Sample records for liquids receipts average

  1. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  2. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  3. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  4. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  5. HARVARD UNIVERSITY MISSING RECEIPT AFFIDAVIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    of the car rental agreement. Please reimburse me based on the following information: Dates Rental Company Car agreement receipt · Personal Car Usage ­ receipts for tolls and parking and daily mileage log listing date

  6. Solar Energy Gross Receipts Tax Deduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Mexico has a gross receipts tax structure for businesses instead of a sales tax. Businesses are taxed on the gross amount of their business receipts each year before expenses are deducted....

  7. RG1:aased on receipt but intended for use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RG1:aased on receipt but intended for use March 14, 1928 Science Service Feature P W H Y and portable, is much b e t t e r known t o t h e average citizen., In t h i s instrument a thin-walled metal t s reserved by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE, 21st mci B sts., .Washington, D. ~ C.. #12;

  8. Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) - Receipt of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Receipt of Administrative Order Relative to the Management of Hazardous Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Drums at LANL Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) - Receipt of...

  9. Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing Receipts) May 27, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing Receipts) May 27, 2010 1 Scenario: The Match Exception on the instruction page. #9 #5 #11 #9 #7 Receipt #1 Receipt #2 #12;Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing the PO ID from the Match Exception Report in the ID field. (Use Roadmap) 6. Select, Search 7. Check

  10. A, Science Service Feature Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A, Science Service Feature Released upon receipt but intended for use July 21, 1933 ? WHY THE J every summer i n the United States and southern Canada. A citizen of South Dakota, where the mercury, i a population Of 120,000. ( A l l rights reserved by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SBVICE Washington, D.C. 21st

  11. A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt but intended for use September 10, 1929. ? 'WXY TKE Canada, the United States (including Alaska and a West Indian service), Mexico, Costa Rica, Canal Zone there are services for Australia, New Zealand and Samoa& (All rights reserved- by---_Science--- Service, Inc

  12. Advanced Energy Gross Receipts Tax Deduction | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics Maximum Rebate 60 million Program Info Start Date 712010 State New Mexico Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% of gross receipts from sale and...

  13. University of Oklahoma Receipt of FMLA Information Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma Receipt of FMLA Information Certification This original document is to be returned to the Office of Human Resources / Employee Relations - NEL 259 - Norman, Oklahoma 73019. If you

  14. The WIPP journey to waste receipt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.J.; Whatley, M.E.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection of the New Mexico site as a potential radioactive waste repository. Numerous scientific studies, construction activities, and environmental compliance documents have been completed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has addressed all relevant issues regarding the safety of WIPP and its ability to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Throughout the last two decades up to the present time, DOE has negotiated through a political, regulatory, and legal maze with regard to WIPP. New regulations have been issued, litigation initiated, and public involvement brought to the forefront of the DOE decision-making process. All of these factors combined to bring WIPP to its present status--at the final stages of working through the licensing requirements for receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal. Throughout its history, the DOE has stayed true to Congress` mandates regarding WIPP. Steps taken have been necessary to demonstrate to Congress, the State of New Mexico, and the public in general, that the nation`s first radioactive waste repository will be safe and environmentally sound. DOE`s compliance demonstrations are presently under consideration by the cognizant regulatory agencies and DOE is closer than ever to waste receipt. This paper explores the DOE`s journey towards implementing a permanent disposal solution for defense-related TRU waste, including major Congressional mandates and other factors that contributed to program changes regarding the WIPP project.

  15. Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems to Government Entities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Mexico has a gross receipts tax structure for businesses instead of a sales tax. Businesses are taxed on the gross amount of their business receipts each year before expenses are deducted. ...

  16. Effects of heat and mass transport on the hydrodynamics and stability of liquid desiccant films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pineda Vargas, Sergio Manuel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5.8 Average liquid properties heat capacity, thermal5.9 Average liquid properties heat capacity, thermalFigure 5.8: Average liquid properties heat capacity, thermal

  17. On-Line Journal Tips and Refreshers Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    On-Line Journal Tips and Refreshers Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals Updated April 2009 Updated 04/30/2010 1 Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals Source Code 320 and 323 Purpose Cash Receipt more or once a week whichever comes first. 2. Journals should be dated the date they are prepared

  18. U.S. Natural Gas Interstate Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0ReceiptsReceipts

  19. Science Service B a t u s Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Service B a t u s Released upon receipt but intendod f o r use May 19, 1933 1 PVHYTKF had seen brown quadrupsd with a hump on its a cnmel. Every known optical phencinenon of the atmosph of the Air." (All rights resumed by Science, Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE 21st and Constitution Ave

  20. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  1. IA Science Service Feature Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and mercantile Property and on automobiles, and should be sold more by the average local agent. The tornado l l purchase both tornado and h a i l insurmce.11 Apropos of insuring automobiles against h a i l i

  2. Net receipts sharing and transfer of federal mineral responsibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCannon, S. (Colorado Dept. of Natural Resources, Denver, CO (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two interrelated issues - the policy of net receipt sharing and the [open quotes]Mineral Royalty Transfer Study[close quotes] that was submitted to Congress in June of this year by the Minerals Management Service of the Department of Interior are discussed. The 1993 Interior Appropriations Act, P.L. 102-381, which was signed by the president on October 5, 1992, includes a provision that, in addition to costing states $37.5 million has a few other problems: It may be illegal, it flies in the face of the Mineral Leasing Act, it sets a frightening precedent, it is bad public policy and it ignores the substantial contribution of states to federal mineral development. This provision is known as net receipt sharing. The advantages and disadvantages of this Act are discussed.

  3. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT AND RETURN FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Arakali

    2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) of the repository including the personnel at the security gate and cask staging areas. This calculation is required to support the preclosure safety analysis (PCSA) to ensure that the predicted doses are within the regulatory limits prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Cask Receipt and Return Facility receives NRC licensed transportation casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TCRRF operation starts with the receipt, inspection, and survey of the casks at the security gate and the staging areas, and proceeds to the process facilities. The transportation casks arrive at the site via rail cars or trucks under the guidance of the national transportation system. This calculation was developed by the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization and is intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in work regarding facility design. Environmental and Nuclear Engineering personnel should be consulted before using this calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or for use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization.

  4. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  5. Complete information below if not found on receipt #2 National Drug Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Complete information below if not found on receipt #2 National Drug Code Drug Name___________________________Drug Supply 5. National Drug Code (NDC) 6. Name of drug and strength 7. DAW code (if applicable) 8. Amount paid Tape Prescription Receipt #1 Here No Staples DRUG CLAIM FORM 1. Please type or print clearly

  6. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  7. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  8. U.S. Natural Gas International Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0Receipts (Million

  9. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 Accepted: 9 March 2004 Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  10. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalTheE. Great Basin Oil and Gas FieldsLiquids

  11. 30 TAC, part 1, chapter 39, rule 39.418 Notice of Receipt of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Notice of Receipt of Application and Intent to Obtain Permit Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 30 TAC, part...

  12. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  13. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT/RETURN FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of transportation casks performed in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) and Buffer Area meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''Transportation Cask Receipt/Return Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170217], Section 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of the following items: (1) Evaluate criticality effects for both dry and fully flooded conditions pertaining to TCRRF and Buffer Area operations for defense in depth. (2) Evaluate Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the TCRRF as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). This evaluation includes credible fuel reconfiguration conditions. In addition to the scope of work listed above, an evaluation was also performed of modeling assumptions for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) regarding inclusion of plenum and end regions of the active fuel. This calculation is limited to CSNF and US Department of Energy (DOE) SNF. it should be mentioned that the latter waste form is evaluated more in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167614]). Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the US Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the TCRRF and Buffer Area and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility. However, it is anticipated that design changes to the facility layout will have little or no impact on the criticality results and/or conclusions presented in this document. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2004 [DIRS 171539]) because the TCRRF is included in the Q-List (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168361], p. A-3) as an item important to safety. This calculation is prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' [DIRS 168413].

  14. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  15. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF RECEIPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA ­ NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF RECEIPT PETITION TO AMEND the CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION DECISION for the SACRAMENTO POWER AUTHORITY CAMPBELL with the California Energy Commission requesting to amend Condition of Certification EFF-1 for the Campbell

  16. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term,...

