National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquor red liquor

  1. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  2. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  3. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  5. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  14. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  15. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  17. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  18. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  19. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  20. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  1. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  2. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  3. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  4. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  5. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  6. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction The present invention provides for a composition comprising a solution comprising (a) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase and (b) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises a sugar and a boronic acid. The present invention also provides for a method

  7. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  8. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  9. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  10. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  11. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  12. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  13. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  14. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

  15. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  16. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

    1994-12-31

    During this quarterly period, an experimental investigation was performed to study the precipitation kinetics and hydrolysis characteristics of calcium imido disulfonate crystals (CaADS). The CaADS crystals were precipitated by a metathetical reaction of lime, supplied by Dravo Lime Co., with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber waste liquor. Before approaching for the continuous Double Draw-Off (DDO) crystallization studies, the influence of a Dravo lime slurry on the precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds will be established. A series of N-S compound batch crystallization studies were completed in a wide range of pH (7.0--9.0), and the influence of pH on the amount of lime required, as well as the amount of precipitate obtained, was investigated. Although the amount of precipitate increased with increase in solution pH, the safe or optimum pH for the precipitation of CaADS lies in the vicinity of 8.2 to 8.3. For studying the crystallization characteristics of CaADS crystals, a bench scale 7.0 liter DDO crystallizer was built. DDO crystallizer is found to be superior compared to Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The precipitated crystals were analyzed for elemental composition by chemical analysis. The crystals were also examined under optical microscope for their morphological features. The present studies confirmed our prediction that N-S compounds in the waste liquor can be precipitated by a reaction with lime slurry. The precipitated crystals were mostly calcium imido disulfonate.

  17. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Precipitation and hydrolysis of the N-S compounds in the waste scrubbing liquor provided by Dravo Lime Co. was investigated. Precipitation of N-S compounds by a metathetical reaction with potassium sulfate was performed in continuous crystallizers. A preliminary operation showed that compared to a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer, the Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer was superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 173 {mu}m to 218 {mu}m. However, the hydrolysis characteristics of the precipitated crystals were not dependent upon crystallizer type. A brief description of a new process which uses lime/limestone for precipitation of N-S compounds in the scrubbing liquor is presented. Preliminary investigations showed the lime/limestone process is efficient in precipitating N-S compounds and the precipitated crystals were shown to be more easily hydrolyzed than potassium salts of N-S compounds. This lime/limestone process is a novel process which seems better than the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process because one does not need to purchase/introduce a new chemical additive to precipitate in the lime/limestone Fe-EDTA wet scrubbing processes. Up to the present, the authors focused on developing the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process following their original proposal. However, the new lime/limestone process seems more advantageous in terms of economy and environmental safety. Therefore, it seems desirable changing research phase and putting an emphasis on the development of the lime/limestone process. Future study will include investigation of the DDO crystallizer operation to increase the size of precipitated crystals and thus to enhance their processibility. This study seems to be essential to the new lime/limestone process since the precipitated crystals are relatively small in size and thus poor in filterability.

  18. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  19. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  20. Role of vanadium(V) in the aging of the organic phase in the extraction of uranium(VI) by Alamine 336 from acidic sulfate leach liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.

    2008-07-01

    The present work is focussed on the chemical degradation of Alamine 336-tridecanol-n-dodecane solvent which used in the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction. Degradation occurs due to the presence of vanadium(V), an oxidant, in the feed solution. After a brief overview of the chemistry of vanadium, the kinetics of degradation of the solvent when contacted with acidic sulfate leach liquor was investigated and interpreted by the Michelis-Menten mechanism. GCMS analyses evidenced the presence of tridecanoic acid and dioctylamine as degradation products. A mechanism of degradation is discussed. (authors)

  1. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  2. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  3. Definition:Black Liquor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    into paper pulp removing lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibers. View in Wikipedia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM CARBONATE LEACH LIQUORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.F.

    1958-07-01

    An improved process is described for the recovery of uranium from vanadifrous ores. In the prior art such ores have been digested with alkali carbonate solutions at a pH of less than 10 and then contacted with a strong base anion exchange resin to separate uranium from vanadium. It has been found that if the exchamge resin feed solution has its pH adjusted to the range 10.8 to 11.8, that vanadium adsorption on the resin is markedly decreased and the separation of uranium from the vanadium is thereby improved.

  5. Big Island Demonstration Project – Black Liquor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  6. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  7. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Livermore, CA (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  8. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  9. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  10. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Timothy Charles R.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2015-10-13

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a solution comprising (a) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase and (b) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises a sugar and a boronic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of removing a sugar from a solution, comprising: (a) providing a solution comprising (i) an IL or ILA phase and (ii) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises an IL, a sugar and a boronic acid; (b) contacting the sugar with the boronic acid to form a sugar-boronic acid complex, (c) separating the organic phase and the aqueous phase, wherein the organic phase contains the sugar-boronic acid complex, and optionally (d) separating the sugar from the organic phase.

  11. Energy-saving regeneration of hydrochloric acid pickling liquor: NICE3 steel project fact sheet (NICE3 2000 award winners)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-06-19

    This is a fact sheet written for the NICE3 [National Industrial Competititveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics] Program on a new process for reusing hydrochloric acid from steel pickling operations.

  12. Red Lake Weatherization Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is located at Red Lake Housing Authority Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians Red Lake , MN Red Lake Band of Chippewas Area overview Reservation (Diminished Lands) and Surroundings ...

  13. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  14. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  15. Red Sky

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration Red Cross honors LLNL as biggest blood donor west of Mississippi Thursday, April 2, 2015 - 3:19pm For more than 22 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has consistently ranked as the top blood donor west of the Mississippi River, according to the American Red Cross. The Red Cross honored LLNL this week with a special award for its volunteer efforts and the number of lives saved as a result. Since Laboratory employees began donating through the

  16. Red | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Red Red Arm Amputation Due to Explosion - University of Hawaii Lessons Learned Read more about Arm Amputation Due to Explosion - University of Hawaii Lessons Learned 2015 LL Chemical Explosion Causes Eye Injury 6-11-15 Read more about 2015 LL Chemical Explosion Causes Eye Injury 6-11-15 12-14-1999 - Sodium Potassium (NaK) Reaction Results in Personnel Injuries Read more about 12-14-1999 - Sodium Potassium (NaK) Reaction Results in Personnel Injuries 11-23-1998 - Update of Type A Investigation of

  17. Walmart Red Bluff | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Walmart Red Bluff Jump to: navigation, search Name Walmart Red Bluff Facility Walmart Red Bluff Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  18. Red Mesa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mesa Jump to: navigation, search Name Red Mesa Facility Red Mesa Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources...

  19. Red Canyon Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canyon Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Red Canyon Wind Farm Facility Red Canyon Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  20. CX-100138 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-100138 Categorical Exclusion Determination Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials ... a chemically resistant and anti-fouling coating for low-cost Weak Black Liquor (WBL) ...

  1. Biomass Resources and Technology Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Steam & Acid Liquor Solids Lime Gypsum 2 nd Stage PT Fermentation Distillation & Ethanol ... Liquid & Solid Fertilizer Co- products Animal, Industrial, Municipal Residues Complete mix ...

  2. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    central thermal fluid system. 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 Multi-effect falling-film evaporators for black liquor evaporation and concentration Part F - SPECIFIC...

  3. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  4. highlights.html

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1997 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  5. Highlights.doc

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... petroleum gases. d Includes geothermal, solar, wind, wood, waste, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 2000 are estimates. f Balancing item, ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... petroleum gases. d Includes geothermal, solar, wind, wood, waste, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 2000 are estimates. f Balancing item, ...

  7. highlights.PDF

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1997 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  8. feb88.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1997 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  9. high

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1998 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  10. highlightsx.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1998 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  11. stm0399.PDF

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1997 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  12. hghlts.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1996 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  13. upd0997.PDF

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1996 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  14. jun01

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... petroleum gases. d Includes geothermal, solar, wind, wood, waste, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 2000 are estimates. f Balancing item, ...

  15. upd1297.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1996 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  16. newhigh

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1998 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  17. upd0897.PDF

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1996 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  18. high

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1999 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  19. highlights.html

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1998 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  20. upd1197.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1996 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  1. hghlts.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... wood, waste, nuclear, hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals and spent sulfite liquor. e Data for 1997 are estimates. f Balancing item, mainly transmission and distribution losses. ...

  2. FORM EIA-846(F)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    packing materials, etc.) Pulping or black liquor Waste oils and tars Biomass Hydrogen Other combustible energy sources: (List separately), K? Census use only sv(2) 216...

  3. Red Power Energy Documentary Premiere

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by the Indigenous Film & Arts Festival, the documentary film Red Power Energy, told from the Native perspective, presents a portrait of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources on American Indian lands in five states and examines the challenges involved in balancing economic development interests and cultural and environmental concerns.

  4. Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars WHEN: Jun 18, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New ...

  5. Red River Biodiesel Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red River Biodiesel, Ltd. Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77006 Product: Red River operates a biodiesel plant in Houstion, Texas with a capacity of...

  6. Red Sun Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Sun Energy Place: Long An Province, Vietnam Product: A Vietnam-based PV module manufacturer References: Red Sun Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  7. Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars Science On Tap - Red Wine and Mars WHEN: Jun 18, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New...

  8. Red Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hills Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Red Hills Wind Farm Facility Red Hills Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  9. ORISE Faculty Research Experiences: Dr. Eddie Red

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eddie Red Professor Makes Important Connections through Research Experience Dr. Eddie Red In ORNL's Chemical Sciences Division, Dr. Eddie Red of Morehouse College studies nanotube characteristics-technology that could impact future solar cells, as well as battery and fuel cells. Eddie C. Red, Ph.D., has longed to set up a functional research laboratory for the training and development of under-represented minorities in physics and engineering at Morehouse College, where he is a professor.

  10. Thor's Hammer/Red Storm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Camp & Jim Tomkins The Design Specification and Initial Implementation of the Red Storm Architecture --in partnership with Cray, Inc. William J. Camp & James L. Tomkins CCIM, Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM bill@sandia.gov Our rubric Mission critical engineering & science applications Large systems with a few processors per node Message passing paradigm Balanced architecture Use commodity wherever possible Efficient systems software Emphasis on scalability &

  11. Redding, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Redding, Connecticut: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.3025955, -73.3834532 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  12. Redding Electric - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    REU for Commercial Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Redding Electric Utility Website http:www2.reupower.comrebates.asp State California Program Type Rebate...

  13. RESOURCE ENERGY DATA - The RED Book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Page i Bonneville Power Administration Conservation RESOURCE ENERGY DATA (The RED Book) INTRODUCTION On December 5, 1980, the 96 th Congress passed the Pacific Northwest...

  14. EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA | Department of Energy 2: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA June 1, 2010 EA-1692: Final Environmental Assessment Construction and Start-Up of an Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility in Red River Parish, Louisiana June 11, 2010 EA-1692: Finding of No Significant Impact Red

  15. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  16. Sigurd Red Butte No2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sigurd Red Butte No2 Jump to: navigation, search NEPA Document Collection for: Sigurd Red Butte No2 EIS for NA Sigurd to Red Butte No. 2 345kV Transmission Project General NEPA...

  17. Los Alamos laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface Los Alamos laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface The ChemCam laser characterization instrument was developed at LANL and ...

  18. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) A fact sheet detailling a proposal of ...

  19. Energy Secretary Bodman Tours Alabama Red Cross Facility and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tours Alabama Red Cross Facility and Attends National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Service with Governor Riley Energy Secretary Bodman Tours Alabama Red Cross Facility and Attends ...

  20. Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd RED | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Ltd RED Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd (RED) Place: Edinburgh, United Kingdom Zip: EH1 2DP Sector: Biomass, Hydro, Wind energy...

  1. U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability June 27,...

  2. Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  3. Town of Red Springs, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Town of Red Springs, North Carolina (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Springs...

  4. T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...

  5. MHK Technologies/RED HAWK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RED HAWK < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage RED HAWK.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Natural Currents Energy Services...

  6. Red River Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Red River Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Red River Hot...

  7. Renewable Energies Development RED 2002 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development RED 2002 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energies Development (RED) 2002 Place: Rome, Italy Zip: 142 Product: PV systems integrator. Coordinates:...

  8. City of Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Cloud Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402-746-2215 Website: www.redcloudnebraska.comgover...

  9. City of Redding, California (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Redding, California (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Redding Place: California Phone Number: 530.245.7000 Website: www.reupower.com Outage...

  10. EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    red_leaf_18215.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project

  11. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  12. Redding Electric- Renewable Energy Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Earth Advantage Rebate Program was designed to offer rebates to residential and business customers of Redding Electric Utility (REU) for solar PV, solar thermal, and geothermal heat pump...

  13. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinge, Dennis C.; Davis, Michael E.; Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  14. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  15. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  16. ASCI Red for dummies : a recipe book for easy use of the ASCI Red platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Quinlan, Gerald F.; Miller, Joel D.; Sault, Allen G.; McAllister, Paula L.

    2003-11-01

    It has been recognized that documentation for new customers of ASCI Red, aka janus or the Intel Teraflops at Sandia National Laboratories, has been sadly lacking. This document has been prepared by a team of subject matter experts to fill that void and to provide a starting point for providing a similar document for ASCI Red Storm in the future. This document is intended for SNL users who need to jumpstart their use of Janus and Janus-s.

  17. ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial Goals This tutorial is intended to be a hands-on resource ... Data set for ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial File Open Icon Load Multi-component Dataset ...

  18. Red Lake Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Lake Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Lake Electric Coop, Inc Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 218-253-2168 or 800-245-6068 Website: www.redlakeelectric.c...

  19. V-198: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Python Certificate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Python Certificate Validation Flaw Lets Remote Users Conduct Man-in-the-Middle Attacks V-198: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Python...

  20. Red River Valley Coop Pwr Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red River Valley Coop Pwr Assn Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red River Valley Coop Pwr Assn Place: Minnesota Website: www.rrvcoop.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.comRRVCPA...

  1. Suzhou Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suzhou Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co Place: Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215400 Sector: Wind energy Product: Jiangsu...

  2. Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor ...

  3. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  4. redMaGiC. Selecting Luminous Red Galaxies from the DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozo, E.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ? [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (?z=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5? outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  5. CX-004710: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highly Energy Efficient Directed-Green Liquor PulpingCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 12/14/2010Location(s): ColoradoOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. ...

  7. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utility(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Gas","Gas","Highway Usage)","Hydrogen","Kerosene","Black Liquor","NGL(d)","Total","Utility(b)","Local Utility(c)","Total","...

  8. Microcrystallization techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray diffraction data are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nano- or microcrystals of biomolecules in their mother liquor using high-energy, X-ray free-electron lasers. ...

  9. Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Than Mall) Definition Buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food. Sub Categories retail store; beer, wine, or liquor store; rental center; dealership or...

  10. Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass Material...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 14.6 Sample size: 50-200 g 14.7 Sample storage: Store slurry and liquor samples in the refrigerator in sealed containers so the volatile component concentration remains consistent. ...

  11. Saccrifical Protective Coating Materials that can be Regenerated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... with environmental stability (pH 13-14, Temperature >80C), achieved April 30, 2015: Demonstrate black liquor treatment process for >3 days with <20% drop in total flux ...

  12. Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Notable examples of byproduct fuels include the use of black liquor and wood byproducts in ... represent a genuine distribution of energy use and losses across the sector as a whole. ...

  13. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  14. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  15. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Peter Malati, Rahul Ganguli and Vivek Mehrotra Teledyne Scientific Company U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Pulp and Paper Mill Currently, energy-intensive evaporators * Separate water from Weak Black Liquor (WBL) for reuse * Resulting strong black liquor burned in recovery unit  Develop membrane filtration for

  16. Saccrifical Protective Coating Materials that can be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High Performance and Low Cost Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peter Malati, Rahul Ganguli and Vivek Mehrotra Teledyne Scientific Company U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Pulp and Paper Mill Currently, energy-intensive evaporators * Separate water from Weak Black Liquor (WBL) for reuse * Resulting strong black liquor burned in recovery unit  Develop membrane filtration for

  17. Red Cliffs Campground, Cedar City District, Utah | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This photograph shows the field station at Red Cliffs Campground in Utah's Cedar City District. Photovoltaic power systems allow the people working in these remote areas to have ...

  18. Kevin Redding | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ana Moore Anne Jones Devens Gust Don Seo Giovanna Ghirlanda Hao Yan James Allen Kevin Redding Petra Fromme Thomas Moore Yan Liu Kevin Redding Associate Director of the Center Principal Investigator Phone: 480-965-0136 Fax: 480-965-2747 E-mail: kevin.redding@asu.edu Associate Professor Kevin Redding contributes to the EFRC in the area of management as an Associate Director of the Center. As a Principal Investigator of the Center he is primarily focussed on the area of EPR analysis of the

  19. Redbird Red Habitat for Humanity Net Zero Energy Home Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Redbird Red Habitat for Humanity Net Zero Energy Home Project Summary The Illinois State University team incorporated Habitat for Humanity's goals and constraints during the design ...

  20. Microsoft Word - RED_Book_FY08_FINAL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Page i Bonneville Power Administration Conservation RESOURCE ENERGY DATA (The RED Book) INTRODUCTION On December 5, 1980, the 96 th Congress passed the Pacific Northwest...

  1. Red Bank, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Red Bank, NJ) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.3470543, -74.0643065 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  2. Redding Electric- Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Redding Electric Utility offers a variety of financial incentives for energy efficiency through its Residential and Commercial Rebate Programs. Rebates are for weatherization measures, HVAC...

  3. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments ...

  4. T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update September ... Technical Notes for Red Hat Enterprise MRG Addthis Related Articles T-712: Red Hat ...

  5. U-159: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain Remote Users Bypass Authentication U-159: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain Remote Users Bypass...

  6. V-163: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Inter-Satellite Sync...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Inter-Satellite Sync Remote Authentication Bypass V-163: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Inter-Satellite Sync Remote Authentication Bypass May...

  7. The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences with Multi-core...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences with Multi-core Processors The Red Storm architecture, which was conceived by Sandia ...

  8. Red River Parish, Louisiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red River Parish is a county in Louisiana. Its FIPS County Code is 081. It is classified as...

  9. Red Bank, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Bank is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey. It falls under New Jersey's 6th...

  10. Red River Valley Rrl Elec Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elec Assn Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red River Valley Rrl Elec Assn Place: Oklahoma Phone Number: 1-800-749-3364 or 580-564-1800 Website: www.rrvrea.com Twitter:...

  11. Red River County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red River County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 387. It is classified as...

  12. Red Feather Lakes, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Feather Lakes is a census-designated place in Larimer County, Colorado.1 References...

  13. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  14. Red Willow County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Willow County is a county in Nebraska. Its FIPS County Code is 145. It is classified as...

  15. City of Red Bud, Illinois (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bud, Illinois (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Bud City of Place: Illinois Phone Number: 618.282.3339 or 618.282.2315 Website: www.cityofredbud.orgdepartmen...

  16. Red Mesa, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Mesa is a census-designated place in Apache County, Arizona.1 References US...

  17. Red Hill, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Hill is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. It falls under Pennsylvania's...

  18. Red Lake County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Lake County is a county in Minnesota. Its FIPS County Code is 125. It is classified as...

  19. Microsoft Word - RED_Book_FY11_FINAL without cover

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Conservation Resource Energy Data The RED Book Fiscal Year 2011 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ......

  20. Red Butte, Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Butte is a census-designated place in Natrona County, Wyoming. It falls under Wyoming's...

  1. Red Bank, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Bank is a city in Hamilton County, Tennessee. It falls under Tennessee's 3rd...

  2. Red Cliff, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Cliff is a town in Eagle County, Colorado. It falls under Colorado's 2nd congressional...

  3. Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

  4. EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 1, 2010 EA-1692: Final Environmental Assessment Construction and Start-Up of an ... Red River Environmental Products, LLC, Construction and Start-up of an Activated Carbon ...

  5. Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system. This report is based on the Statement of Work (SOW) describing the various requirements for delivering 3 new supercomputer system to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. This

  6. Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift Authors: Piatkevich, Kiryl D. ; English, Brian P. ; Malashkevich, Vladimir N. ; Xiao, Hui ; Almo, Steven C. ; Singer, Robert H. ; Verkhusha, Vladislav V. [1] ; HHMI) [2] ; Helsinki) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (Einstein) ( Publication Date: 2014-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1163388 Resource Type:

  7. Red Storm usage model :Version 1.12.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, Karen L.; Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2005-12-01

    Red Storm is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The Red Storm Usage Model (RSUM) documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY05 Tri-Lab Level II Limited Availability Red Storm User Environment Milestone and the FY05 SNL Level II Limited Availability Red Storm Platform Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and SNL. Additionally, the Red Storm Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the Tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the ASC community and have been updated in FY05 to reflect the community's needs. For each section of the RSUM, Appendix I maps the ACE requirements to the Limited Availability User Environment capabilities and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met in that particular section. The Red Storm Usage Model, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and vetted throughout the Tri-Lab community.

