 Mechanical Cleaning of SRS Tanks 18 and 19 Hose-in-hose System Overview...

54

Composting Manure and Sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composted manure and sludge can be a valuable fertilizer, but special equipment is required. Composting can be done with windrow operations, aerated windrow operations or aerated bins. Factors that affect composting rates are included.

Sweeten, John M.

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

55

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Kinetics of the Direct Causticizing Reaction between Black Liquor and Titanates During Low Temperature Gasification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of kraft black liquor increases the amount of Na2CO3, which needs to be converted into NaOH in the lune cycle because one mole of… (more)

Chen, Xiaowen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydroxide Formation and Carbon Species Distributions During High-Temperature Kraft Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work focuses on high-temperature kraft black liquor gasification in the presence of H2O and CO2 in a laboratory-scale Laminar Entrained-Flow Reactor (LEFR). The effects… (more)

Dance, Michael Raymond, Jr.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Gregory H. Woods was sworn in as the General Counsel of the Department of Energy on April 16, 2012, following the unanimous confirmation of his appointment by the United States Senate.  Mr....

62

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

H. Woods H. Woods Department· of Energy Fermi Site Office Post Office Box 2000 Batavia, Illinois 60510 JAN 1 1 2DD Office of the General Counsel GC-1, FORS SUBJECT: FERMI SITE OFFICE (FSO) 2013 ANNUAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) PLANNING SUMMARY Section 5(a) (7) of Department Of Energy Order 451.1 B Change 2, NEPA Compliance Program, requires each Secretarial Officer and Head of Field Organization to submit an annual NEPA

63

Finishing Wood Decks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction in recent years. However, there is considerable confusion regarding how these structures should be protected with finish. This paper summarizes the types, application techniques, and expected service lives of various finishes on both preservative treated and untreated lumber. Recommendations are made on the basis of decades of research on various wood species using a wide variety of finishes.

R. Sam Williams; et al.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Treated Wood Pole Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document characterizes similarities and differences in international wood pole and wood pole preservative management. The research team identified practices for selection, regulation, and disposition of utility poles outside the United States. Most information is based on interviews and website and published literature searches. Additional research will clarify regulatory positions in other countries and generate improved understanding, which will support strategic planning for U.S. utilities. Utili...

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Viscous sludge sample collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

Beitel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing  

SciTech Connect

In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

68

Principle Wood Scientist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood, bark, and the wax-coated seeds from Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) Small), an invasive tree species in the southeastern United States, were subjected to extractions and degradative chemical analyses in an effort to better understand the mechanism(s) by which this tree species aggressively competes against native vegetation, and also to facilitate utilization efforts. Analysis of the wood extractives by FTIR spectroscopy showed functionalities analogous to those in hydrolyzable tannins, which appeared to be abundant in the bark; as expected, the seeds had a high wax/oil content (43.1%). Compared to other fast-growing hardwoods, the holocellulose content for the Chinese tallow tree wood was somewhat higher (83.3%). The alpha-cellulose (48.3%) and Klason lignin (20.3%) contents were found to be similar to those for most native North American hardwoods. Results suggest that Chinese tallow tree wood utilization along with commercial wood species should not present any significant processing problems related to the extractives or cell-wall chemistry. Keywords: Cellulose, Chinese tallow tree, extractives, Klason lignin, utilization.

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Usda Forest Service; Xiaobo Li; Chung Y. Hse; Usda Forest Service

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

Robinson, William I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Burls and Other Unusual Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BURLS AND OTHER UNUSUAL WOODS Wood worked by the hands of skilled craftsmen puts a wealth of quiet beauty into our daily...

73

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea, South Korea is striving to increase its per- centage of renewable energy, which could benefit the wood pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet

74

China: Changing Wood Products Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;China: Changing Wood Products Markets less is probably known about the forestry and wood products market in China than most other U.S. trading partners. In the 1980s China emerged as the world,11,12). However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from $-I%3

Zhang, Daowei

75

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

77

SOLVENT EXTRACTION RECOVERY OF VANADIUM (AND URANIUM) FROM ACID LIQUORS WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)

Crouse, D.J.; Brown, K.B.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

79

The Wood Duck  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Duck Wood Duck Nature Bulletin No. 502-A October 13, 1973 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE WOOD DUCK Of all the fowl that swim, the Wood Duck is a most unusual bird. They perch in trees like jaybirds, and nest in tree holes like woodpeckers. The hens do not quack like the females of most ducks, and the drakes are dressed in a riot of gaudy colors. Each summer we see dozens of them -- more than any other kind of wild duck -- rear their families of ducklings on and around the streams, ponds, lakes and sloughs of Cook County's forest preserves. Words can scarcely describe the brilliance of the drake's plumage. The head, crest and back glint with iridescent greens, purples and blues. The eyes are red, the throat white, and the bill orange-red. The breast is wine-colored flecked with white, the belly is white, and the sides are buff. The woodie is about midway in size between the mallard and the blue-winged teal. The drakes weigh about a pound and a half. The hen is smaller and plainer, with a gray-brown head and body, a white throat, and a conspicuous white ring around the eye. Her voice is a shrill, squealing "whoo-eek", while the male's is a mere squeak.

80

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations David Larsen, PMP, PSP Hasmukh Shah Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company May 21, 2009 2 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Overview Background Mixing - Historical - Criteria - Current Strategy Sampling Techniques and Procedure Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Requirements - Waste Acceptance Criteria - Tank Farm Compliance 3 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Sludge Batch Preparation and Feed Tank 51 (Batch Tank) Sludge from one or more waste storage tanks *Mixing by Pumps *Wash *Settle *Decant *Sample Qualified Batch Transferred Forward *Mixing by Pumps *Sample Bulk Waste Removal Tank(s) Tank 40 (Blend Tank) *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *Wetting *Mixing by Pumps

82

Wood Inspection by Infrared Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is used everywhere and for everything. With times, this material presents many adulterations, witch degrade his physical properties. This work present a study of infrared thermography NDT for wood decay detection. The study is based on the difference of moisture content between sound wood and decay. In the first part, moisture content influence on response signal is determine. The second part define the limits of infrared thermography for wood decay detection. Results show that this method could be used, but with many cautions on depth and size of wood defects.

A. Wyckhuyse; X. Maldague; X. Maldague Corresponding

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment is required to realize high yields vital to commercial success. The focus of the pretreatment step is to methodically change key features of the biomass to favor enzymatic hydrolysis. This work assesses the compositional changes due to oxidative and non-oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25ºC to 65ºC), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g lignin in raw biomass, and was accomplished for 4-week lime pretreatment at 65ºC in oxidative conditions. The corresponding pretreatment yields of glucan and xylan were 85.9 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 80.2 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65ºC and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan and xylan, were 80.7 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 66.9 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis yields were 94.0 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in treated biomass and 83.5 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in treated biomass respectively. Because there is a previous study of long-term lime pretreatment of corn stover (Kim, 2004), the data obtained in this work show the effect of using woody lignocellulose as substrate. From the comparison, resulted that in the case of poplar wood oxidatively pretreated at 65ºC for 4 weeks, less lignin was removed and more carbohydrates were solubilized, however the hydrolysis yield of glucan was almost equal and the hydrolysis yield of xylan was higher than the reported by Kim for corn stover oxidatively pretreated at 55ºC for 4 weeks. The overall yield of glucan resulted lower in the case of poplar wood because of the lower pretreatment yield of glucan. Thus, it is important to complete the mass balances including an analysis on the pretreatment liquor to determine if the solubilized glucan was degraded.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

86

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

87

Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

88

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

91

WOOD FLOORING 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD FLOORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood flooring beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood flooring in the following three waste management alternatives: source reduction, combustion, and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

WOOD PRODUCTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood products beginning at the point of waste generation. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood products in the following four materials management alternatives: source

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

94

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

95

CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Anderson, Carry, Academic, New York. Pyrolysis of WoodT.J. Elder, E.J. Soltes, Wood and Fiber, 12(4), 1980, "Phenolic Constituents of a Wood Pyrolytic Oil." J.A. Knight,

Davis, H.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should America Expansion potential USA Deficit Canada Deficit #12;RUSSIA Advantages: Raw Materials Source LEAVED ­ EASTERN USA Source: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/ecoregions/h50404bottomland

97

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

99

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Integration Specialist Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development and technical project management. Daniel is a graduate of Boston University but a true Philadelphian at heart. On his off days you are likely to find him exploring new neighborhoods on his bike or hanging out with the awesome kids over at Little Lights Urban Ministries. Most Recent The History of the Light Bulb November 22

100

Weathering and Protection of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction When wood is exposed outdoors, above ground, a complex combination of chemical, mechanical, and light energy factors contribute to what is described as weathering (38). Weathering is not to be confused with decay, which results from decay organisms (fungi) acting in the presence of excess moisture and air for an extended period of time (34). Under conditions suitable for the development of decay, wood can deteriorate rapidly and the result is far different than that observed for natural outdoor weathering, Outdoor Weathering Process In outdoor weathering of smooth wood, original surfaces become rough as grain raises and the wood checks, and the checks grow into large cracks; grain may loosen, boards cup and warp and pull away from fasteners (Figs. 1 and 2), The roughened surface changes color, gathers dirt and mildew, and may become unsightly; the wood loses its surface coherence and becomes friable, splinters, and frag ments come off. All these e

William C. Feist

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Biological Sludge Reduction and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes research sponsored by EPRI and Advanced Biological Services (ABS). A series of experiments focused on the reduction and analysis of biological sludge in pulp mill wastewater. The first experiment involved optimization of the milling process through the alteration of the grinding gap and the number of times sludge was passed through the colloid mill in order to affect fractionation, dispersion, and lysis. For the second experiment, tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of ble...

2001-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Wood Handbook Wood as an Engineering Material Centennial EditionCentennial Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Handbook; Wood As An Engineering Material

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Wastewater sludge management options for Honduras  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge management is a fundamental area of concern across wastewater treatment systems in Honduras. The lack of timely sludge removal has led to declining plant performance in many facilities throughout the country. In ...

Bhattacharya, Mahua, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Wood and energy in connecticut. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of Connecticut households conducted in 1979 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. Connecticut households consumed 668,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, but may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.; Lenz, M.I.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Laser removal of sludge from steam generators  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to reduce capital cost by extending life expectancy of overhead transmission wood structures through inspection and assessment procedures and through aging mitigation techniques and tools.