  17. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  18. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  19. ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89) Interaction of atmospheric and efflorescence equate to a change in state from solid to liquid as the relative humidity (RH) changes. RH can change due to an increase in the mixing ratio of water vapor (equating to more collisions of water

  20. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  1. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  2. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor History of sales procedures Manufacturer Driven Procedures What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." It should

  3. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  4. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  5. Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    space, 911: an average, every twonty-four hours. bodies3 mostly very small. bigger than a boy's marble into space o r fall t o tho earth, but the vast majority are complately dissipated. They glow f o r a brief

  6. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  7. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  8. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  9. Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Shah H. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Kramkowski, Edward L.; Ochs, Peter J.; Wilson, David M.; Hoffmann, Peter M., E-mail: hoffmann@wayne.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope, we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined, weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior, we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip, while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

  10. Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Timothy

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The director field is the realization of local averaging to de- scribe the natural state in a nematic liquid crystal, Figure 1.1. For any natural alignment of the liquid crystal, n?, one prescribes that W (n?,?n?) = 0. Since the director field is used... derivative of h by the formula D Dt h(t,x) = ?h? t +(u ~?)h. The acceleration is of the liquid crystal material through the point x is given by a(t,x) = Du Dt . Following the classical approach one assumes that for every open subset Wt ??, trav- eling along...

  11. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  12. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of todays CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  13. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  14. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  15. U.S. Natural Gas International & Interstate Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0 Year-1Receipts

  16. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  17. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  18. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  19. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  20. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  1. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  2. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  3. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  5. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  6. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  7. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  8. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  9. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  10. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  11. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  12. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  13. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  14. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  15. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  16. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  17. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  18. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  19. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  20. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  1. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  2. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  3. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  4. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  5. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  6. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  7. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  8. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  9. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  10. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  11. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquidliquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  12. Receipt of Guideline-Concordant Treatment in Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carpenter, William R. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bainbridge, John [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nielsen, Matthew E. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Urology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the proportion of elderly prostate cancer patients receiving guideline-concordant treatment, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,001 men diagnosed in 2004-2007 with localized prostate cancer, aged 66 to 79 years, were included. We characterized the proportion of men who received treatment concordant with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, stratified by risk group and age. Logistic regression was used to examine covariates associated with receipt of guideline-concordant management. Results: Guideline concordance was 79%-89% for patients with low- or intermediate-risk disease. Among high-risk patients, 66.6% of those aged 66-69 years received guideline-concordant management, compared with 51.9% of those aged 75-79 years. Discordance was mainly due to conservative managementno treatment or hormone therapy alone. Among the subgroup of patients aged ?76 years with no measured comorbidity, findings were similar. On multivariable analysis, older age (75-79 vs 66-69 years, odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.57) was associated with a lower likelihood of guideline concordance for high-risk prostate cancer, but comorbidity was not. Conclusions: There is undertreatment of elderly but healthy patients with high-risk prostate cancer, the most aggressive form of this disease.

  13. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  14. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  15. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  16. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  17. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili, Lo`eve, Karhunen harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  18. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  19. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  20. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Jos

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  1. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  2. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Williams, Melanie [Texas Cancer Registry, Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas (United States)] [Texas Cancer Registry, Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Niu, Jiangong [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad [Florida Cancer Data System, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Florida Cancer Data System, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J. [New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York (United States)] [New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: BSmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ?66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, ?, and ?{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEERMedicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEERMedicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  3. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  4. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  5. Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  7. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  8. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  9. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  10. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  11. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  12. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  13. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  14. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  15. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  16. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  17. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  18. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  19. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  20. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  1. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  2. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  3. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  4. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  5. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  6. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicols

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  7. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  10. SEPARATION/TERMINATION CHECKLIST PROCEDURES This checklist should be initiated only by the home department and upon receipt of a written notice of resignation or termination.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    SEPARATION/TERMINATION CHECKLIST PROCEDURES This checklist should be initiated only by the home department and upon receipt of a written notice of resignation or termination. The following procedures must be completed for all separating/terminating employees except students, grads and temporary hourly employees

  11. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  12. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  13. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  14. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  15. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  16. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  17. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  18. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  19. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at 20 using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  20. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  1. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  2. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  3. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  4. Breakup of Liquid Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including the dispersion of liquid drugs into res- pirable droplets, microfluidics, crop- and paint-spraying, and ink-jet printing [24]. There are also biological sys- tems in which either long filaments remain intact, or many droplets are formed [5, 6...

  5. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  6. Final Report - Gas Retention and Release Tests Supporting the Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV-VSL-00002A/2B) Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUERRERO, HECTOR

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Retention and Release (GR and R) tests were performed in the scaled Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV) Test Stand at the Savannah River National Laboratory to validate the capability of candidate Hybrid-Mixing systems for the CRV to safely release hydrogen during normal and upset conditions. Hydrogen is generated in the radioactive waste as a result of natural and plant processes and must not be allowed to accumulate above flammability limits. Two types of tests were conducted. Gas holdup tests determined the steady state amount of gas accumulated in the simulant under normal PJM only or PJM plus sparging conditions. Gas release tests determined what operating conditions are necessary to fully release gas after a steady state gas fraction of 4 per cent tank volume or more was reached in the simulant.

  7. FINAL REPORT - HYBRID-MIXING TESTS SUPPORTING THE CONCENTRATE RECEIPT VESSEL (CRV-VSL-00002A/2B) CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUERRERO, HECTORN.

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed scaled physical modeling of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems applicable to the Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV) of Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) as part of the overall effort to validate pulse jet mixer (PJM) mixing in WTP vessels containing non-Newtonian fluids. The strategy developed by the Pulse Jet Mixing Task Team was to construct a quarter-scale model of the CRV, use a clear simulant to understand PJM mixing behavior, and down-select from a number of PJM configurations to a ''best design'' configuration. This ''best design'' would undergo final validation testing using a particulate simulant that has rheological properties closely similar to WTP waste streams. The scaled PJM mixing tests were to provide information on the operating parameters critical for the uniform movement (total mobilization) of these non-Newtonian slurries. Overall, 107 tests were performed during Phase I and Phase II testing.

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  10. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  11. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  12. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; Lpez, O; Prlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  13. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  14. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  15. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Abstract:...

  16. Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmatad, Yael Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

  17. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  18. Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

  19. Help cut pollution with vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woinsky, S.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are common in chemical process industries plants. In addition to separating phases, these devices can aid in reducing pollution in the plant. Two-phase separators achieve pollution prevention via recycling of intermediates and final products. It is doubtful that most vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are used specifically for pollution prevention projects. They may have another purpose yet provide pollution prevention as a bonus. The first step in achieving pollution prevention by design is for operating companies to be aware of vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators as potential pollution prevention devices. Then, likely applications need to be investigated. Since the quantities of material recovered are relatively small, higher value products are the most likely targets, especially for liquid/liquid separators. However, for vapor/liquid separators, the costs involved are usually relatively low since only the cost of a separator pad is normally involved, and more moderately valued products can be targets.

  20. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  1. Schrodinger Fermi Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Juven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a class of strongly interacting many-body fermionic systems in 2+1D non-relativistic conformal field theory via holography. The 5D charged black hole with asymptotic Schrodinger isometry in the bulk gravity side introduces parameters of background density and finite particle number into the boundary field theory. We propose the holographic dictionary, and realize a quantum phase transition of this fermionic liquid with fixed particle number by tuning the background density $\\beta$ at zero temperature. On the larger $\\beta$ side, we find the signal of a sharp quasiparticle pole on the spectral function A(k,w), indicating a well-defined Fermi surface. On the smaller $\\beta$ side, we find only a hump with no sharp peak for A(k,w), indicating the disappearance of Fermi surface. The dynamical exponent $z$ of quasiparticle dispersion goes from being Fermi-liquid-like $z\\simeq1$ scaling at larger $\\beta$ to a non-Fermi-liquid scaling $z\\simeq 3/2$ at smaller $\\beta$. By comparing the structure of Green's fu...

  2. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  3. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  4. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  5. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  6. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  7. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  8. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  9. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  10. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  11. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  12. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  13. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  14. A Smartphone Controlled Handheld Microfluidic Liquid Handling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baichen; Guan, Allan; Dong, Quan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation functions. Here, we present a handheld automated microfluidic liquid handling system controlled by a smartphone, which is enabled by combining elastomeric on-chip valves and a compact pneumatic system. As a demonstration, we show that the system can automatically perform all the liquid handling steps of a bead-based sandwich immunoassay on a multi-layer PDMS chip without any human intervention. The footprint of the system is 6 by 10.5 by 16.5cm, and the total weight is 829g including battery. Powered by a 12.8V 1500mAh Li battery, the system consumed 2.2W on average during the immunoassay and lasted for 8.7 hrs. This handheld microfluidic liquid handling platform...