  8. Assessment of Biomass Energy Opportunities for the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Haase

    2005-09-30

    Assessment of biomass energy and biobased product manufacturing opportunities for the Red Lake Tribe.

  9. T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service.

  10. Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water

  11. V-138: Red Hat update for icedtea-web | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Red Hat update for icedtea-web V-138: Red Hat update for icedtea-web April 19, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat has issued an update for icedtea-web PLATFORM: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop 6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node 6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation 6 ABSTRACT: This fixes two vulnerabilities, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA53109 RHSA-2013:0753-1

  12. PREPARATION OF UO$sub 2$ FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL PELLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for preparing high-density UO/sub 2/ compacts. An aqueous uranyl fluoride solution is contacted with an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution at an ammonium to-uranium ratio of 25: 1 to 30:1 to form a precipitate. The precipitate is separated from the- mother liquor, dried, and contacted with steam at a uniform temperature within the range of 400 to 650 deg C to produce U/ sub 3/O/sub 8/. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is red uced to UO/sub 2/ with hydrogen at a uniform temperature within the range of 550 to 600 deg C. The UO/sub 2/ is then compressed into compacts and sintered. High-density compacts are fabricated to close tolerances without use of a binder and without machining or grinding. (AEC)

  13. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  14. American Red Cross Blood Drive Hanford Health and Safety Exposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Red Cross Blood Drive Hanford Health and Safety Exposition 6600 Burden Blvd. - TRAC Center Tuesday,May13,2014 10:00 AM - 3:00 PM To schedule your appointment go online to www.redcrossblood.org/make- donation, enter EXPO for sponsor code and follow further instructions. redcrossblood.org I 1-800-RED CROSS (1-800 - 733-2767) [!] ........ Use your smartphone to scan the OR code at left, or go to redcrossblood .org/social to follow us on Facebook and Twitter. Identif ication is requ ired to don ate.

  15. Method for determining properties of red blood cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for quantifying the concentration of hemoglobin in a cell, and indicia of anemia, comprises determining the wavelength of the longitudinal mode of a liquid in a laser microcavity; determining the wavelength of the fundamental transverse mode of a red blood cell in the liquid in the laser microcavity; and determining if the cell is anemic from the difference between the wavelength of the longitudinal mode and the fundamental transverse mode. In addition to measuring hemoglobin, the invention includes a method using intracavity laser spectroscopy to measure the change in spectra as a function of time for measuring the influx of water into a red blood cell and the cell's subsequent rupture.

  16. New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengliang; He, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Jishou; Gong, Menglian

    2010-02-15

    New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

  17. RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of oil shale reserves, unique oil extraction issues, novel approach for cost-effective extraction PDF icon deer08_patten.pdf More Documents & Publications Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil Shale Research in the United States EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image

  18. Magnetic braking of stellar cores in red giants and supergiants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeder, André; Meynet, Georges E-mail: georges.meynet@unige.ch

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic configurations, stable on the long term, appear to exist in various evolutionary phases, from main-sequence stars to white dwarfs and neutron stars. The large-scale ordered nature of these fields, often approximately dipolar, and their scaling according to the flux conservation scenario favor a fossil field model. We make some first estimates of the magnetic coupling between the stellar cores and the outer layers in red giants and supergiants. Analytical expressions of the truncation radius of the field coupling are established for a convective envelope and for a rotating radiative zone with horizontal turbulence. The timescales of the internal exchanges of angular momentum are considered. Numerical estimates are made on the basis of recent model grids. The direct magnetic coupling of the core to the extended convective envelope of red giants and supergiants appears unlikely. However, we find that the intermediate radiative zone is fully coupled to the core during the He-burning and later phases. This coupling is able to produce a strong spin down of the core of red giants and supergiants, also leading to relatively slowly rotating stellar remnants such as white dwarfs and pulsars. Some angular momentum is also transferred to the outer convective envelope of red giants and supergiants during the He-burning phase and later.

  19. EVMS Training Snippet: 5.7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report EVMS Training Snippet: 5.7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project...

  20. DOE Tour of Zero: The Greenbank Red House (Leganza) by Clifton...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenbank Red House (Leganza) by Clifton View Homes DOE Tour of Zero: The Greenbank Red House (Leganza) by Clifton View Homes Addthis 1 of 6 This is a certified U.S. DOE Zero...

  1. AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site ...

  2. T-563: Red Hat Directory Server Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    server and command line utilities for server administration. Addthis Related Articles T-671: Red Hat system-config-firewall Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges V-041: Red Hat...

  3. U-156: Red Hat update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 56: Red Hat update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform U-156: Red Hat update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform April 26, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform PLATFORM: JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform 5.x ABSTRACT: Update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform Reference Links: Secunia Advisory SA48954 CVE-2011-4314 CVE-2012-0818 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: Red Hat has issued an update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform. This

  4. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, located in the northwest corner of Minnesota near the Canadian border, will assess the potential to expand the use of biomass resources for energy autonomy and economic development on tribal lands. Specifically, the tribe will evaluate the technical, market, financial, and cultural aspects of using its extensive, forested lands to create a sustainable bioproducts-based business and will develop a business plan to guide tribal industry development.

  5. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  6. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  7. T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    update | Department of Energy 12: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update September 8, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis PROBLEM: A flaw was discovered in Cumin where it would log broker authentication credentials to the Cumin log file. A vulnerability was reported in Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid. A local user can access the broker password. PLATFORM: Red Hat Enterprise MRG v2 for Red Hat

  8. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges. | Department of Energy RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal's core technology is the ability to understand the access control of the network as a whole - not simply the behavior of a single device. RedSeal analyzes the interactions of firewalls,

  9. T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    update | Department of Energy 12: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update September 8, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis PROBLEM: A flaw was discovered in Cumin where it would log broker authentication credentials to the Cumin log file. A vulnerability was reported in Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid. A local user can access the broker password. PLATFORM: Red Hat Enterprise MRG v2 for Red Hat

  10. Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.

    1995-12-19

    A method is disclosed using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is utilized for stabilizing hemoglobin in red blood cells to be stored at low temperature. Changes observed in the stored cells are similar to those found in normal red cell aging in the body, the extent thereof being directly related to the duration of refrigerated storage. Changes in cell buoyant density, vesiculation, and the tendency of stored cells to bind autologous IgG antibody directed against polymerized band 3 IgG, all of which are related to red blood cell senescence and increase with refrigerated storage time, have been substantially slowed when red blood cells are treated with CO. Removal of the carbon monoxide from the red blood cells is readily and efficiently accomplished by photolysis in the presence of oxygen so that the stored red blood cells may be safely transfused into a recipient. 5 figs.

  11. Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is utilized for stabilizing hemoglobin in red blood cells to be stored at low temperature. Changes observed in the stored cells are similar to those found in normal red cell aging in the body, the extent thereof being directly related to the duration of refrigerated storage. Changes in cell buoyant density, vesiculation, and the tendency of stored cells to bind autologous IgG antibody directed against polymerized band 3 IgG, all of which are related to red blood cell senescence and increase with refrigerated storage time, have been substantially slowed when red blood cells are treated with CO. Removal of the carbon monoxide from the red blood cells is readily and efficiently accomplished by photolysis in the presence of oxygen so that the stored red blood cells may be safely transfused into a recipient.

  12. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  13. Apparatus for control of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  14. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0

  15. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 *

  16. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  17. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  18. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with pac addition. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the viscous floating mass of mixed liquor solids (VFMLS), (2) generate additional research data for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process, (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity, and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settling characteristics of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units, and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins were operated.

  19. table3.6_02

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. S e l e c t e d W o o d a n d W o o d - R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s B i o m a s s Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and RSE NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e)

  20. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  1. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 60% of the 1,621 housing units on the reservation lack adequate insulation, ventilation, and efficient and safe furnaces and appliances. The project will achieve the following objectives: (1) to enhance tribal member energy expertise for reducing tribal energy consumption and for implementing energy efficiency measures, (2) to increase the tribe's capacity to secure additional funding for energy conservation, including state-sponsored investments, and (3) to create significant energy savings in tribal homes and promote economic and environmental opportunities to sustain Red Lake.

  2. WHAT DOES CLUSTERING TELL US ABOUT THE BUILDUP OF THE RED SEQUENCE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze the clustering of red and blue galaxies from four samples spanning a redshift range of 0.4 < z < 2.0 to test the various scenarios by which galaxies evolve onto the red sequence. The data are taken from the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey, DEEP2, and COMBO-17. The use of clustering allows us to determine what fraction of the red sequence is made up of central galaxies and satellite galaxies. At all redshifts, including z = 0, the data are consistent with {approx}60% of satellite galaxies being red or quenched, implying that {approx}1/3 of the red sequence is comprised of satellite galaxies. More than three-fourths of red satellite galaxies were moved to the red sequence after they were accreted onto a larger halo. The constant fraction of satellite galaxies that are red yields a quenching time for satellite galaxies that depends on redshift in the same way as halo dynamical times: t{sub Q} {approx} (1 + z){sup -1.5}. In three of the four samples, the data favor a model in which red central galaxies are a random sample of all central galaxies; there is no preferred halo mass scale at which galaxies make the transition from star-forming to red and dead. The large errors on the fourth sample inhibit any conclusions. Theoretical models in which star formation is quenched above a critical halo mass are excluded by these data. A scenario in which mergers create red central galaxies imparts a weaker correlation between halo mass and central galaxy color, but even the merger scenario creates tension with red galaxy clustering at redshifts above 0.5. These results suggest that the mechanism by which central galaxies become red evolves from z = 0.5 to z = 0.

  3. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  4. Department of Energy Offers $245 Million Conditional Loan Guarantee to Red

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    River Environmental Products | Department of Energy 45 Million Conditional Loan Guarantee to Red River Environmental Products Department of Energy Offers $245 Million Conditional Loan Guarantee to Red River Environmental Products December 9, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the offer of a $245 million conditional loan guarantee to Red River Environmental Products, LLC to build an activated carbon (AC) manufacturing facility near Coushatta,

  5. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E; Ustinov, V D

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  7. The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences with Multi-core Processors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect with Multi-core Processors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences with Multi-core Processors The Red Storm architecture, which was conceived by Sandia National Laboratories and implemented by Cray, Inc., has become the basis for most successful line of commercial supercomputers in history. The success of the Red Storm architecture is due largely to the ability to effectively and efficiently solve a wide

  8. V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities December 6, 2012 - 4:01am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: CloudForms ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in Red Hat CloudForms REFERENCE LINKS: RHSA-2012-1542-1 RHSA-2012-1543-1 Secunia Advisory SA51472 CVE-2012-1986 CVE-2012-1987 CVE-2012-1988 CVE-2012-2139 CVE-2012-2140 CVE-2012-2660 CVE-2012-2661 CVE-2012-2694 CVE-2012-2695 CVE-2012-3424

  9. V-233: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse V-233: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse September 3, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat has issued an update for JBoss Fuse PLATFORM: Red Hat JBoss Fuse 6.x ABSTRACT: This fixes multiple vulnerabilities, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions and cause a DoS. REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA54683 Redhat Advisory RHSA-2013:1185-1 CVE-2013-0269 CVE-2013-1768 CVE-2013-1821 CVE-2013-2160 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium

  10. U-159: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain Remote Users Bypass Authentication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging. A remote user can access cluster messages and view the internal configuration.

  11. Microsoft Word - Pu Disposition Red Team Report.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Final Report of the Plutonium Disposition Red Team Date: 13 August 2015 Oak Ridge, Tennessee Thom Mason, Chair This r eport w as p repared a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored b y a n a gency o f t he U nited S tates Government. N either t he U nited S tates G overnment n or any a gency t hereof, n or a ny o f t heir employees, m akes a ny w arranty, e xpress o r i mplied, o r a ssumes a ny l egal l iability o r responsibility f or t he a ccuracy, c ompleteness, o r u sefulness o f a ny i

  12. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  13. Red-emitting manganese-doped aluminum nitride phosphor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Harvey, Nicholas M.; Aberg, Daniel; Seeley, Zachary M.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Tran, Ich C.; Zhou, Fei; Martinez, H. Paul; Demeyer, Jessica M.; et al

    2016-02-10

    Here, we report high efficiency luminescence with a manganese-doped aluminum nitride red-emitting phosphor under 254 nm excitation, as well as its excellent lumen maintenance in fluorescent lamp conditions, making it a candidate replacement for the widely deployed europium-doped yttria red phosphor. Solid-state reaction of aluminum nitride powders with manganese metal at 1900 °C, 10 atm N2 in a reducing environment results in nitrogen deficiency, as revealed diffuse reflectance spectra. When these powders are subsequently annealed in flowing nitrogen at 1650 °C, higher nitrogen content is recovered, resulting in white powders. Silicon was added to samples as an oxygen getter tomore » improve emission efficiency. NEXAFS spectra and DFT calculations indicate that the Mn dopant is divalent. From DFT calculations, the UV absorption band is proposed to be due to an aluminum vacancy coupled with oxygen impurity dopants, and Mn2+ is assumed to be closely associated with this site. In contrast with some previous reports, we find that the highest quantum efficiency with 254 nm excitation (Q.E. = 0.86 ± 0.14) is obtained in aluminum nitride with a low manganese doping level of 0.06 mol.%. The principal Mn2+ decay of 1.25 ms is assigned to non-interacting Mn sites, while additional components in the microsecond range appear with higher Mn doping, consistent with Mn clustering and resultant exchange coupling. Slower components are present in samples with low Mn doping, as well as strong afterglow, assigned to trapping on shallow traps followed by detrapping and subsequent trapping on Mn.« less

  14. Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with [sup 99]Tc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1992-05-26

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  15. Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with .sup.9 TC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium.

  16. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    2011-03-22

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  17. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    1990-01-01

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  18. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  19. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  20. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  1. RED CLUMP STARS IN THE SAGITTARIUS TIDAL STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2012-07-15

    We have probed a section (l {approx} 150, b {approx} -60) of the trailing tidal arm of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy by identifying a sample of Red Clump (RC) stream stars. RC stars are not generally found in the halo field, but are found in significant numbers in both the Sagittarius galaxy and its tidal streams, making them excellent probes of stream characteristics. Our target sample was selected using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6, which was constrained in color to match the Sagittarius RC stars. Spectroscopic observations of the target stars were conducted at Kitt Peak National Observatory using the WIYN telescope. The resulting spectroscopic sample is magnitude limited and contains both main-sequence disk stars and evolved RC stars. We have developed a method to systematically separate these two stellar classes using kinematic information and a Bayesian approach for surface gravity determination. The resulting RC sample allows us to determine an absolute stellar density of {rho} = 2.7 {+-} 0.5 RC stars kpc{sup -3} at this location in the stream. Future measurements of stellar densities for a variety of populations and at various locations along the streams will lead to a much improved understanding of the original nature of the Sagittarius galaxy and the physical processes controlling its disruption and subsequent stream generation.

  2. DISCOVERY OF SUPER-Li-RICH RED GIANTS IN DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Fu, Xiaoting; Deng, Licai; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-06-10

    Stars destroy lithium (Li) in their normal evolution. The convective envelopes of evolved red giants reach temperatures of millions of kelvin, hot enough for the {sup 7}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 4}He reaction to burn Li efficiently. Only about 1% of first-ascent red giants more luminous than the luminosity function bump in the red giant branch exhibit A(Li) > 1.5. Nonetheless, Li-rich red giants do exist. We present 15 Li-rich red giants-14 of which are new discoveries-among a sample of 2054 red giants in Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of low-mass, metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -0.7) Li-rich red giants, and it includes the most-metal-poor Li-enhanced star known ([Fe/H] = -2.82, A(Li){sub NLTE} = 3.15). Because most of the stars have Li abundances larger than the universe's primordial value, the Li in these stars must have been created rather than saved from destruction. These Li-rich stars appear like other stars in the same galaxies in every measurable regard other than Li abundance. We consider the possibility that Li enrichment is a universal phase of evolution that affects all stars, and it seems rare only because it is brief.

  3. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  4. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  5. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  6. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment for Homes and Businesses | Department of Energy Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses January 24, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis EERE Success Story—Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses While solar panels, inverters and other hardware are more affordable than ever before (the average cost of solar PV panels has

  7. Microsoft Word - RedSeal_Smart Grid Policy Logistics RFI-sd.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Smart Grid RFI RedSeal Systems, Inc. 1 October 29, 2010 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability US Department of Energy Room 8H033 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Re: Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges" 75 FR 57006 [FR Doc. 2010-23251] From: Steve Dauber Vice-President, Marketing RedSeal Systems 2121 South El Camino Real, Suite 300 San Mateo, CA 94403 Ph: 650-645-6209 sdauber@redseal.net www.redseal.net RedSeal

  8. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-04-29

    A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

  9. Red Cross honors LLNL as biggest blood donor west of Mississippi...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Red Cross honors LLNL as biggest blood donor west of Mississippi Thursday, April 2, 2015 - 3:19pm For more than 22 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has ...

  10. Microsoft Word - RedSeal_Smart Grid Policy Logistics RFI-sd.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From: Steve Dauber Vice-President, Marketing RedSeal Systems 2121 South El Camino ... increase the number and availability of digital access points for hackers to cause harm ...

  11. EVOLUTION OF GROUP GALAXIES FROM THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, I. H.; Yee, H. K. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Gladders, M. E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: gladders@oddjob.uchicago.edu

    2012-04-20

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f{sub red}) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 {<=} z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the 'probability friends-of-friends' algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z {approx} 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z {approx}> 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f{sub red} than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f{sub red} by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M{sub *}), total group stellar mass (M{sub *,grp}, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r{sub grp}), and local galaxy density ({Sigma}{sub 5}). We find that M{sub *} is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f{sub red} and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f{sub red} on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M{sub *}. Massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) show little dependence of f{sub red} on r{sub grp}, M{sub *,grp}, and {Sigma}{sub 5} over the redshift range. The dependence of f{sub red} on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun }. We observe an apparent 'group down-sizing' effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f{sub red}. We find a dependence of f{sub red} on both r{sub grp} and {Sigma}{sub 5} after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r{sub grp}, there is a significant dependence of f{sub red} on {Sigma}{sub 5}, while r{sub grp} gradients of f{sub red} are seen for galaxies in similar {Sigma}{sub 5} regions. This indicates that galaxy group environment has a residual effect over that of local galaxy density (or vice versa), and both parameters need to be considered. This result suggests that processes identified with local galaxy density, such as galaxy harassment and mergers, and those associated with accretion into a larger group halo, such as ram pressure and strangulation, are both partaking in driving galaxies to their final red quiescent state. We discuss these results in the context of the 'nature versus nurture' scenario of galaxy evolution.

  12. The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences With Multi-Core...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    With Multi-Core Processors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences With Multi-Core Processors Authors: Tomkins, James L 1 ; ...

  13. Energy Department Invests $12 Million to Slash Red Tape and Speed Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment for Homes and Businesses | Department of Energy 12 Million to Slash Red Tape and Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses Energy Department Invests $12 Million to Slash Red Tape and Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses November 6, 2013 - 8:30am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to ensure America's continued leadership in clean energy and double renewable electricity generation once again by 2020,

  14. Red-Emitting Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Red-Emitting Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (851 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed red-emitting phosphors that will help to transform the cold blue of many current light-emitting diodes

  15. EVMS Training Snippet: 5.7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report EVMS Training Snippet: 5.7 PARSII Analysis: OAPM Red Yellow Report This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) is one in a series regarding PARS II Analysis reports. PARS II offers direct insight into EVM project data from the contractor's internal systems. The reports were developed with the users in mind, organized and presented in an easy to follow manner, with analysis results and key

  16. SUPERNOVA 2008bk AND ITS RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mailcode 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Davidge, Tim J., E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

    2012-01-15

    We have obtained limited photometric and spectroscopic data for supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, primarily at {approx}> 150 days after explosion. We find that it is a Type II-Plateau (II-P) SN that most closely resembles the low-luminosity SN 1999br in NGC 4900. Given the overall similarity between the observed light curves and colors of SNe 2008bk and 1999br, we infer that the total visual extinction to SN 2008bk (A{sub V} = 0.065 mag) must be almost entirely due to the Galactic foreground, similar to what has been assumed for SN 1999br. We confirm the identification of the putative red supergiant (RSG) progenitor star of the SN in high-quality g'r'i' images we had obtained in 2007 at the Gemini-South 8 m telescope. Little ambiguity exists in this progenitor identification, qualifying it as the best example to date, next to the identification of the star Sk -69 Degree-Sign 202 as the progenitor of SN 1987A. From a combination of photometry of the Gemini images with that of archival, pre-SN, Very Large Telescope JHK{sub s} images, we derive an accurate observed spectral energy distribution (SED) for the progenitor. We find from nebular strong-intensity emission-line indices for several H II regions near the SN that the metallicity in the environment is likely subsolar (Z Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Z{sub Sun }). The observed SED of the star agrees quite well with synthetic SEDs obtained from model RSG atmospheres with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 50 K. We find, therefore, that the star had a bolometric luminosity with respect to the Sun of log (L{sub bol}/L{sub Sun} ) = 4.57 {+-} 0.06 and radius R{sub *} = 496 {+-} 34 R{sub Sun} at {approx}6 months prior to explosion. Comparing the progenitor's properties with theoretical massive-star evolutionary models, we conclude that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass in the range of 8-8.5 M{sub Sun }. This mass is consistent with, albeit at the low end of, the inferred range of initial masses for SN II-P progenitors. It is also consistent with the estimated upper limit on the initial mass of the progenitor of SN 1999br, and it agrees with the low initial masses found for the RSG progenitors of other low-luminosity SNe II-P.