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Treated Wood Planted Post Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the interim results of a planted post study currently under way at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest (ACMF), operated by The University of Florida, in Gainesville. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of commercially available prevention methods to reduce preservative migration from treated wood poles, compare the migration of constituents of various wood treatments, and assess the environmental impacts and performance of untreated chestnut.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

Solidification Tests for LLW Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National laboratory has about 350,000 gallons of remote-handled (RH) sludge in ten liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that must be solidified and stabilized for disposal at the Nevada Test Site. Samples of the waste sludge were collected from four tanks, and a total of 36 small-scale grouting tests were performed. The presence of free water during curing was evaluated, and the cured grouts were analyzed using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to determine if any of the hazardous metals in the sludge (Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, etc.) would leach above the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limits/ The grouting formulation used for these tests, with ratios of grout-forming additives weight to waste slurry weight ranging from 0.75:1 to 1.2:1, produced wet grout mixtures that were easy to stir and were self leveling. The grout mixtures cured with no free water visible at any time. The cured grout matrix was very effective at retaining the hazardous metals in the sludge, with TCLP leachate concentrations well below the RCRA limits. The addition of ferrous sulfide (FeS) to some of the sludge samples resulted in, at most, a minimal reduction in the amount of mercury that leached from the grout samples, and had no detectable impact on the other heavy metals present in the sludge (Cd, Cr, and Pb). The TCLP extraction was performed on three samples after 1 day and 7 days of curing, compared to the >28 days for the remaining samples. The metal concentrations for the short cure time samples were similar to the remaining samples, and were all well below the RCRA limits.

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011 State Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Residential Commercial Industrial Electric Power ...

111

Chromoblastomycosis associated with in a carpenter handling exotic woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a carpenter handling exotic woods Nuno Menezes 1 , Pauloas saprophytes in the soil, wood and vegetation [ 3 ]. Theyare normally made of tropical wood [ 9 ]. The inoculation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wood chips (called black liquor) is normally burned in a large recovery boiler in which the black liquor combustion

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

115

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maryland Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Maryland Department of the Environment Sewage sludge utilization permits are required prior to the use, processing, and disposal of sewage sludge in Maryland. Sewage sludge (also known as biosolids) is not sewage, but rather is one of the final products of treated sewage at a sewage (wastewater) treatment plant. Sewage sludge is the fine particulate matter remaining after treatment which breaks down organic matter and destroys disease organisms in sewage. A SSU Permit is required for any person who collects,

116

Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

119

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Print Thursday, 25 October 2012 10:44 paris-wood composites Wood scientist...

120

Categorical Exclusion for Wood Pole  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Pole Wood Pole Replacement at two structures (11/6 & 11/9) located along the Oracle-Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line, in Oro Valley, Pima County, Arizona. RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western plans to replace deteriorated wood poles, cross arms and X-braces at two existing H-frame structures (11/6 & 1119) located along the Oracle Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line in Pima, Arizona (Figure 1). Built in 1943, its aging components are beyond repair and require replacement. These poles performed poorly during structural tests, and we consider them unstable. This replacement project will ensure the safety of Western's workers and the public as well as reliability of the bulk electric system. Western will accomplish the work by clearing vegetation and blading a level pad at

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121

Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was within the limits for landfilling inert residues. On the other hand, sulfate and chloride releases were found to comply with the limits for non-hazardous residues.

Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

123

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others.

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Recovery of Cr(III) from tannery spent chrome liquor for reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper embodies details on the extraction behavior of Cr(III) along with Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) from hydrochloric acid media employing the Cyanex 301-toluene system. All of these metals, except Cr(III), Mg(II), and Mn(II), are extracted into the organic phase. This property of the extractant has been used to separate Cr(III) from the binary mixtures. The partition data have been extended onto spent chrome liquor, and this waste has been treated in such a manner so that it becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. The hydrolytic stability and recycling capacity has been reported. Because the concentration of Cr(III) in the waste is much lower than that required for chromium depositions in Cr(III) plating baths, a concentration step using MgO as a precipitating agent has been appended. To summarize, this paper envisages a new approach to tannery waste management that focuses on treating spent chrome liquors using a solvent extraction technique in such a manner that the waste becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. This would not only help abate pollution but also recover the metal in a pure form.

Khwaja, A.R.; Singh, R.; Tandon, S.N.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Chapter 1. Net Generation - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Wood/wood waste solids (including paper pellets, railroad ties, utility poles, wood chips, bark, and wood waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, ...

128

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States underwater vehicles to perform ocean surveys. With these vehicles it is now possible for the scientist substances in the ocean such as chemicals from an underwater vent or toxic algae such as red tide

Wood, Stephen L.

130

Proceedings: Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of 151 individuals attended the Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop. They represented domestic and foreign utilities, vendors, individuals from government laboratories, university members, EPRI employees. Presentations from utilities and vendors focused on overall control and management of generator sludge which covered several topics. A poster session included presentations on minimizing and characterizing sludge as well as a demonstration of a thermal hydraulic and fouling analysis works...

1995-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

131

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, August 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 08222011 - 08252011 Report Preparer: Jake...

133

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

James F. Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

James F. Wood James F. Wood About Us James F. Wood - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal Photo of James Wood Photo of James Wood James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's clean coal research and development programs. Chief among these is the Carbon Sequestration program, the Clean Coal Power Initiative, and FE's $3.4 billion portfolio of Recovery Act projects. Wood has over 30 years of experience in the power industry. Most recently, he was president and CEO of Babcock Power Inc. (BPI), one of the major US-based designer/manufacturers of environmental, pressure part, heat exchanger, combustion equipment and after-market

135

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 500 Program Info Start Date 1/1/1994 State Arizona Program Type Personal Deduction Rebate Amount Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Provider Arizona Department of Revenue This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove. The cost to purchase and install all necessary equipment is tax deductible, up to a maximum $500 deduction. Qualifying wood stoves must meet the standards of performance for new wood heaters manufactured after July 1990, or sold after July 1992 pursuant to [http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/resources/policies/monitoring/caa/woodstover...

136

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health Kees Kolff, MD, MPH April 21, 2012 #12;OUR #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off paper making process, black and white liquor , sludge #12;SLASH BURNING Slash burned in 2008: Jefferson

138

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission and distribution infrastructures throughout the world are aging. As such, inspection, assessment, and maintenance of existing facilities have become increasingly important topics. This valuable reference provides an in-depth look at all facets of an inspection, assessment, and maintenance program for transmission line wood structures to help utilities develop and refine individual maintenance programs. The report is part of a broader multi-year effort by EPRI to develop a comprehensive handb...

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Distribution Library--Wood Poles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has sponsored research and published information on a wide variety of topics related to wood poles for overhead lines. Many of these resources, particularly older publications, are difficult for EPRI members to find and use. To help ensure retention of this valuable knowledge base, EPRI sponsored the project reported herein to capture this information and make it accessible in an easy-to-use electronic media (E-Media) repository.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Wood Poles Population with Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's asset management research focuses on developing a rational basis for selecting repair or replacement options for specific classes of equipment by balancing the risks of equipment failure against the costs of continued maintenance or capital replacement. This Model User Guide is a companion to Guidelines for Intelligent Asset Replacement: Volume 4Wood Poles (Expanded Edition), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2006. 1012500, the fourth report on guidelines for asset replacement, which discusses methods for maki...

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Disposable sludge dewatering container and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

Cole, C.M.

1990-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Operational Awareness Review and Sludge Treatment Project Independent Project Review [HIAR-RL-2013-09-18] This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations on September 17-18, 2013, at the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project. The activity consisted of HSS staff performing an operational awareness review of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System. An HSS

144

EIA Energy Kids - Wood - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1860: Wood was the primary fuel for heating and cooking in homes and businesses, and was used for steam in industries, trains, and boats.

145

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

147

Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Pellet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary purpose of this project is to assess the environmental impacts associated with the wood pellet production. The study has extended to the entire… (more)

Chen, Siyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

150

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for extension of wood pellet production is lack of appropriate technology in Slovakia. Several typesOverview 1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK systems. · Co-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;Overview 3

151

Mathematical simulation of temperature profiles within microwave heated wood made for wood-based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive ...

Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Luo, Hongbin Chen, Xia He, Jianxiong Lv, Yiqiang Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

NELSEN LA

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

154

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million Btu/hr pilot plant produced clean burning gas which appeared viable for drying textiles. The gasifier was coupled to a modified textile drying oven and a series of tests were carried out to assess product degradation of white, colored, and chemically treated fabrics.

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric evaporation was one possible means of treatment which had not been studied to any great degree. Two bench scale evaporation units were employed to determine the fundamental relationships affecting wastewater quality during such treatment. In batch evaporation tests, it was repeatedly demonstrated that a constant rate of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewater was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant. From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design considerations such as the input data, modifications to the design procedure, solids accumulation, and miscellaneous design aspects are discussed. A treatment scheme incorporating atmospheric evaporation ponds after chemical coagulation and settling is proposed.

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Management Practices for Used Treated Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pentachlorophenol, creosote, and other chemicals are used to preserve poles, crossarms, and railroad ties for the electric, telecommunications, and railroad industries. Each year, millions of pieces of treated wood are retired. This report provides information on current and potential options for management of used treated wood.

1995-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes extensions to existing methods for rendering of the effects of combustion on a wood object, adding considerations for wood grain and moisture content.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Lewis, Robert R.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration...

159

Updated Volumetric Expansion Factors for K Basin Sludge During Storage  

SciTech Connect

Sludge has accumulated in the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins at the Hanford Site. This sludge contains metallic uranium and uranium oxides that will corrode, hydrate, and generate and consume gases during containerized storage. From these corrosion reactions, two sludge expansion mechanisms can be expected: 1) expansion of the volume of the sludge solids from the generation of corrosion oxidation products that occupy more space than the starting-state sludge; and 2) expansion of the bulk sludge volume from the retention of hydrogen gas bubbles. This report provides a review and updated projections of the volumetric expansion occurring due to corrosion and gas retention during the containerized storage of K Basin sludge. New design and safety basis volume expansion values are provided for the following sludge streams: KW Floor, KW North Loadout Pit, KW canister, and fuel piece sludge.

Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermal Conductivity and Shear Strength of K Basin Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hanford K Basin sludge contains metallic uranium and uranium oxides that will corrode, hydrate, and, consequently, generate heat and hydrogen gas during storage. Heat is generated within the K Basin sludge by radiolytic decay and the reaction of uranium metal with water. To maintain thermal stability, the sludge must be retrieved, staged, transported, and stored in systems designed to provide a rate of heat removal that prevents the temperature in the sludge from increasing beyond acceptable limits. To support the dispositioning of the sludge to T Plant, modeling and testing and analyses are being performed to predict the behavior of sludge when placed into the storage containers. Two physical properties of the sludge that are critical to the modeling and analyses efforts are thermal conductivity and the sludge shear strength (yield stress). This report provides the results of thermal conductivity and shear strength measurements performed on representative sludge samples from the K East Basin.