  15. Ternary liquid mixture viscosities and densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, I.C.; Rowley, R.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid mixture viscosities and densities have been measured at 298.15 K and ambient pressure for 20 ternary systems. Twelve ternary compositions, encompassing the entire composition range, have been chosen for each system in an effort to test a newly proposed predictive equation based on local compositions. Viscosities calculated by using the local composition model agreed with the experimental data within an average absolute deviation of 6.4%. No adjustable parameters were used and only binary interactions in the form of NRTL constants were input. The results of these studies indicate that the local composition model predictions are generally as good for multicomponent systems as they are for the corresponding binaries. 24 references, 3 tables.

  16. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  17. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  18. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  19. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  20. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  1. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  2. ,,"Electricity Receipts(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table9 Relative7

  3. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  4. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  5. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  6. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  7. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  9. NEW VIEW of the young earth covered in oceans of liquid water as early as 4.4 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Anders

    sun. Averaging 75 times the speed of sound, each impactor scorched the surface--shattering, meltingNEW VIEW of the young earth covered in oceans of liquid water as early as 4.4 billion years ago into a crust, before continents could form, be- fore the dense, steamy atmosphere could pool as liquid water

  10. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  11. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  12. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  13. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  14. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface...

  15. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  16. THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER FIBERS M. GREGORY FOREST, HONG ZHOU, AND QI WANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Hong

    ­1204 Abstract. Super-strength, lightweight materials used in bullet-proof vests, high-performance cables and tires, and stealth airplanes are built from liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) fibers. The remarkable-dimensional Doi­Edwards averaged kinetic equations to include temperature-dependent material behavior

  17. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquino, Froilan Ludana

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cotton-gin trash (CGT) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures and reaction times using an externally-heated batch reactor. The average yields of output products (solid/char, liquid/bio-oil, and gaseous) were determined. The heating value (HV...

  18. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  19. Statistical nature of cluster emission in nuclear liquid phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. G. Ma

    2002-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission of nuclear clusters is investigated within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model and classical molecular dynamics model. It is found that the emission of individual cluster which is heavier than proton is almost Poissonian except near the liquid gas phase transition point and the thermal scaling is observed by the linear Arrhenius plots which is made from the average multiplicity of each cluster versus the inverse of temperature in the nuclear liquid phase. It indicates of a statistical nature of such cluster emission in the models. The "emission barriers" which are the slopes of the Arrhenius plots are extracted as a function of the mass or charge number and fitted by the formula embodied with the contributions of the surface energy and Coulomb interaction. The possible influences of the source size, Coulomb interaction and "freeze-out" density and related physical implications are discussed.

  20. Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

  1. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  2. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  3. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  4. Liquid measurement - Techniques and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, B.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews a few liquid measurement techniques and their associated problems. In measuring liquid petroleum gas, the first obstacle to overcome is accomodating some form of volumetric measurement. This is usually accomplished by orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meters. Each of the three established methods is covered extensively by industry standards in the API Manual of Petroleum Standards. If the operator follows these standards, very accurate results can be achieved.

  5. Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

  6. Communication: Unusual structure and transport in ionic liquid-hexane mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Min [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Khatun, Sufia [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Castner, Edward W. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2015-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids having a sufficiently amphiphilic cation can dissolve large volume fractions of alkanes, leading to mixtures with intriguing properties on molecular length scales. The trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion provides an ionic liquid that can dissolve large mole fractions of hexane. We present experimental results on mixtures of n-C6D14 with this ionic liquid. High- energy X-ray scattering studies reveal a persistence of the characteristic features of ionic liquid structure even for 80% dilution with n-C6D14. NMR self-diffusion results reveal decidedly non-hydrodynamic behavior where the self-diffusion of the neutral, non-polar n-C6D14 is on average a factor of 21 times faster than for the cation. Exploitation of the unique structural and transport properties of these mixtures may lead to new opportunities for designer solvents for enhanced chemical reactivity and interface science.

  7. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft 1ft prototype panels for the worlds first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicrons patented e-Tint technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMIs roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  8. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites.

  9. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  10. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  11. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  12. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is currently underway, and detailed results will be reported in upcoming publications.

  13. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  14. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  15. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  16. Are polar liquids less simple?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fragiadakis; C. M. Roland

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong correlation between equilibrium fluctuations of the potential energy, U, and the virial, W, is a characteristic of a liquid that implies the presence of certain dynamic properties, such as density scaling of the relaxation times and isochronal superpositioning of the relaxation function. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations (mds) on methanol and two variations, lacking hydrogen bonds and a dipole moment, to assess the connection between the correlation of U and W and these dynamic properties. We show, in accord with prior results of others [T.S. Ingebrigtsen, T.B. Schroder, J.C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. X 2, 011011 (2012).], that simple van der Waals liquids exhibit both strong correlations and the expected dynamic behavior. However, for polar liquids this correspondence breaks down - weaker correlation between U and W is not associated with worse conformance to density scaling or isochronal superpositioning. The reason for this is that strong correlation between U and W only requires their proportionality, whereas the expected dynamic behavior depends primarily on constancy of the proportionality constant for all state points. For hydrogen-bonded liquids, neither strong correlation nor adherence to the dynamic properties is observed; however, this nonconformance is not directly related to the concentration of hydrogen bonds, but rather to the greater deviation of the intermolecular potential from an inverse power law (IPL). Only (hypothetical) liquids having interactions governed strictly by an IPL are perfectly correlating and exhibit the consequent dynamic properties over all thermodynamic conditions.

  17. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  18. SeaOne Pascagoula, LLC- FE Dkt. No. 14-83-CGL (Compressed Gas Liquids)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on June 3, 2014, by SeaOne Pascagoula, LLC requesting long-term multi-contract authorization to export Compressed Gas...

  19. Liquid soap film generates electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  20. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  1. Optical Manipulation of Shape-Morphing Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Microparticles Doped with Gold Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y. R.; Evans, J. S.; Lee, T.; Senyuk, B.; Keller, P.; He, S. L.; Smalyukh, I. I.

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate facile optical manipulation of shape of birefringent colloidal microparticles made from liquid crystal elastomers. Using soft lithography and polymerization, we fabricate elastomeric microcylinders with weakly undulating director oriented on average along their long axes. These particles are infiltrated with gold nanospheres acting as heat transducers that allow for an efficient localized transfer of heat from a focused infrared laser beam to a submicrometer region within a microparticle. Photothermal control of ordering in the liquid crystal elastomer using scanned beams allows for a robust control of colloidal particles, enabling both reversible and irreversible changes of shape. Possible applications include optomechanics, microfluidics, and reconfigurable colloidal composites with shape-dependent self-assembly.

  2. New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New airport liquid analysis system New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque International Sunport A new tool that distinguishes potential-threat liquids...

  3. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

  4. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. 2001. Calculating free energies using average force. J.D, Benjamin I. 2009. Free energy of transfer of hydrated ion1990. Reorganization free energy for electron transfers at

  5. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained using the ATLAS readout, data acquisition, and reconstruction software indicate that the liquid argon calorimeter is well-prepared for collisions at the dawn of the LHC era.

  6. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  7. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  8. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  9. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  10. ELECTRONS ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, David Kay

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert (Ph. D.ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert Materialsthe potential well near a helium surface, The charge density

  11. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  12. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  13. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Armand, Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

  14. Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Bakai

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

  15. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

  16. Cooperative motions in supercooled liquids and glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Jacob D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Heat capacity and entropy of an equilibrium liquid fromliquids should correlate inversely with the con?gurational heat capacity,

  17. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  18. Costs of Generating Electrical Energy 1.0 Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , 1992 through 2008 Period Coal [1] Petroleum [2] Natural Gas [3] All Fossil Fuels Receipts (Billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (Billion BTUs) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) ($ per 10 6

  19. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dvid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  20. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  2. Response functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    speci¿c heat capacity CP and the isothermal compressibility KT . We use two different methods: (i) fromResponse functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water Erik Lascaris , T. A, and for four different system sizes, N = 63, 73, 83, and 93. We locate the liquid-liquid phase transition line

  3. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    compressibility KT and the isobaric heat capacity CP . In the LLCP hypothesis, the density anomalies of waterErasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral, Sapienza, Universit´a di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185, Roma, Italy. EFFECTS OF THE LIQUID-LIQUID

  4. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  5. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social Impacts Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels DOE LDV Workshop 7-26-10 Mike Ramage and Jim

  6. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  8. Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduce kids to liquid nitrogen. Explain that it is a liquid and is very cold (kids will be excited

  9. TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

  10. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  11. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  12. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  13. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  14. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  15. Terminal polydispersity in the crystallization of polydisperse Lennard-Jones liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarmistha Sarkar; Mantu Santra; Biman Bagchi

    2011-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We find through computer simulations that the fractional volume change on freezing of polydisperse Lennard-Jones liquid decreases with increasing polydispersity and approaches zero near a terminal polydispersity of 0.11, independent of temperature. The transition however remains first order at terminal polydispersity. Average inherent structure (IS) energy of the crystalline phase increases nearly quadratically with polydispersity indices ({\\delta}) and marked by a crossover to nearly constant IS energy in the amorphous phase.