  17. Anomalously Large Polarization Effect Responsible for Excitonic Red Shifts in PbSe Quantum Dot Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Wolcott; V Doyeux; C Nelson; R Gearba; K Lei; K Yager; A dolocan; K Williams; D Nguyen; X Zhu

    2011-12-31

    The formation of solid thin films from colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is often accompanied by red shifts in excitonic transitions, but the mechanisms responsible for the red shifts are under debate. We quantitatively address this issue using optical absorption spectroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of PbSe QDs with controlled inter-QD distance, which was determined by the length of alkanedithiol linking molecules. With decreasing inter-QD distance, the first and second exciton absorption peaks show increasing red shifts. Using thin films consisting of large and isolated QDs embedded in a matrix of small QDs, we determine that a dominant contribution to the observed red shift is due to changes in polarization of the dielectric environment surrounding each QD ({approx}88%), while electronic or transition dipole coupling plays a lesser role. However, the observed red shifts are more than 1 order of magnitude larger than theoretical predictions based on the dielectric polarization effect for spherical QDs. We attribute this anomalously large polarization effect to deviations of the exciton wave functions from eigenfunctions of the idealized spherical quantum well model.

  18. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-10

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  19. Tracing recent star formation of red early-type galaxies out to z ? 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Im, Myungshin; Le Borgne, Damien; Elbaz, David

    2014-08-20

    We study the mid-infrared (IR) excess emission of early-type galaxies (ETGs) on the red sequence at z < 1 using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fields of Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the mass-limited sample of 1025 galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} and 0.4 < z < 1.05, we identify 696 Spitzer 24 ?m detected (above the 5?) galaxies and find them to have a wide range of NUV-r and r-[12 ?m] colors despite their red optical u r colors. Even in the sample of very massive ETGs on the red sequence with M {sub star} > 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ?}, more than 18% show excess emission over the photospheric emission in the mid-IR. The combination with the results of red ETGs in the local universe suggests that the recent star formation is not rare among quiescent, red ETGs at least out to z ? 1 if the mid-IR excess emission results from intermediate-age stars or/and from low-level ongoing star formation. Our color-color diagram including near-UV and mid-IR emissions are efficient not only for identifying ETGs with recent star formation, but also for distinguishing quiescent galaxies from dusty star-forming galaxies.

  20. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians - First Steps Toward an Energy Efficient Future and MAP Biomass Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OVERVIEW To develop the capacity to conduct energy audits Implement energy efficiency measures into Tribal homes Develop a Tribally administered Energy Efficiency Program and business PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Red Lake Housing Employees Energy Cents Coalition Staff Red Lake Band Members RELEVANT BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians recognizes the need to develop a more sustainable, affordable and autonomous energy future for Tribal members Nearly 60% of the 1,621 housing units

  1. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-01-01

    Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

  2. U-217: Red Hat Certificate System Bugs Let Remote Users Conduct Cross-Site Scripting and Denial of Service Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two vulnerabilities were reported in Red Hat Certificate System. A remote user can conduct cross-site scripting attacks. A remote authenticated user can revoke the CA certificate.

  3. U-230: Sudo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux %postun Symlink Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An updated sudo package that fixes one security issue and several bugs is now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.

  4. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  5. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  6. redMaPPer. I. Algorithm and SDSS DR8 catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Reddick, R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Busha, M. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Finoguenov, A.; Evrard, A.; Koester, B. P.; Hao, J.; Nord, B.; Leauthaud, A.; Pierre, M.; Sadibekova, T.; Sheldon, E. S.

    2014-04-20

    We describe redMaPPer, a new red sequence cluster finder specifically designed to make optimal use of ongoing and near-future large photometric surveys. The algorithm has multiple attractive features: (1) it can iteratively self-train the red sequence model based on a minimal spectroscopic training sample, an important feature for high-redshift surveys. (2) It can handle complex masks with varying depth. (3) It produces cluster-appropriate random points to enable large-scale structure studies. (4) All clusters are assigned a full redshift probability distribution P(z). (5) Similarly, clusters can have multiple candidate central galaxies, each with corresponding centering probabilities. (6) The algorithm is parallel and numerically efficient: it can run a Dark Energy Survey-like catalog in ?500 CPU hours. (7) The algorithm exhibits excellent photometric redshift performance, the richness estimates are tightly correlated with external mass proxies, and the completeness and purity of the corresponding catalogs are superb. We apply the redMaPPer algorithm to ?10, 000 deg{sup 2} of SDSS DR8 data and present the resulting catalog of ?25,000 clusters over the redshift range z in [0.08, 0.55]. The redMaPPer photometric redshifts are nearly Gaussian, with a scatter ? {sub z} ? 0.006 at z ? 0.1, increasing to ? {sub z} ? 0.02 at z ? 0.5 due to increased photometric noise near the survey limit. The median value for |?z|/(1 + z) for the full sample is 0.006. The incidence of projection effects is low (?5%). Detailed performance comparisons of the redMaPPer DR8 cluster catalog to X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogs are presented in a companion paper.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  8. Crystallographic study of red fluorescent protein eqFP578 and its far-red variant Katushka reveals opposite pH-induced isomerization of chromophore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Shemiakina, Irina I.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Artemyev, Igor; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei (Russ. Acad. Sci.); (SAIC); (NCI)

    2012-08-10

    The wild type red fluorescent protein eqFP578 (from sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor, {lambda}{sub ex} = 552 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 578 nm) and its bright far-red fluorescent variant Katushka ({lambda}{sub ex} = 588 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 635 nm) are characterized by the pronounced pH dependence of their fluorescence. The crystal structures of eqFP578f (eqFP578 with two point mutations improving the protein folding) and Katushka have been determined at the resolution ranging from 1.15 to 1.85 {angstrom} at two pH values, corresponding to low and high level of fluorescence. The observed extinguishing of fluorescence upon reducing pH in eqFP578f and Katushka has been shown to be accompanied by the opposite trans-cis and cis-trans chromophore isomerization, respectively. Asn143, Ser158, His197 and Ser143, Leu174, and Arg197 have been shown to stabilize the respective trans and cis fluorescent states of the chromophores in eqFP578f and Katushka at higher pH. The cis state has been suggested as being primarily responsible for the observed far-red shift of the emission maximum of Katushka relative to that of eqFP578f.

  9. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  10. Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs What does this project do? The 22 teams will implement step-by-step actions throughout the next year to standardize solar permitting processes, update planning and zoning codes, improve standards for connecting solar power to the electric grid, and increase access to financing. Up to 40

  11. Red & Black Ball raises nearly $82,000 for youth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Red & Black Ball raises $81,000 for youth Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Red & Black Ball raises nearly $82,000 for youth The Family YMCA receives windfall for Española and Los Alamos teen centers. April 4, 2016 From left: LANL Government Affairs Office Director Patrick Woehrle, LANL Community Programs Office Director Kathy Keith, Laboratory Director Charles McMillan,

  12. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization - KVM-based infrastructure services at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortijo, D.

    2011-06-14

    Over the past 18 months, BNL has moved a large percentage of its Linux-based servers and services into a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) environment. This presentation will address our approach to virtualization, critical decision points, and a discussion of our implementation. Specific topics will include an overview of hardware and software requirements, networking, and storage; discussion of the decision of Red Hat solution over competing products (VMWare, Xen, etc); details on some of the features of RHEV - both current and on their roadmap; Review of performance and reliability gains since deployment completion; path forward for RHEV at BNL and caveats and potential problems.

  13. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2015-06-23

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  14. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Suoyuan; School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 ; Tsang, Chi Him A.; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Wong, Ningbew; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  15. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Mosser, Benoit

    2013-03-10

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 1.8) helium-core-burning red clump, and the higher-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  16. MULTI-EPOCH OBSERVATIONS OF THE RED WING EXCESS IN THE SPECTRUM OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punsly, Brian E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-01-10

    It has been previously determined that there is a highly significant correlation between the spectral index from 10 GHz to 1350 A and the amount of excess luminosity in the red wing of quasar C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission lines (BELs). Ostensibly, the prominence of the red excess is associated with the radio jet emission mechanism and is most pronounced for lines of sight close to the jet axis. Studying the scant significant differences in the UV spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars might provide vital clues to the origin of the unknown process that creates powerful relativistic jets that appear in only about 10% of quasars. In this study, the phenomenon is explored with multi-epoch observations of the Mg II {lambda}2798 broad line in 3C 279 which has one of the largest known red wing excesses in a quasar spectrum. The amount of excess that is detected appears to be independent of all directly observed optical continuum, radio, or submillimeter properties (fluxes or polarizations). The only trend that occurs in this sparse data is: the stronger the BEL, the larger the fraction of flux that resides in the red wing. It is concluded that more monitoring is needed and spectropolarimetry with a large telescope is essential during low states to understand more.

  17. Using red clump stars to decompose the galactic magnetic field with distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    A new method for measuring the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field is presented. The Galactic magnetic field has been probed through the Galactic disk with near-infrared starlight polarimetry; however, the distance to each background star is unknown. Using red clump stars as near-infrared standard candles, this work presents the first attempt to decompose the line-of-sight structure of the sky-projected Galactic magnetic field. Two example lines of sight are decomposed: toward a field with many red clump stars and toward a field with few red clump stars. A continuous estimate of magnetic field orientation over several kiloparsecs of distance is possible in the field with many red clump stars, while only discrete estimates are possible in the sparse example. Toward the outer Galaxy, there is a continuous field orientation with distance that shows evidence of perturbation by the Galactic warp. Toward the inner Galaxy, evidence for a large-scale change in the magnetic field geometry is consistent with models of magnetic field reversals, independently derived from Faraday rotation studies. A photo-polarimetric method for identifying candidate intrinsically polarized stars is also presented. The future application of this method to large regions of the sky will begin the process of mapping the Galactic magnetic field in a way never before possible.

  18. May 12 EXPO Event Schedule 8:00-11:00 Red Cross Blood Drive Bloodmobil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 12 EXPO Event Schedule 8:00-11:00 Red Cross Blood Drive Bloodmobile 10:00 & 3:30 Vehicle Accident Demo Arena 5:00-6:30 Bike Rodeo Arena May 13 EXPO Event Schedule 7:30-9:00 MSA...

  19. Surface activity and oscillation amplitudes of red giants in eclipsing binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J.; Appourchaux, T.; Mosser, B.

    2014-04-10

    Among the 19 red-giant stars belonging to eclipsing binary systems that have been identified in Kepler data, 15 display solar-like oscillations. We study whether the absence of mode detection in the remaining 4 is an observational bias or possibly evidence of mode damping that originates from tidal interactions. A careful analysis of the corresponding Kepler light curves shows that modes with amplitudes that are usually observed in red giants would have been detected if they were present. We observe that mode depletion is strongly associated with short-period systems, in which stellar radii account for 16%-24% of the semi-major axis, and where red-giant surface activity is detected. We suggest that when the rotational and orbital periods synchronize in close binaries, the red-giant component is spun up, so that a dynamo mechanism starts and generates a magnetic field, leading to observable stellar activity. Pressure modes would then be damped as acoustic waves dissipate in these fields.

  20. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R. E-mail: peter.wood@anu.edu.au

    2014-12-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  1. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  2. Infra-red detector and method of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, Richard A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    2007-02-20

    A low-cost infra-red detector is disclosed including a method of making and using the same. The detector employs a substrate, a filtering layer, a converting layer, and a diverter to be responsive to wavelengths up to about 1600 nm. The detector is useful for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, imaging, and defect detection.

  3. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with TC-99M

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  4. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1988-07-05

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available for the reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  5. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. POPULATION EFFECTS ON THE V- AND I-BAND MAGNITUDES OF RED CLUMP STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Gorski, Marek; Udalski, Andrzej; Ciechanowska, Anna; Laney, David E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: cdl@saao.ac.z

    2010-10-15

    We present measurements of the V- and I-band magnitudes of red clump stars in 15 nearby galaxies obtained from recently published homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometry. Supplementing these results with similar data for another eight galaxies available in the literature, the populational effects on the V- and I-band magnitudes of red clump stars were investigated. Comparing red clump magnitudes with the I-band magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch in a total sample of 23 galaxies possessing very different environments, we demonstrate that population effects strongly affect both the V- and I-band magnitude of red clump stars in a complex way. Our empirical results basically confirm the theoretical results of Girardi and Salaris, and show that optical (V - I) photometry of red clump stars is not an accurate method for the determination of distances to nearby galaxies at the present moment, as long as the population effects are not better calibrated, both empirically and theoretically. Near-infrared photometry is a much better way to measure galaxy distances with red clump stars given its smaller sensitivity to population effects.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - SAND2005-2351C_RedStormEarlyExperiences [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Early Experience with Red Storm April 19, 2005 Sue Kelly and Bob Ballance Sandia National Laboratories smkelly@sandia.gov, 505-845-9770 Outline of Talk * Overview of Red Storm * Where we are * How we got here * Where we're going * What we learned Red Storm is a Massively Parallel Processor Users

  7. A LITHIUM-RICH RED GIANT BELOW THE CLUMP IN THE KEPLER CLUSTER, NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Rich, Evan; Twarog, Bruce A.; Deliyannis, Constantine P. E-mail: evan66210@gmail.com E-mail: con@astro.indiana.edu

    2013-04-10

    WIYN/HYDRA spectra in the Li 6708 A region have been obtained for 332 probable members of the old open cluster, NGC 6819. Preliminary analysis shows a pattern of Li depletion from the top of the turnoff to the base of the giant branch. Starting 1 mag below the level of the clump, all brighter giants have A(Li) below 1.0, with most having upper limits below 0.5. Star W007017, located below the first-ascent red giant bump is Li-rich with A(Li) = 2.3. As a highly probable single-star astrometric and radial-velocity cluster member, its discrepant asteroseismic membership could be a by-product of the processes that triggered Li enhancement. Its color-magnitude diagram location is consistent with only one proposed enhanced mixing process among first-ascent red giants.

  8. Impact of P and T on geological repositories an overview of the EURATOM red impact project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westlen, Daniel; Norris, Simon; Gonzalez-Romero, Enrique M.; Greneche, Dominique; Boucher, Lionel; Marivoet, Jan; Zimmerman, Colin; von Lensa, Werner

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission project Red Impact is in a state of conclusion after three years. Within the project, the consequences of P and T on, mainly, geological disposal have been investigated. Six scenarios have been developed, including three considered to be deployable today, and three more advanced scenarios including P and T in different ways. The scenarios all have different strengths and weaknesses, which are discussed in the present paper. (authors)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mufti, Nandang Atma, T. Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  10. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians: Biomass Energy Feasiblity Study Update

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Health and Bioenergy: Technology Opportunities and Barriers Scott Haase McNeil Technologies June 20, 2003 Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians: Biomass Energy Feasibility Study Update Presented to DOE Tribal Energy Program Scott Haase October 19, 2004 * Project overview * Resource assessment * Assess on-site electric and thermal applications * Assess local/regional utility market * Economic analysis * Alternative products Presentation Outline * Evaluate and determine potential options for creating

  11. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  12. Project Reports for Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, located in the northwest corner of Minnesota near the Canadian border, will assess the potential to expand the use of biomass resources for energy autonomy and economic development on tribal lands. Specifically, the tribe will evaluate the technical, market, financial, and cultural aspects of using its extensive, forested lands to create a sustainable bioproducts-based business and will develop a business plan to guide tribal industry development.

  13. The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences With Multi-Core Processors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect With Multi-Core Processors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Red Storm Architecture and Early Experiences With Multi-Core Processors Authors: Tomkins, James L [1] ; Brightwell, Ron [1] ; Camp, William J [1] ; Dosanjh, Sudip [1] ; Kelly, Suzanne M [1] ; Lin, Paul T. [1] ; Vaughan, Courtenay T. [1] ; Levesque, John [2] ; Tipparaju, Vinod [3] + Show Author Affiliations Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Cray, Inc. ORNL Publication Date:

  14. A z ? 5.7 Ly? emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Infante, Leopoldo E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl

    2014-03-20

    Using the Ly? emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Ly? emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Ly? photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Ly? radiative transfer predict asymmetric Ly? line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ? 5.7 Ly? emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup 1} relative to the peak of Ly? line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (?500 km s{sup 1}) of a typical halo mass of z ? 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  15. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  16. Red emission phosphor for real-time skin dosimeter for fluoroscopy and interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masaaki Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: There are no effective real-time direct skin dosimeters for interventional radiology. Such a scintillation dosimeter would be available if there was a suitable red emission phosphor in the medical x-ray range, since the silicon photodiode is a highly efficient device for red light. However, it is unknown whether there is a suitable red emission phosphor. The purpose of this study is to find a suitable red emission phosphor that can be used in x-ray dosimeters. Methods: Five kinds of phosphors which emit red light when irradiated with electron beams or ultraviolet rays in practical devices were chosen. For the brightness measurement, phosphor was put into transparent plastic cells or coated onto plastic sheets. The phosphors were irradiated with medical range x-rays [60120 kV(peak), maximum dose rate of 160 mGy min{sup ?1}], and the emission was measured by a luminance meter. Several characteristics, such as brightness, dose rate dependence, tube voltage dependence, and brightness stability, were investigated. Results: The luminescence of Y V O{sub 4}:Eu, (Y,Gd,Eu) BO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu significantly deteriorated by 5%10% when irradiated with continuous 2 Gy x-rays. The 0.5MgF{sub 2}?3.5MgO?GeO{sub 2}:Mn phosphor did not emit enough. Only the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor had hardly any brightness deterioration, and it had a linear relationship so that the x-ray dose rate could be determined from the brightness with sufficient accuracy. For the tube voltage dependence of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor, the brightness per unit dose rate with 120 kV(peak) x-rays was 30% higher than that with 60 kV(peak) x-rays. Conclusions: Five kinds of phosphors were chosen as an x-ray scintillator for a real-time direct skin dosimeter. The Y V O{sub 4}:Eu, (Y,Gd,Eu)BO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu phosphors had brightness deterioration caused by the x-rays. Only the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor had hardly any brightness deterioration, and it is a candidate for an x-ray scintillator for such a skin dosimeter.

  17. T-563: Red Hat Directory Server Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges and Remote and Local Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several vulnerabilities were reported in Red Hat Directory Server. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions. A local user can cause denial of service conditions.

  18. Effects of storage on irradiated red blood cells: An in-vitro and in-vivo study. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, S.E.

    1991-08-01

    Irradiation of red blood cell units has recently become a topic of special concern as the result of increasing reports of graft versus host disease in immunocompetent blood transfusion recipients. This study was designed to evaluate the potassium elevations observed in stored irradiated red blood cells and to evaluate the in vivo survival of stored irradiated red blood cells using a dog model. In the in vitro study ten units of human CPDA-1 packed red blood cells were made into paired aliquots; one aliquot of each pair was irradiated with 3000 rads of gamma radiation and the potassium content measured at points throughout 35 days of storage. A significant increase in potassium levels in the irradiated aliquots was observed from the first day after irradiation and continued through the entire storage period.

  19. THE MID-INFRARED AND NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET EXCESS EMISSIONS OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES ON THE RED SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2013-04-10

    We study the mid-infrared (IR) and near-ultraviolet (UV) excess emissions of spectroscopically selected quiescent galaxies on the optical red sequence. We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR and Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-UV data for a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the possible connection between quiescent red-sequence galaxies with and without mid-IR/near-UV excess. Among 648 12 {mu}m detected quiescent red-sequence galaxies without H{alpha} emission, 26% and 55% show near-UV and mid-IR excess emissions, respectively. When we consider only bright (M{sub r} < -21.5) galaxies with an early-type morphology, the fraction of galaxies with recent star formation is still 39%. The quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions are optically fainter and have slightly smaller D{sub n} 4000 than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions. We also find that mid-IR weighted mean stellar ages of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR excess are larger than those with near-UV excess, and smaller than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess. The environmental dependence of the fraction of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess seems strong even though the trends of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess differ from those with mid-IR excess. These results indicate that the recent star formation traced by near-UV ({approx}< 1 Gyr) and mid-IR ({approx}< 2 Gyr) excess is not negligible among nearby, quiescent, red, early-type galaxies. We suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of quiescent red-sequence galaxies from quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess to those with mid-IR excess to those without near-UV and mid-IR excess.