Poloski, Adam P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Swoboda, Robert G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chenault, Jeffrey W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gano, Sue (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report Herb G. Sutter Michael Poirier Art W. Etchells Gary Smith Kris Thomas Jim J. Davis Paul Macbeth November 16, 2009 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009 ii Herbert G. Sutter, Team Lead Date Michael Poirier, Team Member Date Arthur W. Etchells, Team Member Date Gary Smith, Team Member Date Kris Thomas, Team Member Date Jim J. Davis, Team Member Date Paul Macbeth, Team Member Date Signatures 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009

163

Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood3 Resources Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Wood3 Resources Place Houston, Texas Zip 77056-2409 Product Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chairman Pat Wood. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

164

Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Credit may be claimed for a period of five years Program Info Start Date 12/30/1998 (most recent revision) State Missouri Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount $5 per ton of processed materials Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Note: No new credits are being issued, effective July 1, 2013. This entry is for informational purposes only. The Wood Energy Tax Credit, as effective January 1, 1997, allows individuals or businesses processing Missouri forestry industry residues into fuels an income tax credit of $5.00 per ton of processed material (e.g., wood pellets). A multiplier of 4 applies to charcoal, based on the

165

Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

Jonathan Bolling

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

HANFORD K BASINS SLUDGE RETREIVAL & TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the US and the UK to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, thus removing the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout encapsulation processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. The grout process to produce the final waste form is backed by BNG America's 20 years experience of grouting radioactive waste at Sellafield and elsewhere. The use of transportable and re-usable equipment is emphasized and its role noted in avoiding new plant build that itself will require cleanup. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup worldwide.

VASQUEZ, D.A.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Land application systems for municipal sludge  

SciTech Connect

The production of treated municipal sludge requiring disposal or recycling has increased substantially in the last 10 years as a result of more stringent waste-water treatment requirements. In 1974, for example, there were 3.2 million dry tons of sludge requiring disposal. By 1982 that number had more than doubled to 6.5 million dry tons/year. Land application of municipal sludge is widely practiced in the United States as a method of handling these increasing tonnages. For wastewater treatment plants with less than 10 mgd capacity, 39 percent of the sludge produced is managed by land application. Currently, for all size treatment plants, about 25 percent of the nation's sludge is land applied. The experience with land application has shown it to be a safe and effective sludge management practice. In particular, research and studies of the practice over the past 10 years have produced new knowledge which allows the benefits of land application to be realized with minimal adverse impact. 11 references.

Crites, R.W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

INHIBITION OF WASHED SLUDGE WITH SODIUM NITRITE  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J.; Lozier, J.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Project - Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational Awareness Review [HIAR-RL-2012-02-27] The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 More Documents & Publications Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - June 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - April 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - August 2011

175

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

Wheaton, Felicia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The Potential for Distributed Generation in Japanese Prototype Buildings: A DER-CAM Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, wood residues, biogas or spent pulping liquor as fuels. Technologies include gas turbine generators

180

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. 2.0 BACKGROUND The Sludge Treatment Project manages the removal of...

183

Microsoft Word - 2010 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Visit...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the engineered containers presently containing the sludge in the K-West Basin, the underwater pump that will be used to move the sludge from the pool to the transport vessels,...

184

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. 2.0 BACKGROUND The Sludge Treatment Project manages the removal of radioactive...

185

Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

Skog, K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T (2009) Non-native suckermouth armored catWshes in Florida:Loricariidae), wood-eating armored catWshes from Tropical

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Biomass Energy - Focus on Wood Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

application for wood waste as a fuel is in the co-firing of conventional coal-fired boilers, which means using biomass as a supplementary energy source in high- efficiency...

189

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Place Kincardineshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip AB30 1PA Product Wood pellet producer. Coordinates 56.932781°, -2.42531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.932781,"lon":-2.42531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

190

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

192

Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Liquidization of dewatered organic sludge and anaerobic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175 {degrees}C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 58% (w/w) supernatant and 42% precipitate. The amount of proteins in the liquidized sludge slightly decreased through the liquidization process, however, that of lipids increased. The supernatant separated from the sludge liquidized with dewatered sewage sludge was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant from dewatered sewage sludge at organic loading concentrations of 1.9-2.2 g VS/l during 9 days incubation was 440 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 66% (w/w). Biogas yield in the case of dewatered sewage sludge was 257 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 45%. Similar results were obtained in the case of the anaerobically digested with sewage sludge and dewatered sludge. Anaerobic digestion of the supernatants from the liquidized sludges resulted in high biogas productivity and high digestion ratio compared with these of the original sludges. Moreover, the precipitates contained lower moisture, therefore, they can be incinerated easier than the respective original sludges.

Sawayama, Shigeki; Inoue, Seiichi; Ogi, Tomoko [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Short rotation Wood Crops Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

Rosenberg, S. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. RICHLAND, Wash. - The Richland Operations Office and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company successfully removed a portion of a highly radioactive sludge from underwater storage in a large basin adjacent to the K West reactor at the Hanford site this month. In that milestone, workers removed sludge originating from knock-out pots,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

203

Integrating BES in the wastewater and sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, denitrification, and anaerobic digester treatment systems, while chemical methods include phosphate removal, dye of WAS, including treatment of influent or the accumulated sludge with anaerobic digesters (Rulkens 2008 bacterial metabolism even at conditions outside the optimum range for anaerobic digestion (Angenent et al

Angenent, Lars T.

204

Asbestos in sludge- a significant risk  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to consider the issue of asbestos in sludge applied to land, and to provide some perspective on the health risk conclusions drawn from research on which these stories were based. While this review cannot conclude there is no health risk due to the presence of asbestos in sludge, it does suggest that such risk is not appreciably greater than from the presence of asbestos in other environmental samples. As analytical techniques continue to improve, increasing numbers of potentially toxic chemicals will be found in all types of environmental samples, including sludge. However, it is essential that the mere presence of a chemical in such samples not be equated with toxicity, or a hazard to the general public. Although some of the contaminants that will be detected in sludges or other environmental samples will be new and exotic, many have been present in the environment for years, and, in the case of the asbestos, for millenia. Scientists and engineers must work vigorously to minimize such health risks due to environmental contamination. However, scientists have the responsibility to discuss risks within a framework that is understandable by the general public. To do otherwise so as to incite fear and apprehension borders on scientific irresponsibility, and neither solves the problem, nor does justice to the scientific method.

Naylor, L.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps` cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks` vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel LP Fuel LP Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Wood Fuel LP Name Wood Fuel LP Address 5900 Haynesworth Lane Place Houston, Texas Zip 77034 Sector Biomass Product Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website http://www.woodfuel.com/ Coordinates 29.6221328°, -95.1872605° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.6221328,"lon":-95.1872605,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

207

Wood and Derived Fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1 1 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142288361 Varnish cache server Wood and Derived Fuels Dataset Summary Description Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released July 29th, 2010 (4 years ago)

208

Fiscal year 1994 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are 28 one-million-gallon double-shell radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Reservation in southeastern Washington State. The waste in these tanks was generated during processing of nuclear materials. Solids-laden slurries were placed into many of the tanks. Over time, the waste solids have settled to form a layer of sludge in the bottom of these tanks. The sludge layer thickness varies from tank to tank with some having only a few centimeters or no sludge up to some tanks which have about 4.5 m (15 ft) of sludge. It is planned that the waste will be removed from these tanks as part of the overall Hanford site cleanup efforts. Jet mixer pumps are to be placed into the tanks to stir up (mobilize) the sludge and form a uniform slurry suitable for pumping to downstream processing facilities. These mixer pumps use powerful jets of tank fluid directed horizontally out of two, diametrically opposed nozzles near the tank bottom. These fluid jets impinge upon the sludge and stir it up. The amount of sludge mobilized by the mixer pump jets depends not only on the jet properties, but also on the ability of the sludge to resist the jets. It is the goal of the work described in this document to develop the ability to predict how much sludge will be mobilized by the mixer pumps based on the size and velocity of the mixer pump jets and the physical and chemical properties of the tank sludge.

Powell, M.R.; Gates, C.M.; Hymas, C.R.; Sprecher, M.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Morter, N.J. [Associated Western Universities, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Northwest Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

OpenEI - Wood and Derived Fuels  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UK Energy Statistics: UK Energy Statistics: Renewables and Waste, Commodity Balances (2010) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/82 Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels.

License
Type of

210

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Marin County - Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program (California...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DSIRE1 Summary The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and...

212

A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The potential of wood residue streams for industrial wood pellet production in the Baltic Countries and Poland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently most solid biomass in the European Union (EU-27) is made from high grade secondary wood residues, e.g. clean saw dust and wood chips. The… (more)

Jong, B. de

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Availability of wood as a heating fuel for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As Colorado homeowners turn to wood as an alternative space-heating fuel, supplies--particularly along the heavily populated Front Range--dwindle. The report reexamines the resource base and presents alternatives to wood in the event of a shortage (for instance, many wood stoves can burn coal as well).

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and power, the wood products industry and major independent power producers also have significant production of heat and power. Table 3.1 Canadian Wood Residue Heat & Power Generation - 2003 13 Forest Products SAWMILLS LTD LACRETE 50,000 TONNE WOOD PELLET PRODUCTION IN WESTERN CANADA 2004 / 2005 PINNACLE PEL LET INC

216

Compilation and Integration of K Basin Sludge Particle Size Analysis Data  

SciTech Connect

This report consolidates and integrates all of the particle size analysis data generated during the Hanford K Basin sludge characterization campaigns. The provides the most representative particle size distribution curves for the various K Basin sludge types. Understanding the particle size distribution of the sludge is necessary to design sludge retrieval and processing systems and to address sludge transportation and storage safety issues due to the potential reactivity of sludge.

Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tingey, Joel M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

217

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

218

The ambient wood journals: replaying the experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ambient Wood project aims to facilitate a learning experience using an adaptive infrastructure in an outdoor environment. This involves sensor technology, virtual world orchestration, and a wide range of devices ranging from hand-held computers to ... Keywords: adaptive infrastructure, consolidation, record and replay, storytelling

Mark J. Weal; Danius T. Michaelides; Mark K. Thompson; David C. DeRoure

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD Power plant LIENZ Austria By the year 2010, 12% of the gross inland this goal, intensified use needs to be made of biomass, both for heating purposes and for power generation to this rule. Thus, for instance, the town of Lienz started up the largest biomass facility of Austria

220

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Energy centres in Estonia This presentation will cover Regional Energy Centres in Estonia ! Supply Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Supply of primary energy in Estonia Regional Energy Centres in Estonia of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

222

Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Test Plan for K Basin floor sludge consolidated sampling equipment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the test procedure for the function and acceptance testing of the K Basin Floor Sludge Consolidated Sampling Equipment. This equipment will be used to transfer K Basin floor sludge to a sludge sampling container for subsequent shipment to an analysis or testing facility. This equipment will provide sampling consistent with data quality objectives and sampling plans currently being developed.