  16. Geometric pumping induced by shear flow in dilute liquid crystalline polymer solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shunsuke Yabunaka; Hisao Hayakawa

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate nonlinear rheology of dilute liquid crystalline polymer solutions under time dependent two-directional shear flow. We analyze the Smoluchowski equation, which describes the dynamics of the orientation of a liquid crystalline polymer, by employing technique of the full counting statistics. In the adiabatic limit, we derive the expression for time integrated currents generated by a Berry-like curvature. Using this expression, it is shown that the expectation values of the time-integrated angular velocity of a liquid crystalline polymer and the time-integrated stress tensor are generally not zero even if the time average of the shear rate is zero. The validity of the theoretical calculations is confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the Smoluchowski equation. Nonadiabatic effects are also investigated by simulations and it is found that the time-integrated stress tensor depends on the speed of the modulation of the shear rate if we adopt the isotropic distribution as an initial state.

  17. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  18. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  19. Plasma-Surface Interactions on Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Bastasz; W. Eckstein

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid plasma-facing surfaces have been suggested as an option for advanced fusion devices, particularly in regions where solid materials may not survive over long operating periods. Because liquid surfaces can be replenished, they offer the possibility of tolerating intense particle bombardment and of recovering from off-normal events. As a preliminary step in understanding the nature of plasma-surface interactions on liquids, the authors consider some of the surface processes occurring in liquids undergoing irradiation by energetic particles. These include (1) sputtering, (2) segregation of liquid component species and impurities, (3) evaporation, and (4) trapping and release of incident particles. Aspects of these processes are examined for several candidate liquids, which represent three types of low-Z liquids: pure metals (Li), metallic alloys (Sn-Li), and compound insulators (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}).

  20. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  1. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  2. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  3. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  4. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Enter a Receipt NUFinancials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    or Central Supply Chain SC020 Delivery Report · Under Ship To column, in the Keywords field, search already been partially received) · Fill in other search criteria as necessary · Click Search · From search request, use: · Project Café website http://cafe.northwestern.edu · Click Resources on left side of page

  6. Influence of geometry on liquid oxygen magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, 4130 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-4130 (United States); Jensen, Scott; Wassom, Steve [Space Dynamics Laboratory, Utah State University Research Foundation, 1695 North Research Park Way, North Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic fluid actuators have performed well in industrial applications, but have a limited temperature range due to the freezing point of the carrier fluid. Liquid oxygen (LOX) presents a pure, paramagnetic fluid suitable for use in a cryogenic magnetic fluid system; therefore, it is a potential solution to increasing the thermal range of magnetic fluid technology without the need for magnetic particles. The current study presents experimental work regarding the influence of geometry on the dynamics of a LOX slug in a 1.9 mm quartz tube when pulsed by a solenoid in a closed volume. A numerical analysis calculated the optimal solenoid geometry and balanced the magnetic, damping, and pressure forces to determine optimal slug lengths. Three configurations comprised the experiment: (1) a 24-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 2.7 cm length slug, (2) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 1.3 cm length slug, and (3) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with a nonoptimized 2.5 cm length slug. Typically, the hydrodynamic breakdown limit is calculated and used to determine the system range; however the experiment showed that the hydrodynamic breakdown limit was never reached by the slug. This implied that, instead, the system range should factor in a probabilistic risk of failure calculated as a function of the induced pressure change from its oscillations. The experimental data were also used to establish a nondimensional relationship between the maximum displacement and initial magnetic pressure on the slug. The average initial velocity of the slug was found to be proportional to the initial magnetic pressure, Mason number, and slug length. The results of this study can be used in the design and optimization of a LOX fluid system for space or low-temperature applications. (author)

  7. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  8. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  9. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  10. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  11. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  12. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  13. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  14. Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution (7). The present study of orif1ce mixing is a continuation of previous research on this project which yielded a relationship explaining the effect of operating conditions upon the format1on of 1nterfacial area for the system water-kerosene.... The experimental technique evolved by Helch (18), Vesselhoff (19), McNair (8), and Scott (IA) was changed only slightly. Their work on water-kerosene was repeated for the liquid pairs trichloroethylene-water, heptanol-water, 20 per oent aqueous sucrose-kerosene...

  15. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)May661.DataNov-14Liquids

  16. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call into question certain aspects of the analyses. For example, if the volumes and activities of waste disposed of during the remainder of the disposal facility's lifetime differ significantly from those projected, the doses projected by the analyses may no longer apply. DOE field sites are required to implement a performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. The purpose of this program is to ensure the continued applicability of the analyses through incremental improvement of the level of understanding of the disposal site and facility. Site personnel are required to conduct field and experimental work to reduce the uncertainty in the data and models used in the assessments. Furthermore, they are required to conduct periodic reviews of waste receipts, comparing them to projected waste disposal rates. The radiological inventory for Area G was updated in conjunction with Revision 4 of the performance assessment and composite analysis (Shuman, 2008). That effort used disposal records and other sources of information to estimate the quantities of radioactive waste that have been disposed of at Area G from 1959, the year the facility started receiving waste on a routine basis, through 2007. It also estimated the quantities of LLW that will require disposal from 2008 through 2044, the year in which it is assumed that disposal operations at Area G will cease. This report documents the fourth review of Area G disposal receipts since the inventory was updated and examines information for waste placed in the ground during fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2011. The primary objective of the disposal receipt review is to ensure that the future waste inventory projections developed for the performance assessment and composite analysis are consistent with the actual types and quantities of waste being disposed of at Area G. Toward this end, the disposal data that are the subject of this review are used to update the future waste inventory projections for the disposal facility. These projections are compared to the future inventory projections that were develope

  17. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  18. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  20. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  1. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  2. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  3. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  4. Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

  5. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill ( ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  6. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  7. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  8. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  9. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte, ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid lithium salt

  10. Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

  11. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  12. Interfacial ionic liquids: connecting static and dynamic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structures separated by an energy barrier (0.15 eV). Keywords: ionic liquid, supercapacitor, electric double layer, epitaxial graphene, x-ray reflectivity, RTIL, interfacial...

  13. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

  14. Fully automated multifunctional ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograp...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase liquid chromatography, or SCXRPLC) separations, and online phosphopeptides enrichment using a single binary nano-flow pump has been developed. With a simple operation of...

  15. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  16. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  17. Radiometric Determination of Uranium in Natural Waters after Enrichment and Separation by Cation-Exchange and Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Pashalidis; H. Tsertos

    2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The alpha-radiometric determination of uranium after its pre-concentration from natural water samples using the cation-exchange resin Chelex-100, its selective extraction by tributylphosphate and electrodeposition on stainless steel discs is reported. The validity of the separation procedure and the chemical recoveries were checked by addition of uranium standard solution as well as by tracing with U-232. The average uranium yield was determined to be (97 +- 2) % for the cation-exchange, (95 +- 2) % for the liquid-liquid extraction, and more than 99% for the electrodeposition. Employing high-resolution alpha-spectroscopy, the measured activity of the U-238 and U-234 radioisotopes was found to be of similar magnitude; i.e. ~7 mBq/L and ~35 mBq/L for ground- and seawater samples, respectively. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the alpha-peaks was 22 keV, while the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was estimated to be 1 mBq/L (at the 95% confidence limit).

  18. CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing for timing measurements. Leonid Epshtein Budker connected to constitute 264 «towers»; signal of each tower is processed by electronic channel. Liquid Xenon functional channel scheme and signal's shapes in the typical point. Digital Signal Processing ADCCSALXe

  19. QUANTUM STATISTICS OF METASTABLE LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    QUANTUM STATISTICS OF METASTABLE LIQUID HELIUM FR´ED´ERIC CAUPIN AND S´EBASTIEN BALIBAR Laboratoire in the spinodal line of liquid helium 3, for which experimental evidence has been reported. The calculations in the case of superfluid helium 4; we also consider the overpressurized region, and the location

  20. Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    rrr = BJF rrr = BJF rrr = BJF rrr = J r V r+- g r B r J r #12; Magnetic Propulsion Liquid Metal Forces" Gravity-Momentum Drive (GMD) GMD with Swirl Flow Electromagnetically Restrained Magnetic Propulsion Plasma-Liquid Interface Fluids with low vapor pressure at high temperature (e.g. Sn

  1. Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  3. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  4. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37C to 300C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

  5. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  6. LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS. Sommaire. - I. Electrisation des hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides s'lectrisent (ngativement) lorsqu'ils s hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides mani- festent trois rgimes de conduction : 1 En couches paisses

  7. Essays on Bank Optimal Portfolio Choice under Liquidity Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eul Jin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    portfolio choices under liquidity constraints. Our theory predicts that liquidation plays an important role in a bank's portfolio model. Even though liquidation is an off-equilibrium phenomenon, banks can have rich loan portfolios due to the possibility...