  20. RED GIANTS IN ECLIPSING BINARY AND MULTIPLE-STAR SYSTEMS: MODELING AND ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 70 CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-04-10

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a {delta}-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many of the candidate systems are encouraged. The resulting highly constrained stellar parameters will allow, for example, the exploration of how binary tidal interactions affect pulsations when compared to the single-star case.

  1. Gold and palladium adsorption from leached electronic scrap using ordered mesoporous carbon nanoscaffolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanoscaffolds are engineered agglomerates of carbon nanotubes held together by small carbon nanofibers with uniform pore sizes, high pore volume, and high channel permeability. These materials exhibit very high affinity for the adsorption of gold from aqueous acidic mixtures. The efficiency of gold recovery is comparable to those typically accomplished using biopolymer-based adsorbents. The adsorption efficiency for other precious metals such as palladium and platinum is lower. Studies on the precious metal (Au, Pd) adsorption on OMC materials from actual liquors of leached electronics will be presented. Adsorption properties will be compared for several different sorbents used for the recovery of precious metals. The leach liquor compositions for three different types of electronic scrap materials (personal computer board, cell phone and tv input/output board) will be presented. The sorption efficiencies for Au, Pd, together with a spectrum of competing and non-competing metals, from such leach mixtures will be compared.

  2. Value recovery from spent alumina-base catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyatt, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A process for the recovery of aluminum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from a spent hydrogenation catalyst comprising (1) adding about 1 to 3 parts H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to each part of spent catalyst in a reaction zone of about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. under sulfide gas pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (2) separating the resultant Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3 solution from the sulfide precipitate in the mixture, (3) oxidizing the remaining sulfide precipitate as an aqueous slurry at about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (4) separating the slurry to obtain solid molybdic acid and a sulfate liquor containing said at least one metal, and (5) recovering said at least one metal from the sulfate liquor in marketable form.

  3. Ogaden Basin subsidence history: Another key to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden tectonic puzzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigott, J.D.; Neese, D.; Carsten, G.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work has attempted to understand the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden region through a focus upon plate kinematics and reconstruction of plate interactions in a two dimensional sense. A significant complement to the three dimensional puzzle can be derived from a critical examination of the vertical component, tectonic subsidence analysis. By removing the isostatic contributions of sediment loading and unloading, and fluctuations in sea level, the remaining thermal-mechanical contribution to a basin`s subsidence can be determined. Such an analysis of several Ogaden Basin wells reveals multiple pulses of tectonic subsidence and uplift which correspond to far-field tectonic activities in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. One of the more dramatic is a Jurassic tectonic pulse circa 145-130 m.a., and a later extensional event which correlates to a major subsidence event ubiquitous through-out the Gulf of Aden, related to Gondwana Land breakup activities. Tectonic uplift during the Tertiary coincides with early Red Sea rifting episodes. Such activities suggest the Ogaden Basin has been a relatively stable East African cratonic basin, but with heating-extension events related to nearby plate interactions. In terms of hydrocarbon generation, the use of steady state present day geothermal gradients, coupled with subsidence analysis shows that potential Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks initiated generation as early as the Jurassic. The generating potential of Paleozoic source rocks would only be exacerbated by later heating events. Furthermore, cooling and tectonic uplift during the Tertiary would tend to arrest on-going hydrocarbon generation for Jurassic source rocks in the Ogaden area.

  4. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  5. OBSERVABLE SIGNATURES OF PLANET ACCRETION IN RED GIANT STARS. I. RAPID ROTATION AND LIGHT ELEMENT REPLENISHMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Majewski, Steven R. E-mail: srm4n@virginia.edu E-mail: cunha@noao.edu

    2012-10-01

    The orbital angular momentum of a close-orbiting giant planet can be sufficiently large that, if transferred to the envelope of the host star during the red giant branch (RGB) evolution, it can spin-up the star's rotation to unusually large speeds. This spin-up mechanism is one possible explanation for the rapid rotators detected among the population of generally slow-rotating red giant stars. These rapid rotators thus comprise a unique stellar sample suitable for searching for signatures of planet accretion in the form of unusual stellar abundances due to the dissemination of the accreted planet in the stellar envelope. In this study, we look for signatures of replenishment in the Li abundances and (to a lesser extent) {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C, which are both normally lowered during RGB evolution. Accurate abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise echelle spectra for samples of both slow and rapid rotator red giant stars. We find that the rapid rotators are on average enriched in lithium compared to the slow rotators, but both groups of stars have identical distributions of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C within our measurement precision. Both of these abundance results are consistent with the accretion of planets of only a few Jupiter masses. We also explore alternative scenarios for understanding the most Li-rich stars in our sample-particularly Li regeneration during various stages of stellar evolution. Finally, we find that our stellar samples show non-standard abundances even at early RGB stages, suggesting that initial protostellar Li abundances and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C may be more variable than originally thought.

  6. Red light-emitting diodes based on InP/GaP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, F.; Lordi, V.; Harris, J.S.; Kostial, H.; Masselink, W.T.

    2005-05-01

    The growth, fabrication, and device characterization of InP quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on GaP are described and discussed. The diode structures are grown on gallium phosphide substrates using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy and the active region of the diode consists of self-assembled InP quantum dots embedded in a GaP matrix. Red electroluminescence originating from direct band-gap emission from the InP quantum dots is observed at low temperatures.With increasing temperature, however, the emission line shifts to the longer wavelength. The emission light is measured to above room temperature.

  7. Red Storm: The Birth of a New Supercomputer. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Storm: The Birth of a New Supercomputer. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Red Storm: The Birth of a New Supercomputer. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tomkins, James L. Publication Date: 2008-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1142434 Report Number(s): SAND2008-6293C 508867 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Cray Technical Workshop held September 24-26, 2008 in Edinburgh, Scotland.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the

  8. Kit for the rapid preparation of .sup.99m Tc red blood cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell; Smith, Terry D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and sample kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc-labeled red blood cells in a closed, sterile system. A partially evacuated tube, containing a freeze-dried stannous citrate formulation with heparin as an anticoagulant, allows whole blood to be automatically drawn from the patient. The radioisotope is added at the end of the labeling sequence to minimize operator exposure. Consistent 97% yields in 20 minutes are obtained with small blood samples. Freeze-dried kits have remained stable after five months.

  9. Project Reports for Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 60% of the 1,621 housing units on the reservation lack adequate insulation, ventilation, and efficient and safe furnaces and appliances. The project will achieve the following objectives: (1) to enhance tribal member energy expertise for reducing tribal energy consumption and for implementing energy efficiency measures, (2) to increase the tribe's capacity to secure additional funding for energy conservation, including state-sponsored investments, and (3) to create significant energy savings in tribal homes and promote economic and environmental opportunities to sustain Red Lake.

  10. RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," ","

  11. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Table 3.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.6;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS","

  12. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","

  13. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","

  14. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  15. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  16. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  17. Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enable High-Performance Membranes | Department of Energy Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes Teledyne Scientific and Imaging - Thousand Oaks, CA A highly durable membrane coating will be developed, optimized, and tested for the pulp and paper industry's black liquor-to-fuel concentration process By eliminating

  18. Pulping wastewater treatment: Aeration processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning plant operations and methods, pilot plant and laboratory tests and results of pulping mill wastewater treatment by aeration. Composition of effluent components including condensates, bleaching effluents, and spent liquor are discussed. Foreign and domestic plant efficiency, performance reports, and cost data are considered. Aerator design, lagoon treatment system upgrading considerations, and environmental aspects are included. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  20. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50?mg/L, natural pH, 0.1?g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  1. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.53.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  2. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Luff

    2002-09-30

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

  3. Method of treating alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Rennick, Robert D. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Savinsky, Martin W. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A method of removing and preferably recovering sulfur values from an alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixture comprising the steps of (1) introducing the mixture in an aqueous medium into a first carbonation zone and reacting the mixture with a gas containing a major amount of CO.sub.2 and a minor amount of H.sub.2 S; (2) introducing the resultant product from step 1 into a stripping zone maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and contacting this product with steam to produce a gaseous mixture, comprising H.sub.2 S and water vapor, and a liquor of reduced sulfide content; (3) introducing the liquor of reduced sulfide content into a second carbonation zone, and reacting the liquor with substantially pure gaseous CO.sub.2 in an amount sufficient to precipitate bicarbonate crystals and produce an offgas containing CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S for use in step 1; (4) recovering the bicarbonate crystals from step 3, and thermally decomposing the crystals to produce an alkaline metal carbonate product and a substantially pure CO.sub.2 offgas for use in step 3.

  4. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  5. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical waste water with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). One technology that was evaluated was powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to an activated-sludge system (PACT*). A viscous floating mass of mixed-liquor solids (VFMLS) developed in the PACT units and resulted in premature termination of the study. The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical waste water using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  7. An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, Jeffrey, R.; Johnston, Peter, A.; Crowder, Larry, B.; Priddy, Jeffrey, A.

    2008-05-31

    An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

  8. The light curve shapes as a key to resolving the origin of long secondary periods in red giant stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soszy?ski, I.; Udalski, A. E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2014-06-10

    We present a study of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment light curves of red giant stars exhibiting long secondary periods (LSPs)an enigmatic phenomenon commonly observed in stars on the upper red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch. We show that the light curves of LSP stars are essentially identical to those of the spotted variables with one dark spot on their photospheres. Such behavior can be explained by the presence of a dusty cloud orbiting the red giant together with a low-mass companion in a close, circular orbit. We argue that the binary scenario is in agreement with most of the observational properties of LSP variables, including non-sinusoidal shapes of their radial velocity curves.

  9. A Lattice Boltzmann Fictitious Domain Method for Modeling Red Blood Cell Deformation and Multiple-Cell Hydrodynamic Interactions in Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xing; Lin, Guang; Zou, Jianfeng; Fedosov, Dmitry A.

    2013-07-20

    To model red blood cell (RBC) deformation in flow, the recently developed LBM-DLM/FD method ([Shi and Lim, 2007)29], derived from the lattice Boltzmann method and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain methodthe fictitious domain method, is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of red blood cell deformation. The flow is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method with an external force, while the network model is used for modeling red blood cell deformation and the fluid-RBC interaction is enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. To validate parameters of the RBC network model, sThe stretching numerical tests on both coarse and fine meshes are performed and compared with the corresponding experimental data to validate the parameters of the RBC network model. In addition, RBC deformation in pipe flow and in shear flow is simulated, revealing the capacity of the current method for modeling RBC deformation in various flows.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF RED SPIRAL GALAXIES ON THE SHAPE OF THE LOCAL K-BAND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonne, Nicolas J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jones, Heath; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2015-02-01

    We have determined K-band luminosity functions for 13,325 local universe galaxies as a function of morphology and color (for K {sub tot} ≤ 10.75). Our sample is drawn from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog, with all sample galaxies having measured morphologies and distances (including 4219 archival redshift-independent distances). The luminosity function for our total sample is in good agreement with previous works, but is relatively smooth at faint magnitudes (due to bulk flow distance corrections). We investigated the differences due to morphological and color selection using 5417 sample galaxies with NASA Sloan Atlas optical colors and find that red spirals comprise 20%-50% of all spirals with –25 ≤ M{sub K}  < –20. Fainter than M{sub K} = –24, red spirals are as common as early types, explaining the different faint end slopes (α = –0.87 and –1.00 for red and early-types, respectively). While we find red spirals comprise more than 50% of all M{sub K}  < –25 spiral galaxies, they do not dominate the bright end of the overall red galaxy luminosity function, which is dominated by early-type galaxies. The brightest red spirals have ongoing star formation and those without are frequently misclassified as early-types. The faintest ones have an appearance and Sérsic indices consistent with faded disks, rather than true bulge-dominated galaxies.

  11. Role of manganese in red long-lasting phosphorescence of manganese-doped diopside for in vivo imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecointre, A.; Bessire, A.; Priolkar, K.R.; Gourier, D.; Wallez, G.; Viana, B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Long-lasting phosphorescence of CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn is studied for bioimaging application. ? CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn yields orange and red luminescence of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively. ? Red Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence spectra. ? Mn mainly substitutes Mg. ? Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} plays the role of hole trap in the persistent luminescence mechanism. - Abstract: Materials with red long-lasting phosphorescence, such as Mn{sup II}-doped diopsides, can be used for small animal in vivo imaging. CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn powders with various amounts of Mn were prepared by solgel to investigate their long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine and near-edge structure and electron paramagnetic resonance showed that manganese is quantitatively introduced in the structure as Mn{sup II}. Most of the Mn doping ions substitute Mg and possess a highly elongated octahedral environment. While photoluminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence spectra show both orange (585 nm) and red (685 nm) {sup 4}T{sub 1} ({sup 4}G) ? {sup 6}A{sub 1} ({sup 6}S) emission of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively, Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} red emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence and thermally stimulated luminescence spectra. These results point to Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} as the preferential hole trap and recombination center in the long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. An intense persistent red emission suitable for in vivo imaging probes is obtained for the highest nominal Mn content (7.5%)

  12. Computational design of a red fluorophore ligase for site-specific protein labeling in living cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Daniel S.; Nivon, Lucas G.; Richter, Florian; Goldman, Peter J.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Richardson, Douglas; Phipps, William S.; Ye, Anne Z.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Drennan, Catherine L.; Baker, David; Ting, Alice Y.

    2014-10-13

    In this study, chemical fluorophores offer tremendous size and photophysical advantages over fluorescent proteins but are much more challenging to target to specific cellular proteins. Here, we used Rosetta-based computation to design a fluorophore ligase that accepts the red dye resorufin, starting from Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase. X-ray crystallography showed that the design closely matched the experimental structure. Resorufin ligase catalyzed the site-specific and covalent attachment of resorufin to various cellular proteins genetically fused to a 13-aa recognition peptide in multiple mammalian cell lines and in primary cultured neurons. We used resorufin ligase to perform superresolution imaging of the intermediate filament protein vimentin by stimulated emission depletion and electron microscopies. This work illustrates the power of Rosetta for major redesign of enzyme specificity and introduces a tool for minimally invasive, highly specific imaging of cellular proteins by both conventional and superresolution microscopies.

  13. Computational design of a red fluorophore ligase for site-specific protein labeling in living cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Daniel S.; Nivon, Lucas G.; Richter, Florian; Goldman, Peter J.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Richardson, Douglas; Phipps, William S.; Ye, Anne Z.; Ellisman, Mark H.; et al

    2014-10-13

    In this study, chemical fluorophores offer tremendous size and photophysical advantages over fluorescent proteins but are much more challenging to target to specific cellular proteins. Here, we used Rosetta-based computation to design a fluorophore ligase that accepts the red dye resorufin, starting from Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase. X-ray crystallography showed that the design closely matched the experimental structure. Resorufin ligase catalyzed the site-specific and covalent attachment of resorufin to various cellular proteins genetically fused to a 13-aa recognition peptide in multiple mammalian cell lines and in primary cultured neurons. We used resorufin ligase to perform superresolution imaging of themore » intermediate filament protein vimentin by stimulated emission depletion and electron microscopies. This work illustrates the power of Rosetta for major redesign of enzyme specificity and introduces a tool for minimally invasive, highly specific imaging of cellular proteins by both conventional and superresolution microscopies.« less

  14. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  15. Surface plasmon polariton assisted red shift in excitonic emission of semiconductor microflowers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parameswaran, Chithra; Warrier, Anita R. Bingi, Jayachandra Vijayan, C.

    2014-10-15

    We report on the study of metal nanoparticle-semiconductor hybrid system composed of ?-indium sulfide (?-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and gold (Au) nanoparticles. ?-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} micron sized flower like structures (?1 ?m) and Au nanoparticles (?10 nm) were synthesized by chemical route. These Au nanoparticles have surface plasmon resonance at ? 520 nm. We study the influence of Au surface plasmon polaritons on the radiative properties of the ?-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} microflowers. As a result of the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons and the excitons there is a red shift ? 50 nm in emission spectrum of hybrid ?-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Au system. Such hybrid systems provide scope for a control on the optical properties of semiconductor microstructures, thus rendering them suitable for specific device applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  16. Continuous sea-floor spreading in Red Sea: an alternative interpretation of magnetic anomaly pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Brecque, J.L.; Zitellini

    1985-04-01

    The magnetic anomaly pattern over the Red Sea can be modeled as a continuous system of sea-floor spreading from the early Miocene to the present by using a timevarying process filter. The half spreading rate is approximately 1 cm/yr (0.4 in./yr) since initial rifting. The parameters that determine the process filter and development of the transition zone are the intrusion parameter (a measure of the dispersion of feeder dikes or horizontal strain about the rift axis), a flow parameter (a measure of the average flow width), and the effusion parameter (a measure of the volcanic effusion and thickness of layer 2). The authors estimate the flow parameter to be 2.7km(1.7 mi) and the intrusion parameter to be 7.5km(4.7 mi) at early rifting. These values suggest that a wide distribution of axial dikes or horizontal strain is the dominant factor in forming the magnetic anomaly pattern. Reduction in the width of the intrusion parameter and the effusion rate as rifting proceeded resulted in focusing of the strain, thinning of layer 2, and formation of the Red Sea deeps. Their modeling suggests that phase 2, or the stratoid phase, began about the time of anomaly 5C or chron C5C approximately 16 Ma. This age is compatible with geologic estimates of the initial rifting at the late Oligocene to early Miocene (Coleman, 1974; Gass, 1977). The opening rate for Africa-Arabia plate motion has remained relatively constant since early rifting although the African margin appears to be accreting faster than the Arabian plate.

  17. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  18. FROM BLUE STAR-FORMING TO RED PASSIVE: GALAXIES IN TRANSITION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Moretti, Alessia; Fritz, Jacopo; Calvi, Rosa; Paccagnella, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting a mass-complete (M {sub *}>10{sup 10.25} M {sub ?}) sample at 0.03red passive late types, and blue star-forming early types. Color fractions depend on mass and only for M {sub *}< 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ?} on environment. The incidence of red galaxies increases with increasing mass, and, for M {sub *}< 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ?}, decreases toward the group outskirts and in binary and single galaxies. The relative abundance of green and blue galaxies is independent of environment and increases monotonically with galaxy mass. We also inspect galaxy structural parameters, star-formation properties, histories, and ages and propose an evolutionary scenario for the different subpopulations. Color transformations are due to a reduction and suppression of the star-formation rate in both bulges and disks that does not noticeably affect galaxy structure. Morphological transitions are linked to an enhanced bulge-to-disk ratio that is due to the removal of the disk, not to an increase of the bulge. Our modeling suggests that green colors might be due to star-formation histories declining with long timescales, as an alternative scenario to the classical ''quenching'' processes. Our results suggest that galaxy transformations in star-formation activity and morphology depend neither on the environment nor on being a satellite or the most massive galaxy of a halo. The only environmental dependence we find is the higher fast quenching efficiency in groups giving origin to poststarburst signatures.

  19. T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red Hat Network (RHN) Satellite and Spacewalk services do not properly validate user-supplied. A remote user can create specially crafted HTML that, when loaded by a target authenticated user, will take actions on the target site acting as the target user.

  20. Studies on reaction runaways for Urex/Purex solvent-nitric acid and red-oil synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    In PUREX/UREX processes for recycling of spent nuclear fuels, 30% TBP solvent is used, This solvent has a small solubility in the aqueous phase. During concentration of the process solutions by an evaporation route, a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid is initiated at above 130 deg. C, leading to rapid pressurization and finally containment failure if proper venting is not provided. Red oil was synthesized for the first time in India, and its physical properties as well as thermodynamic parameters for the reaction were determined. It was experimentally established that the presence of metallic nitrates was not essential for red-oil formation as thought earlier. Various experiments have been completed for single-phase as well as two-phase runs. The most important finding of this work was lowering of the limiting acid concentration from the conventional values. In fact, in these experiments, red oil could be formed even at 2 N aqueous acidity. Thus, safety guidelines based on the classical literature are obsolete. New guidelines for the red-oil-safety are required. (authors)

  1. Neutral red interlinked gold nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid nanomaterial and its application for the detection of NADH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Ida Gupta, Mandakini

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fabricated a nanostructured hybrid material of GNPs/neutral red/MWCNTs. GNPs decorated on MWCNT template by using neutral red as interlinker for first time. Nanocomposite modified electrode employed successfully as sensor for NADH. The electrode has high stability as it does not involve any biological entity. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles/neutral red/MWCNTs was prepared which was used to modify glassy carbon electrode. The prepared nanocomposite was physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential measurement, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR spectroscopy, UVvisible spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization was done using cyclic voltammetry technique. The modified glassy carbon electrode showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution, pH 5.0. The modified electrode has better adhesion over the electrode surface, good stability as no leaching of neutral red based nanocomposite was observed. The oxidation of NADH started at 0.37 V and reached maxima at 0.52 V at the modified electrode surface. So the prepared composite modified electrode can be applied as electrochemical sensor for NADH. The sensitivity and detection limits of the modified glassy carbon electrode were found to be 0.588 ?A/mM and 5 10{sup ?7} at signal to noise ratio 3.

  2. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ∼5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub −0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub −0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub −0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  3. METALLICITY AND KINEMATIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF RED HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS FROM THE SDSS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. K.; Xue, X. X.; Schuster, W. J. E-mail: schuster@astrosen.unam.m

    2010-08-15

    On the basis of a recently derived color-metallicity relation and stellar parameters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 spectroscopic survey, a large sample of red horizontal-branch (RHB) candidates have been selected to serve as standard candles. The metallicity and kinematic distributions of these stars indicate that they mainly originate from the thick-disk and the halo populations. The typical thick disk is characterized by the first group peaking at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.6, V{sub rot} {approx} 170 km s{sup -1} with a vertical scale height around |Z| {approx} 1.2 kpc, while stars with [Fe/H] < -0.9 are dominated by the halo population. Two sub-populations of the halo are suggested by the RHB stars peaking at [Fe/H] {approx} -1.3: one component with V{sub rot} > 0 km s{sup -1} (Halo I) shows a sign of metallicity gradient in the [Fe/H] versus |Z| diagram, while the other with V{sub rot} < 0 km s{sup -1} (Halo II) does not. The Halo I mainly clumps at the inner halo with R < 10 kpc and the Halo II comes both from the inner halo with R < 10 kpc and the outer halo with R > 10 kpc based on the star distribution in the R versus |Z| diagram.

  4. Red giant stars from the Sloan digital sky survey. II. Distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Kefeng; Chen, Yuqin; Carrell, Kenneth; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-10

    We present distance determinations for a large and clean sample of red giant branch stars selected from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The distances are calculated based on both observational cluster fiducials and theoretical isochrones. Distributions of distances from the two methods are very similar with peaks at about 10 kpc and tails extending to more than 70 kpc. We find that distances from the two methods agree well for the majority of the sample stars; though, on average, distances based on isochrones are 10% higher than those based on fiducials. We test the accuracy of our distance determinations using 332 stars from 10 Galactic globular and open clusters. The average relative deviation from the literature cluster distances is 4% for the fiducial-based distances and 8% for the isochrone-based distances, both of which are within the uncertainties. We find that the effective temperature and surface gravity derived from low-resolution spectra are not accurate enough to essentially improve the performance of distance determinations. However, for stars with significant extinction, effective temperature may help to better constrain their distances to some extent. We make our sample stars and their distances available from an online catalog. The catalog comprises 17,941 stars with reasonable distance estimations reaching to more than 70 kpc, which is suitable for the investigation of the formation and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the Galactic halo.

  5. CYANOGEN IN NGC 1851 RED GIANT BRANCH AND ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS: QUADRIMODAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, S. W.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Angelou, G. C.; D'Orazi, V.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.; Martell, S. L.; Grundahl, F.; Sneden, C. E-mail: david.yong@anu.edu.au

    2012-12-10

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R {approx} 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality could be explained by the superposition of two 'normal' bimodal populations. A small sample overlap with an abundance catalog allowed us to tentatively explore the relationship between our CN populations and a range of elemental abundances. We found a striking correlation between CN and [O/Na]. We also found that the four CN peaks may be paired-the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations are needed to confirm the quadrimodality and also the relationship between the subpopulations. We also report CN results for NGC 288 as a comparison. Our relatively large samples of AGB stars show that both clusters have a bias toward CN-weak AGB populations.

  6. Assessment of stormwater impoundments as contaminant hazards to red-winged blackbirds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisemann, J.D.; Spading, D.

    1995-12-31

    Stormwater impoundments, a recent engineering solution to the treatment of stormwater, slow runoff and allow the settling of sediments and associated contaminants. They also provide valuable habitat in urban settings. In this study, the authors used red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to indicate potential contaminant hazards to avian species reared in stormwater impoundments. The authors studied four types of impoundments, grouped by the development in the supplying drainage; residential, commercial and highway development and a reference site with no development. They examined physiological biomarkers of 56, 8-day old nestlings, nesting parameters and foraging location of parent birds, food items delivered to nestlings, water chemistry, and sediments. Biomarker analysis included whole blood analysis for ALAD, blood serum chemistry (i.e., ALT, AST, CK, LDH, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid) and oxidative stress enzymes in liver tissue. Hepatic EROD and brain acetylcholinesterase levels were analyzed to assess exposure to contaminants other than metals. All samples were assayed for heavy metals by atomic absorption. A total of 198 nests were located. Overall nest success was significantly higher at the impoundment with no development in the supplying drainage. Focal parent feeding observations indicated females foraged less often in impoundments in highway locations. Preliminary analyses indicate sediments are not accumulating high metal levels. Serum and hepatic biomarker analyses indicate no statistically significant effects among drainage types.

  7. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  8. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

    2012-08-10

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  9. Color tuning of light-emitting-diodes by modulating the concentration of red-emitting silicon nanocrystal phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barillaro, G. Strambini, L. M.

    2014-03-03

    Luminescent forms of nanostructured silicon have received significant attention in the context of quantum-confined light-emitting devices thanks to size-tunable emission wavelength and high-intensity photoluminescence, as well as natural abundance, low cost, and non-toxicity. Here, we show that red-emitting silicon nanocrystal (SiN) phosphors, obtained by electrochemical erosion of silicon, allow for effectively tuning the color of commercial light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) from blue to violet, magenta, and red, by coating the LED with polydimethylsiloxane encapsulating different SiN concentrations. High reliability of the tuning process, with respect to SiN fabrication and concentration, and excellent stability of the tuning color, with respect to LED bias current, is demonstrated through simultaneous electrical/optical characterization of SiN-modified commercial LEDs, thus envisaging exciting perspectives for silicon nanocrystals in the field of light-emitting applications.

  10. Engineering ESPT Pathways Based on Structural Analysis of LSSmKate Red Fluorescent Proteins with Large Stokes Shift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piatkevich, K.; Malashkevich, V; Almo, S; Verkhusha, V

    2010-01-01

    LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2 are monomeric red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) with large Stokes shifts (LSSs), which allows for efficient separation of absorbance and emission maxima, as well as for excitation with conventional two-photon laser sources. These LSSmKates differ by a single amino acid substitution at position 160 and exhibit absorbance maxima around 460 nm, corresponding to a neutral DsRed-like chromophore. However, excitation at 460 nm leads to fluorescence emission above 600 nm. Structures of LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2, determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.5 {angstrom}, respectively, revealed that the predominant DsRed-chromophore configurations are cis for LSSmKate1 but trans for LSSmKate2. Crystallographic and mutagenesis analyses, as well as isotope and temperature dependences, suggest that an excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) is responsible for the LSSs observed in LSSmKates. Hydrogen bonding between the chromophore hydroxyl and Glu160 in LSSmKate1 and a proton relay involving the chromophore tyrosine hydroxyl, Ser158, and the Asp160 carboxylate in LSSmKate2 represent the putative ESPT pathways. Comparisons with mKeima LSS RFP suggest that similar proton relays could be engineered in other FPs. Accordingly, we mutated positions 158 and 160 in several conventional red-shifted FPs, including mNeptune, mCherry, mStrawberry, mOrange, and mKO, and the resulting FP variants exhibited LSS fluorescence emission in a wide range of wavelengths from 560 to 640 nm. These data suggest that different chromophores formed by distinct tripeptides in different environments can be rationally modified to yield RFPs with novel photochemical properties.

  11. SDSSJ001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.; Fernndez Lajs, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.

    2015-01-10

    SDSSJ001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ?8 s yr{sup ?1}. This indicated that SDSSJ001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (OC) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ? 0.14 M {sub ?}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  12. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov> Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs by Fruit Flies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 Jan 1999 15:30:02 -0600 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov> Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs by Fruit Flies The following Lessons Learned is cleared for public release. John Bickford, Project Hanford Lessons Learned Coordinator (509) 373-7664 http://www.hanford.gov/lessons/sitell/sitehome.htm ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Project Hanford Lessons Learned Title: Contamination Spread Outside of Radiation Control Areas by

  13. Rotational and radial velocities of 1.3-2.2 M {sub ?} red giants in open clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ?1.6M {sub ?} arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  14. Nature of red luminescence band in research-grade ZnO single crystals: A self-activated configurational transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. N.; Xu, S. J. Zheng, C. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Ling, F. C. C.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-07-28

    By implanting Zn{sup +} ions into research-grade intentionally undoped ZnO single crystal for facilitating Zn interstitials (Zn{sub i}) and O vacancies (V{sub O}) which is revealed by precise X-Ray diffraction rocking curves, we observe an apparent broad red luminescence band with a nearly perfect Gaussian lineshape. This red luminescence band has the zero phonon line at ?2.4 eV and shows distinctive lattice temperature dependence which is well interpreted with the configurational coordinate model. It also shows a low kick out thermal energy and small thermal quenching energy. A self-activated optical transition between a shallow donor and the defect center of Zn{sub i}-V{sub O} complex or V{sub Zn}V{sub O} di-vacancies is proposed to be responsible for the red luminescence band. Accompanied with the optical transition, large lattice relaxation simultaneously occurs around the center, as indicated by the generation of multiphonons.

  15. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI. Finally, an appendix provides detail describing the magnitude and spatial extent of the surface shock expected from an underground nuclear explosion. If there is a seismic event or other data to suggest there has been a nuclear explosion in violation of the CTBT, an OSI may be conducted to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred and to gather information which may be useful in identifying the party responsible for conducting the explosion. The OSI must be conducted in the area where the event that triggered the inspection request occurred, and the inspected area must not exceed 1,000 square kilometers, or be more than 50 km on aside (CTBT Protocol, Part II, Paragraphs 2 and 3). One of the guiding principles for an inspection is that it be effective, minimally intrusive, timely, and cost-effective [Hawkins, Feb 1998]. In that context, MSIR is one of several technologies that can be used during an aircraft overflight to identify ground regions of high interest in a timely and cost-effective manner. This allows for an optimized inspection on the ground. The primary purpose for MSIR is to identify artifacts and anomalies that might be associated with a nuclear explosion, and to use the location of those artifacts and anomalies to reduce the search area that must be inspected from the ground. The MSIR measurements can have additional utility. The multi-spectral measurements of the ground can be used for terrain classification, which can aid in geological characterization of the Inspected Area. In conditions of where light smoke or haze is present, long-wave infrared imaging can provide better imaging of the ground than is possible with standard visible imagery.

  16. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  17. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)] [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = 1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ? 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ?< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ?< 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ? 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively ?-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR (AND AGAINST) PROGENITOR BIAS IN THE SIZE GROWTH OF COMPACT RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Stephanie K.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Graves, Genevieve; Damjanov, Ivana; Yan, Renbin; Newman, Jeffrey; Simard, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Most massive, passive galaxies are compact at high redshifts, but similarly compact massive galaxies are rare in the local universe. The most common interpretation of this phenomenon is that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five since redshift z = 2. An alternative explanation is that recently quenched massive galaxies are larger (a {sup p}rogenitor bias{sup )}. In this paper, we explore the importance of progenitor bias by looking for systematic differences in the stellar populations of compact early-type galaxies in the DEEP2 survey as a function of size. Our analysis is based on applying the statistical technique of bootstrap resampling to constrain differences in the median ages of our samples and to begin to characterize the distribution of stellar populations in our co-added spectra. The light-weighted ages of compact early-type galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 1.4 are compared to those of a control sample of larger galaxies at similar redshifts. We find that massive compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of red color and high bulge-to-total ratio are younger than similarly selected larger galaxies, suggesting that size growth in these objects is not driven mainly by progenitor bias, and that individual galaxies grow as their stellar populations age. However, compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of image smoothness and high bulge-to-total ratio are older than a control sample of larger galaxies. Progenitor bias will play a significant role in defining the apparent size changes of early-type galaxies if they are selected on the basis of the smoothness of their light distributions.

  19. X-ray observation of the shocked red supergiant wind of Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Park, Sangwook; Hughes, John P.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2014-07-01

    Cas A is a Galactic supernova remnant whose supernova explosion is observed to be of Type IIb from spectroscopy of its light echo. Having its SN type known, observational constraints on the mass-loss history of Cas A's progenitor can provide crucial information on the final fate of massive stars. In this paper, we study X-ray characteristics of the shocked ambient gas in Cas A using the 1 Ms observation carried out with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and try to constrain the mass-loss history of the progenitor star. We identify thermal emission from the shocked ambient gas along the outer boundary of the remnant. Comparison of measured radial variations of spectroscopic parameters of the shocked ambient gas to the self-similar solutions of Chevalier show that Cas A is expanding into a circumstellar wind rather than into a uniform medium. We estimate a wind density n {sub H} ? 0.9 0.3 cm{sup 3} at the current outer radius of the remnant (?3 pc), which we interpret as a dense slow wind from a red supergiant (RSG) star. Our results suggest that the progenitor star of Cas A had an initial mass around 16 M {sub ?}, and its mass before the explosion was about 5 M {sub ?}, with uncertainties of several tens of percent. Furthermore, the results suggest that, among the mass lost from the progenitor star (?11 M {sub ?}), a significant amount (more than 6 M {sub ?}) could have been via its RSG wind.

  20. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  1. Red giant stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The general field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P. E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained a sample of ?22,000 red giant branch (RGB) stars based on stellar parameters, provided by the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the CH(G)/MgH indices, measured from the included spectra. The Galactic rest-frame velocity of V {sub gsr} versus longitude for the sample shows the existence of several groups of stars from globular clusters and known streams. Excluding these substructures, a sample of ?16,000 RGB stars from the general field is used to investigate the properties of the thick disk, the inner halo, and the outer halo of our Galaxy. The metallicity and rotational velocity distributions are investigated for stars at 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. It is found that the canonical thick disk dominates at 0 kpc < |Z| < 2 kpc and its contribution becomes negligible at |Z| > 3 kpc. The MWTD is present and overlaps with the inner halo at 1 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc. The inner halo starts at 2 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc and becomes the dominated population for 4 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. For halo stars with |Z| > 5 kpc, bimodal metallicity distributions are found for 20 kpc < |Z| < 25 kpc and 35 kpc < RR < 45 kpc, which suggests a dual halo, the inner and the outer halo, as reported in Carollo et al. at low |Z| values. The peak of metallicity for the inner halo is at [Fe/H] ? 1.6 and appears to be at [Fe/H] ? 2.3 for the outer halo. The transition point from the inner to the outer halo is located at |Z| ? 20 kpc and RR ? 35 kpc.

  2. THE RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA 2012aw (PTF12bvh) IN MESSIER 95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mailcode 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V., E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: cenko@berkeley.edu, E-mail: afilippenko@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on the direct detection and characterization of the probable red supergiant (RSG) progenitor of the intermediate-luminosity Type II-Plateau (II-P) supernova (SN) 2012aw in the nearby (10.0 Mpc) spiral galaxy Messier 95 (M95; NGC 3351). We have identified the star in both Hubble Space Telescope images of the host galaxy, obtained 17-18 yr prior to the explosion, and near-infrared ground-based images, obtained 6-12 yr prior to the SN. The luminous supergiant showed evidence for substantial circumstellar dust, manifested as excess line-of-sight extinction. The effective total-to-selective ratio of extinction to the star was R'{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 4.35, which is significantly different from that of diffuse interstellar dust (i.e., R{sub V} = 3.1), and the total extinction to the star was therefore, on average, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 3.1 mag. We find that the observed spectral energy distribution for the progenitor star is consistent with an effective temperature of 3600 K (spectral type M3), and that the star therefore had a bolometric magnitude of -8.29. Through comparison with recent theoretical massive-star evolutionary tracks we can infer that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass 15 {approx}< M{sub ini}(M{sub Sun }) < 20. Interpolating by eye between the available tracks, we surmise that the star had initial mass {approx}17-18 M{sub Sun }. The circumstellar dust around the progenitor must have been destroyed in the explosion, as the visual extinction to the SN is found to be low (A{sub V} = 0.24 mag with R{sub V} = 3.1).

  3. ABUNDANCES OF C, N, Sr, AND Ba ON THE RED GIANT BRANCH OF {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, Laura M.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E. E-mail: gdc@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-05-10

    Abundances relative to iron for carbon, nitrogen, strontium, and barium are presented for 33 stars on the red giant branch (RGB) of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri. They are based on intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data covering the blue spectral region analyzed using spectrum synthesis techniques. The data reveal the existence of a broad range in the abundances of these elements, and a comparison with similar data for main-sequence stars enables insight into the evolutionary history of the cluster. The majority of the RGB stars were found to be depleted in carbon, i.e., [C/Fe] < 0, while [N/Fe] for the same stars shows a range of {approx}1 dex, from [N/Fe] {approx} 0.7 to 1.7 dex. The strontium-to-iron abundance ratios varied from solar to mildly enhanced (0.0 {<=} [Sr/Fe] {<=} 0.8), with [Ba/Fe] generally equal to or greater than [Sr/Fe]. The carbon and nitrogen abundance ratios for the one known CH star in the sample, ROA 279, are [C/Fe] = 0.6 and [N/Fe] = 0.5 dex. Evidence for evolutionary mixing on the RGB is found from the fact that the relative carbon abundances on the main sequence are generally higher than those on the RGB. However, comparison of the RGB and main-sequence samples shows that the upper level of nitrogen enhancement is similar in both sets at [N/Fe] {approx} 2.0 dex. This is most likely the result of primordial rather than evolutionary mixing processes. One RGB star, ROA 276, was found to have Sr and Ba abundance ratios similar to the anomalous Sr-rich main-sequence star S2015448. High-resolution spectra of ROA 276 were obtained with the Magellan Telescope/MIKE spectrograph combination to confirm this result, revealing that ROA 276 is indeed an unusual star. For this star, calculations of the depletion effect, the potential change in surface abundance that results from the increased depth of the convective envelope as a star moves from the main sequence to the RGB, strongly suggest that the observed Sr enhancement in ROA 276 is of primordial origin, rather than originating from a surface accretion event.

  4. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  5. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  6. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.; Harsh, James B.; Gill, Richard; Thomashow, Linda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stacks, Daryl; Letourneau, Melissa; Keller, Chester K.

    2014-01-10

    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months of plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.

  7. Qualification of the Lasentec M600P Particle Size Analyzer and the Red Valve Model 1151 Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JR Bontha; NG Colton; EA Daymo; TD Hylton; CK Bayne; TH May

    2000-01-28

    The Lasentec M600 in-line particle size analyzer was installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 1998 to support retrieval of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Before installation at ORNL, the sensor underwent validation testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Instrument Validation facility. Mechanically, the instrument worked well during validation testing and met all expectations. Operationally, much was learned about optimum ways to display and interpret the data. Slurry samples taken during the in-line tests at PNNL were shipped to the vendor for analysis with a benchtop Lasentec sensor. These experiments were performed to determine if off-line analyses yield particle size distributions similar to those generated by the in-line sensor. It was determined that the Lasentec sensor measures repeatable chord lengths as long as particles are ''presenter'' to the sensor window the same way. After the initial non-radioactive simulant testing at PNNL, the instrument was shipped for radioactive validation and acceptance testing in the Slurry Monitoring Test System (SMTS) connected to the Tank W-9 of the GAATs at ORNL. For all acceptance tests conducted at ORNL, the variation in the chord length distribution and the total particle count corresponded very well with the slurry density data as determined using an in-line Promass 63M Coriolis meter. Based on the performance results obtained, the Lasentec M600P FBRM is expected to meet the requirements for measuring the particle size distribution during the slurry transfer operations at Hanford and the Oak Ridge GAAT remediation project. The Red Valve pressure sensor was endorsed at the Hanford Site following instrument validation tests at PNNL and is currently in operation in the Tank 241-C-106 pump pit. While this instrument measures pressure within a transfer line, this type of pressure sensor could be configured to measure pressure drop over time. In turn, the status of a slurry transfer could be inferred from the pressure-drop measurement. In 1998, four Red Valve pressure sensors (with Sensotech Model AE-213 pressure transducers) were installed before and after the booster pumps of the 4-in. slurry (SL-200) and supernatant (SN-200) transfer lines between Tank 241-C-106 and Tank 241-AY-1 02. These pressure sensors have been in operation for over 1 year, and to date, the sensors have been trouble-flee according to the operators involved with slurry and supernatant transfer operations. Based on these observations, it is apparent that the Red Valve pressure sensors could be installed at the end of the slurry transfer lines and used to measure the pressure drop in the system.

  8. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  9. Volatile out gassing characteristics of highly filled ethylene vinyl acetate binder materials: Gas phase infra-red spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, Mogon; Bowditch, Martin; Jones, Ben; Netherton, David; Khan, Niaz; Letant, Sonia; Maxwell, Robert S.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2012-12-08

    Gas phase Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate volatile out gassing properties of highly filled poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) materials. In these studies, a Scout-ENTM heated gas cell was interfaced to a vacuum FTIR spectrometer, and the quantification of evolved species was achieved through calibration of the gas cell with certified gas standards. The volatile out gassing properties were monitored as a function of time during storage at 75°C under vacuum conditions (< 1mbar). Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water were identified as the major out gassing products through IR absorption peaks at 1797, 2354 and 3853 cm-1, respectively.more » We present a comparison of three highly filled poly (ethyleneco- vinyl acetate) resins.« less

  10. Volatile out gassing characteristics of highly filled ethylene vinyl acetate binder materials: Gas phase infra-red spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Mogon; Bowditch, Martin; Jones, Ben; Netherton, David; Khan, Niaz; Letant, Sonia; Maxwell, Robert S.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2012-12-08

    Gas phase Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate volatile out gassing properties of highly filled poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) materials. In these studies, a Scout-ENTM heated gas cell was interfaced to a vacuum FTIR spectrometer, and the quantification of evolved species was achieved through calibration of the gas cell with certified gas standards. The volatile out gassing properties were monitored as a function of time during storage at 75°C under vacuum conditions (< 1mbar). Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water were identified as the major out gassing products through IR absorption peaks at 1797, 2354 and 3853 cm-1, respectively. We present a comparison of three highly filled poly (ethyleneco- vinyl acetate) resins.

  11. Coupling quantum dots to optical fiber: Low pump threshold laser in the red with a near top hat beam profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.; Mironov, A. E.; Ni, J. H.; Yang, H. J.; Chen, W. W.; Dai, Z.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.; Dragic, P. D.; Dong, J.

    2015-02-23

    Direct coupling of the optical field in a ?244?nm thick, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot film to an optical fiber has yielded lasing in the red (? ? 644?nm) with a threshold pump energy density?

  12. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  13. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  14. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  15. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  16. Structure of the red fluorescent protein from a lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): a novel GYG chromophore covalently bound to a nearby tyrosine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletnev, Vladimir Z. Pletneva, Nadya V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Fradkov, Arkady F.; Chudakov, Dmitry M.; Chepurnykh, Tatyana; Yampolsky, Ilia V.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2013-09-01

    The crystal structure of the novel red emitting fluorescent protein from lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata) revealed an unusual five residues cyclic unit comprising Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60 chromophore, the following Phe61 and Tyr62 covalently bound to chromophore Tyr59. A key property of proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family is their ability to form a chromophore group by post-translational modifications of internal amino acids, e.g. Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67 in GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria (Cnidaria). Numerous structural studies have demonstrated that the green GFP-like chromophore represents the core structure, which can be extended in red-shifted proteins owing to modifications of the protein backbone at the first chromophore-forming position. Here, the three-dimensional structures of green laGFP (?{sub ex}/?{sub em} = 502/511 nm) and red laRFP (?{sub ex}/?{sub em} ? 521/592 nm), which are fluorescent proteins (FPs) from the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata), were determined together with the structure of a red variant laRFP-?S83 (deletion of Ser83) with improved folding. Lancelet FPs are evolutionarily distant and share only ?20% sequence identity with cnidarian FPs, which have been extensively characterized and widely used as genetically encoded probes. The structure of red-emitting laRFP revealed three exceptional features that have not been observed in wild-type fluorescent proteins from Cnidaria reported to date: (i) an unusual chromophore-forming sequence Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60, (ii) the presence of Gln211 at the position of the conserved catalytic Glu (Glu222 in Aequorea GFP), which proved to be crucial for chromophore formation, and (iii) the absence of modifications typical of known red chromophores and the presence of an extremely unusual covalent bond between the Tyr59 C{sup ?} atom and the hydroxyl of the proximal Tyr62. The impact of this covalent bond on the red emission and the large Stokes shift (?70 nm) of laRFP was verified by extensive structure-based site-directed mutagenesis.

  17. Fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence from glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}:NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals under excitation of two near infrared femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Wenjing; Zhou, Kan; Ma, Jing; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Jia, Tianqing; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-08-14

    In this paper, we report fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence of glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}: NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals excited simultaneously by two near infrared femtosecond lasers. When the glass ceramic was irradiated by 800?nm femtosecond laser, weak red emission centered at 670?nm was detected. Bright red light was observed when the fs laser wavelength was tuned to 1490?nm. However, when excited by the two fs lasers simultaneously, the sample emitted bright green light centered at 550?nm, while the red light kept the same intensity. The dependences of the red and the green light intensities on the two pump lasers are much different, which enables us to manipulate the color emission by adjusting the two pump laser intensities, respectively. We present a theoretical model of Er{sup 3+} ions interacting with two fs laser fields, and explain well the experimental results.

  18. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  19. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  20. Method For Screening Microcrystallizations For Crystal Formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santarsiero, Bernard D. , Stevens, Raymond C. , Schultz, Peter G. , Jaklevic, Joseph M. , Yegian, Derek T. , Cornell, Earl W. , Nordmeyer, Robert A.

    2003-10-07

    A method is provided for performing array microcrystallizations to determine suitable crystallization conditions for a molecule, the method comprising: forming an array of microcrystallizations, each microcrystallization comprising a drop comprising a mother liquor solution whose composition varies within the array and a molecule to be crystallized, the drop having a volume of less than 1 microliter; storing the array of microcrystallizations under conditions suitable for molecule crystals to form in the drops in the array; and detecting molecule crystal formation in the drops by taking images of the drops.

  1. Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

  2. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.; Stewart, Albert E.

    1988-08-02

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  3. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  4. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain organic acids. A strategy-experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the POCO of the HALES facility at Sellafield. The close working of the strategy and experimental teams has permitted a wash sequence to be developed which is considered to be robust by both sides. The technical underpinning of the strategy is expected to make stakeholder buy-in more readily achievable. (authors)

  5. Role of mag-enhanced lime scrubbing in the FGD industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Smith, K.; Stowe, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    The mag-enhanced lime scrubbing process has been in commercial use in the US since the early 1970`s. At present over 14,000 MW of coal-fired utility plants in the US burning high sulfur coal (2.5--4.0% S) utilize this process with an excellent emission compliance and cost performance record to date. Dravo Lime Company (DLC) being the largest supplier of lime to this industry continues to conduct extensive R and D in this area and provides technical support service to these users. The success of the mag-enhanced lime process is largely attributed to the dual alkali effect of the Mg-Ca ions with a very distinct role for the highly soluble Mg ion in the scrubber liquor. It is well known that the high solubility of the magnesium ions provides alkalinities in the scrubbing liquor far in excess of the limestone systems. As a result of this high alkalinity liquor the mag-lime scrubbers need a much lower liquid to gas ratio, have lower scrubber pressure drop, consume lower parasitic load, are able to handle very high inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations, show little scaling tendency, etc. The scrubbers, recirculation pumps, piping, etc., are much smaller and the systems have lower capital and operating costs over comparable limestone systems. This system typically has a high availability and the process is less severe mechanically on the scrubber, pumps, nozzles, piping than comparable limestone processes. DLC`s patented ThioClear{reg_sign} process is an improvement over the conventional Thiosorbic process in use today. The ThioClear process while providing all of the advantages of the Thiosorbic process uses a nearly clear liquor to scrub and can use an innovative Horizontal Scrubber at gas velocities of up to 7.62--9.14 m/s (25--30 FPS). This process produces an excellent quality gypsum for wall board, cement or other applications and can also produce valuable Mg(OH){sub 2} as by-product. This paper discusses the merits of Thiosorbic/ThioClear processes, innovations with respect to the scrubber design, cost advantages and the freedom to choose a lower cost higher S coal while easily meeting or exceeding the regulatory requirements in the industry.

  6. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  7. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  8. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river drainage, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Baskaran, Latha M.; Schweizer, Peter E.; Turhollow, Anthony F.; Brandt, Craig C.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2014-05-15

    We study that the mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remainmore » a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.« less

  9. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  10. The vast population of Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars in M101. I. Motivation and first results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shara, Michael M.; Bibby, Joanne L.; Zurek, David; Crowther, Paul A.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Assembling a catalog of at least 10,000 Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars is an essential step in proving (or disproving) that these stars are the progenitors of Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae. To this end, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to carry out a deep, He II optical narrowband imaging survey of the ScI spiral galaxy M101. Almost the entire galaxy was imaged with the unprecedented depth and resolution that only the HST affords. Differenced with archival broadband images, the narrowband images allow us to detect much of the W-R star population of M101. We describe the extent of the survey and our images, as well as our data reduction procedures. A detailed broadband-narrowband imaging study of a field east of the center of M101, containing the giant star-forming region NGC 5462, demonstrates our completeness limits, how we find W-R candidates, their properties and spatial distribution, and how we rule out most contaminants. We use the broadband images to locate luminous red supergiant (RSG) candidates. The spatial distributions of the W-R and RSG stars near NGC 5462 are strikingly different. W-R stars dominate the complex core, while RSGs dominate the complex halo. Future papers in this series will describe and catalog more than a thousand W-R and RSG candidates that are detectable in our images, as well as spectra of many of those candidates.

  11. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concernmore » for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.« less

  12. THREE DISCRETE GROUPS WITH HOMOGENEOUS CHEMISTRY ALONG THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC2808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carretta, E.

    2014-11-10

    We present the homogeneous reanalysis of Mg and Al abundances from high resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra for 31 red giants in the globular cluster NGC2808. We found a well defined Mg-Al anticorrelation reaching a regime of subsolar Mg abundance ratios, with a spread of about 1.4dex in [Al/Fe]. The main result from the improved statistics of our sample is that the distribution of stars is not continuous along the anticorrelation because they are neatly clustered into three distinct clumps, each with different chemical compositions. One group (P) shows a primordial composition of field stars of similar metallicity, and the other two (I and E) have increasing abundances of Al and decreasing abundances of Mg. The fraction of stars we found in the three components (P: 68%, I: 19%, E: 13%) is in excellent agreement with the ratios computed for the three distinct main sequences in NGC2808: for the first time there is a clear correspondence between discrete photometric sequences of dwarfs and distinct groups of giants with homogeneous chemistry. The composition of the I group cannot be reproduced by mixing of matter with extreme processing in hot H-burning and gas with pristine, unprocessed composition, as also found in the recent analysis of three discrete groups in NGC6752. This finding suggests that different classes of polluters were probably at work in NGC2808 as well.

  13. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanovi?, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  14. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid from the extract. When operating the facility will produce 1.5 million gallons per year of butanol and create 16 new “green collar” jobs. Previously, a spare pulp digester was converted to a new extractor, and in 2009 it was demonstrated that a good hemicellulose extract could be produced, while simultaneously producing market pulp. Since then more than 250 hours of operational experience has been acquired by the mill generating a hemicellulose extract while simultaneously producing market pulp at a scale of 1000 tonnes (OD)/day of mixed northern hardwood chips.

  15. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M. Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (?17 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 2, and 3 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.21.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.31.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.61.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 3 segmented subregions were 2.32.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa.

  16. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAM JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-08-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps.

  17. New asteroseismic scaling relations based on the Hayashi track relation applied to red giant branch stars in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, T.; Li, Y.; Hekker, S. E-mail: ly@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-01-20

    Stellar mass M, radius R, and gravity g are important basic parameters in stellar physics. Accurate values for these parameters can be obtained from the gravitational interaction between stars in multiple systems or from asteroseismology. Stars in a cluster are thought to be formed coevally from the same interstellar cloud of gas and dust. The cluster members are therefore expected to have some properties in common. These common properties strengthen our ability to constrain stellar models and asteroseismically derived M, R, and g when tested against an ensemble of cluster stars. Here we derive new scaling relations based on a relation for stars on the Hayashi track (?(T{sub eff})?g{sup p}R{sup q}) to determine the masses and metallicities of red giant branch stars in open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 from the global oscillation parameters ?? (the large frequency separation) and ?{sub max} (frequency of maximum oscillation power). The ?? and ?{sub max} values are derived from Kepler observations. From the analysis of these new relations we derive: (1) direct observational evidence that the masses of red giant branch stars in a cluster are the same within their uncertainties, (2) new methods to derive M and z of the cluster in a self-consistent way from ?? and ?{sub max}, with lower intrinsic uncertainties, and (3) the mass dependence in the ?? - ?{sub max} relation for red giant branch stars.

  18. Calcium accumulated by sickle cell anemia red cells does not affect their potassium (86Rb+) flux components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, O.E.; Lew, V.L.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    We investigate here the hypothesis that the high Ca content of sickle cell anemia (SS) red cells may produce a sustained activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ permeability (Gardos effect) and that the particularly high Ca levels in the dense SS cell fraction rich in irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) might account for the Na pump inhibition observed in these cells. We measured active and passive 86Rb+ influx (as a marker for K+) in density-fractionated SS cells before and after extraction of their excess Ca by exposure to the Ca ionophore (A23187) and ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid and with or without adenosine triphosphate depletion or addition of quinine. None of these maneuvers revealed any evidence of a Ca2+-dependent K leak in SS discocytes or dense cells. Na pump inhibition in the dense SS cells was associated with normal activation by external K+ and a low Vmax that persisted after Ca extraction from the cells. These results are consistent with our recent findings that the excess Ca in these cells is compartmentalized in intracellular inside-out vesicles and unavailable as free Ca2+ to the inner membrane surface. Although the steady-state free cytoplasmic Ca2+ in oxygenated SS cells must be below the levels needed to activate the K+ channel, possible brief activation of the channels of some SS cells resulting from transient elevations of cell Ca2+ during deoxygenation-induced sickling cannot be excluded. The dense, ISC-rich SS cell fraction showed a Ca2+-independent increase in the ouabain-resistant, nonsaturable component of 86Rb+ influx that, if uncompensated by Na+ gain, could contribute to the dehydration of these cells.

  19. Right Turn on Red!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Read about a great example of how state and local governments can learn from each other – and how a very simple policy change can produce huge benefits for the country, helping us all save money by saving energy.

  20. Peat biogasification development program. Quarterly progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Donald L.; Buivid, Michael G.

    1980-01-01

    Batch experiments have been performed to determine the effects of different alkalis, temperatures, retention times, solids loading, and oxygen partial pressures on the solubility of peat organic material. Oxidation experiments have been performed simultaneously with and separately from solubilization. In both cases kinetic information has been developed based on oxygen consumption. Kinetics based on fermentable product formation are dependent on satisfactory identification methods. Development of analytical procedures for product identification have included: Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), solvent extraction, aldehyde precipitation, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Microorganisms from three inoculation sources are being grown anaerobically using a growth medium containing a standard nutrient and a specific substrate, one of twelve aromatic compounds. The concentration of aromatic compound was increased gradually in order that bacteria acclimate for future use as inocula with pretreated peat liquors. Acids and methane production are being monitored for pretreated peat liquor fermentations using an acclimated microorganism inocula. Apparent viscosity and apparent heat transfer coefficient data are being obtained at three peat slurry solids concentrations (3-5, 10, 15% total solids). A 75% heat recovery would give a positive energy balance around the pretreatment reactor. Development has continued in regards to full scale peat biogasification design (75 x 10/sup 6/ SCFD, pipeline quality methane). The information necessary for continuous PDU scale operation is being evaluated in terms of what processing information may be obtained from various scale units, batch and continuous.

  1. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). Therefore, in 1984 EPA conducted a pilot-plant study of activated-carbon-treatment technologies utilizing pharmaceutical waste waters from a manufacturing plant that produces fermentation products (Subcategory A) and chemical synthesis products (Subcategory C). The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity; and, (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  4. The Tip of the red giant branch distance to the perfect spiral galaxy M74 hosting three core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung Jang, In; Gyoon Lee, Myung E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    M74 (NGC 628) is a famous face-on spiral galaxy, hosting three core-collapse supernovae (SNe): SN Ic 2002ap, SN II-P 2003gd, and SN II-P 2013ej. However, its distance is not well known. We present a distance estimation for this galaxy based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method. We obtain photometry of the resolved stars in the arm-free region of M74 from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars shows a dominant red giant branch (RGB) as well as blue main sequence stars, red helium burning stars, and asymptotic giant branch stars. The I-band luminosity function of the RGB stars shows the TRGB to be at I {sub TRGB} = 26.13 0.03 mag, and T {sub RGB} = 25.97 0.03. From this, we derive the distance modulus to M74 to be 30.04 0.04 (random) 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 10.19 0.14 0.56 Mpc). With this distance estimate, we calibrate the standardized candle method for SNe II-P. From the absolute magnitudes of SN 2003gd, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H {sub 0} = 72 6 (random) 7 (systematic) km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1}. It is similar to recent estimates based on the luminosity calibration of Type Ia supernovae.

  5. NaLaF{sub 4}:Pr{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+}, an efficient blue to near infra-red quantum cutter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guille, A.; Pereira, A.; Moine, B.

    2013-12-01

    In order to reduce the thermalization losses in solar cells, down-conversion of blue photons into near infra-red photons is a promising solution. In the present paper, we analyse the energy transfer processes between Pr{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} in NaLaF{sub 4} and we show that an efficient quantum-cutting process occurs. Nevertheless, we also show that a back transfer from Yb{sup 3+} toward the {sup 1}G{sub 4} level of Pr{sup 3+} ion leading to emission beyond 1??m reduces the potentiality of this material as a quantum cutter for Si solar cells.

  6. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project?¢????s target of 50 ???µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all ?¢????new?¢??? selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

  7. GALEX AND PAN-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF SN IIP 2010aq: THE FIRST FEW DAYS AFTER SHOCK BREAKOUT IN A RED SUPERGIANT STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gezari, S.; Huber, M. E.; Grav, T.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Forster, K.; Neill, J. D.; Martin, D. C.; Valenti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Dombeck, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2010-09-01

    We present the early UV and optical light curve of Type IIP supernova (SN) 2010aq at z = 0.0862, and compare it to analytical models for thermal emission following SN shock breakout in a red supergiant star. SN 2010aq was discovered in joint monitoring between the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Time Domain Survey (TDS) in the NUV and the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) in the g, r, i, and z bands. The GALEX and Pan-STARRS1 observations detect the SN less than 1 day after the shock breakout, measure a diluted blackbody temperature of 31, 000 {+-} 6000 K 1 day later, and follow the rise in the UV/optical light curve over the next 2 days caused by the expansion and cooling of the SN ejecta. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the simultaneous UV and optical photometry allows us to fit for a progenitor star radius of 700 {+-} 200R {sub sun}, the size of a red supergiant star. An excess in UV emission two weeks after shock breakout compared with SNe well fitted by model atmosphere-code synthetic spectra with solar metallicity is best explained by suppressed line blanketing due to a lower metallicity progenitor star in SN 2010aq. Continued monitoring of PS1 MDS fields by the GALEX TDS will increase the sample of early UV detections of Type II SNe by an order of magnitude and probe the diversity of SN progenitor star properties.

  8. GALAXY-SCALE STAR FORMATION ON THE RED SEQUENCE: THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF S0s AND THE QUIESCENCE OF ELLIPTICALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salim, Samir; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Thilker, David A.

    2012-08-20

    This paper examines star formation (SF) in relatively massive, primarily early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z {approx} 0.1. A sample is drawn from bulge-dominated Galaxy Evolution Explorer/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (GALEX/SDSS) galaxies on the optical red sequence with strong UV excess and yet quiescent SDSS spectra. High-resolution far-UV imaging of 27 such ETGs using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) reveals structured UV morphology in 93% of the sample, consistent with low-level ongoing SF ({approx}0.5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). In 3/4 of the sample the SF is extended on galaxy scales (25-75 kpc), while the rest contains smaller (5-15 kpc) SF patches in the vicinity of an ETG-presumably gas-rich satellites being disrupted. Optical imaging reveals that all ETGs with galaxy-scale SF in our sample have old stellar disks (mostly S0 type). None is classified as a true elliptical. In our sample, galaxy-scale SF takes the form of UV rings of varying sizes and morphologies. For the majority of such objects we conclude that the gas needed to fuel current SF has been accreted from the intergalactic medium, probably in a prolonged, quasi-static manner, leading in some cases to additional disk buildup. The remaining ETGs with galaxy-scale SF have UV and optical morphologies consistent with minor merger-driven SF or with the final stages of SF in fading spirals. Our analysis excludes that all recent SF on the red sequence resulted from gas-rich mergers. We find further evidence that galaxy-scale SF is almost exclusively an S0 phenomenon ({approx}20% S0s have SF) by examining the overall optically red SDSS ETGs. Conclusion is that significant number of field S0s maintain or resume low-level SF because the preventive feedback is not in place or is intermittent. True ellipticals, on the other hand, stay entirely quiescent even in the field.