OLIVER, J.W.

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Review, June 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1-06-17 1-06-17 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 06/13/2011 - 06/17/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period June 13-17, 2011, an HSS representative participated in tours of the STP test facility. The HSS representative was also briefed by the CHPRC STP Test Director and the DOE-Richland Operations Office principal support

226

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, August 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8-25 8-25 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 08/22/2011 - 08/25/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period August 22-25, 2011, an HSS representative attended the STP ECRTS Design Review, Value Engineering. The design review was attended by virtually all STP designated personnel, including managers and experts, representing

227

Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ethanol production from paper sludge by simultaneous saccharification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol Production From Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation Using Recombinant Xylose-Fermenting Microorganisms Jiayi Zhang, 1 Lee R. Lynd 1,2 1...

230

Preparing T Plant to Store K-Basin Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explain the history and status of the modification of the Hanford T Plant facility for storage of K Basin sludge.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Operational Awareness Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 11172010 - 04072011 Report Preparer: Jake...

232

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02272012 - 03012012 Report Preparer: Jake...

233

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY FOR TANK 241-AY-102 SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the analyses performed on core samples from the sludge region of the waste in Tank 241-AY-102 to determine the electrochemical corrosion potential.

DUNCAN JB

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

An Innovative Approach to Sludge Retrieval from Containers ...  

Objective of this work is to provide and demonstrate an alternate method of emptying the K- Basin Sludge from the ... Future work – Program plan

235

Dissolution of Uranium Metal from Hanford K Basin Sludge Simulant ...  

Dissolution of Uranium Metal from Hanford K Basin Sludge Simulant, Without Producing Hydrogen Stephanie Bruffey and Paul Taylor Background About 2100 metric tons of ...

236

An evaluation of predictive environmental test procedures for sewage sludge.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research project aimed at evaluating four internationally accepted leachate extraction tests to determine their applicability on sewage sludge samples. Furthermore, the present analytical method… (more)

Kasselman, Graeme

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Near-term potential of wood as a fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of near-term conversion technologies, which could be used to expand utilization of wood residues and standing forests, is presented. The forest products industry is identified as a principal candidate for expanded wood-fuel use. Sources of wood-fuel are identified and conversion technologies and costs are discussed. Possible near-term incentives to encourage the use of wood as a fuel are examined. These incentives include a retirement tax credit and an investment tax credit. Suppliers of commercial wood conversion systems are identified.

Salo, D.; Gsellman, L.; Medville, D.; Price, G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Summary - K Basins Sludge Treatment Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basin K Basin DOE is Proces the va at Han subsys oxidati objecti of-fact maturi Eleme Techn The as which seven * M * M * Pr * Pr * As The Ele Site: H roject: K P Report Date: A ited States Why DOE ns Sludge Treatme s constructing ss (STP) for re rious sludge st nford. The STP stems: sludge ion, assay, pac ive of the asse t" appraisal of t ty by first ident ents (CTEs) of t ology Readine What th ssessment team was further div CTEs and the Material Mobiliza Material Transfe rocess Chemis rocess Instrum ssay (TRL=2) To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP K Basins Slud Process/STP August 2007 Departmen K Bas E-EM Did This ent Process Flow D a K Basins Slu trieving, treatin treams stored i P is comprised containerizatio ckaging, and dr ssment was to the project's ov

240

Wood and energy in New Hampshire. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of New Hampshire households conducted in 1979 and 1980 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. New Hampshire households consumed 394,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79; 504,000 cords were burnt during the next winter. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, and may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Wood power - its potential in our energy crisis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood is meeting about 2% of total U.S. energy needs and may eventually supply up to 7% of our nation's energy. Many forms of direct combustion equipment are available for residential heating and range from supplemental wood-burning stoves to complete house-heating multi-fuel furnaces. A recent survey conducted in New York indicated that one-third of the people contacted used wood for home heating. The total amount of fuelwood used in New York State in 1978 amounted to 1,716,000 standard cords. A Wisconsin study indicates that more than 1.2 million cords of firewood were burned by Wisconsin households during the 1979-80 heating season. A Pennsylvania survey indicated that 22% of single family households used wood for home heating. Corning Glass Works recently conducted a wood-burning stove market survey and found that 18% of all U.S. households own wood-burning stoves. On the basis of cost per unit of heat, wood heat is cheaper than its next closest commonly available rival (fuel oil) and is also cheaper than anthracite coal and electricity. Industrial wood-burning furnaces are commonly incorporated into boiler systems. Nearly 1700 wood-fired boiler systems are in operation in the United States. The economic value of a wood fuel will depend on its heating value and moisture content. For an indsutry considering use of densified wood for fuel, there is a question of whether the added expense is justified by increased ease of handling and improved burning efficiency. Where high sulfur emissions from coal are a problem, burning sulfur-free pellets in combination with coal may be a solution. In Maine a $3 million pellet-making plant is producing 600 tons of pellets per day. Nationally, the overall generating capacity of all known electrical generating plants using wood and wood derived fuels is about 4500 megawatts. Wood can be processed to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals.

Johnson, W.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

Tatano, Fabio [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.tatano@uniurb.it; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM?50).

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005 1 Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005 1. Summary The Hanford K-East and K-West Basins were used to store of the irradiated fuel reprocessing facility at Hanford (the PUREX facility) the N-Reactor irradiated fuel remained

246

Test procedure forms for sludge retrieval and packaging  

SciTech Connect

This document provides test procedure forms for sludge retrieval and packaging tests in the 305 Cold Test Facility. The completed and approved forms provide all descriptions, criteria and analysis to safely perform sludge equipment tests in the 305 Cold Test Facility.

Feigenbutz, L.V.

1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

247

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Inexpensive solar-wood water heating combinations  

SciTech Connect

A promising batch heater recently built and now being tested consists of lengths of eight-inch galvanized culvert pipe painted with semiselective black coating, hooked in series and tied in as part of a passive closed loop, unpressurized solar-wood water heating combination. One 10-foot length of eight-inch culvert contains 14.6 gallons of water. Eight-inch culvert provides a near optimum surface area per unit volume ratio, resulting in quicker, more efficient solar water heating. Moreover, the proposed arrangement minimizes the mixing of hot with cold water as warm water is used, often a problem with many types of batch heaters. Details for constructing this type of batch heater are provided. The system is an unpressurized, closed loop set-up, which means that the same liquid circulates continually from solar heater to wood heater to storage tank heat exchanger. The collector design is a variation on the inverted batch heater which takes its inspiration from a number of solar designers of similar units and introduces several additional measures to take advantage of the wood heating connection and to improve the design based on operating experience.

Poitras, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Leonard Wood and the American Empire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire and the age in which he served. He had the distinction of directing civil and military government in Cuba and the Philippines where he implemented the imperial policies given to him by the administrations of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. In Cuba, he labored to rebuild a state and a civil society crippled by decades of revolutionary ferment and guided the administration's policy through the dangerous channels of Cuban politics in a way that satisfied – at least to the point of avoiding another revolution – both the Cubans and the United States. In the Philippines, Wood took control of the Moro Province and attempted to smash the tribal-religious leadership of Moro society in order to bring it under direct American rule. His personal ideology, the imperial policies he shepherded, and the guidance he provided to fellow military officers and the administrations he served in matters of colonial administration and defense shaped the American Empire and endowed it with his personal stamp.

Pruitt, James Herman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Emergency Management program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

251

Microsoft Word - Sludge Test Area CX Determination Form12172012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Program or Field Office: Environmental Management - Oak Ridge Location(s) (City/County/State): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Proposed Action Description: The proposed action is to construct and operate a sludge test facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) to conduct testing activities for sludge mobilization, mixing, and removal from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The testing is needed to develop appropriate, compliant treatment to a final waste form that will meet the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This testing is needed for the mobilization, removal, and treatment of the sludge regardless of

252

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River July 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Dee_Millikin@rl.doe.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers have started moving highly radioactive material, called sludge, away from the Columbia River, marking a significant milestone in the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s cleanup of the Hanford Site in Washington State. Today, DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) safely transferred the first large container of highly radioactive sludge from a basin next to a former plutonium production reactor to dry storage in the center of the site. Today's transfer is the first of six shipments

253

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

254

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which [approximately] 3.3 [times] 10[sup 6] L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP).

Lumetta, G J; Swanson, J L

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

Spence, R.; Barton, J.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

256

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Development of an alternative kraft black liquor recovery process based on low-temperature processing in fluidized beds. Final technical report on Annex 9, Task 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental knowledge and experimental data from pilot scale operation for an alternative black liquor recovery technology which would have a higher overall energy efficiency, would not suffer from the smelt-water explosion hazard and would be lower in capital cost. In addition, the alternative process would be more flexible and well suited for incremental recovery capacity or for new pulping processes, such as the new sulfide-sulfide-AQ process. The research program consists of number of specific research objectives with the aim to achieve the ultimate objective of developing an alternative recovery process which is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives are linked to individual unit operations and they represent the following research topics: (1) superheated steam drying of kraft black liquors; (2) fast pyrolysis of black liquor; (3) hydrogen sulfide absorption from flue gas; (4) reduction of sodium sulfate in solid phase with gaseous hydrogen; and (5) verification of the fundamental results in fluidized bed pilot plant. The accomplishments in each of these objectives are described.

Kubes, G.J.

1994-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

Altman, D.J.

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Confirmation Run of the DWPF SRAT Cycle Using the Sludge-Only Flowsheet with Tank 40 Radioactive Sludge and Frit 200 in the Shielded Cells Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several basic data reports have been issued concerning the recent demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Cycle, conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The SRTC demonstration was completed using the DWPF ''Sludge-Only'' flowsheet with washed Tank 40 sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 2 or Macrobatch 3) in the Shielded Cells facility. The DWPF ''Sludge-Only'' flowsheet calls for processing radioactive sludge slurry using nitric acid, concentrated formic acid, and frit 200.

Fellinger, T.L.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

262

Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

Lambert, D.P.

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

263

Wood as a fuel. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the availability, combustion aspects, economics, and feasibility of using wood as fuel. Topics include wood-fuel power plants, wood waste fuels, district heating systems, wood burning furnaces and appliances, and wood waste generators. (Contains a minimum of 128 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Regeneração de Floresta Secundária Eric A. Davidson Woods...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

299 a 309. 1 Limitaes de Nutrientes para a Regenerao de Floresta Secundria Eric A. Davidson Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA Luiz A. Martinelli...