  8. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most nonpolar liquids have heat capacities that range from 8the maximum liquid state heat capacity[173]. ExperimentallyLIQUID AND SOLID WATER (a) Density (b) Compressibility (c) Heat Capacity

  9. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  10. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  11. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  12. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  13. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Power

  14. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

  15. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm...

  16. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

  17. Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Erin M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

  18. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  19. Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

  20. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed...

  1. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well...

  2. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

  3. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  4. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

  5. Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been...

  6. Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional Laboratory Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional Laboratory January 28, 2015 -...

  7. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  8. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

  9. antiferroelectric liquid crystals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  10. antiferroelectric liquid crystal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  11. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

  12. alcohol liquid diet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biodiesel. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The most widely used process technology for biodiesel manufacture is the base-catalysed liquid-liquid...

  13. alkaline radioactive liquid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is, their capital and the margins charged by their financiers. In times of crisis, reductions in market liquidity and funding liquidity are mutually reinforcing,...

  14. Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

  15. Averaged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R. K. Mofrad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    , in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic dragAveraged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R 2009; published 26 March 2010 We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model

  16. Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    .nguyen@postgrads.unisa.edu.au Albert Guill´en i F`abregas Engineering Department University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK guillen@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 lars.rasmussen@unisa.edu.au Abstract-- Power allocation with peak-to-average power con

  17. Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit

  18. ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy initial energy distributions. We show that wave energy is not stable, and instead scintillation is created

  19. Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem

  20. Neurocomputing 69 (2006) 10621065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstner, Wulfram

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Spike-triggered voltage; h-current; Damped voltage oscillations 1 oscillations. The model comprises a variable v for the membrane voltage, with time-scale tv and a secondNeurocomputing 69 (2006) 10621065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on membrane

  1. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  2. WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA M In geophysics, a homomorphic system is used to modelize the convolution of an emitted wavelet (source) with the impulse response of the earth into the sum of the log spectra of the wavelet and the earth's response

  3. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Ren Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  4. Asymptotic scaling corrections in QCD with Wilson fermions from the 3-loop average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alles; A. Feo; H. Panagopoulos

    1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the 3-loop perturbative expansion of the average plaquette in lattice QCD with N_f massive Wilson fermions and gauge group SU(N). The corrections to asymptotic scaling in the corresponding energy scheme are also evaluated. We have also improved the accuracy of the already known pure gluonic results at 2 and 3 loops.

  5. Expansion and Growth of Structure Observables in a Macroscopic Gravity Averaged Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijenayake, Tharake

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of averaging inhomogeneities on expansion and large-scale structure growth observables using the exact and covariant framework of Macroscopic Gravity (MG). It is well-known that applying the Einstein's equations and spatial averaging do not commute and lead to the averaging problem. For the MG formalism applied to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, this gives an extra dynamical term encapsulated as an averaging density parameter denoted $\\Omega_A$. An exact isotropic cosmological solution of MG for the flat FLRW metric is already known in the literature, we derive here an anisotropic exact solution. Using the isotropic solution, we compare the expansion history to current data of distances to supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, CMB last scattering surface, and Hubble constant measurements, and find $-0.05 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.07$ (at the 95% CL). For the flat metric case this reduces to $-0.03 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.05$. We also find that the inclusion of this ter...

  6. Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haran, Murali

    Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections

  7. Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Bradley S.

    Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows V. Mejia and N. D of 53 lava flows from southern Patagonia (latitudes 49.5°­52.1°S) that include the Pali-Aike volcanic, 7 figures, 3 tables. Keywords: paleomagnetic secular variation; Patagonia; Pali-Aike Volcanic Field

  8. POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading. 11. Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch, 7th ed., Chap. 14. Introduction Polymers Polymers are a special in this experiment, or may be of different types. Polymers are very important in biological systems. For example

  9. Is Average Run Length to False Alarm Always an Informative Criterion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Yajun

    applications, including statistical process control (SPC), industrial quality control, target or signal- point detection. A partial list includes cumulative sum (CUSUM), Shewhart's control chart, exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, Shiyayev-Roberts proce- dures, window-limited control charts, and scan

  10. Average Consensus in the Presence of Delays in Directed Graph Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    @kth.se. #12;directed interconnection topology (digraph). The objective of a consensus problem is to have all values that the nodes initially posses (initial values). When the agents (asymptotically) reach agreement shown in [4] that, under a fixed interconnection topology, average consensus can be reached

  11. ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    . Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis

  12. Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

    1994-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.

  13. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  14. Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for cycle solution concepts, called web values, are introduced axiomatically, each one with respect to some specific recursive algorithms to calculate them. Additionally the efficiency and stability of web values are studied

  15. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  16. Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily. Instead of throwing paper and containers in the trash,recycle them in single-stream receptacles conveniently located throughout campus.These guidelines will help you recycle more and waste less. What's recyclable? Mixed

  17. S79JUNE 2006STATE OFTHE CLIMATE IN 2005 | FIG. 6.28. European average temperature anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­90 average. Romania and Bulgaria received significant rainfall excesses during the year, with August totals above average in Romania (Fig. 6.29). A warm January, with areas of eastern Ukraine more than 5°C above

  18. Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

  19. New determination of the D0?K??+?0 and D0?K??+?+?? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, David M.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    New determination of the D0!K?!+!0 and D0!K?!+!+!? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

  20. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  1. Communication: Unusual structure and transport in ionic liquid-hexane mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Min; Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2015-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids having a sufficiently amphiphilic cation can dissolve large volume fractions of alkanes, leading to mixtures with intriguing properties on molecular length scales. The trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion provides an ionic liquid that can dissolve large mole fractions of hexane. We present experimental results on mixtures of n-C6D14 with this ionic liquid. High- energy X-ray scattering studies reveal a persistence of the characteristic features of ionic liquid structure even for 80% dilution with n-C6D14. NMR self-diffusion results reveal decidedly non-hydrodynamic behavior where the self-diffusion of the neutral, non-polar n-C6D14 is on average a factor of 21moretimes faster than for the cation. Exploitation of the unique structural and transport properties of these mixtures may lead to new opportunities for designer solvents for enhanced chemical reactivity and interface science.less

  2. Odd-even staggering in nuclear binding and the liquid-drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. A. Friedman

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The trends with mass number are examined for the odd-even-staggering (OES) in nuclear binding of neutrons and protons through the conventional measures $\\Delta^{(3)}$. The large differences previously observed between these trends for even and odd values of these measures is found to arise, in part, from the slow variation of binding energies with mass and charge which provides a background contribution. This background is estimated with the liquid-drop model, and accounts for the greater difference found in proton removal relative to neutron removal. The differences which persist after backgrounds are removed can not be treated in the conventional liquid-drop model but require the addition of a new term. Such a term is investigated, and its effect on specific values of the OES is calcutated. The liquid-drop fitting is also applied to a set of separation energies constrained to match the specific set of nuclei used to determine the observed values for the odd $\\Delta^{(3)}$. The resulting fit for the pairing term is compared to the average value of even and odd measures. The effect on this value of the new liquid-drop term is observed, and the change in background when the new term is included is also used as an alternate method for determining the difference between trends of the even and odd values of the OES.

  3. On the Study of Collective Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids through the Statistics of the Iso-Configurational Ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asaph Widmer-Cooper; Peter Harrowell

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of the isoconfigurational ensemble to explore structure-dynamic correlations in supercooled liquids is examined. The statistical error of the dynamic propensity and its spatial distribution are determined. The authors present the spatial distribution of the particle non-Gaussian parameter as a measure of the intermittency with which particles exhibit their propensity for motion. The ensemble average of the direction of particle motion is introduced to establish the anisotropy of the dynamic propensity.

  4. Proton Electrodynamics in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Volkov; V. G. Artemov; A. V. Pronin

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric spectrum of liquid water, $10^{4} - 10^{11}$ Hz, is interpreted in terms of diffusion of charges, formed as a result of self-ionization of H$_{2}$O molecules. This approach explains the Debye relaxation and the dc conductivity as two manifestations of this diffusion. The Debye relaxation is due to the charge diffusion with a fast recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{2}$, while the dc conductivity is a manifestation of the diffusion with a much slower recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{1}$. Applying a simple model based on Brownian-like diffusion, we find $\\tau_{2} \\simeq 10^{-11}$ s and $\\tau_{1} \\simeq 10^{-6}$ s, and the concentrations of the charge carriers, involved in each of the two processes, $N_{2} \\simeq 5 \\times 10^{26}$ m$^{-3}$ and $N_{1} \\simeq 10^{14}$ m$^{-3}$. Further, we relate $N_{2}$ and $N_{1}$ to the total concentration of H$_{3}$O$^{+}$--OH$^{-}$ pairs and to the pH index, respectively, and find the lifetime of a single water molecule, $\\tau_{0} \\simeq 10^{-9}$ s. Finally, we show that the high permittivity of water results mostly from flickering of separated charges, rather than from reorientations of intact molecular dipoles.

  5. Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkrob, I. A.; Sauer, M. C.; Chemistry

    2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved one- and two-pulse laser dc photoconductivity has been used to observe two kinds of reducing species, anion-1 and anion-2, in liquid acetonitrile. At 25 C, the standard enthalpy of conversion from anion-1 to anion-2 is -44.3 {+-} 3.6 kJ/mol and the conversion time is 3 ns. The high-temperature form, anion-1, absorbs in the IR and migrates >3.3 times faster than any other ion in acetonitrile. This rapid migration has a low activation energy of 3.2 kJ/mol (vs 7.6 kJ/mol for other ions). Anion-1 rapidly transfers the electron to acceptors with high electron affinity, with rate constant up to 10{sup 11} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The low-temperature form, anion-2, absorbs in the visible and exhibits normal mobility and electron-transfer rates, ca. 1.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. It reacts, by proton transfer, with two hydrogen-bonded molecules of water and/or aliphatic alcohols. Laser photoexcitation of these two solvent anions in their respective absorption bands leads to the formation of CH{sub 3} and CN{sup -}. We present arguments indicating that anion-2 is a dimer radical anion of acetonitrile, whereas anion-1 is a multimer radical anion that may be regarded as a 'solvated electron'.

  6. Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments Marc J. Palmeri Princeton University Arnold Lab #12;Outline Motivation Applications of laser micromachining Problems with laser micromachining How do lasers work? What is laser micromachining? Micromachining assembly Methods

  7. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

    2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

  8. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  9. Experimental investigation on liquid behaviors in nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Weiyi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an nd as an ex xternal pressu ure is applie ed, the liquid d190 mm/min. Wh hen the pressu ure reached ab bout 50 MPa, ,

  10. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

  11. Liquid crystal variable retarders in atomic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, J.E.; Yu, D.H.; Hayes, P.A.; DSouza, C.M.; Williams, J.F. [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)] [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applications of liquid crystal variable retarders in the production of spin-polarized electrons and in the determination of the polarization of optical radiation from atoms excited by polarized electrons are discussed. The advantages of using liquid crystal variable retarders in the measurement of Stokes parameters are insensitivity to the incident photon direction, large transmission diameter, variable retardation over large wavelength range without mechanical movement, and {ital in} {ital situ} calibration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  13. Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Wheaton, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

  14. Equilibration of a spinless Luttinger liquid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, K. A.; Andreev, A. V. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Washington)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how a Luttinger liquid of spinless particles in one dimension approaches thermal equilibrium. Full equilibration requires processes of backscattering of excitations, which occur at energies of the order of the bandwidth. Such processes are not accounted for by the Luttinger-liquid theory. We treat the high-energy excitations as mobile impurities and derive an expression for the equilibration rate in terms of their spectrum. Our results apply at any interaction strength.

  15. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  16. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  17. Boiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and the critical temperature of 1 #12;Boiling of nuclear liquid in the microBoiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract New calculus of the liquid-gas phase transition is developed for the boiling of nuclear liquid

  18. FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS D. May1 , B. Wunderle1 , F approach: A liquid cooling system has to be cus- tomised to its application. Further, it requires many dis in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid

  19. Semiconductor liquid crystal composition and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Li, Liang-shi

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor liquid crystal compositions and methods for making such compositions are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention is directed to a liquid crystal composition including a solvent and semiconductor particles in the solvent. The solvent and the semiconductor particles are in an effective amount in the liquid crystal composition to form a liquid crystal phase.

  20. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  1. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  2. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alban Sauret; Franois Boulogne; Jean Cappello; Emilie Dressaire; Howard A. Stone

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

  3. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  4. A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

  5. A gradient system on the quantum information space realizing the averaged learning equation of Hebb type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshio Uwano; Hiromi Yuya

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The averaged learning equation (ALEH) applicable to the principal component analyzer is studied from both quantum information geometry and dynamical system viewpoints. On the quantum information space (QIS), the space of regular density matrices endowed with the quantum SLD-Fisher metric, a gradient system is given as an extension of the ALEH; on the submanifold, consisting of the diagonal matrices, of the QIS, the gradient flow coincides with the ALEH up to a local diffeomorphism.

  6. Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellers, D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance By: David Sellers, Senior Engineer, Portland Energy Conservation Inc, Portland, Oregon ABSTRACT This paper discusses using basic... by contacting the author at: Dsellers@peci.org www.peci.org Phone: - 503-248-4636 extension 224 Mailing address through August 3, 2001 Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 921 SW Washington Street Suite 312 Portland, Oregon 97205 Mailing address after August 3...

  7. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  8. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  9. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  10. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  11. Average discharge rate representation of voice onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinex, D.G.; McDonald, L.P.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to synthesized stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT) were obtained. The syllables, heard as /ga/--/ka/ or /da/--/ta/, were similar to those previously used by others in psychophysical experiments with human and with chinchilla subjects. Average discharge rates of neurons tuned to the frequency region near the first formant generally increased at the onset of voicing, for VOTs longer than 20 ms. These rate increases were closely related to spectral amplitude changes associated with the onset of voicing and with the activation of the first formant; as a result, they provided accurate information about VOT. Neurons tuned to frequency regions near the second and third formants did not encode VOT in their average discharge rates. Modulations in the average rates of these neurons reflected spectral variations that were independent of VOT. The results are compared to other measurements of the peripheral encoding of speech sounds and to psychophysical observations suggesting that syllables with large variations in VOT are heard as belonging to one of only two phonemic categories.

  12. Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlund, Dennis; Odelius, Michael; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present valence photoelectron emission spectra of liquid water in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the melting point, low temperature amorphous and crystalline ice. All aggregation states have major electronic structure changes relative to the free molecule, with rehybridization and development of bonding and anti-bonding states accompanying the hydrogen bond formation. Sensitivity to the local structural order, most prominent in the shape and splitting of the occupied 3a{sub 1} orbital, is understood from the electronic structure averaging over various geometrical structures, and reflects the local nature of the orbital interaction.

  13. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids. Quarterly report No. 1, September 18, 1992--December 17, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Webster, I.A. [Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred {angstrom} in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by ``configurational`` or ``hindered diffusion,`` which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  14. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and for three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Uchiyama, Masanori; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system of benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and its constituent binary systems of benzene + cyclohexane, cyclohexane + 1-propanol, and benzene + 1-propanol at 323.15 and 333.15 K, using the apparatus proposed in a previous study. The experimental binary data were correlated using the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters. The average absolute percent deviations between the predicted and experimental ternary total pressures are 0.5% at 323.15 K and 0.4% at 333.15 K.

  15. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  16. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  17. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  18. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  19. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  20. Quaternary liquid-liquid equilibrium of n-heptane-toluene-o-xylene-propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, A.B.S.H.; Hamad, E.Z.; Al-Naafa, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the system n-heptane/toluene/o-xylene/propylene carbonate were obtained at 25 OC. Experimental tie line data were measured by gas chromatographic analysis. The UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to predict the quaternary data from the corresponding ternary data. Agreement between the predictions and the experimental data was satisfactory.

  1. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary systems containing hydrocarbons and propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annesini, M.C.; Gironi, F.; Marrelli, L.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data of liquid-liquid equillibrium at 20/sup 0/C are reported for six ternary systems containing propylene carbonate with n-hexane-benzene, n-hexane-ethylbenzene, n-heptane-toluene, n-heptane-ethylbenzene, n-octane-o-xylene, and n-octane-ethylbenzene. The data are correlated by means of NRTL and UNIQUAC models and relative parameters are given.

  2. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  3. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)] [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  5. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  6. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  7. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  8. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  9. Limit Distribution of Averages over Unstable Periodic Orbits Forming Chaotic Attractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of representativeness of a single long unstable periodic orbit for properties of the chaotic attractor it is embedded in. Y. Saiki and M. Yamada [Phys. Rev. E 79, 015201(R) (2009)] have recently suggested the hypothesis that there exist a limit distribution of averages over unstable periodic orbits with given number of loops, N, which is not a Dirac delta-function for infinitely long orbits. In this paper we show that the limit distribution is actually a delta-function and standard deviations decay as 1/sqrt(N) for large enough N.

  10. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5: March 22, 2010 Average

  11. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  12. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  13. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  14. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  15. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of0023

  16. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices

  17. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices4

  18. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices44

  19. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices445

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West AverageMexico"

  1. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment ActivitiesAge Refining Air1,D O E /drivers toAverage

  2. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average Price

  3. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average

  4. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average

  5. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average.

  6. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices of

  7. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices

  8. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

  9. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  10. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  11. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  12. Conditional averaging on volumetric velocity fields for analysis of the pseudo-periodic organization of jet-in-crossflow vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric velocimetry measurements have been performed on a round jet in crossflow (JICF). Two kind of conditional averaging process are presented : a global conditional average (GCA) and a local conditional average (LCA). Vortices crossing the JICF symmetry plane are used to quantify the jet pseudo-periodicity leading to the GCA and LCA definitions. Because they make possible to improve the velocity field resolution as well as to significantly reduce the experimental noise, these conditional averages are an interesting and efficient way to study the instantaneous swirling structures of this instantaneous flow.

  13. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Bozen, Ralph M. (Hattiesburg, MS)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.

  14. Unreacted Hugoniots for porous and liquid explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous authors have measured the Hugoniots of a variety of granular explosives pressed to different densities. Each explosive at each density was typically then treated as a unique material having its own Hugoniot. By combining methods used by Hayes, Sheffield and Mitchell (for describing the Hugoniot of HNS at various densities) with Hermann`s P-{alpha} model, it is only necessary to know some thermodynamic constants or the Hugoniot of the initially solid material and the porous material sound speed to obtain accurate unreacted Hugoniots for the porous explosive. We discuss application of this method to several materials including HMX, PETN, TNT, and Tetryl, as well as HNS. We also show that the ``Universal Liquid Hugoniot`` can be used to calculate the unreacted Hugoniot for liquid explosives. With this method only the ambient pressure sound speed and density are needed to predict the Hugoniot. Applications presented include nitromethane and liquid TNT.

  15. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  16. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  17. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  18. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, P.R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

  19. DOE studies on coal-to-liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

  20. Renormalization group flow for noncommutative Fermi liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrada-Jimenez, Sendic [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Calle 4a Oriente Norte 1428 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, Hugo [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wu Yongshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent studies of the AdS/CFT correspondence for condensed matter systems involve the Fermi liquid theory as a boundary field theory. Adding B-flux to the boundary D-branes leads in a certain limit to the noncommutative Fermi liquid, which calls for a field theory description of its critical behavior. As a preliminary step to more general consideration, the modification of the Landau's Fermi liquid theory due to noncommutativity of spatial coordinates is studied in this paper. We carry out the renormalization of interactions at tree level and one loop in a weakly coupled fermion system in two spatial dimensions. Channels ZS, ZS' and BCS are discussed in detail. It is shown that while the Gaussian fixed-point remains unchanged, the BCS instability is modified due to the space noncommutativity.

  1. Statistical Model Analysis of (n,p) Cross Sections and Average Energy For Fission Neutron Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odsuren, M.; Khuukhenkhuu, G. [Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of charged particle emission reaction cross sections for fast neutrons is important to both nuclear reactor technology and the understanding of nuclear reaction mechanisms. In particular, the study of (n,p) cross sections is necessary to estimate radiation damage due to hydrogen production, nuclear heating and transmutations in the structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. On the other hand, it is often necessary in practice to evaluate the neutron cross sections of the nuclides for which no experimental data are available.Because of this, we carried out the systematical analysis of known experimental (n,p) and (n,a) cross sections for fast neutrons and observed a systematical regularity in the wide energy interval of 6-20 MeV and for broad mass range of target nuclei. To explain this effect using the compound, pre-equilibrium and direct reaction mechanisms some formulae were deduced. In this paper, in the framework of the statistical model known experimental (n,p) cross sections averaged over the thermal fission neutron spectrum of U-235 are analyzed. It was shown that the experimental data are satisfactorily described by the statistical model. Also, in the case of (n,p) cross sections the effective average neutron energy for fission spectrum of U-235 was found to be around 3 MeV.

  2. A Multi-chain Measurements Averaging TDC Implemented in a 40 nm FPGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi Shen; Shubin Liu; Binxiang Qi; Qi An; Shengkai Liao; Chengzhi Peng; Weiyue Liu

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision and high resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a 40 nm fabrication process Virtex-6 FPGA is presented in this paper. The multi-chain measurements averaging architecture is used to overcome the resolution limitation determined by intrinsic cell delay of the plain single tapped-delay chain. The resolution and precision are both improved with this architecture. In such a TDC, the input signal is connected to multiple tapped-delay chains simultaneously (the chain number is M), and there is a fixed delay cell between every two adjacent chains. Each tapped-delay chain is just a plain TDC and should generate a TDC time for a hit input signal, so totally M TDC time values should be got for a hit signal. After averaging, the final TDC time is obtained. A TDC with 3 ps resolution (i.e. bin size) and 6.5 ps precision (i.e. RMS) has been implemented using 8 parallel tapped-delay chains. Meanwhile the plain TDC with single tapped-delay chain yields 24 ps resolution and 18 ps precision.

  3. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  4. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  5. Anisotropic wave propagation in nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Biscari; Antonio DiCarlo; Stefano S. Turzi

    2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the fact that quantitative experimental data have been available for more than forty years now, nematoacoustics still poses intriguing theoretical and experimental problems. In this paper, we prove that the main observed features of acoustic wave propagation through a nematic liquid crystal cell -- namely, the anisotropy of sound velocity and its frequency dependence -- may be plausibly explained by a first-gradient continuum theory characterized by a hyperelastic anisotropic response from an evolving relaxed configuration. We compare and contrast our proposal with a competing theory where the liquid crystal is modeled as an isotropically compressible, anisotropic second-gradient fluid.

  6. Liquid additives for particulate emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael Dean (Castle Rock, CO); Schlager, Richard John (Aurora, CO); Ebner, Timothy George (Westminster, CO); Stewart, Robin Michele (Arvada, CO); Hyatt, David E. (Denver, CO); Bustard, Cynthia Jean (Littleton, CO); Sjostrom, Sharon (Denver, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency.

  7. ICARUS and Status of Liquid Argon Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorota Stefan

    2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ICARUS is the largest liquid argon TPC detector ever built (~600 ton LAr mass). It operates underground at the LNGS laboratory in Gran Sasso. It has been smoothly running since summer 2010, collecting data with the CNGS beam and with cosmics. Liquid argon TPCs are really "electronic bubble chamber" providing a completely uniform imaging and calorimetry with unprecedented accuracy on massive volumes. ICARUS is internationally considered as a milestone towards the realization of the next generation of massive detectors (~tens of ktons) for neutrino and rare event physics. Results will be presented on the data collected during 2010 with the detector at LNGS.

  8. A Regenerable Filter for Liquid Argon Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Jaskierny, W.; Kendziora, C.; Krider, J.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab; Soderberg, Mitchell Paul; Spitz, J.; /Yale U.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab; Wongjirad, T.; /Yale U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter system for removing electronegative impurities from liquid argon is described. The active components of the filter are adsorbing molecular sieve and activated-copper-coated alumina granules. The system is capable of purifying liquid argon to an oxygen-equivalent impurity concentration of better than 30 parts per trillion, corresponding to an electron drift lifetime of at least 10 ms. Reduction reactions that occur at {approx} 250 C allow the filter material to be regenerated in situ through a simple procedure. In the following work we describe the filter design, performance, and regeneration process.

  9. Liquid Phases in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: Drops of Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid & Ordinary Chiral Heavy Nuclear Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Lynn

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiral SU(3) Perturbation Theory (SU3XPT) identifies hadrons as the building blocks of strongly interacting matter at low densities and temperatures. We show that it admits two co-existing chiral nucleon liquid phases at zero external pressure with well-defined surfaces: 1) ordinary microscopic chiral heavy nuclear liquid drops (XNL) and 2) a new Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid (SXNL) phase with both microscopic and macroscopic drop sizes. Liquid drops of both XNL and SXNL are simultaneously solutions to the SU3XPT semi-classical equations of motion and obey all relevant CVC and PCAC equations. Axial-vector currents are conserved inside macroscopic drops of SXNL, a new form of baryonic matter with zero electric charge density, which is by nature "dark". The numerical values of all SU3XPT coefficients are used to fit current scattering experiments and ordinary XNL drops (identified with the ground state of ordinary even-even spin-zero spherical closed-shell nuclei). SXNL then also emerges (i.e. without new adjustable parameters). For certain SU3XPT coefficients, finite microscopic and macroscopic drops of SXNL may be the ground state of a collection of nucleons: ordinary heavy nuclei may be meta-stable, while oceans of SXNL may force qualitative and experimentally observable changes to the neutron star equation of state.

  10. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200C (almost 400F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. Its likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  11. Coastal Dynamics 2013 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Coastal Dynamics 2013 1915 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES in coastal vegetated waters with short waves. The model adopts the 3-D phase-averaged shallow water flow mesh in the vertical direction. The flow model is coupled with a spectral wave deformation model called

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2002 1535 Error Statistics for Average Power Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Shuangqing

    for Average Power Measurements in Wireless Communication Systems Shuangqing Wei, Student Member, IEEE, and Dennis L. Goeckel, Member, IEEE Abstract--The measurement of the average received power is essential for power control and dynamic channel allocation in wireless communication systems. However, due

  13. New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body Adrian Dumitrescu Minghui Jiang Csaba D. T´oth March 14, 2011 Abstract The Fermat-Weber center of a planar body Q that for any convex body Q in the plane, the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of Q to the points

  14. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  15. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY Department of Statistics, University of precipitation (PoP) forecasts using this approach. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was introduced by Raftery et

  16. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of transport properties in liquid and dense-plasma plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, J. D.; Cohen, James S.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Horner, D. A.; Collins, L. A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of plutonium in the liquid phase using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and in the dense-plasma phase using orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD), as well as in the intermediate warm dense matter regime with both methods. Our liquid metal results for viscosity are about 40% lower than measured experimentally, whereas a previous calculation using an empirical interatomic potential (modified embedded-atom method) obtained results 3-4 times larger than the experiment. The QMD and OFMD results agree well at the intermediate temperatures. The calculations in the dense-plasma regime for temperatures from 50 to 5000 eV and densities about 1-5 times ambient are compared with the one-component plasma (OCP) model, using effective charges given by the average-atom code inferno. The inferno-OCP model results agree with the OFMD to within about a factor of 2, except for the viscosity at temperatures less than about 100 eV, where the disagreement is greater. A Stokes-Einstein relationship of the viscosities and diffusion coefficients is found to hold fairly well separately in both the liquid and dense-plasma regimes.

  17. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  18. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  19. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  20. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  1. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  2. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  3. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  4. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  5. Supporting Information Liquid Crystalline Peptide Nanowires**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    1 Supporting Information Liquid Crystalline Peptide Nanowires** Tae Hee Han, Jangbae Kim, Ji Sun Park, Chan Beum Park, Hyotcherl Ihee,* and Sang Ouk Kim* #12;2 Figure S1. Size distribution of as orientation effect was also considered by using the March-Dollase function. The global isotropic temperature

  6. Improved liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, B.F.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  7. Local Energy Landscape in a Simple Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takuya Iwashita; Takeshi Egami

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is difficult to relate the properties of liquids and glasses directly to their structure because of complexity in the structure which defies precise definition. The potential energy landscape (PEL) approach is a very insightful way to conceptualize the structure-property relationship in liquids and glasses, particularly on the effect of temperature and history. However, because of the highly multi-dimensional nature of the PEL it is hard to determine, or even visualize, the actual details of the energy landscape. In this article we introduce a modified concept of the local energy landscape (LEL) which is limited in phase space, and demonstrate its usefulness using molecular dynamics simulation on a simple liquid at high temperatures. The local energy landscape is given as a function of the local coordination number, the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The excitations in the LEL corresponds to the so-called beta-relaxation process. The LEL offers a simple but useful starting point to discuss complex phenomena in liquids and glasses.

  8. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  9. Discotic Liquid Crystals and Polymersomes: Molecule Goniometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ya-Wen

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................ 6 1.2.4 Discotic Liquid Crystals ................................................... 9 1.2.5 Microfluidics .................................................................... 11 1.3. Dissertation Outline... ........................................................... 15 2.1.2 Di-block Copolymers, Lipids, and Particles .................... 15 2.1.3 Reactive Fluorophores ...................................................... 16 2.1.4 Surface Functionalization Chemicals...

  10. Combined plasma/liquid cleaning of substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for cleaning substrates. A substrate is held and rotated by a chuck and an atmospheric pressure plasma jet places a plasma onto predetermined areas of the substrate. Subsequently liquid rinse is sprayed onto the predetermined areas. In one embodiment, a nozzle sprays a gas onto the predetermined areas to assist in drying the predetermined areas when needed.

  11. Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, V.L.

    1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

  12. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  13. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  14. Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions...

  15. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meneely, Timothy K. (Penn Hills, PA); Sherbine, Catherine A. (N. Versailles Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  16. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the forces of hydrogen bonds to the properties of liquid andhydrogen bond network couples to the dynamically heterogeneous propertiesproperties of liquid water manifest how the strength of these hydrogen

  17. Adsorption of Polypropylene and Polyethylene on Liquid Chromatographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Adsorption of Polypropylene and Polyethylene on Liquid Chromatographic Column Packings T. Macko1 tested as column packings for adsorption of isotactic polypropylene and linear polyethylene from dilute sorbent - mobile phase, where adsorption of polypropylene was observed. Keywords Column liquid

  18. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  19. area liquid lithium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquid lithium plasma-facing surface will be used 11 Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl...

  20. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  1. advanced liquid metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Liquid Metal Transformers CERN Preprints Summary: The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an...

  2. Household Need for Liquidity and the Credit Card Debt Puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telyukova, Irina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on credit cards; save to saving in liquid assets. Creditgroups) Savings accounts (avg. across groups) Borrow & Savesave for retirement in retirement accounts, emergencies, including home-related ones, by their de?nition are likely to require liquid savings.

  3. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  4. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current over 500 amp hours. Analysis of samples from the liquid cadmium cathode ingots showed detectable amounts of transuranics and rare-earth elements. Acknowledgements K. B. Davies and D. M. Pace for the mechanical and electrical engineering needed to prepare the equipment for the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments.

  5. Dependence of solid-liquid interface free energy on liquid structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, S R [Ames Laboratory; Mendelev, M I [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Turnbull relation is widely believed to enable prediction of solidliquid interface (SLI) free energies from measurements of the latent heat and the solid density. Ewing proposed an additional contribution to the SLI free energy to account for variations in liquid structure near the interface. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate whether SLI free energy depends on liquid structure. Analysis of the MD simulation data for 11 fcc metals demonstrated that the Turnbull relation is only a rough approximation for highly ordered liquids, whereas much better agreement is observed with Ewings theory. A modification to Ewings relation is proposed in this study that was found to provide excellent agreement with MD simulation data.

  6. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  7. MagViz Bottled Liquid Scanner at Albuquerque International Sunport

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Surko, Stephen; Dennis, Steve; Espy, Michelle

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The next-generation bottled liquid scanner, MagViz BLS, is demonstrated at the Albuquerque International Sunport, New Mexico

  8. Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

  9. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  10. Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

  11. NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

  12. Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pregenzer, Arian L. (Corrales, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

  13. Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A.; Rogers, E.A.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)

  14. (Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, N.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

  15. [Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, N.S.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

  16. Long range forces between atomic impurities in liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long range forces between atomic impurities in liquid helium J. Dupont-Roc Laboratoire Kastler in a polarizable medium. We show that atomic impurities in liquid helium may indeed realize repulsive forces embedded in liquid helium, super uid or not. Solid helium have also been used. Successful theoretical

  17. Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segatti, Antonio

    Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results #12;Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results, Non-isothermal nematic liquid crystals flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl

  18. RF cavity using liquid dielectric for tuning and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popovic, Milorad (Warrenville, IL); Johnson, Rolland P. (Newport News, VA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for accelerating particles includes an RF cavity that contains a ferrite core and a liquid dielectric. Characteristics of the ferrite core and the liquid dielectric, among other factors, determine the resonant frequency of the RF cavity. The liquid dielectric is circulated to cool the ferrite core during the operation of the system.

  19. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  20. Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and with organic solvents and electrochemical properties [7]. Because of these properties ionic liquids become a new green solvent or lubricant in industrial application. 1.2.2 The application of ionic liquid in tribology 1.2.2.1 Ionic liquids as lubrication...