  9. SU-E-T-121: Dosimetric Characterization of Gafchromic Film EBT3 Using Vidar DosimetryPro Advantage RED and EPSON Expression 10000XL Scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, L; Adrada, A; Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner, analyzing the factors of influence of each dosimetry system. Methods: The film used in this study was GAFCHROMIC EBT3, the films were exposed at a dose range between 0Gy a 9Gy in a solid water phantom, SSD=100cm, 5cm depth and perpendicularly to the 6MV photon beam generated by a Novalis TX linear accelerator equipped with an HDMLC. A Farmer type ion chamber TN30013 (PTW) was used to determine the dose delivered to the film. The films were digitized with a scanner EPSON expression 10000XL and the VIDAR DosimetryPro Adventage RED. Software RIT113v6.1 was used for construction of the calibration curve and analysis. The film characteristics investigated were: response at different dose levels, sensitivity to orientation and side and resolution through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. Additionally, 20 IMRT treatment fields were measured with both scanner and compared with calculated dose using gamma index analysis (3%-3mm). Results: The OD obtained for dose level 2Gy in the orientation portrait of the film on the scanner EPSON is (0,2220,19) and for Vidar RED (0,2520,10) and landscape is for EPSON (0,2110,25) and for Vidar RED (0,2500,11) . The orientation dependence with respect to film side is about 0,09% for EPSON and about 0.03% for VIDAR. The spatial response function increase in response to the Gaussian function FWHM EPSON scanner (0.18mm) compared with VIDAR scanner function (less than 0.06mm) was observed. We analyzed 20 total plan dose distributions the number of pixels with gamma>1 (3%-3mm) was 0.7%1.2 [0.1%; 2.82%] for EBT3-VIDAR y 2%2.9 [0.2%; 3.5%] for EBT3-EPSON. Conclusion: VIDAR scanner shows better sensitivity. EBT3 film shows a different response between portrait and landscape orientation. Step pattern is better reproduce by VIDAR scanner.

  10. Initial test results from the RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide module, phase 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Rose, David Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper the performance results of the RedFlow zinc-bromide module (ZBM) Gen 2.0 are reported for Phase 1 of testing, which includes initial characterization of the module. This included physical measurement, efficiency as a function of charge and discharge rates, efficiency as a function of maximum charge capacity, duration of maximum power supplied, and limited cycling with skipped strip cycles. The goal of this first phase of testing was to verify manufacturer specifications of the zinc-bromide flow battery. Initial characterization tests have shown that the ZBM meets the manufacturer's specifications. Further testing, including testing as a function of temperature and life cycle testing, will be carried out during Phase 2 of the testing, and these results will be issued in the final report, after Phase 2 testing has concluded.

  11. Green, red and infrared Er-related emission in implanted GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, T.; Soares, J.; Correia, M. R.; Alves, E.

    2001-06-01

    Er-related luminescence near 1.54 {mu}m ({similar_to}805 meV) is observed under below band gap excitation at 4.2 K in GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O implanted samples. The spectrum of the recovered damage samples is a multiline structure. So far, these lines are the sharpest ones reported for GaN. Well-resolved green and red luminescences are observed in implanted samples. The dependence of luminescence on the excitation energy as well as the influence of different nominal fluence and annealing conditions is discussed. Combining the results obtained from photoluminescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, different lattice sites for the optical active Er-related centers are identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} for near UV white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhigang; Zhao, Zhengyan; Shi, Yurong; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was prepared by solid-state reaction. Excitation spectra suggested an obvious absorption in near-ultraviolet region. Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited a red emission at 614 nm. Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, and its luminescence characteristics and charge compensators effect (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) were investigated. The excitation spectra showed a obvious absorption in near-ultraviolet region. Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited an intense red emission at 614 nm. The Commission Internationale de lEclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and quantum efficiency (QE) were (0.65, 0.35) and 62.3%, respectively. The good color saturation, high quantum efficiency and small thermal-quenching properties indicate that Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white light-emitting diodes.

  13. The site occupation and valence of Mn ions in the crystal lattice of Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} and its deep red emission for high color-rendering white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Lei; Xue, Shaochan; Chen, Xiuling; Bahader, Ali; Deng, Xiaorong; Zhao, Erlong; Jiang, Yang; Chen, Shifu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Wenhua

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were identified using XANES and EPR. Red luminescence was attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. The Mn{sup 3+} incorporated in the center of AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron was non-luminescent. The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of cations. A white LED device with CRI up to Ra 93.23 was packaged by using the red phosphor. - Abstract: The synthesis and component of red phosphor, Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}: Mn, were optimized for application in white light-emitting diodes. The microstructure and morphology were investigated by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were discriminated using the electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy techniques. The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of Sr{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}. As a result, the strong covalence of Al{sup 3+} in the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron other than in the AlO{sub 6} octahedron is disclosed. The deep red emission is attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. The mechanism of energy transfer is mainly through dipoledipole interaction, revealed by the analyses of critical distance and concentration quench. A high color rendering white LED prototype with color-rendering index up to Ra 93.23 packaged by using the red phosphor demonstrates its applicability.

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14}:Sm{sup 3+} red phosphor for white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Ge; Ci, Zhipeng; Shi, Yurong; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14}:Sm{sup 3+} was synthesized and investigated firstly. The structure and characteristic luminescence properties are discussed. The excellent thermal stability was found and investigated. It has good color saturation, the CIE is close to that of commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}. - Abstract: A series of Sm{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14} red phosphors were successfully synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that all the samples are single phased. The luminescence property is investigated in detail by measuring their photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors show strong absorption in 400410 nm region, which is suitable for application in LEDs. When excited at 403 nm, Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor can emit red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.615, 0.384). The optimal doping concentration of Sm{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14} is measured to be 0.02. The thermal quenching property is also measured and compared with the commercial red phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (Topstar, TXC-RIA). The results indicate Ca{sub 19}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 14}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors have potential to serve as a red phosphor for white LEDs.

  15. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, School of Physical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-Ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Imai, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Oyama, T., E-mail: kusuno@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: hiroimai@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  16. Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel; Jocher, Christoph; D'Aleo, Anthony; Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth

    2009-11-10

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a model Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.

  17. Investigation of surface-plasmon coupled red light emitting InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well with Ag nanostructures coated on GaN surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Bin E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Rong E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Xie, Zili; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, JiangPing; Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Zhang, Guogang; Chen, Peng; Ren, Fangfang; Zhao, Hong; Zheng, Youdou

    2015-04-21

    Surface-plasmon (SP) coupled red light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure is fabricated and investigated. The centre wavelength of 5-period InGaN/GaN MQW structure is about 620?nm. The intensity of photoluminescence (PL) for InGaN QW with naked Ag nano-structures (NS) is only slightly increased due to the oxidation of Ag NS as compared to that for the InGaN QW. However, InGaN QW with Ag NS/SiO{sub 2} structure can evidently enhance the emission efficiency due to the elimination of surface oxide layer of Ag NS. With increasing the laser excitation power, the PL intensity is enhanced by 25%53% as compared to that for the SiO{sub 2} coating InGaN QW. The steady-state electric field distribution obtained by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is different for both structures. The proportion of the field distributed in the Ag NS for the GaN/Ag NS/SiO{sub 2} structure is smaller as compared to that for the GaN/naked Ag NS structure. As a result, the energy loss of localized SP modes for the GaN/naked Ag NS structure will be larger due to the absorption of Ag layer.

  18. Nanoscale determinant to brighten up GaN:Eu red light-emitting diode: Local potential of Eu-defect complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, Masashi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2015-04-21

    Emission sites in GaN:Eu red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated using a new spectroscopy technique, namely, site-selective pulse-driven emission spectroscopy (PDES). The PDES, in which the emission intensity of a pulse-driven LED is recorded with respect to the pulse frequency, revealed the charge-trapping dynamics of the Eu emission sites. We found that a determinant of the emission intensity of the sites was not their relative abundance, but rather the spatial extent of the local potential, which determines the effectiveness of the capture of injection charges. Minor sites with wider potentials enhanced the emission intensity of the LED, resulting in emission spectra that differ from those obtained using the photoluminescence of a GaN:Eu thin film. The potential curve is determined by the atomic structure of the complexes, which consist of a Eu dopant and nearby defects in the GaN host. The extent was characterized by a parameter, namely, cutoff frequency, and the emission sites with the wider and narrower potentials in the GaN:Eu LED were found to have cutoff frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz, respectively. The cutoff frequency of 3 MHz was found to be the upper limit for emission sites in the LED. The emission site with the wider potential is useful for slower devices such as light fixtures, while the site with the narrower potential is useful for faster devices such as opto-isolators.

  19. Modeling the Sedimentation of Red Blood Cells in Flow under Strong External Magnetic Body Force using a Lattice Boltzmann Fictitious Domain Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xing; Lin, Guang

    2014-11-01

    To model the sedimentation of the red blood cell (RBC) in a square duct and a circular pipe, the recently developed technique derived from the lattice Boltzmann method and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method (LBM-DLM/FD) is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of the sedimentation of the RBC in flow. The flow is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method with a strong magnetic body force, while the network model is used for modeling RBC deformation. The fluid-RBC interactions are enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. The sedimentation of the RBC in a square duct and a circular pipe is simulated, revealing the capacity of the current method for modeling the sedimentation of RBC in various flows. Numerical results illustrate that that the terminal setting velocity increases with the increment of the exerted body force. The deformation of the RBC has significant effect on the terminal setting velocity due to the change of the frontal area. The larger the exerted force is, the smaller the frontal area and the larger deformation of the RBC are.

  20. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Y. Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25?nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850?C for 10?min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2?m??cm. The fabricated LED up to 3?mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  1. Cobalt-iron red-ox behavior in nanostructured La{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soldati, Analia L.; Baque, Laura; Napolitano, Federico; Serquis, Adriana

    2013-02-15

    Nano-sized La{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) perovskite samples (prepared by a conventional acetate route and a novel acetate synthesis with HMTA additives), were tested simulating a red-ox cycle. The crystallography was studied by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) and the changes in the oxidation state of the perovskite B-site were evaluated by synchrotron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). After a reducing treatment, LSFC particles show the appearance of a new phase that coexists with the original one. The structural change is accompanied by a Co and Fe formal oxidation states decrease, although Fe remains always closer to 4+ and Co closer to 3+. The treatment produces a B-site valence average reduction from 3.52+ to 3.26+ and the formation of oxygen vacancies. A re-oxidation treatment under O{sub 2} rich atmosphere at 800 Degree-Sign C for 10 h shows that the change is reversible and independent of the two chemical methods used to synthesize the LSCF nano-particles. - Graphical abstract: XANES and XPD measurements in nanostructured LSCF before (black) and after (red/green) a red/ox cycle. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red-ox treatments in LSCF nano-particles cause a reversible reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPD analyses show that a new 'reduced' phase coexist with the oxidize one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The B-site formal oxidation state decreases and the {delta} increases upon reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe remains in a higher valence (closer to 4+) than Co (close to 3+). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The behavior seems to be independent of the synthesis method used.

  2. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  3. PdBI cold dust imaging of two extremely red H [4.5] > 4 galaxies discovered with SEDS and CANDELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputi, K. I.; Popping, G.; Spaans, M.; Micha?owski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Krips, M.; Geach, J. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Santini, P.

    2014-06-20

    We report Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) 1.1 mm continuum imaging toward two extremely red H [4.5] > 4 (AB) galaxies at z > 3, which we have previously discovered making use of Spitzer SEDS and Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS ultra-deep images of the Ultra Deep Survey field. One of our objects is detected on the PdBI map with a 4.3? significance, corresponding to S{sub ?}(1.1 mm)=0.780.18 mJy. By combining this detection with the Spitzer 8 and 24 ?m photometry for this source, and SCUBA2 flux density upper limits, we infer that this galaxy is a composite active galactic nucleus/star-forming system. The infrared (IR)-derived star formation rate is SFR ? 200 100 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, which implies that this galaxy is a higher-redshift analogue of the ordinary ultra-luminous infrared galaxies more commonly found at z ? 2-3. In the field of the other target, we find a tentative 3.1? detection on the PdBI 1.1 mm map, but 3.7 arcsec away of our target position, so it likely corresponds to a different object. In spite of the lower significance, the PdBI detection is supported by a close SCUBA2 3.3? detection. No counterpart is found on either the deep SEDS or CANDELS maps, so, if real, the PdBI source could be similar in nature to the submillimeter source GN10. We conclude that the analysis of ultra-deep near- and mid-IR images offers an efficient, alternative route to discover new sites of powerful star formation activity at high redshifts.

  4. THE PROPERTIES OF THE 500 K DWARF UGPS J072227.51-054031.2 AND A STUDY OF THE FAR-RED FLUX OF COLD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, S. K.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.; Lodders, K.; Fegley, B.; Canty, J.; Lucas, P.; Burningham, Ben; Jones, H. R. A.; Marocco, F.; Pinfield, D. J.; Smart, R. L.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Day-Jones, A.; Ishii, Miki; Tamura, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present i and z photometry for 25 T dwarfs and 1 L dwarf. Combined with published photometry, the data show that the i - z, z - Y, and z - J colors of T dwarfs are very red, and continue to increase through to the late-type T dwarfs, with a hint of a saturation for the latest types with T{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 600 K. We present new 0.7-1.0 {mu}m and 2.8-4.2 {mu}m spectra for the very late type T dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, as well as improved astrometry for this dwarf. Examination of the spectral energy distribution using new and published data, with Saumon and Marley models, shows that the dwarf has T{sub eff} = 505 {+-} 10 K, a mass of 3-11 M{sub Jupiter}, and an age between 60 Myr and 1 Gyr. This young age is consistent with the thin disk kinematics of the dwarf. The mass range overlaps with that usually considered to be planetary, despite this being an unbound object discovered in the field near the Sun. This apparently young rapid rotator is also undergoing vigorous atmospheric mixing, as determined by the IRAC and WISE 4.5 {mu}m photometry and the Saumon and Marley models. The optical spectrum for this 500 K object shows clearly detected lines of the neutral alkalis Cs and Rb, which are emitted from deep atmospheric layers with temperatures of 900-1200 K.

  5. The identification of extreme asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants in M33 with 24 μm variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Christopher B.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first detection of 24 μm variability in 24 sources in the Local Group galaxy M33. These results are based on 4 epochs of Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations, which are irregularly spaced over ∼750 days. We find that these sources are constrained exclusively to the Holmberg radius of the galaxy, which increases their chances of being members of M33. We have constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) ranging from the optical to the submillimeter to investigate the nature of these objects. We find that 23 of our objects are most likely heavily self-obscured, evolved stars, while the remaining source is the Giant H ii region, NGC 604. We believe that the observed variability is the intrinsic variability of the central star reprocessed through their circumstellar dust shells. Radiative transfer modeling was carried out to determine their likely chemical composition, luminosity, and dust production rate (DPR). As a sample, our modeling has determined an average luminosity of (3.8±0.9)×10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙} and a total DPR of (2.3±0.1)×10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Most of the sources, given the high DPRs and short wavelength obscuration, are likely extreme asymptotic giant branch (XAGB) stars. Five of the sources are found to have luminosities above the classical AGB limit (M{sub bol} <−7.1 mag, L > 54,000 L{sub ⊙}), which classifies them as probable red supergiants (RSGs). Almost all of the sources are classified as oxygen-rich. As also seen in the LMC, a significant fraction of the dust in M33 is produced by a handful of XAGB and RSG stars.

  6. The Carina project. VII. Toward the breaking of the age-metallicity degeneracy of red giant branch stars using the C {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Gallart, C.; Aparicio, A. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fabrizio, M.; Cassisi, S.; Buonanno, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astronomico Collurania, Via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, NRC-Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nonino, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-40131 Trieste (Italy); Dall'Ora, M. [INAFOsservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Pulone, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, I-00044 Rome (Italy); Thvenin, F., E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Universit de Nice Sophia-antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data of the Carina dSph galaxy, testing a new approach similar to that used to disentangle multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We show that a proper color combination is able to separate a significant fraction of the red giant branch (RGB) of the two main Carina populations (the old one, ?12 Gyr, and the intermediate-age one, 4-8 Gyr). In particular, the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} = (U B) (B I) pseudo-color allows us to follow the RGB of both populations along a relevant portion of the RGB. We find that the oldest stars have a more negative c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} pseudo-color than intermediate-age ones. We correlate the pseudo-color of RGB stars with their chemical properties, finding a significant trend between the iron content and the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I}. Stars belonging to the old population are systematically more metal-poor ([Fe/H] =2.32 0.08 dex) than the intermediate-age ones ([Fe/H] =1.82 0.03 dex). This gives solid evidence of the chemical evolution history of this galaxy, and we have a new diagnostic that can allow us to break the age-metallicity degeneracy of H-burning advanced evolutionary phases. We compared the distribution of stars in the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} plane with theoretical isochrones, finding that no satisfactory agreement can be reached with models developed in a theoretical framework based on standard heavy element distributions. Finally, we discuss possible systematic differences when compared with multiple populations in GCs.

  7. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  8. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  9. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  10. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other 1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable 1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Arizona Total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable 1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  14. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Connecticut Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable 1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  16. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  17. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Illinois Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable 1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110 0.1 Total 44,127 100.0 201,352 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  18. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    21 Louisiana Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable 1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3 3,281 3.2 Total 26,744 100.0 102,885 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste,

  1. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  2. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Minnesota Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,594 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable 1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  3. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 New Hampshire New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable 1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge

  6. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    41 New Jersey New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by source, 2010 Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable 1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235 0.4 Total 18,424 100.0 65,682 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  7. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  8. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  9. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  10. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    48 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas,

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  14. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  16. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  17. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arizona Arizona Total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable 1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  18. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Connecticut Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable 1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  1. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  2. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  3. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste,

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  6. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  7. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  8. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 New Hampshire New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable 1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge

  9. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  10. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas,

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  14. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  16. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  17. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

  18. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  19. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  20. Guides to pollution prevention: The pharmaceutical industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers generate a variety of wastes during manufacturing, maintenance, and housekeeping operations which can be reduced or minimized through source reduction and recycling. The typical waste streams are spent fermentation broths, process liquors, solvents, equipment wash water, spilled materials, off-spec products, and used processing aids. Suggestions include improvements to operational practices, solvent recycling and implementing good materials management and housekeeping practices. To help companies in the industry identify opportunities for waste reduction at their own facilities, the guide includes a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste. The guide and its worksheets would also be instructive to consultants serving the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and government agencies who regulate waste streams generated from these firms.

  1. Clean Air Act Title IV: Lessons learned from Phase I; getting ready for Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required significant reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants in the US. This paper examines some of the key technical lessons learned in Phase I following retrofit of low NO{sub x} systems, FGD systems, and continuous emissions monitors. Some of the key problems encountered have been waterwall wastage as a result of low NO{sub x} burner retrofits; high LOI (carbon) ash as a result of low NO{sub x} operation; high O&M costs associated with CEMs; and the heat rate discrepancy which has arisen between CEMs and conventional heat rate calculations. As Phase II approaches, EPRI and the electric utility industry are investigating improvements in FGD systems (e.g., clear liquor scrubbing), advances in NO{sub x} control technologies, more robust CEM systems, and tools to help in the technology decision-making process.

  2. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  3. Acoustic transfer of protein crystals from agarose pedestals to micromeshes for high-throughput screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuttitta, Christina M.; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Roessler, Christian G.; Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Campos, Olven; Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic high-throughput screening method is described for harvesting protein crystals and combining the protein crystals with chemicals such as a fragment library. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s{sup ?1}) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from the inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening.

  4. Acoustic transfer of protein crystals from agarose pedestals to micromeshes for high-throughput screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuttitta, Christina M.; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Roessler, Christian G.; Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Campos, Olven; Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-06-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s-1) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from the inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening.

  5. Acoustic transfer of protein crystals from agarose pedestals to micromeshes for high-throughput screening

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cuttitta, Christina M.; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Roessler, Christian G.; Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Campos, Olven; Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; et al

    2014-06-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s-1) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from themore » inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening.« less

  6. Red phosphor Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 3+} for potential application in field emission displays and white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Xuhui; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Xue

    2014-12-15

    Abstract: A novel red emitting phosphor of Eu{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16} was prepared through the solid state reaction. The luminescence properties were studied in detail by photoluminescence excitation (PLE), emission (PL) spectra and cathodoluminescence (CL). Under the excitation of ultraviolet light, Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor shows the characteristic {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub J}(J = 1, 2, 3, 4) transition of Eu{sup 3+} with two different emissions due to the two kinds of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The luminescent intensity could be improved by co-doping with the charge compensators R{sup +} (Li, Na, K) which partially substitute for Ca{sup 2+} crystal sites. CL spectra show that Eu{sup 3+} ions were excited by the plasma produced by the incident electrons and the CL properties of Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 3+}, Li{sup +} as a function of accelerating voltage and probe current were investigated. Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor offers higher thermal stability compared with the commercial red phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}. The results indicate that Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 3+} can be a suitable red-emitting phosphor candidate for FEDs and w-LEDs.

  7. LINE LISTS FOR THE A {sup 2}?-X {sup 2}?{sup +} (RED) AND B {sup 2}?{sup +}-X {sup 2}?{sup +} (VIOLET) SYSTEMS OF CN, {sup 13}C{sup 14}N, AND {sup 12}C{sup 15}N, AND APPLICATION TO ASTRONOMICAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara; Ram, Ram S.; Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: jsabrooke@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    New red and violet system line lists for the CN isotopologues {sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N have been generated. These new transition data are combined with those previously derived for {sup 12}C{sup 14}N, and applied to the determination of CNO abundances in the solar photosphere and in four red giant stars: Arcturus, the bright, very low-metallicity star HD 122563, and the carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars HD 196944 and HD 201626. When both red and violet system lines are detectable in a star, their derived N abundances are in good agreement. The mean N abundances determined in this work are also generally in accord with published values.

  8. Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch: Formation of a pull-apart basin, Depocenter for Atokan to Lower Des Moines (bend) clastics, Cottle County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, W.C. Jr.; Gunn, R.D.

    1995-06-01

    Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch (Tectonic Zone) created a braided series of en echelon faults and folds with associated pop-up structures and pull-apart basins. Local extension, or overstepping, in Southeast Cottle County, Texas, has produced the deepest pull-apart basin along the arch with over 10,000` of structural relief. The emerging Wichita-Amarillo Uplift, to the north, provided an abundant sediment source, which prograded rapidly southward as an alluvial fan-braided river complex. Exposure of basement rocks and lower Paleozoic sediments along the Red River-Matador Arch, also contributed to the basin fill. Syntectonic sedimentation led to the accumulation of over 6000` of Bend (Atoka-lower Des Moines) sediments within the basin. Deposition was dominated initially by alluvial fan to fluvial siliciclastics. As basin subsidence was further amplified by sediment loading, accommodation exceeded sedimentation capturing a large segment of the southward prograding Wichita-Amarillo derived clastic wedge. Encroachment of the late Atoka to lower Des Moines epeiric sea promoted further evolution of depositional environments to fan deltas, marine dominated clastics and, later, localized carbonate development. Type III kerogen rich organic shales produced abundant gas prone source rocks. The extreme depth of the basin combined with the local geothermal gradient provided for significant hydrocarbon generation. By early 1988 new well control helped revise previous stratigraphic correlation demonstrating a rapidly expanding lower Des Moines to Atokan section. The drilling of the Gunn Oil Company-Brothers No. 1 to a total depth of 10,301` in the Mississippian Chappel Limestone, encountered 2025` of Bend sediments, with 279` of gross Bend Conglomerate (162` of net pay). The Brothers No. 1 was potentialled on 11/19/89 with a CAOF of 6.0 MMCFD and filed as the field discovery for the Broken Bone (Bend Conglomerate) field.

  9. Defect correlated fluorescent quenching and electron phonon coupling in the spectral transition of Eu{sup 3+} in CaTiO{sub 3} for red emission in display application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S. E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Vijay; Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C. E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za; Kunti, A. K.; Dutta, S.; Chowdhury, M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-05-21

    This paper reports on the defect correlated self-quenching and spectroscopic investigation of calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) phosphors. A series of CaTiO{sub 3} phosphors doped with trivalent europium (Eu{sup 3+}) and codoped with potassium (K{sup +}) ions were prepared by the solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the obtained powder phosphors consisted out of a single-phase orthorhombic structure and it also indicated that the incorporation of the dopants/co-dopants did not affect the crystal structure. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed the irregular morphology of the prepared phosphors consisting out of ?m sized diameter particles. The Eu{sup 3+} doped phosphors illuminated with ultraviolet light showed the characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. As a charge compensator, K{sup +} ions were incorporated into the CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors, which enhanced the photoluminescence (PL) intensities depending on the doping concentration of K{sup +}. The concentration quenching of Eu{sup 3+} in this host is discussed in the light of ion-ion interaction, electron phonon coupling, and defect to ion energy transfer. The spectral characteristics and the Eu-O ligand behaviour were determined using the Judd-Ofelt theory from the PL spectra instead of the absorption spectra. The CIE (International Commission on Illumination) parameters were calculated using spectral energy distribution functions and McCamy's empirical formula. Photometric characterization indicated the suitability of K{sup +} compensated the CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor for pure red emission in light-emitting diode applications.

  10. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Complex of Uranyl and 3-Oxa-Glutaramide: An Extreme Red-Shift of the [O=U=O]? Asymmetric Stretch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Hu, Hanshi; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Li, Jun

    2015-04-09

    The gas-phase complex UO?(TMOGA)?? (TMOGA = tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide) prepared by electrospray ionization was characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum from 7001800 cm? was interpreted using a computational study based on density functional theory. The predicted vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the measured values, with an average deviation of only 8 cm? (<1%) and a maximum deviation of 21 cm? (<2%). The only IR peak assigned to the linear uranyl moiety was the asymmetric ?? mode, which appeared at 965 cm? and was predicted by DFT as 953 cm?. This ?? frequency is red-shifted relative to bare uranyl, UO??, by ca. 150 cm? due to electron donation from the TMOGA ligands. Based on the degree of red-shifting, it is inferred that two TMOGA oxygen-donor ligands have a greater effective gas basicity than the four monodentate acetone ligands in UO?(acetone)??. The uranyl ?? frequency was also computed for uranyl coordinated by two TMGA ligands, in which the central Oether of TMOGA has been replaced by CH?. The computed ?? for UO?(TMGA)??, 950 cm?, is essentially the same as that for UO?(TMOGA)??, suggesting that electron donation to uranyl from the Oether of TMOGA is minor. The computed ?? asymmetric stretching frequencies for the three actinyl complexes, UO?(TMOGA)??, NpO?(TMOGA)?? and PuO?(TMOGA)??, are comparable. This similarity is discussed in the context of the relationship between ?? and intrinsic actinide-oxygen bond energies in actinyl complexes.

  11. THE EXTREMELY RED, YOUNG L DWARF PSO J318.533822.8603: A FREE-FLOATING PLANETARY-MASS ANALOG TO DIRECTLY IMAGED YOUNG GAS-GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Kotson, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Draper, P. W.; Price, P. A.; Metcalfe, N.

    2013-11-10

    We have discovered using Pan-STARRS1 an extremely red late-L dwarf, which has (J K){sub MKO} = 2.78 and (J K){sub 2MASS} = 2.84, making it the reddest known field dwarf and second only to 2MASS J120739b among substellar companions. Near-IR spectroscopy shows a spectral type of L7 1 and reveals a triangular H-band continuum and weak alkali (K I and Na I) lines, hallmarks of low surface gravity. Near-IR astrometry from the Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program gives a distance of 24.6 1.4 pc and indicates a much fainter J-band absolute magnitude than field L dwarfs. The position and kinematics of PSO J318.522 point to membership in the ? Pic moving group. Evolutionary models give a temperature of 1160{sup +30}{sub -40} K and a mass of 6.5{sup +1.3}{sub -1.0} M {sub Jup}, making PSO J318.522 one of the lowest mass free-floating objects in the solar neighborhood. This object adds to the growing list of low-gravity field L dwarfs and is the first to be strongly deficient in methane relative to its estimated temperature. Comparing their spectra suggests that young L dwarfs with similar ages and temperatures can have different spectral signatures of youth. For the two objects with well constrained ages (PSO J318.522 and 2MASS J0355+11), we find their temperatures are ?400 K cooler than field objects of similar spectral type but their luminosities are similar, i.e., these young L dwarfs are very red and unusually cool but not 'underluminous'. Altogether, PSO J318.522 is the first free-floating object with the colors, magnitudes, spectrum, luminosity, and mass that overlap the young dusty planets around HR 8799 and 2MASS J120739.

  12. Photopumped red-emitting InP/In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P self-assembled quantum dot heterostructure lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryou, J. H.; Dupuis, R. D.; Walter, G.; Kellogg, D. A.; Holonyak, N.; Mathes, D. T.; Hull, R.; Reddy, C. V.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2001-06-25

    We report the 300 K operation of optically pumped red-emitting lasers fabricated from InP self-assembled quantum dots embedded in In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P layers on GaAs (100) substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Quantum dots grown at 650{degree}C on In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P layers have a high density on the order of 10{sup 10} cm{sup {minus}2} and the dominant size of individual quantum dots ranges from {similar_to}5 to {similar_to}10 nm for 7.5 monolayer {open_quotes}equivalent growth.{close_quotes} These InP/In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P quantum dot heterostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. Laser structures are prepared from wafers having two vertically stacked InP quantum dot active layers within a 100-nm-thick In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P waveguide and upper and lower 600 nm InAlP cladding layers. We observe lasing at {lambda}{similar_to}680 nm at room temperature in optically pumped samples. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. The effect of replacement of Sr by Ca on the structural and luminescence properties of the red-emitting Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} LED conversion phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.Q.; With, G. de; Hintzen, H.T.

    2008-03-15

    The influence of the replacement of Sr by Ca on structural and luminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} is reported. The Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data shows that the Ca{sup 2+} ion preferentially occupies the larger Sr site in Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}. Although the excitation spectrum is hardly modified, the position of the emission band of Eu{sup 2+} can be tailored through partial replacement of Sr by Ca in Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, resulting in red-emission shifting from 620 to 643 nm. Furthermore, (Sr, Ca){sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} shows high potential as a conversion phosphor for white-light LED applications due to similar absorption, conversion efficiency and thermal quenching behaviour for 465 nm excitation after the introduction of the Ca ion. - Graphical abstract: The temperature dependence of the luminescence efficiency of M{sub 1.9}Eu{sub 0.1}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and Sr{sub 1.3}Ca{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.1}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} ({lambda}{sub exc}=465 nm)

  14. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cottaar, Michiel; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ? 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  15. RedFlow | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in order to 'commercialise the proprietary flowing electrolyte battery and the integrated energy storage systems'. Coordinates: -27.46888, 153.022827 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Red Shield Acquisition, LLC, Integrated Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This demonstration-scale biorefinery will produce lignocellulosic sugars for biofuel feedstock from woody biomass.

  17. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  18. T-610: Red Hat kdenetwork security update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A directory traversal flaw was found in the way KGet, a download manager, handled the "file" element in Metalink files.

  19. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, CA20 1PG Seascale (United Kingdom); Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N. [AREVA NC, AREVA Group, 50 - Beaumont La Hague (France); Hollebecque, J.F. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A. [SGN, AREVA Group, 78 - St Quentin Yvelines (France)

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two companies. From equipment delivery to knowledge embedding within the WVP teams, both companies have worked hard together to respect the tight schedule of the contract, despite growing external constraints. This has been closely managed in order to achieve the best results for the VAP without jeopardizing the continuing production operations on both the Sellafield and La Hague sites. For future campaigns, WVP1 will be equipped with an automatic heating control system similar to the one used at La Hague (i.e. based on 4 kHz). This will facilitate the work of the WVP operators and finalise the conversion of WVP melter control systems from manual to automatic, meaning that the melters on all 3 lines will be automatically controlled. Further implementation of VAP equipment is also planned on the other lines. (authors)

  20. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Spring Grove Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-06-18

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel and stainless steel electrodes appears to complicate ECN interpretation for all the probes, but particularly at the ring 6 locations. With the exception of start-up and shutdown activity, including brief upsets for ''hanging columns'' or brief maintenance periods, no correlation was observed between tracked process variables and ECN activity. Based on the ECN data, re-pressurization of the digester and resumption of chip/liquor feed after a brief disruption results in very aggressive corrosion events.

  1. An overview of biopulping consortia research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhtar, M.; Lirk, T.K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a 8-year biopulping research effort conducted under the auspices of two biopulping consortia, involving the Universities of Wisconsin and Minnesota, the Forest Products Laboratory, and the industry. Biopulping, defined as the fungal pretreatment of wood chips for pulping, is an environmentally benign process that saves at least 30% electrical energy during mechanical refining, and improves paper quality in a 2-week period during laboratory trials. A rapid method of evaluating the benefits of biopulping has been found using the Simons staining procedures. We have identified a white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora which is effective on both hardwood and softwood species. This fungus can perform biopulping effectively if chips are steamed using the atmospheric steam for a very short period of time prior to fungal inoculation. Also, one of the major costs during the scale-up of biopulping is inoculum production. To this end, we have reduced the amount of inoculum dramatically (from 3 kg to 0.25 g dry weight of fungus per ton of dry wood) by adding corn steep liquor to the mycelial suspension. Current research is focused on large-scale decontamination of chips and maintenance of suitable temperature, aeration and moisture in chip piles so that biopulping can become a successful industrial process.

  2. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new application techniques and systems were developed as part of this project to optimize the installation of this new family of refractory materials to maximize the properties of installed linings and to facilitate nuances such as hot installation and repair. Under this project, seven new shotcrete materials were developed for both primary and repair applications in aluminum, black liquor, coal gasification, and lime kiln environments. Developed materials were based on alumino-silicate, magnesia, and spinel forming systems. One of the developed materials was an insulating shotcrete to be used behind the high conductivity spinel linings developed under this project. Fundamental research work was carried out at MS&T throughout the life of the project to provide support for the development and production of the experimental refractory materials being developed. Work was also ongoing at ORNL and MS&T through the duration of the project on the measurement and characterization of key refractory properties as identified during year one of the project. Both materials currently being used in the industrial processes as identified and supplied by the industrial partners of this project and new materials being provided and developed by MINTEQ were evaluated as necessary. Additionally, energy savings estimates based on measured properties of the experimentally developed refractory systems from this project were made at MINTEQ to validate the energy savings estimates originally proposed for the project. As another part of the project, on-line inspection and hot repair techniques were considered. It was determined that although repair materials were successfully developed under this project for aluminum, black liquor, and coal gasification systems which enable hot repair, there was only minor interest from industry in implementing these materials. On-line inspection techniques were also identified under this project which are currently used in the steel industry, but implementation of these techniques in applications such as black liquor and coal gasification where higher temperatures and tighter access clearances exist proved difficult due to cost considerations. Therefore, on-line inspection was not further pursued under this project. Information from data collected during this and previous DOE projects was inputted into a refractory database housed at a public site (http://extwebapps.ornl.gov/crpd/Default.aspx). This database was initially populated with over twenty five refractory systems. Industrial trials of the insulating shotcrete (INSULSHOT FH) and the material for use in aluminum rotary furnaces (ROTOSHOT AL) developed under this project were performed validating the commercial potential of these materials. Additionally, the magnesia-rich spinel formulation (FAST FIRE MG-SP SHOT) for use in black liquor and lime kiln/cement applications was commercially released by MINTEQ. Industrial trials were monitored through the end of the project...

  3. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  4. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-08-05

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces.more » The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.« less

  5. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  6. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  7. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell; Guy Dutech

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  8. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-08-05

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  10. Pollution control of swine manure and straw by conversion to chaetomium cellulolyticum SCP feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, M.; Chahal, D.S.; Stickney, B.

    1981-11-01

    Swine manure has a very high pollution potential and obnoxious odor. Large farms particularly are confronted with a manure disposal problem since environmentally acceptable solutions are now required by government regulations. Swine manure was found to be a good source of supplementary nutrients to ferment wheat straw into single-cell protein (SCP) with Chaetomium cellulolyticum when 0.13 g (NH4)2SO4/g solid was used as an additional source of nitrogen. In batch fermentations, inhibitory effects, possibly due to solubles released from the straw during alkali or acid pretreatment, were over come by starting the fermentation at about pH 7.0 and then reducing it to 5.0 during growth. An overall protein productivity of up to 66 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture of 1% w/v solids of manure and straw. This compares favorably with 99 mg/Lh when manure was fermented with glucose instead of straw as the main carbon source. A high protein productivity of 200 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture containing anaerobically prefermented swine manure liquor and 1.5% w/v solids from straw. The final products of the manure and straw fermentations contained 25-30% DW crude protein and 6-20% DW cellulose and the materials were free of the original obnoxious odor and undesirable microbial contamination. (Refs. 17).

  11. Two Dihydroxo-Bridged Plutonium(IV) Nitrate Dimers and Their Relevance to Trends in Tetravalent Ion Hydrolysis and Condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knope, Karah E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L.

    2015-11-02

    We report the room temperature synthesis and structural characterization of a μ2-hydroxobridged PuIV dimer obtained from an acidic, nitric acid solution. The discrete Pu2(OH)2(NO3)6(H2O)4 moiety crystallized with two distinct crystal structures, (1) [Pu2(OH)2(NO3)6(H2O)4]2·11H2O and (2) Pu2(OH)2(NO3)6(H2O)4·2H2O, which differ primarily in the number of incorporated water molecules. High-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) data obtained from the mother liquor showed evidence of a correlation at 3.7(10) Å but only after concentration of the stock solution. This distance is consistent with the dihydroxo-bridged distance of 3.799(1) Å seen in the solid-state structure as well as with the known Pu-Pu distance in PuO2. The structural characterization of a dihydroxo-bridged Pu moiety is discussed in terms of its relevance to the underlying mechanisms of tetravalent-metal-ion condensation

  12. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  13. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  14. Use of Electrochemical Noise to Assess Corrosion in Kraft Continuous Digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, S.J.

    2004-11-29

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in two continuous kraft digesters at a variety of locations representative of corrosion throughout the vessels. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of up to 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously during each experiment. The results indicate that changes in furnish composition and process upsets were invariably associated with concurrent substantial changes in EN activity throughout the vessels. Post-test evaluation of the mild steel electrode materials in both vessels confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude consistent with historical trends in the respective vessels as well as values qualitatively (and semi-quantitatively) related to EN current sums for each electrode pair. Stainless steel electrodes representing 309LSi and 312 overlay repairs exhibited zero wastage corrosion--as did the actual overlays--but the EN data indicated periodic redox activity on the stainless steel that varied with time and position within the vessel. Little or no correlation between EN probe activity and other operational variables was observed in either vessel. Additional details for each digester experiment are summarized.

  15. METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF SPHERICAL UO$sub 4$

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, J.F. Jr.; Levey, R.P. Jr.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for continuously precipitating ura nium peroxide in the form of spherical particles. Seed crystals are formed in a first reaction zone by introducing an acidified aqueous uranyl nitrate solution and an aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution at a ratio of 5 to 20 per cent of the stoichiometric amount required for complete precipitation. After a mean residence time of 2 to 5 minutes in the first reaction zone, the resulting mixture is introduced into a second reaction zone, together with a large excess of hydrogen peroxide solution. The resulting UO4 is rapidly separated from the mother liquor after an over-all residence time of 5 to 11 minutes. The first reaction is maintained at a temperature of 85 to 90 deg C and the second zone above 50 deg C. Additional reaction zones may be employed for further crystal growth. The UO/sub 4/ is converted to U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ or UO/sub 2/ by heating in air or hydrogen atmosphere. This method is particularly useful for the preparation of spherical UO/sub 2/ particles 10 to 25 microns in diameter. (AEC)

  16. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  17. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  18. Influence of H/sub 2/ stripping on methane production in conventional digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poels, J.; Van Assche, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1985-12-01

    Hydrogen is a central metabolite in the methanization process. In this study the partial pressure of hydrogen in the gas phase of laboratory manure digesters was monitored over extensive periods of time and found to vary between 50 and 100.10/sup -6/ atm. By sparging the gas phase of the digester through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were allowed to develop at the expense of hydrogen and carbon dioxide present in the biogas, independently of the liquid or cell residence time in the main reactor. By scrubbing ca. 100 volumes of biogas per liter reactor per day through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogen concentration could be decreased maximally 25%. This resulted in an increase in the gas production rate of the main digester of ca. 10% and a concomitant improved removal of volatile fatty acids from the mixed liquor. The results obtained indicate that considerable stripping of hydrogen from the digester could be achieved at acceptable energy expenditure. However, the microbial removal of the hydrogen at these low concentrations is extremely slow and limits the applicability of this approach.

  19. Design consideration and economic analysis of a community size biogas unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbus, S.P.

    1983-12-01

    At present, various organizations in Pakistan are involved in RandD work in biogas technology. Most of them are government organizations. The units developed or advertised by these organizations are of small size, i.e., for a single family, to provide gas for cooking and lighting only. In this paper, the design of a community-size biogas unit for power generation has been discussed based on hydraulic flow characteristics. The type of digesters which have been discussed are plug flow, arbitrary flow and complete mix flow. As the biological activity of the organic material in the reactor depends on the residence time and also on the temperature of the digesting liquor, hence the flow characteristics play a major role in the sizing of the digestion reactor tank. A diesel engine coupled with the biogas unit has been discussed. This not only provides power for pumping water, power for cottage industries, etc., but also the waste heat from the internal combustion engine can be used to heat the digester or for other heating needs. The economic evaluation of such a plant has been completed and the payback period has been calculated.

  20. Biographical sketch - Kevin Redding | Center for Bio-Inspired...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 N.S.F. CAREER award, 2004-2010 DuPont Young Professor Award, 1999-2002 N.S.F. Plant Biology Post-doctoral Fellowship, 1995-1997 N.S.F. Pre-doctoral Fellowship, 1987-1990 e. ...