267

Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

268

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place Texas Utility Id 20927 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

269

Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

270

Graphite/Copper Composites from Natural Wood Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite derived from natural wood precursors provides a uniquely anisotropic porous scaffold for the fabrication of graphite/copper composites. The wettability ...

271

The Viscoelastic Properties of Wood Cell Walls after Minimally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples were prepared on dried wood with no embedding resin within the cellular structure. Four types of analysis methods were used; the standard method, ...

272

City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Wood River Place Nebraska Utility Id 20945 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes...

273

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS  

SciTech Connect

In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

276

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. Blend points between 62 and 40 inches of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) heel in Tank 40 had no practical impact on the projected performance of Frit 418. This assessment is made from a paper study approach only and assumes that no decant of Tank 40 will occur during SB6 processing. A decant of Tank 40 would reduce the Na2O concentration in Tank 40 to a point where it would be very difficult to target a waste loading of 36% for SB6 with Frit 418. The performance of Frit 418 with SB6 is limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization, which is a durability limiting constraint. Alternatives to Frit 418 are available that can provide equivalent projected operating windows and are limited by process related constraints (i.e., liquidus temperature predictions) rather than durability limiting constraints. A separate memorandum has recently been issued that discusses the use of Frit 418 for SB6 vitrification.1 potential differences in melt rate among these alternative frits will be discussed in a forthcoming technical report.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

Giles, GE

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting This rule establishes requirements for the permitting siting, bonding, installation, establishment, construction, modification, and operation of any facility that generates, processes, recycles and/or disposes of sewage

279

Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants  

SciTech Connect

Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (?) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

280

Sludge Heel Removal Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 11  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and recommend a slurry pump operational strategy for sludge heel removal in Tank 11. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation. The models focused on removal of the sludge heel located at the edge of Tank 11 using the four existing slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project (TCP) Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 11 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT(tm) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed pump orientations until an efficient flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge mound was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 1600 rpm could remove the sludge mound from the tank with a 103 in. liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. In this case, the only exception is the region within about 2 ft. from the tank wall. Further results showed that the capabilities of sludge removal were affected by the indexed pump orientation, the number of operating pumps, and the pump speed. A recommended operational strategy for an efficient flow pattern was developed to remove the sludge mound assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and removal. Sensitivity results showed that for a given pump speed, a higher tank level and a lower pump nozzle elevation would result in better performance in suspending and removing the sludge. The results also showed that the presence of flow obstructions such as valve housing structure were advantageous for certain pump orientations.

Lee, S.Y.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Section 7.1.3 Wood Products: Greening Federal Facilities; Second...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wood is being used in a building, there is an opportunity to advance good forest management by specifying certified wood products. When wood is be- ing used for framing-more...

282

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inParameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inW.T. , 2006. Estimating heating times of wood boards, square

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Wood Pellet Heating Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook of Planning, Design and Installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood Pellet Heating Systems is a comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of wood pellet heating technology. The use of wood pellets as an alternative heating fuel is already well established in several countries and is becoming widespread as fossil ...

Dilwyn Jenkins

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

My voice shall fill the woods : Lydgate, poetic authority, and the canonization of Philomela  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,the nightingale fills the woods with song, beautiful and

Gillespie, Mary Elizabeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

our data on wild-caught wood-eating catWshes appear to bein the Amazo- nian basin, and the wood-eating species likelyby reducing the particle size of wood from coarse debris to

German, Donovan P.; Bittong, Rosalie A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upper Midwest History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upperand Karamanski, Theodore J. North Woods River: The St. Croixbeauty and splendor. In North Woods River, Eileen M. McMahon

Karalus, Daniel E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and western branches of the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway: how the1993). 55. Wood, T. Preparation of crystalline,of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite Falk

Warnecke, Falk

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Daughters of Dissent: Women as Warriors in Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sembene. Gods Bits of Wood. Heinemann, Soyinka, Wole. Myth,novel, God's Bits of Wood, with particular reference to theOusmane's novel, God's Bits of Wood. It is important to note

Abdurrahman, Umar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Save the tree of life or get lost in the woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of life or get lost in the woods Biology Direct 2010, 5:44of life or get lost in the woods Ruben E Valas* 1 and PhilipOtherwise one gets lost in the woods of neutral evolution.

Valas, Ruben E; Bourne, Philip E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Content Measurements of Wood Chips * P. J. Barale, C.measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brownwater content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the 1970's, Georgia industry experienced problems obtaining fuel for operations on several occasions. In particular, the very cold winter of 1976-77 resulted in natural gas curtailments which virtually shut down many of Georgia's industries. Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis on three demonstration plants that were built with partial financing by state and federal government.

Bulpitt, W. S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

Desrosiers, R. E.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 501-k). A Westinghouse 3,000-kW generator is used on the prototype facility with a Philadelphia gear system reducing the 14,000-rpm turbine output speed to the 3,600-rpm generator operating speed. Fuel is fed into the combustor by a rotary valve system. The swirling effect of the cyclone combustor ensures that residence time is adequate to completely burn all solid particles in the combustor ahead of the cyclone filter. Burning of particles on the metal walls of the cyclone filter could cause overheating and deterioration of the walls. This wood-fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems.

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Silviculture: growing more wood on less land  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the production of a concentrated, homogeneous wood supply virtually dictates intensively managed plantations. This management system implies: (1) improving the composite genotype of plantation trees; (2) optimizing their morphological and physiological condition prior to and at planting time; (3) improving the physiological environment of the crop at all stages of development; (4) protecting the plantation from pests and catastrophic events; and (5) modifying the shapes, dimensions, and qualities of crop trees to enhance the utility and value of harvested timber. Beneficiation of forest residuals for fiber and fuel is pushing forest industry relentlessly toward total stand utilization. Relative to the productivity of undisturbed or partially logged humid tropical forests, plantation growth rates represent four-fold to ten-fold increases in volume production. Displacement of some proportion of shifting agriculture and natural forest management systems by intensively managed plantations is desirable and biologically feasible. A key to successful tropical forest management and preservation is population stability, a condition toward which integrated wood conversion facilities supplied by a reliable plantation system can make a major contribution. There are some pressing and many esoteric reasons for conserving forest resources but pressures for utilizing and renewing these resources are immediate and unavoidable.

Gladstone, W.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different the plans to increase #12;#12;Energy Sector Waste Sector Recovered Wood Sawdust Logging Residues Forest

298

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of wood combustion has received some attention recently, but prior work has not incorporated effects of internal wood properties such as density variation (i.e. "grain") and pre-combustion processes such as drying. In this paper we present ...

Roderick M. Riensche; Robert R. Lewis

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Rules and Regulations for Sewage Sludge Management (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of these rules and regulations is to ensure that sewage sludge that is treated, land applied, disposed, distributed, stockpiled or transported in the State of Rhode Island is done so in...

300

Package Safety Analysis Assessment for Sludge Transportation System  

SciTech Connect

This package safety analysis assessment demonstrates that the Sludge Transportation System meets the acceptance criteria for an equivalent package as specified in DOE/RL-2001-36, Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document for onsite shipment.

ROMANO, T.

2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge Digestion Dewatering (Centrifuge/ Belt Filter Press) Solids for Drying/Disposal Return Centrate. Finally, there will be a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during shipment for disposal. Project

302

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

303

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

304

SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increase in coal-fired power plants and tighter environmental problems have put utilities in the position of marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge by turning waste products into a resource. Many utilities are looking beyond road and structural fill uses in their marketing efforts. Slag can be made into sandblasting grit, aggregate, and roofing granules, or used for soil stabilization or the chemical fixation of municipal wastes. Composition and collection variations discourage many utilities from marketing their by-products, while availability can be a problem for customers if the power plant should shut down. Other problems include storage and transportation, competition, and institutional barriers. Documentation of the fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and scrubber waste markets by the Electric Power Research Institute considers these factors and develops a marketing method to help utilities evaluate and promote their product. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Golden, D.; Komai, R.; Maulbetsch, J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

NREL: News Feature - Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers July 24, 2013 This is a light-enhanced close-up of a tiny crustacean's head and torso, with what looks like fluorescent-blue antennae. Three of its legs are showing. Enlarge image A gribble is a tiny wood borer that produces its own enzyme that can devastate wood efficiently. Researchers hope that by studying gribbles they can learn ways to improve the process of turning biomass into liquid fuels. Courtesy Laura Michie, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom Tiny wood borers known colloquially as gribbles make their own enzymes and use them to eat through docks in harbor towns, earning enmity from fishermen all around the world. Now, researchers from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and elsewhere are exploring whether that curse can be

307

Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is being investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDU), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood. Modification of the PDU for operation at 10 atm (150 psia) is nearly complete. The modified PDU will be operated at the elevated pressure to confirm yields and design parameters used in process feasibility studies. Feasibility studies were completed on wood-to-methane (SNG) and wood-to-methanol plants with capacities of 2000 and 200 oven dried tons (1800 and 180 metric t) per day using catalytic gasification. The results showed that generation of methanol on the large scale is economically viable today while SNG generation is competitive with future prices.

Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effects of wood fuel use on plant management  

SciTech Connect

During the winter of 1979-80, about 20% of homeowners in the New England region relied on wood fuel as their primary source of heat; an additional 30% used wood heat on a supplementary basis. The demand for wood put a great strain on the New England forests. However, experts in forest management believe that with proper management and utilization, national forest growth could replace as much as four billion gpy of oil by 2023. Implications for the forests of the Upper Great Lakes region of increased use of public and private woodlands for fuel are examined. Conflicts that could arise with the tourist and recreation industry, and with wilderness preservation interests, and discussed. Wood wastes generated by timber harvesting, sawmills, and lumber manufacturing could be collected and used as fuel, thus reducing the amount of raw wood resources needed to fill the increasing demand. (6 photos)

Harris, M.; Buckmann, C.A.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect shear walls to the masonry or concrete foundation. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of bolted wood connections at the yield and ultimate limit states during monotonic and incremental quasi-static reversed cyclic loading and suggests possible retrofit strategies for their improved seismic performance. Proposed retrofit strategies are based on providing confinement to the bolted wood member using metal reinforcing ;traps and reinforcing clamps to increase the deformation capability and energy dissipation capacity of the connection, while maintaining substantial levels of connection strength. Connection types included in the investigation are: (1) double shear wood-to-wood connections; and (2) single shear simulated sill plate-to-concrete foundation connections.

Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study  

SciTech Connect

This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

Duncan, J.B.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

311

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

312

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

314

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1  

SciTech Connect

Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

315

Role of vanadium(V) in the aging of the organic phase in the extraction of uranium(VI) by Alamine 336 from acidic sulfate leach liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work is focussed on the chemical degradation of Alamine 336-tridecanol-n-dodecane solvent which used in the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction. Degradation occurs due to the presence of vanadium(V), an oxidant, in the feed solution. After a brief overview of the chemistry of vanadium, the kinetics of degradation of the solvent when contacted with acidic sulfate leach liquor was investigated and interpreted by the Michelis-Menten mechanism. GCMS analyses evidenced the presence of tridecanoic acid and dioctylamine as degradation products. A mechanism of degradation is discussed. (authors)

Chagnes, A.; Cote, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris - ENSCP Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique - UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP-Paris 6 ENSCP, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J. [AREVA-NC, Service d'Etudes de Procedes et d'Analyses (SEPA), B.P. No 71, 87250 Bessines sur Gartempe (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

Homeowners energy conservation and consumption behavior: wood users and non/low wood users  

SciTech Connect

Relationships among energy expenditure, energy consumption, energy-budget share, energy managerial practices, housing, and household-membership factors for non/low wood-user and high wood-user households were examined to explain substitution of fuelwood for primary fuels. Data were from a nationwide representative sample of 1599 homeowners collected by the Department of Energy in 1982-1983 Residential Energy Conservation Survey. In three multivariate regression models, different dependent variables - energy expenditure, energy consumption, and energy budget share, were used. The same independent variables - housing factors, household energy managerial practices, and household membership factors, were used in the three models. Finally, in a fourth model, discriminant analysis with the dichotomous criterion variable of non/low or high wood users and significant variables from the multivariate regressions models were used to explain 34% of the variance. The amount of space heated, their appliance use, whether they had teenage children, and if they were single-earner households were significant explanatory variables in all four models.

Urich, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986--1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the Oak Ridge Reservation since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under Tennessee permits issued to the city of Oak Ridge for land disposal of sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE reservations and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed or injected on pasture sites or surface applied in forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Anaerobically digested liquid sludge (2% to 4% solids) from the city of Oak Ridge had a relatively high nitrogen content (8% dry weight) and average to low concentrations of potentially problematic metals, compared with typical municipal sludges. Few potentially hazardous organic chemicals were detected in the sludge, and when found, these were at very low concentrations. Oak Ridge sludge is somewhat unique in that it contains radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, uranium isotopes, {sup 90}Sr, and occasionally {sup 99}Tc) at concentrations much higher than typical municipal sludges. Land application of sewage sludge can dilute or destroy problematic sludge constituents while improving soil fertility. Correct management has made these sludge applications a model of environmentally responsible waste management.

Gunderson, C.A.; Larsen, I.L.; Boston, H.L.; Bradburn, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Van Miegroet, H. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Morris, J.L. [Jaycor, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walzer, A.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Environmental Compliance; Adler, T.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huq, M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non-radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7a related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7a processing.

Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Electricity Generation in the Manufacturing Sector: A ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Technologies such as the combustion turbine, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, and ... wood chips, black liquor, or different forms of gas.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basins Sludge and Grouted Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The evolving plan for most of the KE and KW Basin sludges is disposition to WIPP as remote handled (RH) TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the sealed transportation cask destined for WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments to WIPP likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the contained uranium metals reaction with water. Therefore, gas generation testing with uranium metal particles of known surface area and immobilized in candidate (grout) solidification matrices was used to identify the effectiveness of various candidate solidification matrices to inhibit the rate of the uranium metal-water reaction.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

Ashworth, S.C.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

323

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

Gago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 25 (Peru); Santiago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Quimica e Ing. Quimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 1 (Peru); Acevedo, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima 12 (Peru)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

326

Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

Process Control Solutions, Inc.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Uses and Desirable Properties of Wood in the 21st Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of commercial de- velopment is use of wood pellet fuel to pro- duce heat or electric power. Wood pellets for the pellet Figure 2. Global production of paper and paperboard and wood panels by principal (continental, and production of nano-enabled materials and products are expected to increasingly shape wood use as the 21st

329

Research of sludge compost maturity degree modeling method based on wavelet neural network for sewage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the nonlinearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ...

Meijuan Gao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang; Kai Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Properties and potential uses of water treatment sludge from the Neches River of southeast Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land application of water treatment plant (WTP) sludge has been an unsolved problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate characteristics of organic polymer sludge, and (2) to determine the effects of the sludge on soil properties that influence utilization of the sludge as a soil amendment. Water treatment sludges were obtained from water utilities along the Neches Rivet-near Beaumont, Texas. They were mostly coagulated with organic polymers. Mineralogical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), aggregate stability, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity, dispersion, crust strength, adsorption characteristics, nitrogen content and mineralization potential of the sludge or sludge-amended soil were determined in this study. Mineralogical composition of organic polymer sludge was similar to local Beaumont clay soil. The major fraction of the sludge, the coarse clay, was estimated to be 40% kaolinite, 32% smectite, 20% quartz and 8% mica. However, XRD patterns of the sludge indicated that expansion of the smectite was inhibited by organic polymer coagulant added during water clarification, which also was confirmed by aggregate stability of the sludge. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk sludge samples ranged from 8 to 28 cmol kg-1. Quantitative mineralogical analyses showed that CEC of the sludge was reduced by blockage of cation exchange sites with organic polymers. SEM and TEM results indicated that the sludge was mostly fine aggregates of clay particles. Dried sludge aggregates were not prone to swell, due to their resistance to rewetting. The aggregate stability of dried sludge was above 90% after a 24 hours soaking period in water, compared to 7% aggregate stability of local Beaumont clay soil. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge to Boonville sandy loam soil increased the aggregate stability of the soil from 4 to 13%. Atterberg limit showed that wet sludge had wide ranges of moisture contents in semi-solid and plastic states, and shrunk greatly during drying. Shrinkage limit of the sludges ranged from 16 to 66%; plastic limit from 111 to 138%; and liquid limit from 208 to 320%, which suggested that the sludge was highly plastic and compressible. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil increased the infiltration rate of the soil two orders of magnitudes from 1.4 x 10-4 to 1. I X 10-2 CM / S, and reduced the dispersion of the soil significantly. Moreover, addition of from 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil greatly reduced the crusting produced by rainfall, and the penetration resistance of the crust decreased from 53.1 to 14.4 kg / cm. Metal adsorbing ability of the Boonville sandy loam soil was reduced by addition of the sludge. Adsorption of Zn+2 decreased from 19.7 to 17.7 ug / g when the sludge was amended from 0 to 10%. Total nitrogen and exchangeable ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) contents of the sludge were four times and twenty times as high, respectively, as those of local Beaumont clay and Lake Charles clay soils. Organic polymer coagulants added during water treatment apparently increased nitrogen content of the sludge. Although the sludge contained considerable total nitrogen, incubation experiment of sludge-amended Beaumont clay or Lake Charles clay soil showed that nitrogen mineralization rate was not affected by the sludge addition. This study indicated that the sludge can improve soil physical properties significantly, e.g. soil aggregation, infiltration, dispersion and crusting. The low nitrogen mineralization rate of the sludge showed that the sludge had little fertility and would not produce a groundwater contamination problem.

Kan, Weiqun

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

Vail, T.S.

1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge  

SciTech Connect

Investigates the selling of by-products of coal-fired power generation--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and scrubber sludge--by utilities for use in highways, parking lots, cement, roofing, bricks, and blocks. Points out that the EPA has drafted tough new regulations for solid-waste storage, transportation, and disposal that may soon cost power plants $25-$40 a ton to dispose of wastes. Reports that the EPRI is studying high-volume by-product applications that have low technology requirements (e.g. fly ash for use in highways, parking lots, and utility construction) and medium-volume, medium-technology applications (e.g. by-products used for cement manufacture, asphalt, blocks, bricks, roofing granules, and wallboards). Reveals that EPRI plans to eventually identify a representative set of perhaps half a dozen basic fly ashes, characterize them, do proportion studies of existing concrete mixes (including those with fly ash in them), and then develop guidelines for fly ash proportions in concrete.

Lihach, N.; Golden, D.; Komai, R.; Maulbetsch, J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation  

SciTech Connect

A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

SLUDGE BATCH 4 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES: PHASE II RESULTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) processing to Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing in early fiscal year 2007. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB4 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) process. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB4 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB4 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the sludges blended to prepare SB4 and the estimated SB3 heel mass. The following TTR requirements were addressed in this testing: (1) Hydrogen and nitrous oxide generation rates as a function of acid stoichiometry; (2) Acid quantities and processing times required for mercury removal; (3) Acid quantities and processing times required for nitrite destruction; and (4) Impact of SB4 composition (in particular, oxalate, manganese, nickel, mercury, and aluminum) on DWPF processing (i.e. acid addition strategy, foaming, hydrogen generation, REDOX control, rheology, etc.).

Stone, M; David Best, D

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

338

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

339

International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WoodFuels LLC WoodFuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name International WoodFuels LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Product Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates 45.511795°, -122.675629° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.511795,"lon":-122.675629,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

340

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Address 473 Via Ortega Place Stanford, California Zip 94305 Region Bay Area Coordinates 37.427774°, -122.175672° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.427774,"lon":-122.175672,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate None Program Info State New York Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from local sales taxes. If a city with a population of 1 million or more chooses to grant the local exemption, it must enact a specific resolution that appears in the state law. Local sales tax rates in New York range from 1.5% to more than 4% in

342

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. Jump...

343

John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy Information Administration

344

Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept  

SciTech Connect

Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

Faddoul, J.R.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 5, 2009 Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery to be Harnessed for Better Biofuels Production WALNUT CREEK, CA-An international team led by scientists from the U.S....

346

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opportunities -MDF- Market Opportunities -MDF- The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 the substrate of choice for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect

347

Signatures of surface bundles and Milnor Wood inequalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let E be a surface bundle over a surface. We use a variant of the Milnor Wood inequality to show that $|3\\sigma(E)|\\leq \\chi(E)$.

Hamenstaedt, Ursula

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of sewage sludge mixing in an anaerobic digester  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the mechanical mixing of sewage sludge at laboratory scale is reported. The paper recommends a strategy for modelling mechanically mixed sewage sludge at laboratory ... Keywords: Biogas, CFD, Digestion, Energy, Non-Newtonian fluid, Sewage sludge, Turbulence

J. Bridgeman

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.

Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

350

Laboratory development of sludge washing and alkaline leaching processes: Test plan for FY 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy plans to vitrify (as borosilicate glass) the large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes at the Hanford site. To reduce costs, pretreatment processes will be used to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass required for disposal. Several options are being considered for the pretreatment processes: (1) sludge washing with water or dilute hydroxide: designed to remove most of the Na from the sludge, thus significantly reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified; (2) sludge washing plus caustic leaching and/or metathesis (alkaline sludge leaching): designed to dissolve large quantities of certain nonradioactive elements, such as Al, Cr and P, thus reducing the volume of waste even more; (3) sludge washing, sludge dissolution, and separation of radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions (advanced processing): designed to remove all radionuclides for concentration into a minimum waste volume. This report describes a test plan for work that will be performed in FY 1994 under the Sludge Washing and Caustic Leaching Studies Task (WBS 0402) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Project. The objectives of the work described here are to determine the effects of sludge washing and alkaline leaching on sludge composition and the physical properties of the washed sludge and to evaluate alkaline leaching methods for their impact on the volume of borosilicate glass required to dispose of certain Hanford tank sludges.

Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Reactive Light Yellow Dye Wastewater Treatment by Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper is aim to discuss the dye wastewater treatment by sewage sludge-based adsorbent. The adsorbent derived from sewage sludge, which produced through phosphoric acid-microwave method, and commercia activated carbon (ACC) were tested in the process ... Keywords: Sewage Sludge-based Activated Carbon (ACSS), the Reactive Light Yellow, Dye Wastewater, Adsorption

Yang Lijun; Dai Qunwei

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

The adoption of e-commerce for wood enterprises  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lately, the internet has become a major means in electronic commerce (e-commerce), as it offers various advantages and benefits. In Greece, there are many Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the context of the timber ... Keywords: Greece, ICT adoption, PROMETHEE II method, SMEs, e-commerce, electronic commerce, multi-criteria analysis, small and medium-sized enterprises, timber trade, web content, website ranking, wood processing, wood products

Z. S. Andreopoulou; T. Koutroumanidis; B. Manos

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification  

SciTech Connect

The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

355

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

358

Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

Daniel Cullen

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Contesting Governance in the Global Marketplace: A Sociological Assessment of British Efforts to Build New Markets for NGO-Certified Sustainable Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towards Environmentally Sound Wood Products In the Britishof the Earth. 1995. “The Good Wood Guide. ” Friends of theRamachandra. 1990. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and

McNichol, Jason

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin.

Pearce, K.L.

1998-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

A distributed approach to accounting for carbon in wood products  

SciTech Connect

With an evolving political environment of commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, and of markets to trade in emissions permits, there is growing scientific, political, and economic need to accurately evaluate carbon (C) stocks and flows especially those related to human activities. One component of the global carbon cycle that has been contentious is the stock of carbon that is physically held in harvested wood products. The carbon stored in wood products has been sometimes overlooked, but the amount of carbon contained in wood products is not trivial, it is increasing with time, and it is significant to some Parties. This paper is concerned with accurate treatment of harvested wood products in inventories of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The methodologies outlined demonstrate a flexible way to expand current methods beyond the assumption of a simple, first-order decay to include the use of more accurate and detailed data while retaining the simplicity of simple formulas. The paper demonstrates that a more accurate representation of decay time can have significant economic implications in a system where emissions are taxed or emissions permits are traded. The method can be easily applied using only data on annual production of wood products and two parameters to characterize their expected lifetime. These methods are not specific to wood products but can be applied to long-lived, carbon-containing products from sources other than wood, e.g. long-lived petrochemical products. A single unifying approach that is both simple and flexible has the potential to be both more accurate in its results, more efficient in its implementation, and economically important to some Parties.

Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Stellar, Kirk [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Management at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

367

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Results of the second design basis experiment  

SciTech Connect

For several years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating methods to pretreat Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. In the past, Zircaloy-clad metallic U fuel was chemically decladded using the Zirflex process; NCRW sludge was formed when the decladding solution was neutralized for storage in carbon-steel tanks. This sludge, which is currently stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW on the Hanford Site, primarily consists of insoluble Zr hydroxides and/or oxides and NaF. Significant quantities of Al, La, U, as well as other insoluble minor constituents are present in the sludge, along with sodium and potassium nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides in the interstitial liquid. The sludge contains about 2,000 nCi of transuranic (TRU) material per gram of dry sludge, and mixed fission products. Therefore, the sludge must be handled as high-level waste (HLW). The NCRW sludge must be pretreated before treatment (e.g., vitrification) and disposal, so that the overall cost of disposal can be minimized. The NCRW pretreatment flowsheet was designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) to separate Am and Pu from the major sludge constituents (Na, Zr). (b) to separate Am and Pu from U. (c) to concentrate Am and Pu in a small volume for immobilization in borosilicate glass, based on Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The flowsheet involves: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge dissolution, (3) extraction of U with tributyl phosphate (TBP), and (4) extraction of TRUs with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutlycarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO). As presented in the flowsheet, the NCRW sludge is first washed with 0.I M NaOH to remove interstitial liquid and soluble salts from the sludge including sodium and potassium fluorides, carbonates, hydroxides, nitrates, and nitrites. The washed sludge is then subjected to two dissolution steps to achieve near complete dissolution of Zr.

Lumetta, G.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

369

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute) L. Szymanski; R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Biogas Generation from a 2-Phase Sludge Treatment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degradation of sewage sludge in single stage and 2 phase anaerobic systems was investigated in bench-scale batch reactors. Average COD reduction efficiency in 2 phase system in this initial phase of the study was 4.5% (30 days HRT) and 3.3% (20 days ... Keywords: dge digestion, 2-phase, single stage, qPCR, microbial communities

Taranveer Singh Mann, Terence Goh, William Phay

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials in crude-oil storage tanks also causes problems to the environment (Mrayyan and Battikhi 2005 of oily sludge generated in water­oil separation systems at oilfields and accumulation of waste oily as priority environmental pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 1986) and are also

Ma, Lena

374

Monitoring the Fixed FGD Sludge Landfill--Conesville, Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three years of extensive monitoring of the first full-scale application of the fixed flue gas desulfurization sludge process proved it technically sound. This new disposal method offers utilities leachate control in a landfill that allows diverse use of disposal sites in the future.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

The evolution and ecology of interspecific territoriality: Studies of Anolis lizards and North American wood-warblers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E. Bermingham. 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecularmultilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revisedplayback experiments with wood warblers. Ecology 82:207-218.

Losin, Neil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

ENERGY BUDGETS AND MASONRY HOUSES: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARATIVE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B.PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B. Goldsfor those studies used wood- frame construction, The energy

Goldstein, David B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

Church, Tamara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

Promnitz, Sarah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

Characterization of Compaction and Dryout Properties of KE Basin Sludge During Long-Term Storage  

SciTech Connect

The long-term behavior of Hanford Site K Basin sludge with respect to loss of supernatant water and solids compaction is important in designing sludge storage and handling systems. This report describes the results of laboratory tests performed to understand and predict K Basin sludge drying and compaction rates under extended (28-month) {approx}34 C hot cell storage. Tests were conducted with six K Basin sludge materials, a control sample of simulated K Basin sludge, and a control sample containing only K Basin supernatant liquid. All samples were held in graduated cylinders fitted with threaded plastic caps. Quantitative data were gathered on how the mass and volume of K Basin sludge, and its associated supernatant liquid, changed with respect to storage time. The tests showed that the K Basin sludge samples lost water unpredictably, depending on cap seal tightness, with projected dryout times for a 1-cm cover water depth ranging from 5 to 216 months. Though the ambient radiation field ({approx}5 Rad/hour) likely contributed to cap seal degradation, water evaporation rates were found to be independent of the contained material (water vs. sludge; radioactive vs. non-radioactive sludge). Although water was lost at variable rates from sludge samples during storage in the hot cell (and, presumably, in long-term containerized storage), the sludge itself had no intrinsic propensity to enhance or diminish the rate of water evaporation compared with that exhibited by water stored in the same environment. Most of the compaction of the six KE Basin sludges and the simulated sludge occurred in the first week. Subsequent compaction to 28-months time provided little additional increase in settled sludge density. Agitating the settled sludge likewise had little to no effect on the density. However, one tested sludge contained unreacted uranium metal that began to generate corrosion product hydrogen gas after 78 days of settling and strongly altered the apparent sludge density. T he lengthy induction time shows again that uranium metal-bearing sludge may lie quiescent for long periods, even at comparatively warm temperatures, before initiating gas generation. When the testing was completed, the sludge samples were removed from the graduated cylinders. Most sludge re-suspended readily but a canister sludge sample that had previously been allowed to dry out during storage self-cemented into a hard-cake monolith and could not be re-suspended. Settled sludge density and the concentrations of 154Eu, 241Am, and the plutonium isotopes were found to follow the dry basis uranium concentration in the sludge solids. These findings amplify observations made in prior characterization studies that showed that sludge density and radiolytic, fissile material, and TRU (primarily 241Am and 238,239,240Pu) concentrations are proportional to uranium concentration. The sludge pH, found to decrease from {approx}8 to {approx}5 with a dry basis uranium concentration increase from {approx}2.5 to 82 wt% , provides data useful in designing sludge storage and process equipment.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Poloski, Adam P.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

383

Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Place Ohio Utility Id 8034 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Farm Service-R-107 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207(Transformer Capacity in Excess of 25kVA) Commercial LPS Rate 12 (Mainland) Industrial LPS Rate 12KI (Kelleys Island) Industrial NR Rate GS-8KI (Kelleys Island) Commercial NR Rate GS-8M (Mainland) Commercial NR Rate GS-9KI - Kelleys Island Over 25 kW Commercial

386

Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area New Zealand Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley

387

Hogged Wood Fuel Supply and Price Analysis : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the factors that determine the supply and demand for hogged wood in the Pacific Northwest, with particular emphasis on the role of the regional pulp and paper industry and lumber industry. Because hogged wood is often a substitute for conventional fuels, the consumption and price of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil and coal are also addressed. A detailed and comprehensive examination of the indicies relating to the hogged wood market is provided, including analysis and graphing of all time series variables. A spreadsheet- based forecasting model is developed and presented with an emphasis on explaining the process used to arrive at the final model. 42 refs., 46 figs., 14 tabs. (MHB)

Biederman, Richard T.; Blazek, Christopher F.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Wood for energy and rural development: the Philippine experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Philippine wood energy programme (dendro-thermal system) was originally developed as a source of energy independent of imported oil, and at a lower cost than oil. It has social benefits: new jobs, land distribution, rural income increment, and reforestation by tree farmers. Tree farming, its administration and organization of farmer institutions are essential to the programme, as are the development of farming techniques to produce energy, trees (growth of ipil-ipil), and an improved tree growth rate. An analysis of the economics of wood energy led to the conclusion that raw wood fuel can be cheaper than oil. In estimated costs of electricity, the dendro-thermal plants can produce power at competitive rates. 36 references.

Denton, F.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

390

Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

391

Characteristics of KE Basin Sludge Samples Archived in the RPL - 2007  

SciTech Connect

Samples of sludge were collected from the K East fuel storage basin (KE Basin) floor, contiguous pits (Weasel Pit, North Load Out Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, and Tech View Pit), and fuel storage canisters between 1995 and 2003 for chemical and radionuclide concentration analysis, physical property determination, and chemical process testing work. Because of the value of the sludge in this testing and because of the cost of obtaining additional fresh samples, an ongoing program of sludge preservation has taken place with the goals to track the sludge identities and preserve, as well as possible, the sludge composition by keeping the sludge in sealed jars and maintaining water coverage on the sludge consistent with the controlling Fluor Hanford (FH) Sampling and Analysis plans and FH contracts with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work was originally initiated to provide material for planned hydrothermal treatment testing in accordance with the test plan for the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) corrosion process chemistry follow on testing (Delegard et al. 2007). Although most of the planned hydrothermal testing was canceled in July 2007 (as described in the forward of Delegard et al. 2007), sample consolidation and characterization was continued to identify a set of well-characterized sludge samples that are suited to support evolving STP initiatives. The work described in the letter was performed by the PNNL under the direction of the Sludge Treatment Project, managed by Fluor Hanford.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

392

Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 09/07/2012 State Maryland Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Stick Burning Stove: $500 Pellet Burning Stove: $700 The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program offers a flat grant award of $500 for stick burning wood stoves and $700 for pellet burning wood stoves that meet program eligibility requirements. Basic requirements for grant funding include: *The property must serve as primary residence *Clean burning wood stove must replace existing electric or non-natural gas

394

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

395

Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department: School of Renewable Natural Resources Mailing Address: 107 Renewable-Natural-Resources Building Louisiana Forest Products Development Center (LFPDC) School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite

396

Assessment of existing feuds data base for identification of potential industrial wood users in North Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The North Carolina Wood Assistance Team's evaluation of the Ultrasystems' computerized methodology for identifying high potential wood conversion facilities is presented. The analysis, methodology, and data are found to be inadequate for the intended use.

Gustashaw, D.H.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid...

398

EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Summary This...

399

SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND SRAT SIMULATIONS USING A NITRITE-FREE SLUDGE SIMULANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding catalytic hydrogen generation is fundamental to the safe operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were completed at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a nitrite-free starting simulant. One simulation was trimmed with Rh and Hg and the other with Ru and Hg. The two noble metals were trimmed at the upper end of the recent Rh-Ru-Hg study. Mercury was trimmed at 1.5 wt% in the total solids. Excess acid comparable in quantity to that in the recent Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study was used. In spite of the favorable conditions for hydrogen generation, virtually no hydrogen production was observed during either SRAT simulation. The Rh test result confirmed the postulated significance of nitrite ion to the catalytic reactions producing hydrogen in CPC testing with normal DWPF sludge simulants. As for Ru, however, previous testing has shown that Ru activated for hydrogen generation only after nitrite destruction. Therefore, Ru could have potentially been catalytically active from the start of the nitrite-free SRAT test, but no such activity was seen. The nitrite-free Ru test result suggests that the intermediate form detected in the bead-frit melter feed preparation Ru solubility profiles was some form of nitro-Ru complex. The nitro-Ru complex is apparently not catalytically active for hydrogen generation but is a precursor to the catalytically active form (presumably a different complex not involving nitrite ligands). Removing nitrite ion from the system prevented the Ru catalyst precursor from forming and consequently blocked formation of the catalytically active form. These results, along with the results of a simulation in which sodium nitrite was metered into the SRAT to prevent ligand substitution reactions that occur during nitrite destruction from occurring in order to reduce hydrogen generation, have greatly clarified the role of the nitrite ion in SRAT hydrogen generation. The new findings add to the overall fundamental understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation during waste processing in the DWPF. These findings also address one of the issues raised in the Future Work section of the recent summary document concerning catalytic hydrogen generation in the CPC. The knowledge gained should facilitate planning future experiments.

Koopman, D.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures (Optimized for Electronic Viewing)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

402

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

CARRO CA

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume  

SciTech Connect

Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

404

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania International Wood Energy Market Developments Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva #12;Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania Subjects I

405

Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supported by the Danish Government. One of the main barriers for extension of wood pellet production is lack1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;3 · Implementation of low cost anaerobic

406

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Geological Survey #12;Front Cover: Aerial view of the lower Wood River Valley showing the Wood River Wetland.S. Geological Survey, January 2003. #12;Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood­5004 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;U.S. Department of the Interior KEN

407

Discrimination of bark from wood chips through texture analysis by image processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilization of wood chips for bioenergy requires classification and segregation of the constituents of the chipped mass to help optimize energy conversion. Wood chips obtained from processes such as forest thinning can contain a considerable amount of ... Keywords: Bark, Biomass, Image processing, Texture analysis, Wood chip

James R. Wooten; S. D. Filip To; C. Igathinathane; L. O. Pordesimo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

409

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

410

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

412

CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Engineering program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

413

EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application 042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation-permitted level of 110 metric tons/ha. The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory also proposes to add its K-25 Site pretreated sewage sludge to the existing sewage sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

414

Vessel-Spanning Bubble Formation in K-Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The K Basin sludge to be retrieved and stored in the large diameter containers (LDCs) contains some fraction of uranium metal that generates hydrogen gas, which introduces potential upset conditions. One postulated upset condition is a rising plug of sludge supported by a hydrogen bubble that is driven into the vent filters at the top of the container. In laboratory testing with actual K Basin sludge, vessel-spanning bubbles that lifted plugs of sludge were observed in 3-inch-diameter graduated cylinders. This report presents a series of analytical assessments performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to address the potential for the generation of a vessel spanning bubble in the LDCs. The assessments included the development and evaluation of static and dynamic bubble formation models over the projected range of K Basin sludge physical properties. Additionally, the theory of circular plates was extrapolated to examine conditions under which a plug of sludge would collapse and release a spanning bubble.

Terrones, Guillermo; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge  

SciTech Connect

The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1987-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Microwave Thermal Hydrolysis Of Sewage Sludge As A Pretreatment Stage For Anaerobic Digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article focuses on the effects of microwave thermal hydrolysis on sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Volatile suspended solid (VSS) and COD solubilization of treated sludge were investigated. It was found that the microwave hydrolysis provided a rapid and efficient process to release organics from sludge. The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min. The effect of the VSS solubilization was mainly dependent on temperature. The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio

W. Qiao; W. Wang; R. Xun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Disposition Options for Hanford Site K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report provides summary-level information about a group of options that have been identified for the disposition of spent-nuclear-fuel sludge in the K-Basins at the Hanford Site. These options are representative of the range of likely candidates that may be considered for disposition of the sludge. The product of each treatment option would be treated sludge that would meet waste acceptance requirements for disposal as transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

Mellinger, George B.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Gerber, Mark A.; Naft, Barry N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Walton, Terry L.

2004-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

420

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquor sludge wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Woods Hole Research Center Developer Sustainable Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Woods Hole Research Center Location Falmouth MA Coordinates 41.548637°, -70.64326° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.548637,"lon":-70.64326,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

423

Wood Waste -A Modern Fuel M. A. SERRELL, P. E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, designed like the vanes of a fan WOOD BO'LER SACK r-v'"",", __--J DAMF[R · I ... .... .... .... ... ... FAN and provides automatic steam generation on an unattended basis. A flyash arrestor with induced draft fan fashioned boiler design where the boiler shell is pierced by a number of longitudinal fire tubes which run

Columbia University

424

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point, NC, 27261, USA Tel.: (336) 841 8535 Fax.: (336) 841 5435 151 Randall St. Oakville, ON Canada, L6J SituationThe Situation As global populations continue to grow, the demand for wood products will increase in: Cultures Technology Infrastructure #12;Demand: Overall ClimateDemand: Overal

427

Temperature Measurements in Full-Scale Wood Stud Shear Walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 10 full-scale fire resistance tests conducted at the National Fire Laboratory on load-bearing gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies with and without resilient channels on the fire-exposed side. The two assembly arrangements studied were: symmetrical installation 1x1 (one layer of gypsum board on each of the exposed and unexposed sides) and asymmetrical installation of the shear membrane (one layer of gypsum board on both the exposed and unexposed sides and a shear wall membrane as a base layer alternating between the exposed (2x1) and unexposed sides (1x2)) on a wood stud frame. The gypsum board was 12.7 mm thick Type X. The insulations used were glass and rock fibres. The shear membranes used were plywood and oriented strand board (OSB). Tests were conducted to determine the effects of the placement of the shear membrane on the exposed/unexposed face, type of shear membrane, insulation type, load intensity and resilient channel installations on the fire resistance of gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies. Details of the results, including the temperatures and deflections measured during the fire tests, are presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is part of a consortium project on the fire resistance and sound performance of wall assemblies - Phase II, among the following partners: . Canadian Wood Council . Canadian Home Builders Association . Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute . Gypsum Manufacturers of Canada . Owens-Corning Canada . Roxul Inc.

V. K. R. Sultan; M. A. Denham; V. K. R. Kodur; M. A. Sultan; E. M. A. Denham; Canadian Wood Council; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the State of Louisiana. In addition, because the origin of material purchased from in-state suppliers cannot of the development of buying or manufacturing cooperatives that could create purchasing and sales/marketing leverage Secondary Wood Product Manufacturers Number of Employees by Establishment (Percent of respondent companies

429

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic-free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers ’ Association. These include acid copper chromate (ACC), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), copper azole (CBA-A and CA-B), copper citrate (CC), copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), and copper HDO (CX-A). All of these CCA alternatives rely on copper as their primary biocide, although some have co-biocides to help prevent attack by copper-tolerant fungi. They have appearance and handling properties similar to CCA and are likely to be readily accepted by consumers. Prior studies indicate that these CCA alternatives release preservative components into the environment at a rate greater than or equal to that of CCA, but because these components have lower mammalian toxicity they are less likely to cause concern in residential applications. As the treated wood industry evolves it is probable that a wider range of types and retentions of wood preservatives will become available, with the treatment more closely tailored to a specific type of construction application.

Stan Lebow

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Vlosky 2002 #12;s The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 or 4, so furniture for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect-free, flat and smooth surface

435

Scattering of Woods-Saxon Potential in Schrodinger Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scattering solutions of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential are obtained within the position-dependent mass formalism. The wave functions, transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in terms of Heun's function. These results are also studied for the constant mass case in detail.

Altug Arda; Oktay Aydogdu; Ramazan Sever

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

436

Mitigation for the Endangered Wood Stork on Savannah River Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wood stork is a recently classified federally endangered species. The species forages throughout the facility. The facility impact was mitigated by replacing the affected area with artificially created impoundment. Studies conducted in conjunction with the mitigation have assisted with the recovery effort for this species.

Bryan, A.L.; Coulter, M.C.; Brisbin, I.L.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

439

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

440

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatm