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1

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

3

Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI ...

Osipov, Viatcheslav; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

5

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

6

Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been extrapolated towards lower emission levels. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was applied to a modern EURO-3-type HD diesel engine. Tests were done at different engine working points, with EGR-levels and start of fuel delivery timings set to give NOx emissions between 3.5 and 2.0 g/kWh with regular diesel fuel. Fourteen blends of a low-sulphur diesel fuel respectively of a gas-to-liquid synthetic diesel fuel with different oxygenates were tested. The corresponding fuel matrix covers a range of fuel oxygen mass fractions up to 15%. Results are presented and the impact of fuel oxygen mass fraction and Cetane Number are analysed and compared with results from previous research.

P.J.M. Frijters; R.S.G. Baert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

8

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

9

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

10

Oxygen transport resistance correlated to liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer of PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

22 November 2013 Accepted 24 December 2013 Keywords: Fuel cells PEM Diffusion Saturation Neutron than 0.15 gPt kWÃ?1 will not be cost competitive. As a result, fuel cell researchers are exploring fuel cells Jon P. Owejan a,b, , Thomas A. Trabold c , Matthew M. Mench b a SUNY Alfred State College

Mench, Matthew M.

11

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

13

Liquid Oxygen and its Uses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the liquid. At present, however, there is no known method of rendering them flameless, and their use in the majority of coal-mines is therefore inadmissible. If this ...

HENRY BRIGGS

1924-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

16

Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels from Biomass Liquid Fuels from Biomass Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel...

17

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL...

18

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

19

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuels (ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address: P.O. Box 76 Place: McArthur, Ohio Zip: 45651 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services...

20

Foam insulation for a liquid oxygen densifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analyses indicated that it would not be cost effective to vacuum insulate a 7 foot diameter by 30 foot long liquid nitrogen vessel for a launch facility liquid oxygen densifier. Foam insulation appeared to be the logical choice for this infrequently used ground support equipment but the history of foam problems due to cracking, adhesive failure and internal shearing weighed against the use of commercial spray-on material. These problems were solved with a system consisting of alternate sealing and flexible foam layers: (1) an inner membrane sealed to itself but not attached to the cold shell or pipe; (2) a flexible foam insulation layer; (3) a vapor-tight sealing membrane; (4) a second flexible foam insulation layer and (5) an outer aluminized sealing membrane. The second and subsequent layers are sealed to each underlying layer by flexible foam contact adhesive. The inner sealing membrane is particularly vital in that it allows the first foam layer to expand and contract as the tank temperature changes and it also protects the tank from chloride corrosion from the foam. This paper describes preliminary testing to prove out the system and the steps taken to install flexible foam insulation on the oxygen densifier vessel.

G.E. McIntosh; R. Stuckenschmidt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

22

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

23

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last year but will be this year It is a cap and trade system for Green House Gas (GHG) It is anticipated to affect prices, production and more than just liquid fuels Carbon...

24

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a cost-minimization linear program (LP). For a given set of fuel demands, LFMM will find the least-cost means of satisfying those demands, subject to various constraints (such as the RFS). * LFMM is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which is a computer model of the U.S. energy economy. EIA uses

26

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy: a Numerical and Experimental Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Basedusing a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray processstructure. [12] High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal

Ajdelsztajn, L.; Dannenberg, J.; Lopez, J.; Yang, N.; Farmer, J.; Lavernia, E. J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts ... Catalytic Reactions on the Open-Edge Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as Cathode Catalyst for Hydrogen Fuel Cells ... Despite significant progress made the past decade on reducing the platinum catalyst loading in the PEMFC electrodes, further ... ...

Yao Sha; Ted H. Yu; Boris V. Merinov; Pezhman Shirvanian; William A. Goddard; III

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming of Renewable Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) * U. (Balu) Balachandran, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Park, and S. E. Dorris Energy Systems Division E-mail: balu@anl.gov * Work supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Presented at the Bio-derived Liquids Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007. BILIWG Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007 2 Objective & Rationale Objective: Develop compact dense ceramic membrane reactors that enable the efficient and cost-effective production of hydrogen by reforming renewable liquid fuels using pure oxygen produced by water splitting and transported by an OTM. Rationale: Membrane technology provides the means to attack barriers to the

29

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Solubility of Oxygen and Ozone in Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review covers the solubility of oxygen and ozone in liquids as a function of temperature and pressure. Solubility data for individual systems were critically evaluated and recommended or tentative values presented in many cases. The trend of solubilities in homologous series or related solvents is discussed. Liquids include water;seawater; aqueous salt solutions; mixed solvents; hydrocarbons; organic compounds containing oxygen halogen sulfur nitrogen or silicon; olive oil; and human blood. For ozone only its solubility in water is presented. Key words: aqueous solutions; biological fluids; gas solubility; hydrocarbons; mixed solvents; organic solvents; oxygen; ozone;seawater;water.

Rubin Battino; Timothy R. Rettich; Toshihiro Tominaga

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Clean liquid fuels from MSW  

SciTech Connect

The need for a cost effective and cleaner method of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal hardly needs emphasizing. With funding through the US EPA and US DOE-METC, EnerTech demonstrated its SlurryCarb{trademark} process for producing homogeneous, pumpable fuels from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with continuous pilot plant facilities, and characterized flue gas and ash emissions from combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. Pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments with RDF produced a homogeneous pumpable slurry fuel with a Higher Heating Value up to approximately 6,600 Btu/lb at 51.7 wt% total solids. The viscosity of this carbonized RDF slurry fuel was approximately 500 cP {at} 100 Hz decreasing, and ambient temperature. Also, pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments extracted up to approximately 94% of the feed RDF chlorine content as chloride salts. Atmospheric combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel produced a carbon burnout exceeding 99.9%, with excess air as low as 15%. CO emissions averaged below 16 ppm (corrected to 7% O{sub 2}), while HCl and SO{sub 2} emissions were below 17 and 40 ppm, respectively, without acid gas scrubbing. NO{sub x} emissions depended on combustion temperature and averaged between 82--211 ppm, without selective noncatalytic or catalytic reduction. In addition, mercury emissions were measured at 0.003 mg/dscm. Combustion ash was non-hazardous, with low leaching characteristics, based on a TCLP analysis.

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Catalytic ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum  

SciTech Connect

Ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum wire is experimentally studied by using microcalorimetry and by restricting the flow to the low Reynolds number range so that axisymmetry prevails. The fuels studied are propane, butane, propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Parameters investigated include flow velocity, fuel type and concentration, and oxygen concentration. The catalytic ignition temperatures of the various fuels are accurately determined over extensive ranges of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen concentrations. Results show two distinctly opposite ignition trends depending on the nature of the fuel. That is, the ignition temperature of lean propane/air and butane/air mixtures decreases as their fuel concentration is increased, while the reverse trend is observed for lean mixtures of propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with air. Furthermore, the ignition of propane depends primarily on fuel concentration, while the ignition of carbon monoxide depends on fuel and oxygen concentrations to a comparable extent. These results are explained on the basis of hierarchical surface adsorption strengths of the different reactants in effecting catalytic ignition. Additional phenomena of interest are observed and discussed.

Cho, P.; Law, C.K.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Numerical simulation of laser ignition of a liquid fuel film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations were used to examine a set of interrelated physicochemical processes involved in the ignition of a liquid fuel film by a low-power laser beam. The delay time of ignition of a liquid fuel fil...

G. V. Kuznetsov; P. A. Strizhak

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

SciTech Connect

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Characteristics of Exhaust Diesel Particles from Different Oxygenated Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characteristics of Exhaust Diesel Particles from Different Oxygenated Fuels ... The characteristic variations of exhaust particles were investigated on a light-duty diesel engine. ... This study was conducted on a 2005 model-year light-duty diesel engine that meets Chinese national stage III emission standards (equivalent to Euro III emission standards) without any exhaust control device. ...

Zhen Xu; Xinling Li; Chun Guan; Zhen Huang

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

40

The performance of PEM fuel cells fed with oxygen through the free-convection mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of PEM fuel cells fed with oxygen through the free-convection mode Pei-Wen Li; accepted 27 September 2002 Abstract The feasibility and restrictions of feeding oxygen to a PEM fuel cell in the fuel cell. Experimental tests were conducted for one PEM fuel cell stack and two single PEM fuel cell

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

42

Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

44

Novel New Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel New Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels ... A loop of chem. ... Energy Combust. ...

Yueying Fan; Ranjani Siriwardane

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

45

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel via Fractional Evaporation and Subsequent Hydrodesulfurization Upstream a Fuel Cell System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are favored for application in the foreseeable future. ... For fuel cells to be fuelled with liquid fuels as per Figure 1, an upstream desulfurization step is mandatory. ... fuel?recovered ...

Markus Brune; Rainer Reimert

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

Experimental Study of a New PVC Foam Insulation System for Liquid-Hydrogen-Liquid-Oxygen Space Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a rigid external foam insulation for liquid-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen space vehicles...1...], dealing with the use of Klegecell G 300,* a PVC closed-cell foam. This foam does ...

F. J. Muller

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 11, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO disposition EIA liquid fuels Supply Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition- Reference Case (xls, 117 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

49

Effect of Oxygenated Fuel on Combustion and Emissions in a Light-Duty Turbo Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of fuel oxygen content on soot reduction in diesel engines is well-known. ... Fuel consumption was determined by weighing the fuel at the beginning and end of each test mode or each fuel blend through a Sartorius precision scale, with an accuracy of ±2 g. ... studies on effects of oxygenated fuels in conjunction with single and split fuel injections were conducted at high and low loads on a Caterpillar SCOTE DI diesel engine. ...

Juhun Song; Kraipat Cheenkachorn; Jinguo Wang; Joseph Perez; André L. Boehman; Philip John Young; Francis J. Waller

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the design and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates, and electrolyte ...

Ranga S. Jayashree; Michael Mitchell; Dilip Natarajan; Larry J. Markoski; Paul J. A. Kenis

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

51

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels Graphic Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 Figure 26 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 Figure 27 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector, 2005-2030 Figure 28 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 29. World Liquids Consumption by Region and Country Group, 2005 and 2030 Figure 29 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 30. Nominal World Oil Prices in three Cases, 1980-2030 Figure 30 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

52

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R of hydrogen H2 and oxygen O2 . Operating fuel cells in alkaline media, as opposed to acidic media, has on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing

Kenis, Paul J. A.

53

Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational be used to make an efficient and relatively inexpensive graphene-based material for hydrogen fuel cells fuel cells for oxygen reduction at the cathode. In an attempt to find a cheap yet efficient catalyst

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

54

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

EIA - AEO2010 - Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits This section provides a review of the treatment of Federal fuels taxes and tax credits in AEO2010. Excise taxes on highway fuel The treatment of Federal highway fuel taxes remains unchanged from the previous year’s AEO. Gasoline is taxed at 18.4 cents per gallon, diesel fuel at 24.4 cents per gallon, and jet fuel at 4.4 cents per gallon, consistent with current laws and regulations. Consistent with Federal budgeting procedures, which dictate that excise taxes dedicated to a trust fund, if expiring, are assumed to be extended at current rates, these taxes are maintained at their present levels, without adjustment for inflation, throughout the projection [9]. State fuel taxes are calculated on the basis of a volume-weighted average for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. The State fuel taxes were updated as of July 2009 [10] and are held constant in real terms over the projection period, consistent with historical experience.

56

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

57

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hydrous oxide species as inhibitors of oxygen reduction at platinum activated fuel cell cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The successful development of a methanol/air fuel cell requires optimum performance of the air/ oxygen cathode at about 0.8 V vs RHE. ... oxygen gas reduction on platinum (the best electrocatalyst for this reacti...

L. D. Burke; J. K. Casey; J. A. Morrissey…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photosynthesis Biomass Renewable liquid fuel Fuel synthesis #12;Renewable liquid fuel Combustion CO2 separation emissions from all sectors IEA, 2012; CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: Highlights. · Solar · Wind · CO2. R. Soc. A, 368, 3343, 2010 #12;Biological renewable liquid fuel Combustion Water CO2 in air

Homes, Christopher C.

60

1 - Gasification and synthetic liquid fuel production: an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter discusses general considerations on gasification processes and synthetic liquid fuel production. It provides an overview of state-of-the-art gasification technologies, feedstocks and applications in power generation, and synthetic fuels production, together with some recent future trends in the field.

R. Luque; J.G. Speight

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Exciplex Fluorescence Thermometry of Liquid Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental program is described that investigates the application of exciplex fluorescence to the internal thermometry of flowing liquid decane in the temperature range 24-91°C....

Stufflebeam, John H

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Because ofwater solubility, fuel oxygenate...toluene. When water supplies are contaminated...followed by gas chromatography-high-resolution...helium-sparged distilled water (26) to produce...blanks,and water standardsfor daily...column carrier gas for all analyses...using liquid nitrogen from Air Liq......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Catalytic Reforming of Biomass Raw Fuel Gas to Syngas for FT Liquid Fuels Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of biomass to obtain a syngas provides a competitive means for clean FT (Fischer-Tropsch) liquid fuels from renewable resources. The feasibility of the process depends on the upgrading of raw ...

Tiejun Wang; Chenguang Wang; Qi Zhang…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood 50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin Summary NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply

66

Argonne project turns methane to liquid fuel for hybrid fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois and the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) have been awarded $2 million from the Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E), for a two-year project on hybrid fuel cells, specifically on converting methane to liquid fuel.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

Yildiz, Bilge

68

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 1. Comprehensive report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases which are distinguished by the level of the test effort. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels used at the station (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. In general, no adverse boiler performance effects were encountered with the combustion of the CDL fuels. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. With the exception of NO/sub x/ emissions, the CDL fuels will be expected to have lower levels of stack emissions compared to a conventional No. 6 fuel oil. NO/sub x/ emissions will be controllable to EPA standards with the application of conventional combustion modification techniques. Volume 1, of a five-volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the entire test program. 43 figs., 19 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Mesoscopic modeling of liquid water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A key performance limitation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. Liquid water leads to the coverage of the electrochemically active sites in the catalyst layer (CL) rendering reduced catalytic activity and blockage of the available pore space in the porous CL and fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) resulting in hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites. The cathode CL and the GDL therefore playa major role in the mass transport loss and hence in the water management of a PEFC. In this article, we present the development of a mesoscopic modeling formalism coupled with realistic microstructural delineation to study the profound influence of the pore structure and surface wettability on liquid water transport and interfacial dynamics in the PEFC catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Chao Yang [PENNSTATE UNIV.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors that would enhance or impede development and deployment. · Review other alternative fuels MIT HAROLD SCHOBERT Pennsylvania State University CHRISTOPHER SOMERVILLE Energy BioSciences Institute biomass 085 072 Wheat straw 070 055 a2008 costs = baseline costs #12;BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION STATUS

73

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

74

EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for...

75

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director–Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute

76

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Assessment of the use of oxygenated fuels on emissions and performance of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Requirements as torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emitted compounds are highly influenced by the chemical composition of the fuel being burned. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the use of oxygenated fuels on emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2 and particle number and size distribution (11.5 diesel engine coupled to a dynamometer bench was used, where three types of fuels were employed, B5 (diesel with 5% of biodiesel); B5E6 (ternary composition containing 89% diesel, 5% of biodiesel and 6% of ethanol); and B100 (100% of biodiesel). The performance of a diesel engine was also evaluated to see the impact of the oxygenated fuels in this kind of engine. The use of ethanol with high latent heat of vaporization and low cetane number added to the binary blend (B5) shown an increase in the HC emissions and a reduction in \\{NOx\\} emissions when compared to B5. The use of pure biodiesel (B100) with high oxygen content showed a reduction in the HC emissions, but presented the highest emissions for both \\{NOx\\} and particle number of smaller diameter among the studied fuels. The use of more oxygenated fuels reduced the power output and increased the fuel consumption, but the exergy analysis showed that the energy efficiency of these fuels could be considered similar to the B5 fuel.

Lílian Lefol Nani Guarieiro; Egídio Teixeira de Almeida Guerreiro; Keize Katiane dos Santos Amparo; Victor Bonfim Manera; Ana Carla D. Regis; Aldenor Gomes Santos; Vitor P. Ferreira; Danilo J. Leão; Ednildo A. Torres; Jailson B. de Andrade

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Investigation of Coal Fueled Chemical Looping Combustion Using Fe3O4 as Oxygen Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier and Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China) as the fuel for this study. The...

Wenguo Xlang; Xiaoyan Sun; Sha Wangt…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Hydrogen and oxygen permeation through Nafion 117 and XUS 13204.10 fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject Chemical Engineering HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair...

Lee, Steven Ray

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Liquid Fossil Fuel Technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research activities at BETC are summarized under the headings liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment, production, enhanced recovery), processing (of liquids such as coal liquids, and crudes, thermodynamics), utilization (energy conversion, combustion), and project integration and technology transfer. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen carriers in the system by using the high-sulfur-laden asphalt fuels. In all, the scaled-up test in 10 kW CLC facility demonstrated that the preparation method of copper-based oxygen carrier not only help to maintain its good reactivity, also largely minimize its agglomeration tendency.

Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. It is classified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a non-critical or preferred fuel. 2. It is a cost effective high yield BTU fuel that can be produced with readily available feedstocks utilizing standard hardware and processing equipment. j 3. It has a low... for the disposal of spent industrial (flammable) liquids. 5. Certified laboratory analyses indicate that ALF feedstocks are free of all known carcinogens, and hazardous elements. 6. Utilization of ALF can provide a 20% business energy tax credit, in addition...

Rose, M. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Questions and Answers - If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is there anything colderthan liquid nitrogen? Is there anything colder<br>than liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What's the melting point of steel?) What's the melting point of steel? If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize? Nothing happens instantly. The first thing would be frostbite to the skin followed by the onset of hypothermia to the internal organs. No doubt everything would "freeze up" with time. What this really brings up though is safety issues with cryogenic fluids, that is, those substances that are normally gases (like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, or helium) at room temperature but can be changed to liquid form through the use of

84

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method and apparatus for assessing distillate-fuel stability by oxygen overpressure  

SciTech Connect

Reactions leading to insoluble sediments formation in distillate fuel are accelerated by forcing oxygen into solution in the fuel at pressures of between about 90 and 110 psig and then stressing the fuel under conditions of accelerated storage at temperatures of between about 40 C to 100 C. The method then makes use of gravimetric determination of the total insoubles formed. The stability of the fuel over a period of time as well as its comparitive stability to other fuels can then be predicted from the amount of insolubles formed. The method can be carried out by using a specialized pressure vessel.

Hardy, D.R.; Beal, E.J.; Burnett, J.C.

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

86

Mechanism for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Pt3Ni Alloy Fuel Cell Boris V. Merinov,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, at the cathode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a critical issue for commercial applicationMechanism for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Pt3Ni Alloy Fuel Cell Cathode Yao Sha, Ted H. Yu, Boris of this type of fuel cells.1-4 The best current catalysts are Pt and Pt-based binary alloys, such as Pt3Ni.5

Goddard III, William A.

87

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Mechanism for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Pt3Ni Alloy Fuel Cell Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), 4H+ + 4e– + O2 ? 2H2O, at the cathode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a critical issue for commercial application of this type of fuel cells. ... This agrees with the volcano-like trend for ORR catalysts,(7, 31, 32) when the activity first increases and then decreases as the catalyst d-band center shifts downward. ... Improved Non-Pt Alloys for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Fuel Cell Cathodes Predicted from Quantum Mechanics ...

Yao Sha; Ted H. Yu; Boris V. Merinov; Pezhman Shirvanian; William A. Goddard; III

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

91

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

SciTech Connect

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB as the solvent, 3 g/L 2, 5 diphe-nyloxazole (PPO) as the fluor and 15 mg/L $p$-bis-($o$-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) as the $\\lambda$-shifter) is studied by measuring the light yield as the function of the nitrogen bubbling time. It is shown that the light yield of the fully purged liquid scintillator is increased by 11% at the room temperature and the room atmosphere pressure. A simple nitrogen bubbling model is proposed to describe the relationship between the relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and the bubbling time.

Xiao Hua-Lin

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

93

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Laser Shearographic Testing of Foam Insulation on Cryogenic Fuel Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Centaur is a high-energy rocket used as a second stage to the Atlas launch vehicle. The Centaur is cryogenically fueled, using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and requires insulation to prevent fuel boi...

Douglas D. Burleigh; James E. Engel…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effects of altitude and fuel oxygen content on the performance of a high pressure common rail diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The change of intake oxygen content caused by altitude variation and the change of fuel oxygen content both affect the performance of diesel engines. In this paper, comparative experiments were performed on a high pressure common rail diesel engine fueled with pure diesel and biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (abbreviated as BED) blends with oxygen content of 2%, 2.5%, and 3.2% in mass percentage at different atmospheric pressures of 81 kPa, 90 kPa, and 100 kPa. Moreover, in order to study the effect of different fuel blends with the same oxygen content on the performance of the diesel engine, tests were conducted on the diesel engine fueled with the BED blend and a biodiesel–diesel (abbreviated as BD) blend at 81 kPa ambient pressure. The experimental results indicate that the influence of altitude variation on the full-load engine brake torque is not significant when the pure diesel fuel is used. With the increase of BED fuel oxygen content, the engine brake torque reduces. When the pure diesel fuel is used, with the increase of atmospheric pressure, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases. As the fuel oxygen content increases, there is no significant difference in brake specific fuel consumption of the BED blends. And the values of brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) gradually decrease. Soot emissions of the diesel engine decrease with the increase of atmospheric pressure and fuel oxygen content. The effect of soot emission reduction by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel is more significant than the effect of increasing atmospheric pressure. The effects of BD and BED fuels with basically the same oxygen content on the full-load performance, fuel economy, and soot emissions of the diesel engine are different. The BSFC and soot emissions of the BED fuel are lower than those of the BD fuel.

Shaohua Liu; Lizhong Shen; Yuhua Bi; Jilin Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Chemical looping gasification of solid fuels using bimetallic oxygen carrier particles – Feasibility assessment and process simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chemical looping gasification (CLG) process utilizes an iron-based oxygen carrier to convert carbonaceous fuels into hydrogen and electricity while capturing CO2. Although the process has the potential to be efficient and environmentally friendly, the activity of the iron-based oxygen carrier is relatively low, especially for solid fuel conversion. In the present study, we propose to incorporate a secondary oxygen carrying metal oxide, i.e. CuO, to the iron-based oxygen carrier. Using the “oxygen-uncoupling” characteristics of CuO, gaseous oxygen is released at a high temperature to promote the conversion of both Fe2O3 and coal. Experiments carried out using a Thermal-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) indicate that a bimetallic oxygen carrier consisting of a small amount (5% by weight) of CuO is more effective for coal char conversion when compared to oxygen carrier without copper addition. ASPEN Plus® simulations and mathematical modeling of the process indicate that the incorporation of a small amount of copper leads to increased hydrogen yield and process efficiency.

Feng He; Nathan Galinsky; Fanxing Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

102

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis ... An energy balance, in broad outline, is presented for the production of a high-quality liquid transportation fuel from residual crop biomass. ... That is, 40% of the initial energy in the biomass will be found in the final liquid fuel after subtracting out external energy supplied for complete processing, including transportation as well as material losses. ...

J. Manganaro; B. Chen; J. Adeosun; S. Lakhapatri; D. Favetta; A. Lawal; R. Farrauto; L. Dorazio; D. J. Rosse

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a no loss fueling station for delivery of liquid natural gas (LNG) to a use device such as a motor vehicle. It comprises: a pressure building tank holding a quantity of LNG and gas head; means for delivering LNG to the pressure building tank; means for selectively building the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for selectively reducing the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for controlling the pressure building and pressure reducing means to maintain a desired pressure in the pressure building tank without venting natural gas to the atmosphere; and means for delivering the LNG from the pressure building tank to the use device.

Cieslukowski, R.E.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Activities and progress are reported in: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (enhanced recovery of oil and gas), processing (of petroleum and alternate fuels), utilization (transportation and energy conversion), and systems integration. BETC publications and finances are listed in appendices. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress accomplished for the quarter ending December 1982 is reported for the following research areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (technology assessment, gas research, oil research); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Oxygen Reactivity of Devolatilized Diesel Engine Particulates from Conventional and Biodiesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Reactivity of Devolatilized Diesel Engine Particulates from Conventional and Biodiesel Fuels ... Abatement of diesel particulates has led to an overall decrease in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, and overcoming these losses has been one of the more challenging problems in exhaust aftertreatment. ... (16-18) Establishing a general physical basis for modeling diesel particulate oxidation is especially challenging because of the large variations in microscopic structure that it can have. ...

Andrea Strzelec; Todd J. Toops; C. Stuart Daw

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

Comparison of the Impact of Intake Oxygen Enrichment and Fuel Oxygenation on Diesel Combustion and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

turbocharged, Intercooler?(air-air), electronically?controlled?EGR with?actuator ... Fumigation into the intake surge tank was chosen to allow thorough mixing of the oxygen?air mixture through the subsequent components of the intake system, such as the air filter, turbocharger, and intercooler, before entering the intake manifold. ...

Juhun Song; Vince Zello; André L. Boehman; Francis J. Waller

2004-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

108

Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Fuel Cells ... At each step, the optimization structure was obtained, and adsorption energy for these molecules on the N-graphene was calculated. ... In this figure, for the first step, the reference energy state is the total energy of optimized N-graphene and OOH molecules. ...

Lipeng Zhang; Zhenhai Xia

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

109

Effect of Microstructure of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene on Oxygen Reduction Activity in Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Microstructure of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene on Oxygen Reduction Activity in Fuel Cells ... The optimized structures for OOH, OOH+ or O2 adsorption (ads) to graphene were obtained through structural optimization calculations. ... Thus, to optimize the catalytic performance, materials structures should be controlled to have small N doping clusters in combination with material defects. ...

Lipeng Zhang; Jianbing Niu; Liming Dai; Zhenhai Xia

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

A coupled-physics model for the vanadium oxygen fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A stationary two-dimensional model for the vanadium oxygen fuel cell is developed. The model consists of a single cell with two membranes, set up as of two half-cells and an intermediate chamber. The transport and balance of mass, momentum and charge are linked to the electrochemical reaction kinetics of the vanadium species and oxygen. The kinetic model for the cathode half-cell is extended by an empirical logistic function to describe the transient behavior of the half-cell. Additionally, experiments are conducted on a single vanadium oxygen fuel cell with 40 cm2 active membrane area. The experimental results are used to validate the simulation data. The effects of constant current discharging, polarization behavior and different flow rates on the cathode overpotential are studied by means of this model.

F.T. Wandschneider; M. Küttinger; J. Noack; P. Fischer; K. Pinkwart; J. Tübke; H. Nirschl

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

114

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The in-house results at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center on the liquid fossil fuel cycle are presented. The cycle covers extraction, processing, utilization, and environmental technology of the liquid fuels derived from petroleum, heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Effect of oxygen on performance and mass transport in a single-cell thermionic fuel element  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of tracer amounts of oxygen into the interelectrode gap of a thermionic converter has been shown to improve converter performance. Excess oxygen, however, increases the loss rate of emitter material, reducing the converter performance and shortening its lifetime, owing to the increase in the effective emissivity of the electrodes, the change in the collector work function, and the deposition of emitter material oxides on spacers and insulators. In this paper, a model was developed, which calculated the emitter material loss rate, composition of the emitter material deposits on the collector surface and investigated the effect on performance of a single-cell Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) in the presence of oxygen and cesium oxides in the interelectrode gap. The amount of oxygen and the cesium pressure in the interelectrode gap were varied parametrically and the TFE volt-ampere characteristics, and axial distributions of current density and emitter material loss rate along the TFE were calculated.

Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Determination of liquid and solid phase composition in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect

One of the tasks of the United States Navy Mobility Fuels program at the Naval Research Laboratory is to determine the effect of composition on the freezing properties of liquid fuels. The combination of requirements for ship and jet aircraft fuels of a low freezing point (to permit cold temperature operations around the world) and a flash point minimum (to reduce the hazard of storage and transport of liquid fuels on board ship) leads to opposing compositional needs. This is because many components of a fuel that tend to lower the freezing point (small hydrocarbons with higher vapor pressures) will also reduce the flash point. Because of these constraints, it is not always practical to produce fuels meeting these requirements from available crudes. This limits the amount of crudes and hence the amount of JP-5, the Navy fuel for carrier based aircraft, which can be produced from ''a barrel of crude.'' With increased knowledge and understanding of the components that first crystallize out of a cold fuel, it may be possible to modify refining techniques to increase the yield of Navy liquid fuels per barrel of crude without compromising either the freezing point or the flash point restrictions. This paper deals with the method used to separate the liquid filtrate from the precipitate in fuels cooled to predetermined temperatures below their freezing points, the method of analyzing the fuel and fuel fractions, and the results obtained from a study of one particular jet fuel.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

CRC fuel rating program: road octane performance of oxygenates in 1982 model cars  

SciTech Connect

Because of the widespread interest in the use of alcohols and ethers as gasoline blending components, this program was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oxygenates on gasoline octane performance and to evaluate the effects of car design features such as engine and transmission type. Five oxygenates were evaluated at two nominal concentrations, 5 and 10 volume%, at both regular- and premium-grade octane levels: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (ETOH), isopropanol (IPA), tertiary butanol (TBA), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). A blend of 5% MeOH and 5 percent TBA was also tested at both octane levels. Twenty-eight unleaded fuels, including four hydrocarbon fuels, two hydrocarbon fuels plus toluene, and twenty-two oxygenated fuels, were rated in duplicate in thirty-eight cars using the Modified Uniontown Technique (CRC Designation F-28-75 described in Appendix C), plus some additional instructions. All testing was done on chassis dynamometers. Ratings were obtained at full throttle with all thirty-eight cars, and at the most critical part-throttle condition (occurring with manifold vacuum of 4 in. Hg (13.5 kPa) or greater above the full-throttle vacuum) with nine cars.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

LIQUID OXYGEN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Live-ing and Dewar who extended their observations into the ultra-violet, ar'e identical in position with, but much...PREVENTION OF CHOLERA, ASIATICA. BY HU5GH HAMILTON, MK.SC., MK.D. THE SyMptOMS of cholera are so well known that it...

G. D. Liveing

1892-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

123

Pt-Based Core–Shell Catalyst Architectures for Oxygen Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, platinum nanoparticles are the most used cathode electrode materials to catalyze the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR, O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e– ? 2 H2O) to water in PEMFC systems. ... The development of DFT-based theoretical predictions of efficient ORR catalysts provided progress in our understanding of ORR activity and yielded promising catalyst materials for fuel cell experimentalists. ... This work demonstrates the essential role of particle size and crossover hydrogen on the degrdn. of platinum polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. ...

Mehtap Oezaslan; Frédéric Hasché; Peter Strasser

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following major areas of investigation: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum and synthetic crude, thermodynamics; process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Highlights for this period in research studies are listed as those in extraction research and processing and thermodynamics research. Searches for microorganisms that will be useful in enhanced oil recovery have produced two promising leads. At Oklahoma State University, bacteria of the genus Clostridia have been found which can live in a brine solution as found in most petroleum reservoirs. These bacteria produce carbon dioxide, acetic acid, alcohols, and ketones as metabolic products. At the University of Georgia, a culture of bacteria has been found which will reduce the viscosity of a 10/sup 0/ API gravity oil by 95 percent. The analysis of heavy oils requires differentiation of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing compounds from hydrocarbons. The most effective way to do this is with a high-resolution mass spectrometer that can distinguish between compounds having molecular weights only a fractional unit apart. These molecular weights are calculated from the computer acquired time-moments of the various ions in a mass spectrum. Thus, the accuracy of results reflects, in part, the numerical methods used in data processing. Consequently, the effect of the mathematical functions on the accuracy of mass measurement is being determined.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Fuel Management of Reactors Other Than Light Water Reactors

Ehud Greenspan; Pavel Hejzlar; Hiroshi Sekimoto; Georgy Toshinsky; David Wade

127

Challenges and Constraints of Using Oxygen Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Challenges and Constraints of Using Oxygen Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells ... The optimization of the cathode preparation (the choice of binder (5), the binder/catalyst ratio, the catalyst processing etc.) was beyond the scope of this study and should be the focus of further, technological investigations. ... Optimized cathode preparation procedures will most likely help increasing this factor and result in a further improved cathode performance at lower catalyst loads. ...

Feng Zhao; Falk Harnisch; Uwe Schröder; Fritz Scholz; Peter Bogdanoff; Iris Herrmann

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Racing Initiative:...

130

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal from our atmosphere of 2.8875x10^7 metric tons O_2/day. Fuel cells are briefly discussed to point out similarly serious environmental problems, again, for large uses. We propose the possibility of resolving these problems by upgrading hydrogen to the new combustible fuel called magnegas^TM, whose chemical structure is composed by the new chemical species of magnecules, whose energy content and other features are beyond the descriptive capaciti...

Santilli, R M

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon: combined effects on ionization electron charge and scintillation light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dedicated test of the effects of Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. Two detectors have been used: the WArP 2.3 lt prototype and a small (0.7 lt) dedicated detector, coupled with a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Oxygen. Purpose of the test with the 0.7 lt detector is to detect the reduction of the long-lived component lifetime of the Argon scintillation light emission at increasing O2 concentration. Data from the WArP prototype are used for determining the behavior of both the ionization electron lifetime and the scintillation long-lived component lifetime during the O2-purification process activated in closed loop during the acquisition run. The electron lifetime measurements allow to infer the O2 content of the Argon and correlate it with the long-lived scintillation lifetime data. The effect of Oxygen contamination on the scintillation light has been thus measured over a wide range of O2 concentration, spanning from about 10^-3 ppm up to about 10 ppm. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Oxygen in LAr has been found to be k'(O2)=0.54+-0.03 micros^-1 ppm^-1.

R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; F. Tortorici; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion ... The fuels, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass combusted by CLC are frequently studied by various researchers(17, 26-31) and compared in the previous studies;(20, 33) however, only few studies on liquid fuel combustion are reported. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Susuki, K.; Ohba, T..Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514– 2518 ...

Ping-Chin Chiu; Young Ku; Hsuan-Chih Wu; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yao-Hsuan Tseng

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper we report on the design fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

Gary L. Mills; Brian Buchholtz; Al Olsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Space effect on liquid film flow in a BWR fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect

Critical power at boiling transition is an important factor in a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle design. Boiling transition under high quality accounts for dryout as the result of the complete disappearance of film flow on a fuel rod. This liquid film vanishing process can be calculated by the liquid film model, which takes into account the evaporation due to heat from the rod surface, liquid film entrainment by steam flow, and liquid droplet deposition. It is known that spacers affect liquid film entrainment and liquid droplet deposition, so the detailed study of spacer effects on hydrodynamic characteristics is necessary for critical power prediction based on the film flow model. Many studies have been conducted to examine spacer effects on liquid film flow. However, most of them are restricted to simple test sections such as a rectangular conduit. There are a few reports on fuel bundle geometry; however the bundle studied was only a 3 by 3 rod array. It is known that spacers affect not only deposition and entrainment but also flow distribution among the subchannels. Therefore, in this research, liquid film thickness measurements were performed to clarify the deposition and entrainment at a spacer in a full-sized fuel bundle. Furthermore, critical power predictions on a BWR fuel bundle were carried out with a film flow model that included a spacer model.

Nishida, Koji; Kanazawa, Toru; Yokomizo, Osamu (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation  

SciTech Connect

In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie, Pisa (Italy)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Comparison of performance characteristics of liquid biofuels and petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance properties of different types of liquid biofuels (bioalcohols, biodiesel, etc.) are examined...

K. E. Pankin; Yu. V. Ivanova; R. I. Kuz’mina…

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

139

Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and high temperature ion transport membranes. While polymeric membranes can produce oxygen enriched air of various concentrations, ion transport membranes can produce purities of close to 100%. Both membraHybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process Thomas

Struchtrup, Henning

140

Preparation of liquid motor fuel components from oil shale gasification products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of shale from two domestic deposits (Kashpirskoe and Leningradskoe) and the subsequent transformation of the products of this process into the components of liquid motor fuels were studied.

B. I. Katorgin; A. L. Lapidus

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The economics of liquid transportation fuels from coal: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the technologies for producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and traces their evolution. Estimates of how their economics have changed with continuing research and development are also given.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Improved Non-Pt Alloys for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Fuel Cell Cathodes Predicted from Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the hypothesis that improved alloy catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at fuel cell cathodes should catalysts for polymer electrolyte mem- brane fuel cell (PEMFC) than pure Pt, while maintaining or improving the surface under FC operating conditions.9 To determine new alloy candidates for PEMFC cathodes, we

Goddard III, William A.

143

A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy #12;1. Introduction The booming of biodiesel industry all over for the sustainability of biodiesel industry. In this regard, the fuel industry seems to be a suitable market whereA new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive

Qin, Wensheng

144

Simultaneous liquid–liquid and vapour–liquid equilibria predictions of selected oxygenated aromatic molecules in mixtures with alkanes, alcohols, water, using the polar GC-PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phase equilibria of oxygen-bearing aromatic compounds, hydrocarbons and water mixtures are of essential interest in many processes using feeds originating from biomass. The strong non-ideal thermodynamic behavior of these systems sometimes results in immiscibility with both water and alkanes. To address this problem, the GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state [Tamouza et al., 2004; Nguyen-Huynh et al., 2008a] is extended to some selected components: phenol, alkyl-phenols, alkyl-benzoates, benzaldehyde and anisole. However, as in these multifunctional compounds, the proximity of polar functional groups may result in a lack of transferability of the parameters from the monofunctional homologous species, some parameters have been adapted in view of physical arguments. Next, liquid–vapour and liquid–liquid equilibria of mixtures with n-alkanes were evaluated, using a predictive method for the binary interaction parameters (kij) [Nguyen-Huynh et al., 2008b]. Finally, mixtures with other associating compounds, as alcohols and water have also been considered. In all cases, both correlations and predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively satisfactory. The relative deviations obtained on bubble pressure of vapor–liquid equilibria are 4–8%, that is comparable to those obtained on previously investigated systems.

Nguyen-Huynh Dong; de Hemptinne Jean-Charles; Lugo Rafael; Passarello Jean-Philippe; Tobaly Pascal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal from our atmosphere of 2.8875x10^7 metric tons O_2/day. Fuel cells are briefly discussed to point out similarly serious environmental problems, again, for large uses. We propose the possibility of resolving these problems by upgrading hydrogen to the new combustible fuel called magnegas^TM, whose chemical structure is composed by the new chemical species of magnecules, whose energy content and other features are beyond the descriptive capacities of quantum chemistry. In fact, magnegas contains up to 50% hydrogen, while having combustion exhaust with: 1) a positive oxygen balance (releasing more oxygen in the exhaust than that used in the combustion); 2) no appreciable carcinogenic or toxic substances; 3) considerably reduced carbon dioxide as compared to fossil fuels; 4) considerably reduced nitrogen oxides; and 5) general reduction of pollutants in the exhaust up to 96% of current EPA standards.

R. M. Santilli

2000-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

146

Liquid Fuels Taxes and Credits (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides a review of the treatment of federal fuels taxes and tax credits in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Liquid-fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports for the quarter ending September 1982 are presented for the following major tasks: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum, coal liquids, thermodynamics, process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: new laboratory enhances BETC capability in mass spectrometry; and BETC tests on diesel particulate extracts indicate potential health risks. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for Reax temperature, leading to applications as oxygen sensors and as membranes for high temperature solid oxide fuel

Goddard III, William A.

149

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

150

Effect of hydrogen on the oxygen embrittlement of beta-quenched Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy cladding embrittlement was evaluated from data derived from the postirradiation examination of 47 light-water reactor type fuel rods irradiated under postulated accident conditions. The Zircaloy-4 cladding showed rapid oxygenation of the/beta/-phase Zircaloy and hydriding in excess of the pretest characterization. Fuel rods operated with a cladding defect were embrittled to a greater extent than intact rods oxidized under similar conditions. A modified background prior/beta/-phase and precipitation of rim-/alpha/was typically observed in the failure region of breached rods. The fracture resistance of breached rods appears to be related to enhanced hydrogen absorption and its influence on both the/alpha/-phase transformation and /alpha/-morphology during rapid (approximately 100 K/s) quenching. refs 5.

Seiffert, S.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Performance and Emissions of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel/Oxygenate Blends for Various Fuel Delivery Advance Angles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China ... In the application of pure oxygenated fuels, Fleisch et al.,1 Kapus and Ofner,2 and Sorenson and Mikkelsen3 have studied dimethyl ether (DME) in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Although some previous work has revealed the characteristics of diesel/ethanol blends in a compression ignition engine (Satge de Caro et al.,14 Ali et al.15), there, however, is still much work that needs to be done in regard to the application of diesel/methanol blends in compression ignition engines, especially in clarifying the basic combustion and emission. ...

Zuohua Huang; Hongbing Lu; Deming Jiang; Ke Zeng; Bing Liu; Junqiang Zhang; Xibin Wang

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

152

Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysts for Cell Reversal and Start/Stop Tolerance in Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Minute amounts of ruthenium and iridium on platinum nanostructured thin films have been evaluated in an effort to reduce carbon corrosion and Pt dissolution during transient conditions in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed the catalysts had a remarkable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity, even greater than that of bulk, metallic thin films. Stability tests within a fuel cell environment showed that rapid Ru dissolution could be managed with the addition of Ir. Membrane electrode assemblies containing a Ru to Ir atomic ratio of 1:9 were evaluated under startup/shutdown and cell reversal conditions for OER catalyst loadings ranging from 1 to 10 g/cm2. These tests affirmed that electrode potentials can be controlled through the addition of OER catalysts without impacting the oxygen reduction reaction on the cathode or the hydrogen oxidation reaction on the anode. The morphology and chemical structure of the thin OER layers were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in an effort to establish a correlation between interfacial properties and electrochemical behavior.

Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Cullen, David A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Presentation  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

target volumes - Direct Rule and Pathways II Final Rule set renewable fuel oil and biogas as cellulosic- compliant. Investigating methodology for representing new rules. * E-15...

154

Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

155

Characteristics of Enzyme-Based Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using an Oxygen-Tolerant Hydrogenase as the Anodic Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a fuel cell adaptable for variable fuel and oxidant supply, three limiting conditions were examined: (1) the anode and cathode separated by a Nafion membrane and 100% H2 and 100% O2 fed to the separate compartments, (2) a membrane-free mixed feed cell with a fuel-rich (96% H2) hydrogen/oxygen mixture, and (3) a membrane-free mixed feed cell with a fuel-weak (4% H2) hydrogen/air mixture. ... Enzymes permit diversification of fuels; conventional fuel cells are currently restricted to hydrogen or methanol, whereas enzymes can use biological fuels such as glucose or fructose. ... Thus, the second active anode jump-starts the first, inactivated anode, analogous to recharging the flat battery of one car with the live battery of another. ...

Annemarie F. Wait; Alison Parkin; Gregory M. Morley; Luciano dos Santos; Fraser A. Armstrong

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

156

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production.… (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

158

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

SciTech Connect

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optimization of the Cathode Catalyst Layer Composition of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Novel 2-Step Preparation Method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction… (more)

Friedmann, Roland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of fuel gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carriers. 1. Fate of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested among the best alternatives to reduce the economic cost of CO{sub 2} capture using fuel gas because CO{sub 2} is inherently separated in the process. For gaseous fuels, natural gas, refinery gas, or syngas from coal gasification can be used. These fuels may contain different amounts of sulfur compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. An experimental investigation of the fate of sulfur during CH{sub 4} combustion in a 500 W{sub th} CLC prototype using a Ni-based oxygen carrier has been carried out. The effect on the oxygen carrier behavior and combustion efficiency of several operating conditions such as temperature and H{sub 2}S concentration has been analyzed. Nickel sulfide, Ni3S{sub 2}, was formed at all operating conditions in the fuel reactor, which produced an oxygen carrier deactivation and lower combustion efficiencies. However, the oxygen carrier recovered their initial reactivity after certain time without sulfur addition. The sulfides were transported to the air reactor where SO{sub 2} was produced as final gas product. Agglomeration problems derived from the sulfides formation were never detected during continuous operation. Considering both operational and environmental aspects, fuels with sulfur contents below 100 vppm H{sub 2}S seem to be adequate to be used in an industrial CLC plant.

Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L.F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J.; Abad, A.; Dueso, C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

163

Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

Development of hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading technologies for lipid-extracted algae conversion to liquid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available experimental results. The system assumed an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric tons/day and that the feedstock was converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrated that HTL and upgrading is effective for converting LEA to liquid fuels. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent (GGE) and the overall energy efficiency on a higher heating value (HHV) basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The variation range of the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $2.07 to $7.11/GGE by combining the effects of selected process factors. Key factors affecting the production cost were identified to be the LEA feedstock cost, final products yields, and the upgrading equipment cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

Yunhua Zhu; Karl O. Albrecht; Douglas C. Elliott; Richard T. Hallen; Susanne B. Jones

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

167

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base - major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of a catalytic process to convert glycerol into solketal as an oxygenated fuel additive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchange resin Kinetics a b s t r a c t Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel industry and can be converted as an oxygenated fuel additive Malaya R. Nanda a , Zhongshun Yuan a , Wensheng Qin b , Hassan S. Ghaziaskar c was completely eliminated above 400 rpm. Moisture content demonstrated an adverse effect on the yield

Qin, Wensheng

170

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine with Oxygenated Fuels and Thermal Barrier Coating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine with Oxygenated Fuels and Thermal Barrier Coating ... Exhaust gas emissions from diesel engines have become a serious problem to the researchers; therefore, a method of reduction of gas emission is needed. ... Their results show that the engine can achieve ultra-low emission without fundamental change to the combustion system. ...

P. Ramu; C. G. Saravanan

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Electroreduction of Oxygen in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by Activated Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanocrystallites Produced by Electric Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electroreduction of Oxygen in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by Activated Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanocrystallites Produced by Electric Arc Discharge ... A recent review of the encapsulation of rare earth and iron group metals (Fe, Co, Ni) using electric arc discharge has been published by Saito. ... Nanotubes have been observed after activation of catalytically inactive carbon-coated Co nanocrystallites generated by electric arc discharge. ...

G. Lalande; D. Guay; J. P. Dodelet; S. A. Majetich; M. E. McHenry

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Highlights of research activities at BETC during the past quarter are summarized in this document. Major research areas include: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer.

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Fuel instability studies; Liquid phase oxidation of tetrahydrothiophene by tert-butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect

The reactions that lead to fuel instability are the subject of conflicting reports in the literature. Confusion results from the difficulty in relating differences in fuel composition, temperature, surface effects and dissolved oxygen content that comprise the multitude of reported studies. Model studies offer a means by chic the mechanism of an individual reaction can be related to a simple system and then extended to the more complex fuel media. This paper reports a model oxidation study of a species, t-butyl hydroperoxide under mild reaction conditions, 120{degrees}C, in a tetradecane model fuel. The major oxidation product was tetrahydrothiophene sulfoxide from the sulfide and t-butanol from the hydroperoxide. The complete suite of products is reported.

Mushrush, G.W.; Pellenbarg, R.E.; Hazlett, R.N.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Code 6180, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2  

SciTech Connect

EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

Klosky, M.K. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A no loss liquid natural gas (LNG) delivery system is described comprising: (a) means for storing LNG and natural gas at low pressure; (b) means for delivering LNG from the means for storing to a use device including means for sub-cooling the LNG; (c) means for pre-cooling the means for sub-cooling before the LNG is delivered to the use device to substantially reduce vaporization of the initial LNG delivered to the use device; and (d) means for delivering a selectable quantity of the natural gas in said storing means to said use device with the LNG.

Gustafson, K.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However the mass size and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff cruise and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

Jacob Leachman; Melissa Jean Street; Teira Graham

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Investigation of different manganese ores as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with direct capture of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. In this work, six different manganese ores are investigated as oxygen carriers for CLC application. The chemical-looping characteristics of the oxygen carriers were evaluated in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900–970 °C during alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Three of the manganese ores showed a small oxygen release in inert environment between 850 and 950 °C. During reactivity tests, the gas yield with methane increased with the temperature and complete conversion of 50% CO in H2 was obtained for all of the ores. The rates of char gasification of two fuels, namely Mexican petroleum coke and Swedish wood char, were compared for the different manganese ores at 970 °C and with 50% H2O in N2 as fluidizing gas. Ilmenite and a manufactured Mn-oxide oxygen carrier consisting of Mn3O4 and MgO-stabilized ZrO2 as support were also included for comparison. The char gasification rate and the gas conversion were higher with the manganese ores and the Mn-oxide oxygen carrier compared to ilmenite. However, the higher reactivity of the manganese ores with H2 and the ensuing decrease in H2 inhibition for manganese ores is not sufficient to explain their higher rate of char gasification. Surface analysis of partially gasified petcoke particles in the presence of manganese ores showed formation of cavities and channels as well as a uniform distribution of potassium and sodium elements. The rate of char gasification also increased with the concentration of potassium and sodium impurities in the manganese ores. Thus the results suggest that the increased rate of char conversion for manganese ores is due to alkali-catalyzed steam gasification. The increase in rate of char gasification, in combination with potentially low costs of these materials suggests that manganese ores could be interesting materials for CLC with solid fuels.

Mehdi Arjmand; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) presently represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil) since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the simple rate of return on investments is about 2.8%, 11% and 16% for the 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons annual capacity ethanol respectively.

Shadia R. Tewfik; Nihal M. El Defrawy; Mohamed H. Sorour

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

188

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long endurance flight on the order of days is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However no such system of LH2 storage delivery and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered student designed and constructed Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging pressurizing and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

Progress accomplished during the quarter ending September 1981 is reported under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (reservoir characterization and evaluation, recovery projects, reservoir access, extraction technology, recovery processes and process implementation); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization (energy conversion - adaptive engineering, combustion systems assessment, and heat engines/heat recovery); and project integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: air drilling research; fluid injection in reservoirs; target reservoirs in Permian Basin suitable for CO/sub 2/ flooding; heavy oil technology; and the fate of used motor oil/results of a survey.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress rport, April-June 1983  

SciTech Connect

Highlights of research activities for the quarter ending June 1983 are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel; extraction; processing; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. Titles of featured articles are: (1) chemical flooding field test produces 975,000 barrels of oil; (2) chemicals boost recovery in steam-drive tests; (3) North Dakota carbon dioxide minitest successful; (4) carbon dioxide EOR reports issued; and (5) BETC slated for new management and new name. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous waste, and industrial solid waste. It includes food waste, residential rubbish, commercial and industrial wastes, and construction and demolition debris. It has an average higher heating value (HHV) of approximately 5100 btu/lb (as arrived basis).

195

CO2?laser?induced deflagration of fuel/oxygen mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weakly focused pulsed?CO2?laser radiation has been examined as an ignition source for low?pressure (85–100 Torr) near?stoichiometric fuel/oxygen mixtures containing the following fuels: ethylene methyl fluoride methanol ethanol dimethyl ether p?dioxane n?propyl nitrate and iso?propyl nitrate. The data analysis includes characterization of the spatially dependent ir absorption in the test cell calculation of appropriate medium temperatures from the absorbed laser energy and correlation of observed ignition delay times t ig with the calculated temperatures. Effects of hydrodynamic motion on the pressure density and temperature profiles of the irradiated samples were modeled using a computer code for two?dimensional wave propagation. Code predictions are in accordance with experimental pressure?time histories obtained using a piezoelectric transducer. Minimum ignition temperatures ranged from 590 K for the iso?propyl nitrate/O2 system to 1645 K for CH3F/O2. The observed functional relationship between t ig and temperature T was generally of the form ln?t ig =A/T+B where A and B are constants. This relationship follows the form predicted by thermal and degenerate chain ignition theories viz. ln?t ig =E act/ R T+constant where E act corresponds to an overall activation energy. Using this relation derived activation energies are 86 57 42 47 ?40 13 and 12 kcal/mole for the CH3F/O2 CH3OCH3/O2 CH3OH/O2 C2H5OH/O2 C4H8O2/O2 n?propyl nitrate/O2 and iso?propyl nitrate/O2 mixtures respectively. These results are in reasonable agreement with available data from shock?tube and hot air stream injection techniques. In contrast an anomalous threshold?like effect was observed for laser ignition of C2H4/O2. The applicability of ignition schemes of this type to time?resolved kinetic spectroscopic studies is briefly discussed.

Wayne M. Trott

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

CO/sub 2/-laser-induced deflagration of fuel/oxygen mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Weakly focused pulsed-CO/sub 2/-laser radiation has been examined as an ignition source for low-pressure (85--100 Torr), near-stoichiometric fuel/oxygen mixtures containing the following fuels: ethylene, methyl fluoride, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, p-dioxane, n-propyl nitrate, and iso-propyl nitrate. The data analysis includes characterization of the spatially dependent ir absorption in the test cell, calculation of appropriate medium temperatures from the absorbed laser energy, and correlation of observed ignition delay times t/sub ig/ with the calculated temperatures. Effects of hydrodynamic motion on the pressure, density, and temperature profiles of the irradiated samples were modeled using a computer code for two-dimensional wave propagation. Code predictions are in accordance with experimental pressure-time histories obtained using a piezoelectric transducer. Minimum ignition temperatures ranged from 590 K for the iso-propyl nitrate/O/sub 2/ system to 1645 K for CH/sub 3/F/O/sub 2/. The observed functional relationship between t/sub ig/ and temperature T was generally of the form ln t/sub ig/ = A/T+B, where A and B are constants. This relationship follows the form predicted by thermal and degenerate chain ignition theories, viz., ln t/sub ig/ = E/sub act// RT+constant, where E/sub act/ corresponds to an overall activation energy. Using this relation, derived activation energies are 86, 57, 42, 47, approx.40, 13, and 12 kcal/mole for the CH/sub 3/F/O/sub 2/, CH/sub 3/OCH/sub 3//O/sub 2/, CH/sub 3/OH/O/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH/O/sub 2/, C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//O/sub 2/, n-propyl nitrate/O/sub 2/, and iso-propyl nitrate/O/sub 2/ mixtures, respectively. These results are in reasonable agreement with available data from shock-tube and hot air stream injection techniques. In contrast, an anomalous, threshold-like effect was observed for laser ignition of C/sub 2/H/sub 4//O/sub 2/. The applicability of ignition schemes of this type to time-resolved kinetic spectroscopic studies is briefly discussed.

Trott, W.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

Highlights of the BETC January-March 1980 quarter were: Gasohol was tested in a cooperative effort with Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. Two fleets of 55 cars were tested using gasohol in one and gasoline in the other. No problems were encountered. The gasohol-fueled cars had less emissions, and the fuel efficiencies for both fleets were approximately the same. An in situ combustion has been successfully started in a heavy oil deposit in Kansas. After some difficulties in starting the burn, it is now operating satisfactorily and producing oil. Cooperation between DOE and the Venezuelan oil industry was explored in a meeting at BETC that emphasized efforts to produce heavy oil. Cooperation through the International Energy Agency is expected to result in sharing of technology on enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum product surveys are produced cooperatively by DOE and the American Petroleum Institute. They give the properties of the products currently being marketed in the US. During the quarter, surveys on Motor Gasolines, Summer 1979 and Diesel Fuel Oils, 1979 were published. They are used to trace changes in characteristics and also to set specifications. The size of colloids, micelles, and emulsions in petroleum and associated liquids can be a factor in the design of improved recovery processes. The use of small angle x-ray scattering has been facilitated by a new method of calculation. The development of the Liquid Fossil Fuel Cycle has been facilitated by a workshop and further discussions resulting in a new statement Planning Framework for Liquid Fossil Fuel Cycle, March 1, 1980. This has now been used to prepare a computer-processible form to use in a critical path study of the BETC program.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coal–to–liquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coal–to–liquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This… (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Study of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to oxygen dissociation and diffusion process.26 KEYWORDS: Solid oxide fuel cell; Silver infiltrationStudy of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2 3 4 Li-Ping Sun1 -- Hui Zhao1 -- Qiang Li1 -- Li-Hua Huo1 -- Jean-Paul Viricelle*2 --5 Christophe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

202

Phosphoric acid impurities in phosphoric acid fuel cell electrolytes. 2: Effects on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of phosphorus acid additions on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes in concentrated phosphoric acid were studied. The oxygen reduction currents decreased, and the Tafel slopes became more negative upon the addition of small concentrations of phosphorus acid. In addition,the phosphorus acid oxidation current tended to complete with the oxygen reduction current. These effects became more pronounced at higher phosphorus acid concentrations and at higher temperatures. Upon the addition of phosphorus acid the number of electrons involved in the oxygen reduction reaction decreased from a value close to four to a value approaching two, suggesting promotion of a two-electron reduction to peroxide. Therefore, in studies of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in hot concentrated phosphoric acid or in fuel cell systems using hot concentrated phosphoric acid as electrolyte, it is recommended that precautions be taken against the inadvertent formation of the phosphorus acid. The removal of phosphorus acid from concentrated phosphoric acid by repeated potential cycling at 100 mV/s between + 0.5 and +1.50 V (vs. dynamic hydrogen electrode) was demonstrated.

Sugishima, Noboru; Hinatsu, J.T.; Foulkes, F.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Exergy analysis of PEM fuel cells for marine applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cells have a promising potential use in stationary and mobile power generation systems, as well as in automotive, aerospace or marine industries. At present, the main field of marine applications of fuel cells is submarines. Hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are commonly used in this field. Storage of oxygen in liquid form is the optimal solution. Hydrogen can be stored in carbon-nanofibres or metallic hydrides, for example, or in liquid fuels, as alcohols, with further generation of the hydrogen required on-board. The objective of this study is to perform an exergetic analysis of two possibilities of using PEM fuel cells on surface ships and submarines: hydrogen/oxygen PEM fuel cells fed with hydrogen generated by reforming of methanol, and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells directly fed with liquid methanol. To do this, exergy losses and exergetic efficiencies are calculated for both configurations at selected optimal operation points.

T.J. Leo; J.A. Durango; E. Navarro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Iron-Based Catalysts with Improved Oxygen Reduction Activity in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...26 See supporting material on Science Online. 27 U. S. Department of Energy, Technical Plan: Fuel Cells, 2007 (www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/pdfs/fuel_cells.pdf). 28 F. Charreteur , S. Ruggeri, F. Jaouen, J...

Michel Lefèvre; Eric Proietti; Frédéric Jaouen; Jean-Pol Dodelet

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

205

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Polyethylene glycol as a green solvent for effective extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel at ambient conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Today there are serious regulations to reduce sulfur content of fuels because the \\{SOx\\} produced during the combustion of fuels containing sulfur compounds make the air polluted and have dangerous environmental impacts. With the aim of replacement of the present volatile, flammable and toxic organic solvents or inefficient, corrosive and expensive ionic liquids (ILs), the polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced as a green, effective, non-toxic, non-corrosive and also recyclable molecular solvent for extractive desulfurization (EDS) of benzothiophenic compounds from liquid fuel in this work for the first time. PEG shows excellent EDS and it has the higher extraction efficiency for dibenzothiophene (DBT) (76% within 90 s) than those of ILs. Using this extractant, the BDT content was reduced from 512 to 10 ppmw (98%) only within three extraction stages, the minimum number of cycles within shortest time reported up to now, and the deep desulfurization was achieved. Effect of some important parameters including initial concentration of sulfur compound, PEG dosage, time and temperature of extraction on the EDS process was investigated. It was fond that extraction performance of PEG is independent to temperature and initial sulfur content, which is an excellent finding for industrialization. The feasibility of PEG for extraction of different thiophenic compounds was observed in the order of dibenzothiophene > benzothiophene > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiopene. Finally, the PEG was reused in several cycles and then it was regenerated by adsorption method. The results of the present work hopefully provide useful information for future industrial application of PEG as an efficient green solvent for the EDS of liquid fuels.

Effat Kianpour; Saeid Azizian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

None

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Oxygen reduction on carbon-supported platinum fuel-cell electrodes in H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of oxygen on carbon supported fuel cell electrodes was investigated in phosphoric acid electrolytes in the concentration range of 85% to 101% and at temperatures from 25/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/C. In purified acid the Tafel slope in the potential region of 0.7 to 0.9 V RHE is approx. 120 mV/decade and is invariant with temperature. The activation energy for oxygen reduction is between 8 kcal and 13 kcal/mole. In impure 101% electrolyte the Tafel slope increases from a value of 85 mV/decade at 80/sup 0/C to 105 mV/decade at 180/sup 0/C and the activation energy is 18.29 kcal/mole. The major discrepancies in the literature can be rationalized on the basis of impurity effects. In pure electrolytes, the kinetic parameters on smooth platinum and high area carbon supported platinum are the same.

McBreen, J.; Olender, H.; Srinivasan, S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative fuel oxygenates Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Fuel Cell Department Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 2 6-025 (O) The Joint International Conference...

210

Ambient pressure fuel cell system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rate Analysis of Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) for Solid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study is concerned with the rate analysis from reported batch fluidized bed CLOU experimental data of Mexican petcoke particles by a CuO/ZrO2 oxygen carrier. ... Analysis of the CLOU Experiments for Combustion of Mexican Petcoke(4, 5) ... A 45–60 fold increase in reaction rate has been reported of the carbon residue in petcoke when reacted with a CuO based oxygen carrier in CLOU experiments, compared to the CLC process with an iron based oxygen carrier in the temperature range 950–985 °C. ...

Asad H. Sahir; Hong Yong Sohn; Henrik Leion; JoAnn S. Lighty

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

212

Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Numerical assessment of liquid cooling system for power electronics in fuel cell electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrical power from the fuel cells is converted and controlled by power electronics that are composed of control units, converters and switching devices. During the power management, the inevitable power losses induce heat generation in the power electronics. In this, effective design for the cooling system is essential in terms of safety, reliability, and durability. A liquid cooling system for the power electronics is applied to chill the electrical components below the thermal specifications. Nonetheless, the layout of cooling components is usually designed after the completion of the chassis and power electronics in the automotive applications, thus, only a little freedom is allowed to change the layout. Thus, it is significant and urgent to investigate the cooling performance before finalizing the layout design. In this paper, one dimensional and computerized fluid dynamics code is employed to simulate the performance of the cooling system at the early stage of conceptual design. Three different layouts of cooling systems are chosen to compare the ensuing systematic cooling performances. The liquid flow rates, pressure drops, and maximum temperatures are computed by the numerical simulations of the cooling system which comprises the cold plates, liquid pump, radiator, and plumbing network. It is demonstrated that for a fuel cell electric vehicle of 100 kW, the dual cooling loops with a specified array control the maximum temperatures below thermal specification by inducing the higher liquid flow rate of rate of 33.4 L/min through radiator than 20.0 L/min in a single loop. The proposed systematic numerical simulation provides significant information to determine the layout of the power electronics coupled with the cooling performance at the early stage of conceptual design.

Heesung Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Performance of a low-cost iron ore as an oxygen carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion of gaseous fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work evaluates the performance of an iron ore, mainly composed of Fe2O3, as an oxygen carrier (OC) for Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with gaseous fuels. The OC was characterized by TGA and evaluated in a continuous 500 Wth CLC unit, using CH4, syngas and a PSA off-gas as fuels. The OC was able to fully convert syngas at 880 °C. However, lower conversion rates were observed with methane-containing fuels. The addition of a Ni-based OC was evaluated in order to increase the reactivity of the OC with methane. In spite of this, an absence of catalytic effect was observed for the Ni-based OC. A deep analysis was carried out into the reasons for the absence of catalytic effect of the Ni-based OC. The performance of the iron ore with regard to attrition and fluidization behaviour was satisfactory throughout 50 h of hot operation in the continuous CLC plant. Thus, this low cost material is a suitable OC for gaseous fuels mainly composed of H2 and CO.

Miguel A. Pans; Pilar Gayán; Luis F. de Diego; Francisco García-Labiano; Alberto Abad; Juan Adánez.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Activity and Evolution of Vapor Deposited Pt-Pd Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Solid Acid Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of hydrogen fuel cells based on the crystalline solid proton conductor CsH2PO4 is circumscribed by the mass activity of platinum oxygen reduction catalysts in the cathode. Here we report on the first application of an alloy catalyst in a solid acid fuel cell, and demonstrate an activity 4.5 times greater than Pt at 0.8 V. These activity enhancements were obtained with platinum-palladium alloys that were vapor-deposited directly on CsH2PO4 at 210 C. Catalyst mass activity peaks at a composition of 84 at% Pd, though smaller activity enhancements are observed for catalyst compositions exceeding 50 at% Pd. Prior to fuel cell testing, Pd-rich catalysts display lattice parameter expansions of up to 2% due to the presence of interstitial carbon. After fuel cell testing, a Pt-Pd solid solution absent of lattice dilatation and depleted in carbon is recovered. The structural evolution of the catalysts is correlated with catalyst de-activation.

Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Chisholm, Calum R [ORNL; Zecevic, strahinja [LiOx, Inc., Pasadena, California 91106, United States; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Safeguards and security concept for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, SAF line technical support  

SciTech Connect

This report is a safeguards and security concept system review for the secure automated fabrication (SAF) and national liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel programs.

Schaubert, V.J.; Remley, M.E.; Grantham, L.F.

1986-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Chapter 3 - Fuels for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with various types of liquid fuels and the relevant chemical and physical properties of these fuels as a means of comparison to the fuels of the future. It gives an overview of the manufacture and properties of the common fuels as well as a description of various biofuels. A fuel mixture usually contains a wide range of organic compounds (usually hydrocarbons). The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, and a host of other properties. Depending on the application (stationary, central power, remote, auxiliary, transportation, military, etc.), there are a wide range of conventional fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, light distillates, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuels, diesel, and biodiesel, that could be used in reforming processes to produce hydrogen (or hydrogen-rich synthesis gas) to power fuel cells. Fossils fuels include gaseous fuels, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuels. Gaseous fuels include natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Types of gasoline include automotive gasoline, aviation gasoline, and gasohol. Some additives added into gasoline are antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, demulsifiers, anti-icing, dyes and markers, drag reducers, and oxygenates.

James G. Speight

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

SciTech Connect

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

220

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

SciTech Connect

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Power Generation Capabilities of Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Oxygen Supplies in the Cathodic Chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with activated sludge ... whereas it was obtained by the photosynthesis of algae in the other. Electrogenic capabilities of both ... power output than the one with photo...

Der-Fong Juang; Chao-Hsien Lee; Shu-Chun Hsueh…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Use of coal as fuel for chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion is an indirect combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The feasibility of using NiO as an oxygen carrier during chemical-looping combustion of coal has been investigated experimentally at 800-960{degree}C in the present work. The experiments were carried out in a fluidized bed, where the steam acted as the gasification-fluidization medium. Coal gasification and the reaction of oxygen carrier with the water gas take place simultaneously in the reactor. The oxygen carrier particles exhibit high reactivity above 900{degree}C, and the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the exit gas of the reactor is nearly 95%. The flue gas composition as a function of the reactor temperature and cyclic reduction number is discussed. At 800-960{degree}C, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the flue gas presents a monotonously increasing trend, whereas the dry basis concentration of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} decreases monotonously. The concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the flue gas as a function of cyclic reduction number present a para-curve characteristic at 900{degree}C. With the increase of cyclic reduction number, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} decreases remarkably, while the dry basis concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} increase rapidly. Moreover, the peak value of H{sub 2} concentration is less than that of CO. The performance of the NiO-based oxygen carriers was also evaluated using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues of oxygen carrier. The results indicate that NiO is one of the suitable oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of coal.

Gao, Z.P.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Qing, C.J.; Song, Q.L. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Reducing the Emission of Particles from a Diesel Engine by Adding an Oxygenate to the Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small reduction of the engine power was also observed; however, the net effect was nevertheless a reduction in the emission of CO2 per European stationary cycle. ... A general finding is that the reduction of particles seems to be linearly dependent on the oxygen content, and, thus, the blend with the highest oxygen content results in the highest reduction of particles (14?16). ... Measure ments of NOx, HC, and CO content were performed in accordance with the ESC test cycles and were repeated nine times when the engine was operating on EC-1 diesel and five times when the engine was operating on A-diesel. ...

Kent E. Nord; Dan Haupt

2005-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

226

Chemical-looping combustion of solid fuels in a 10 kW reactor system using natural minerals as oxygen carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an unmixed combustion concept where fuel and combustion air are kept separate by means of an oxygen carrier, and the CO2 capture is inherently achieved. This work presents findings from a continuously operated 10 kW pilot for solid fuels. Using petcoke as fuel, the following oxygen carriers are compared: (a) ilmenite, (b) ilmenite + lime, (c) manganese ore, and (d) manganese ore + lime. Compared to ilmenite, the use of manganese ore as oxygen carrier greatly enhanced the rate of gasification. By adding lime particles to the Mn ore, performance improved further. The addition of lime to ilmenite had a small beneficial effect on gas conversion and char gasification rate.

Carl Linderholm; Anders Lyngfelt; Cristina Dueso

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

70-108B One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 December 2, 1997 Key Words: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, humidification, gas distribution, direct liquid water injection, interdigitated flow fields. * Corresponding... of the catalyst layers were made of waterproof, carbon fiber cloths. Liquid water was injected by two metering pumps into two heated stainless steel coils, where it was preheated to the cell operating temperatures, and then directly into the gas streams...

Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Nguyen, Trung Van

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Oxygen Reduction Kinetics on Electrodeposited PtCo as a Model Catalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes: Stability as a Function of PtCo Composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Reduction Kinetics on Electrodeposited PtCo as a Model Catalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes: Stability as a Function of PtCo Composition ... When the focus is at reducing cost and improving durability, the PEMFC cathode deserves special attention. ... (4-7) Mukerjee et al. investigated various Pt bimetallic alloys supported on carbon and found a 2?3-fold increase in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity for the alloy catalysts under PEMFC operating conditions. ...

Kaushik Jayasayee; Van Anh T. Dam; Tiny Verhoeven; Serdar Celebi; Frank A. de Bruijn

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

229

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect

This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

230

Generating Singlet Oxygen Bubbles: A New Mechanism for Gas–Liquid Oxidations in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our interest in developing a singlet oxygen [1O2 (1?g)]-sparging reactor came from small-scale devices for disinfection of, for example, municipal and well water, but which used filtration, ozone, and/or UV light. ... In front of the A10449 mechanical shutter of the detector was placed either a 25-mm-diameter, 1150 nm long pass filter (FEL1150, Thorlabs Inc.) or one of three 25-mm-diameter NIR bandpass filters centered at 1220, 1270, and 1315 nm (OD4 blocking, fwhm = 15 nm, Omega, Brattleboro, VT). ... (19) Drying of the composite was done at 50 °C for 10 h to avoid destruction of the confined phthalocyanine molecules, producing an aerogel that shrunk ?10% where some, but not all adsorbed water was removed. ...

Dorota Bartusik; David Aebisher; BiBi Ghafari; Alan M. Lyons; Alexander Greer

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond J. P. Dodelet INRS-Énergie et Matériaux C. P. 1020, Varennes, Québec, Canada, J3X 1S2 dodelet@inrs-ener.uquebec.ca Collaborators Michel Lefèvre (INRS) Sébastien Marcotte (INRS) Frédéric Jaouen (Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden) Prof. Patrick Bertrand (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium) Prof. Göran Lindbergh (Royal Inst. Of Technology, Sweden) New Orleans workshop March 21 03. DODELET, J. P. ; New Orleans, March 21, 03 1 PEM Fuel Cells Anode : 2 H 2 → 4 H + + 4 e - Electrolyte : Perfluorinated polymer - SO 3 H Cathode : O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e - → 2 H 2 O Acidic Medium ( pH ~ 1 ) Low Temperature Fuel Cell (80°C) ↓ Pt- based Anode and Cathode Catalysts Pt is not abundant and expensive

232

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

233

Iridium As Catalyst and Cocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution/Reduction in Acidic Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers and Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, an overview of the application of Ir and Ir-containing catalysts for the OER in PEMWE anodes, for the ORR in PEMFC cathodes (both in acid medium), and for both OER and ORR in unit regenerative fuel cell (URFC) oxygen electrodes, is presented. ... Rotating disk electrode measurements confirmed that if formic acid was present, these Ir alloy catalysts could still catalyze a complete 4-electron transfer ORR from O2 to H2O, while the Pt/C catalyst could only catalyze a reaction contributed by both 2- and 4-electron transfer processes, producing both H2O2 and H2O. ... Moreover, acceptable stability of these catalysts at high potential in acid environment suits them to the requirements of cathode catalyst in PEMFC or DMFC. ...

Ermete Antolini

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

235

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electrochemical Formation of a Pt/Zn Alloy and Its Use as a Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurs on the cathode in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). ... In addition to the MEAs containing Zn-modified cathodes, MEAs composed of untreated commercially available GDEs with identical catalyst loading and material specifications (i.e., ELAT carbon cloth, Electrochem Inc.) were also prepared in a similar manner and then investigated in a fuel cell testing configuration to evaluate comparatively the effect of the cathode Zn treatment on the fuel cell polarization curves. ... The history, status in recent expts., and prospects for Pt-alloy cathode catalysts are reviewed. ...

Aya Sode; Winton Li; Yanguo Yang; Phillip C. Wong; Elod Gyenge; Keith A. R. Mitchell; Dan Bizzotto

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium ... A simple and efficient process was presented for the selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into the high-quality liquid fuel 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). ... (1-3) Among the many possible chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be produced from a variety of biomass-derived carbohydrates,(4-8) is recognized as a versatile intermediate (Scheme 1), and it can be further converted into a series of high-quality fuels such as ethyl levulinate (EL),(9) 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF),(10) 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),(11) C9–C15 alkanes,(12) and high-value chemicals such as levulinic acid (LA),(13) 2,5-dihydroxymethylfurfural (DHMF),(14) 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF),(15) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). ...

Lei Hu; Xing Tang; Jiaxing Xu; Zhen Wu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermodynamic Models for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Nitrogen+Oxygen+Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the design and optimization of CO2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N2+O2+CO2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N2 and O2 in CO2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO2-rich region.

Vrabec, J; Buchhauser, U; Meyer-Pittroff, R; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) The relatively high OPAH emissions from indoor burning can be explained by the different amount of oxygen supply resulting in lower combustion efficiencies and relatively high temperature in the enclosed residential stoves due to low heat loss. ... hydrocarbon (PAH) emission source in developing countries; however, PAH emission factor (EF) data for indoor crop residue combustion, particularly field-measured data, are scarce, leading to large uncertainties in emission inventories. ... Shen, G.; Wang, W.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Min, Y.; Xue, M.; Ding, J.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Shen, H.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Tao, S.Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China Atmos. ...

Guofeng Shen; Shu Tao; Wei Wang; Yifeng Yang; Junnan Ding; Miao Xue; Yujia Min; Chen Zhu; Huizhong Shen; Wei Li; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Wentao Wang; Xilong Wang; Armistead G. Russell

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

243

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components Prodip K. DasWater management in PEM fuel cells is critical for optimumof droplet dynamics in PEM fuel-cell gas flow channels has

Das, Prodip K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evaporation Characteristics of a Liquid Bio-Fuel from Chicken Litter .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alternative fuels are becoming more important as fossil fuels become more expensive. This thesis describes the production and properties of a bio-oil produced from waste… (more)

Tolonen, Erik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optimization of the Cathode Catalyst Layer Composition of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Novel 2-Step Preparation Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode can block pores in the catalyst layer so ...

Friedmann, Roland

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

248

Thrust measurement method verification and analytical studies on a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to test the feasibility of a new thrust stand system based on impulse thrust measurement method, a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine (PDE) is designed and built. Thrust performance of the engine is obtained by direct thrust measurement with a force transducer and indirect thrust measurement with an eddy current displacement sensor (ECDS). These two sets of thrust data are compared with each other to verify the accuracy of the thrust performance. Then thrust data measured by the new thrust stand system are compared with the verified thrust data to test its feasibility. The results indicate that thrust data from the force transducer and ECDS system are consistent with each other within the range of measurement error. Though the thrust data from the impulse thrust measurement system is a litter lower than that from the force transducer due to the axial momentum losses of the detonation jet, the impulse thrust measurement method is valid when applied to measure the averaged thrust of PDE. Analytical models of PDE are also discussed in this paper. The analytical thrust performance is higher than the experimental data due to ignoring the losses during the deflagration to detonation transition process. Effect of equivalence ratio on the engine thrust performance is investigated by utilizing the modified analytical model. Thrust reaches maximum at the equivalence ratio of about 1.1.

Jie Lu; Longxi Zheng; Zhiwu Wang; Changxin Peng; Xinggu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

250

Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... be accomplished in two steps: first, removing three oxygen atoms by dehydration to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); and second, removing two oxygen atoms by hydrogenolysis to produce DMF by ...

Yuriy Román-Leshkov; Christopher J. Barrett; Zhen Y. Liu; James A. Dumesic

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

251

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Aging on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-Ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid is a renewable fuel for stationary heat and power generation; however degradation of bio-oil by time, a.k.a. aging, has an impact… (more)

Zarghami-Tehran, Milad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid, also known as bio-oil, is a promising renewable fuel for heat and power generation; however, implementing crude bio-oil in some current… (more)

Moloodi, Sina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are...

254

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glossary Glossary This glossary contains terms and acronyms related to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z - Acronyms A AC Generator (or Alternator) An electric device that produces an electric current that reverses direction many times per second. Also called a synchronous generator. Adsorption The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids to the surface of the solids or liquids with which they are in contact. Air The mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases that, with varying amounts of water vapor, forms the atmosphere of the earth. Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) A type of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in which the electrolyte is concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the hydroxide ions (OH-) are transported from the cathode to the anode.

255

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Factsheet summarizing Univ. of Alabama project to save energy and reduce emissions with fuel-flexible burners

257

Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Integrated Catalytic Conversion of ?-Valerolactone to Liquid Alkenes for Transportation Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for Transportation Fuels 10.1126/science...Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of...synthesis of renewable fuels remains a challenging...corn ethanol and biodiesel, have the capacity...of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry...catalysts, and engineering. Chem. Rev. 106...

Jesse Q. Bond; David Martin Alonso; Dong Wang; Ryan M. West; James A. Dumesic

2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

An investigation of steam production in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are being actively explored as solid fuel combustion technologies that have the potential to facilitate CO2 capture. While CLC and CLOU have similarities operationally, there are some key differences. In particular, the CLC process requires a coal gasification step where coal is first broken down into a syngas with the use of steam or CO2. The resulting syngas is then oxidized with the metal oxide to release energy. In the CLOU process the metal oxide releases oxygen that combusts the solid fuel, resulting in a lower residence time, as the coal gasification reactions are avoided. The CLC and CLOU systems were modeled with ASPEN Plus at a 10 \\{MWth\\} scale, and the process streams were analyzed by ASPEN Energy Analyzer to determine the amount of industrial process steam that could be generated from CLC or CLOU. Both the air and fuel reactor were analyzed as two circulating fluidized beds, with metal oxide circulating between the two reactors. The air reactor, where metal oxide is oxidized, was fluidized with air. The fuel reactor, where the metal oxide is reduced, was fluidized with steam for CLC and recirculated CO2 for CLOU. It was identified that the CLOU process had the potential to produce more steam, approximately 7920 kg/hr, as compared to CLC (6910 kg/hr).

J.K. Dansie; A.H. Sahir; M.A. Hamilton; J.S. Lighty

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Oxygen Electrocatalysis on Epitaxial La[subscript 0.6]Sr[subscript 0.4]CoO[subscript 3-?] Perovskite Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hetero-structured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit reactivity characteristics remarkably different from bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active fuel cell catalysts for oxygen ...

Crumlin, Ethan J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The effect of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry on coal ash fine-fragmentation mode formation mechanisms.  

SciTech Connect

Ash particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m in diameter generated during pulverized coal combustion are difficult to capture and may pose greater harm to the environment and human health than the discharge of larger particles. Recent research efforts on coal ash formation have revealed a middle fine-fragment mode centered around 2 {micro}m. Formation of this middle or fine-fragment mode (FFM) is less well understood compared to larger coarse and smaller ultrafine ash. This study is part of an overall effort aimed at determining the key factors that impact the formation of FFM. This work examined the effects of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry (OFS). Pulverized Illinois No.6 bituminous coal was combusted and the ash generated was size segregated in a Dekati low pressure inertial impactor. The mass of each fraction was measured and the ash was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The FFM ash types were classified based on the SEM images to evaluate the significant fine-fragment ash formation mechanisms and determine any possible link between stoichiometry and formation mechanism. From the particle size distributions (PSDs), the coarse mode appears unaffected by the change in OFS, however, the OFS 1.05 lowered the fraction of ultrafine ash in relation to the higher OFS settings, and appears to increase the portion of the FFM. An intermediate minimum was found in the FFM at 1.3 {micro}m for the 1.20 and 1.35 OFS tests but was not observed in the 1.05 OFS. SEM analysis also suggests that OFS may contribute to changing formation mechanisms.

Fix, G.; Seames, W. S.; Mann, M. D.; Benson, S. A.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of North Dakota)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability Low-Cost Supports - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Radoslav Adzic (Primary Contact), Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Jia Wang, Yang Shao-Horn 1 , Rachel O'Malley 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Bldg. 555 Upton, NY 11973-5000 Phone: (631) 344-4522 Email: adzic@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA 2 Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (JMFC), London, England Project Start Date: July 1, 2009 Project End Date: September 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Developing high-performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer (ML) on stable, inexpensive metal

263

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

Espey, C. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fuel cell electric power production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Effect of Gas-to-Liquid Diesel Fuels on Combustion Characteristics, Engine Emissions, and Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming. Comparative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K., Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH, U.K., Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, U.K., and Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blount's Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH, U.K. ... Clearly, the general trend is toward higher efficiency engines and improved fuel economy, something that puts current technology spark ignition (SI) engines in a relatively weak position compared to compression ignition (CI) engines. ... As the diesel engine used in this study was equipped with a pump-line-nozzle-type fuel injection system, all the observed effects may not apply to common rail or unit injection equipped engines. ...

A. Abu-Jrai; A. Tsolakis; K. Theinnoi; R. Cracknell; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski; S. E. Golunski

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

267

Stability characteristics of some shale and coal liquids. Final report. [Thermal and storage stability  

SciTech Connect

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels derived from coal and from oil shale were made available for characterization and thermal and storage stability investigations. The coal-derived liquids identified as naphthas from No. 6 Illinois and Wyodak coals produced by the Exxon Donor Solvent process contained high concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds and were considered to be unrefined synthetic crudes. These materials were found to be relatively unstable in storage. The shale-derived fuels were refined to meet the requirements of military specification jet fuels JP-8 and JP-5 and marine diesel fuel (DFM). Virtually all the specification requirements were met and the fuels were found to be thermally and storage stable. During 32-week, 43/sup 0/C storage tests conducted on these liquids, periodic measurements were made of precipitate fuel-insolubles, fuel-soluble gum, dissolved oxygen content and peroxide number. The liquids were analyzed, in some instances, by infrared, NMR, and uv spectroscopy, before and after the 32-week storage test with little or no change being observed in the bulk liquid samples. Shale-derived liquid hydrocarbons have been refined to meet current specification requirements for hydrocarbon fuels, and it appears that coal-derived liquids can also be refined to meet requirements for performance and storage stability.

Bowden, J.N.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel...

269

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy) spoke on Continental Airlines’ January 7th Biofuels Test. The flight was fueled, in part, by Sapphire’s algae-based jet fuel.

270

Probing Liquid Water Saturation in Diffusion Media of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of information strongly needed to characterize the level of cathode DM flooding or anode dry-out. In this paper liquid water in the anode DM for the thin membrane case. In addition, the two-phase simulation results be realized. One of these is related to flooding phenomena. Due to the presence of liquid water inside a PEFC

271

Multi-phase Multi-dimensional Analysis of PEM Fuel Cells with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Oxygen Bleeding.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising alternative green power source for mobile, portable and stationary applications. However, their cost, durability, and performance are… (more)

Li, Yaqun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Inelastic and Reactive Scattering Dynamics of Hyperthermal Oxygen Atoms on Ionic Liquid Surfaces: [emim][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Collisions of hyperthermal oxygen atoms, with an average translational energy of 520 kJ mol{sup -1}, on continuously refreshed ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([emim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}]), were studied with the use of a beam-surface scattering technique. Time-of-flight and angular distributions of inelastically scattered O and reactively scattered OH and H{sub 2}O were collected for various angles of incidence with the use of a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. For both O and OH, two distinct scattering processes were identified, which can be empirically categorized as thermal and non-thermal. Non-thermal scattering is more probable for both O and OH products. The observation of OH confirms that at least some reactive sites, presumably alkyl groups, must be exposed at the surface. The ionic liquid with the longer alkyl chain, [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}], is substantially more reactive than the liquid with the shorter alkyl chain, [emim][NTf{sub 2}], and proportionately much more so than would be predicted simply from stoichiometry based on the number of abstractable hydrogen atoms. Molecular dynamics models of these surfaces shed light on this change in reactivity. The scattering behavior of O is distinctly different from that of OH. However, no such differences between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics have been seen in previous work on pure hydrocarbon liquids, in particular the benchmark, partially branched hydrocarbon, squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}). The comparison between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics indicates that inelastic scattering from the ionic liquid surfaces takes place predominantly at non-reactive sites that are effectively stiffer than the reactive alkyl chains, with a higher proportion of collisions sampling such sites for [emim][NTf{sub 2}] than for [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}].

Wu Bohan; Zhang Jianming; Minton, Timothy K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); McKendrick, Kenneth G. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Slattery, John M. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Yockel, Scott; Schatz, George C. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

Investigation of coal fueled chemical looping combustion using Fe3O4 as oxygen carrier: Influence of variables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with inherent CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier. Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China), straw coke and natural c...

Xiaoyan Sun; Wenguo Xiang; Sha Wang; Wendong Tian; Xiang Xu…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Renewable Liquid Transportation Fuels: The Cornerstone of the Success of Brazilian Bioenergy Program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the 1970s OPEC decided to raise the oil price by 70 %. Countries depending on this fuel were forced to develop new sources of energy. As one of those countries, Brazil began the intensification of programs...

Veronica de Araujo Bruno; Adilson Roberto Gonçalves

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with both conventional and ultra-low sulfur diesel, and FRFG motor fuels. * The UCF LCA develops a set of near-term (2006) and long-term (2015) scenarios to assess impacts...

277

3 - Preparation of feedstocks for gasification for synthetic liquid fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gasification has been considered as a potential thermo-chemical method of conversion to effectively utilize the carbon (organic content) present in the feedstock. Preparation and handling methods of some of the potential feedstocks (i.e., coal, petroleum residue, biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce the synthetic gas) for various applications are discussed. The pre-treatment process for feedstock constitutes the steps that must be imposed on the raw material in preparation for use in a gasification reactor. The properties of fuel that influence the gasification are energy content, moisture content, particle size and distribution, form of the fuel, bulk density of the fuel, volatile matter content, ash content, and composition and reactivity of the fuel.

B. Bhavya; R. Singh; T. Bhaskar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Environmental and economic tradeoffs of feedstock usage for liquid fuels and power production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thesis is divided into two parts - 1) assessing the energy return on investment for alternative jet fuels, and 2) quantifying the tradeoffs associated with the aviation and non-aviation use of agricultural residues. ...

Trivedi, Parthsarathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

280

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

fuels include liquid non-petroleum based fuel that can be placed in motor vehicle fuel tanks and used to operate on-road vehicles, including all forms of fuel commonly or...

282

Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape  

SciTech Connect

Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed.

DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Oxygen Reduction in PEM Fuel Cell Conditions: Heat-Treated Non-Precious Metal-N4 Macrocycles and Beyond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditionally, fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) have been used to satisfy the world’s energy needs. However, these resources are not endless. For instance, at the present 2% growth in demand, the peak of world pe...

Jean-Pol Dodelet

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......alternative to Mideast oil dependency; fuel pumps carried the corn insignia and the message, "Buy American." This trend...conventional ASTM method. Approximate values. an existing wet-milling corn facility in Decatur, Alabama is considering an expansion......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Meeting - November 2007 Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen Production Technical Team. The following meeting documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Proceedings Agenda, discussion points, and participant list (PDF 146 KB) Action items and meeting highlights (PDF 104 KB) 2007 Annual Merit Review Report excerpts on bio-derived liquids to hydrogen distributed reforming research (PDF 3.9 MB) Presentations DOE Targets, Tools, and Technology

288

Pt Nanoparticle-Dispersed Graphene-Wrapped MWNT Composites As Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rapid devastation of nonrenewable energy sources demanded the development of alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells with high efficiency and environmental benignity. ... (1-3) The commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is still not achieved because of the high cost of the electrocatalyst, platinum (Pt). ... Carbon supported electrocatalysts have been found to be effective in reducing the amount of platinum and enhancing the PEMFC performance. ...

S. S. Jyothirmayee Aravind; Sundara Ramaprabhu

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

Polygeneration of Liquid Fuels and Electricity by the Atmospheric Pressure Hybrid Solar Gasification of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(16, 17, 29, 30) The technical viability of the atmospheric pressure, windowed solar vortex reactor to gasify petroleum coke (petcoke) has been demonstrated on a small scale,(16, 29, 31) and a 300 kW pilot scale reactor has also been tested successfully. ... Inputs to the reactor were the model coal (as discussed above), nitrogen used for the carrier gas for the coal feed, steam used as a gasifying agent, and oxygen that is needed when ? gas turbine for electricity generation. ...

Ashok A. Kaniyal; Philip J. van Eyk; Graham J. Nathan; Peter J. Ashman; Jonathan J. Pincus

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

291

Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resource. Cathode materials can account for 47-75% of the MFC capital costs,5 and therefore it is important to choose less expensive materials as the cathode catalyst. Several catalysts have been considered for useInfluence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction

292

AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

submitted manuscript has been submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE- AC05-96OR22464. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non- exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." ORNL/TM-1999/258 AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION David L. Greene Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory November 1999 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP. for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . .

293

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohol derived from biological materials, and electricity. Any portion of the credit not used in the year the AFV is purchased or converted...

294

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 3. Emissions test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the plant, Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company, in Meridian, Mississippi. Volume 1, of a 5 volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the whole test program - see abstract of Volume 1 for a detailed abstract of the whole program. Volume 3 contains detailed emissions testing results. 41 figs., 6 tabs. (LTN)

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles onto Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of PEMFC depends considerably on cost, durability, and performance of the electrocatalyst in fuel cell stacks. ... The development of highly active electrocatalysts dispersed on corrosion-resistant and inexpensive carbons is necessary for achieving the reliability of the PEMFC necessary for their widespread usage and reducing its total cost. ... Time-effective and reliable methods for studying catalyst durability are indispensable for developing PEMFC catalysts. ...

Inhwan Do; Lawrence T. Drzal

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Syngas production from liquid fuels in a non-catalytic porous burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates rich combustion of n-heptane, diesel oil, kerosene and rapeseed-oil methyl ester (RME) bio-diesel for the purpose of producing syngas ready for the clean-up stages for fuel-cell applications or for traditional combustor enrichment. Rich flames have been stabilised in a two-layer inert porous medium combustor and a range of equivalence ratios and porous materials have been examined. n-heptane was successfully reformed up to an equivalence ratio of 3, reaching a conversion efficiency (based on the lower heating value of H2 and CO over the fuel input) up to 75% for a packed bed of alumina beads. Similarly, diesel, kerosene and bio-diesel were reformed to syngas in a Zirconia foam burner with conversion efficiency over 60%. A preliminary attempt to reduce the content of CO and hydrocarbons in the reformate has been also conducted using commercial steam reforming and water–gas shift reaction catalysts, obtaining encouraging results. Finally, soot emission has been assessed, demonstrating particle formation for diesel oil above ? = 2, whereas bio-diesel showed the lowest soot formation tendency among all the fuels tested.

A. Pastore; E. Mastorakos

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels using the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas and energy industries have long sought an economically attractive means of converting remote gas reserves into transportable products, such as fuels or petrochemicals. Applicable gas sources include: undeveloped gas fields in locations so remote that pipeline construction is prohibitively expensive and associated gas from oil wells that is either flared, which is becoming environmentally unacceptable in many parts of the world, or reinjected, which is costly. Projects which have been developed to exploit such feeds typically have converted the gas into one of the following: (1) liquefied natural gas (LNG)--the process plants for LNG production are expensive, need to be very large to be economically viable, have costly dedicated shipping requirements, and suffer from a limited market concentrated in few countries; (2) methanol--the market for petrochemical feedstock methanol is limited, for use as a fuel, further downstream processing is needed, for example in a methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or methanol to gasoline (MTG) unit. Clearly, there is a need for an alternative that produces high quality fuels or value added products that can be transported to far-off markets, while yielding an attractive return on the developers` investment. The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process will fulfill this need.

Silverman, R.W. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, C.R. [Sastech, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly status report number 2, 1 January--31 March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Results are discussed for the following tasks: liquid phase hydrodynamic run; catalyst activation with CO; new processes for DME (dehydration catalyst screening runs, and experiments using Robinson-Mahoney basket internal and pelletized catalysts); new fuels from DME; and new processes for alcohols and oxygenated fuel additives.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound of Liquid HBO2: On Unlocking the Fuel Potential of Boron  

SciTech Connect

Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is often limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. Here we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized Exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of > 2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; ., N T

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

302

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost.

303

Oxygen reduction on gas-diffusion electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cells by a potential decay method  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of gaseous oxygen on carbon-supported platinum electrodes has been studied at 150 C with polarization and potential decay measurements. The electrolyte was either 100 weight percent phosphoric acid or that acid with a fluorinated additive, potassium perfluorohexanesulfonate (C{sub 6}F{sub 13}SO{sub 3}K). The pseudo-Tafel curves of the overpotential vs log (ii{sub L}/(i{sub L}{minus}i)) show a two-slope behavior, probably due to different adsorption mechanisms. The potential relaxations as functions of log (t+r) and log({minus}d{eta}/dt) have been plotted. The variations of these slopes and the dependence of the double-layer capacitance on the overpotential depended on the electrode manufacture and the kind of electrolyte (whether containing the fluorinated additive or not).

Li Qingfeng; Xiao Gang; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, R.W.; Bjerrum, N.J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production  

SciTech Connect

The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from syngas. Second annual report, March 1982-February 1983  

SciTech Connect

Initial Task 1 tests used methanol as the feed. It was found that catalysts of interest tended to make highly methylated aromatics in the Berty reactor. Although a simulated distillation showed that these products boiled in the gasoline and diesel range, most were solid at room temperature. Aromatic products frequently are desirable constituents of gasoline, but highly methylated aromatics which precipitate at the concentrations found are undesirable. Since small olefins are products and intermediates in reactions over Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, propylene was chosen as feedstock to replace methanol. Catalysts for syngas feed (task 2) have a metal component (MC) and a shape-selective component (SSC). Four techniques have been used in synthesizing our bi-functional catalysts. The data presented show that catalysts and conditions have been found which enable converting 1:1 H/sub 2//CO syngas feed at reasonable conversions in one step to motor fuel range products with quite acceptable selectivity to C/sub 5//sup +/ products. Two effects should be noted. The molecular sieves used reduced the high boiling (wax) component of the product as compared to physical mixture with the relatively inert ..cap alpha..-alumina. Also the quality of the gasoline range product with the molecular sieve is much better than with the F-T type catalyst.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

"An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

308

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 4. GPGP jet-fuels production program-feed analyses compilation and review. Interim report, October 1987-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to compile and review physical and chemical characterization data for the GPGP by-product liquids. This report describes the relative reliability of the various characterization data and indicates where specific limitations exist.

Rossi, R.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 10. Jet fuels production by-products, utility, and sulfur-emissions control integration study. Interim report, 1 May 1988-1 April 1989  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to evaluate the impact of integrating Jet Fuel and/or Chemical Production Facilities with the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

Rossi, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

311

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

314

Mesoporous Pt–Co oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell synthesized by alternating sputtering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mesoporous catalysts with enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity for PEM fuel cells are synthesized by alternating sputtering of Pt and Co onto gas diffusion layers with microporous layers. Co is acting as a template for synthesis of a porous Pt nanostructure. For such proposed Pt–Co catalysts the kinetic current in the ORR was found to be increased by a factor of up to 16 and the mass specific current in PEM single cells by a factor of up to 7. Co was found to be deposited at the grain boundary of the Pt layer and dissolves under acidic conditions resulting in a mesoporous Pt catalyst which is advantageous for gas diffusion catalysts. Microstructural and compositional parameters were optimised in order to obtain a high kinetic current and lower onset potential for the ORR. The most favourable Co layer thickness was determined to be 2 nm. The optimal Pt–Co catalyst can be synthesized by continuously varying the Pt layer thickness. The highest Pt mass activity was found at a layer thickness of 30.5 nm. Catalysts were characterised by SEM, EDX, electrochemical half cell and PEM single cell tests.

Gustav Sievers; Steffen Mueller; Antje Quade; Florian Steffen; Sven Jakubith; Angela Kruth; Volker Brueser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Availability Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in California as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

148% of the state’s diesel fuel market or 22% of total U.S.diesel gallon equivalent, therefore 6.5 dge amounts to 4.46 (10 -5 ) mi/kJ. California Clean Fuels Market

Valkenburg, C; Norbeck, J N; Park, C S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

Pennycook, Steve

317

Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading  

SciTech Connect

A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

320

Hydrodeoxygenation processes: Advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C–C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed.

Sudipta De; Basudeb Saha; Rafael Luque

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Most notably, cathodic polarization treatment, for example, current discharge from BBSC, can be utilized to recover the original ORR performance. ... After evaporation of water at 120 °C, a dark purple gel was recovered. ...

Wei Zhou; Jaka Sunarso; Julius Motuzas; Fengli Liang; Zhigang Chen; Lei Ge; Shaomin Liu; Anne Julbe; Zhonghua Zhu

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

322

Kinetic determination of a highly reactive impregnated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier for use in gas-fueled Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the kinetic parameters for reduction and oxidation reactions of a highly reactive Fe-based oxygen carrier for use in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) of gaseous fuels containing CH4, CO and/or H2, e.g. natural gas, syngas and PSA-off gas. The oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation of iron on alumina. The effect of both the temperature and gas concentration was analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The grain model with uniform conversion in the particle and reaction in grains following the shrinking core model (SCM) was used for kinetics determination. It was assumed that the reduction reactions were controlled by two different resistances: the reaction rate was controlled by chemical reaction in a first step, whereas the mechanism that controlled the reactions at higher conversion values was diffusion through the product layer around the grains. Furthermore, it was found that the reduction reaction mechanism was based on the interaction of Fe2O3 with Al2O3 in presence of the reacting gases to form FeAl2O4 as the only stable Fe-based phase. The reaction order values found for the reducing gases were 0.25, 0.3 and 0.6 for CH4, H2 and CO, respectively, and the activation energy took values of between 8 kJ mol?1 (for H2) and 66 kJ mol?1 (for CH4). With regard to oxidation kinetics, the reacting model assumed a reaction rate that was only controlled by chemical reaction. Values of 0.9 and 23 kJ mol?1 were found for reaction order and activation energy, respectively. Finally, the solids inventory needed in a CLC system was also estimated by considering kinetic parameters. The total solids inventory in the CLC unit took a minimum value of 150 kg MW?1 for CH4 combustion, which is a low value when compared to those of other Fe-based materials found in the literature.

A. Cabello; A. Abad; F. García-Labiano; P. Gayán; L.F. de Diego; J. Adánez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. ...

Hanjing Tian; Ranjani Siriwardane; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

324

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

325

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

In order to account for ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) regulations related to Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), ultra- low-sulfur diesel is differentiated from other...

326

Semi-pilot scale test for production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from different wastes by means of a gasification and smelting process with oxygen multi-blowing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Europe, most wastes are deposited in landfills, but a European Council directive has called for a 30% reduction of the landfill amount. Though the cement industry commonly burns waste as an alternative fuel together with fossil fuel (so-called waste co-incineration), it is necessary to reconsider this co-incineration from the viewpoints of sustainable development and cement quality. Gasification and smelting processes (GSPs) for waste can convert waste to slag and fuel gas, which can be used by the energy sector and industry, so these processes are desirable in that they provide wide social benefit. Considering its low environmental impact and good economic performance, a GSP that uses a one-process furnace and oxygen multi-blowing was tested on a semi-pilot scale (1.7 tons/day) to convert different wastes (municipal waste, plastic waste and refuse of polyvinyl chloride with a chlorine content of 48%) to slag and hydrogen-rich fuel gas. The results show that the techniques applied in this test increase the quality of the produced fuel gas, strictly control pollutants, and prolong the life of the plant. Furthermore, the tested GSP has the potential to be linked with a hydrogen-based system through its production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas.

R. Kikuchi; H. Sato; Y. Matsukura; T. Yamamoto

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated...

328

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Excise Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Liquefied natural gas, liquid fuel derived from coal, and liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass are subject to a federal excise tax of

329

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

SciTech Connect

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

330

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

of ASTM specification D6751. Renewable diesel is defined as liquid fuel derived from biomass that meets EPA's fuel registration requirements and ASTM specifications D975 or D396;...

331

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Excise Tax Liquefied natural gas, liquid fuel derived from coal, and liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass are subject to a federal excise tax of 24.3 cents per gallon. All...

332

Table I: Distribution Functions for Fuel Fractions Group 2L0 FL0 ( wL0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Distribution fun ctions used to mod el the oil. Evaporation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Droplets - II W Universityof Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1C8 Introduction Biomass pyrolysis oils are liquid fuels produced by the pyrolysis of wood wastes, bark or other biomass materials. They typically contain oxygenated organic

Hallett, William L.H.

333

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Filling CNG Fuel Tanks Filling CNG Fuel Tanks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Maintenance & Safety Fuel System & Cylinders Fuel Safety Traffic Accident Filling CNG Tanks Laws & Incentives Filling CNG Fuel Tanks Unlike liquid fuel, which consistently holds about the same volume of fuel

334

Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

xTL Fuels to someone xTL Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels xTL Fuels Synthetic liquid transportation fuels, collectively known as xTL fuels, are produced through specialized conversion processes. These production methods, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, produce fuels from carbon-based feedstocks, such as biomass, coal, or natural gas, and can

335

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

the equivalent rate for all other non-liquid alternative fuels. Certain exclusions apply. (Reference Senate Bill 786, 2014, and North Carolina General Statutes 105-449.136...

336

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Liquefaction of cellulosic wastes. 6: Oxygen compounds in pyrolytic oil and water fractions  

SciTech Connect

Liquid hydrocarbon oil and water have been produced from the liquefaction of cellulosic matter present in municipal solid wastes. The produced pyrolytic oil and water fraction seemed to be contaminated with considerable amounts of oxygen compounds as compared with fuels derived from a petroleum origin. The oxygen compounds included organic acids (fatty and naphthenic acids), phenols, and carbonyl compounds. These classes of oxygen compounds were extracted selectively from the pyrolytic oils and water using chemical extraction methods. Methyl esters of fatty acids and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds were identified by gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography, respectively. It was suggested that the identified oxygen compounds could be produced from the pyrolysis of volatiles (e.g., levoglucosane, which is the primary product of cellulose depolymerization) via different mechanistic pathways.

Gharieb, H.K.; Faramawy, S.; El-Amrousi, F.A.; El-Sabagh, S.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Syngas into Fuel: Optofluidic Solar Concentrators  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Ohio State has developed an iron-based material and process for converting syngas—a synthetic gas mixture—into electricity, H2, and/or liquid fuel with zero CO2 emissions. Traditional carbon capture methods use chemical solvents or special membranes to separate CO2 from the gas exhaust from coal-fired power plants. Ohio State’s technology uses an iron-based oxygen carrier to generate CO2 and H2 from syngas in separate, pure product streams by means of a circulating bed reactor configuration. The end products of the system are H2, electricity, and/or liquid fuel, all of which are useful sources of power that can come from coal or syngas derived from biomass. Ohio State is developing a high-pressure pilot-scale unit to demonstrate this process at the National Carbon Capture Center.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution — refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes — excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types — passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in logarithms has important implications for the stability of estimates of pass through when oil price levels rise significantly. Second, considering spot prices for refined prices improves significantly the fit of the estimated models relative to using crude oil prices. It also results in more economically meaningful results concerning the extent of pass through. Third, oil price pass through occurs quickly, with 90% occurring within three to five weeks. Fourth, using a relatively broad specification allowing for asymmetry in the pass through from upstream to downstream prices, there is little evidence of statistically significant asymmetries. Furthermore, even where asymmetry is found to be statistically significant, it is generally not economically significant. Lastly, these results generally hold across most euro area countries with few exceptions.

Aidan Meyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fuel Cells as Rechargeable Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of water electrolysis, storage of the produced hydrogen and oxygen and subsequent electrochemical recombination of the stored hydrogen and oxygen in a fuel cell provide the basis for a practical e...

J. Giner; A. Laconti

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity peak oxygen Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Yttria-stabilized zirconia, a well known oxygen ion... including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and chemical gas sensors because of a number of superior properties... such as heat...

346

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

347

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Vehicle Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax Liquid alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of $0.175 per gallon. These fuels are taxed at the same rate as

348

Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights Highlights Thermochemical conversion technologies convert biomass and its residues to fuels and chemicals using gasification and pyrolysis. Gasification entails heating biomass and results in a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, known as syngas. Pyrolysis, which is heating biomass in the absence of oxygen, produces liquid pyrolysis oil. Both syngas and pyrolysis oil can be chemically converted into clean, renewable transportation fuels and chemicals. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass. Thermochemical processes include gasification and pyrolysis-processes used to convert

349

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Alternative Fuels Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as well as combustion and emissions impacts. Biomass Pyrolysis-Derived Diesel Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a high-oxygen-content liquid that can be upgraded to...

350

Fuel Cells Get New BFF | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Get New BFF Fuel Cells Get New BFF Artificial diamonds may lead to affordable, efficient fuel cells Oxygen (red spheres) migrates from one vacancy to another inside the...

351

Analysis and design of the internal mass transfer in oxygen-hydrogen fuel cell with a capillary membrane and with convective drainage of vaporous reaction products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of mass transfer is analyzed by which water vapor drains convectively from an electrode-condenser system in a fuel cell with a capillary membrane. The problem of optimizing the mass-transfer para...

V. N. Serebryakov; M. V. Mel'nikov; V. S. Ovchinnikov…

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

354

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal...production of liquid hydrocarbons. Thus, the goal...sustainable production of hydrocarbon fuel for the transportation...The resulting combustion energy not only provides heat for the endothermic...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO 2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies present data on operating characteristics materials of construction and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

Dale E. Lueck; Clyde F. Parrish; William J. Buttner; Jan M. Surma

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

357

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (16, 17). It can...conversion to liquid fuels using the FT process...support total current oil consumption of 13.8 Mbbl/d by the...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal, the...from the transportation engine. Therefore, for coal...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which performsautomatedsample heating, SPME extraction, and GC injection...fibers were preconditioned by heating at 250~ for 2 h. Fuel oxy...accurate, the high purchase price of the HRMSand the high cost...Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Petroleum Supply Monthly......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Non-precious Co3O4 nano-rod electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in anion-exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-precious Co3O4 nano-rod electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in anion 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1ee01431e We report preparation of carbon-supported Co3O4 electrocatalysts with nano that the non-precious Co3O4 electrocatalyst with the nano-rod structure ($12 nm in length and $5.1 nm

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Use of Oxygen Isotopic Exchange to Explore Catalytic Activity and the Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction on Oxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The electrochemical performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells is limited by high polarization losses incurred from the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode.… (more)

Kan, Cynthia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

363

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimize the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimize gaseous emissions, such as NOx. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimise the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimise gaseous emissions, such as NO{sub x}. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The next sections of the paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [ABB Combustion Services Limited, Derby (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Development of thin palladium membranes supported on large porous 310L tubes for a steam reformer operated with gas-to-liquid fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Palladium membranes were prepared on large tubes (80 mm diameter and 150 mm length) of porous stainless steel supports (PSS) using a modified electroless plating technique. The morphology of the palladium layer was found to be depending on the container material of the coating apparatus. The use of PMMA resulted in compact palladium layers with smooth surfaces whereas PTFE led to inhomogeneous palladium coating with rough surface. Two different ceramic materials and coating methods were used to prepare an intermediate layer needed to prevent intermetallic diffusion between the palladium and the support at elevated temperatures. Wet powder spraying of TiO2 followed by sintering resulted in a smoother surface than atmospheric plasma spraying of YSZ, thus allowing for a thinner palladium coating. Pd/TiO2/PSS membranes showed about 4 times higher hydrogen permeances than Pd/YSZ/PSS membranes as a consequence of higher palladium thickness and lower porosity of the ceramic intermediate layer. The selectivity against nitrogen was comparable for both membranes. However, the YSZ intermediate layer showed better stability at elevated temperatures. Two membrane tubes were applied in the membrane reformer, which produced hydrogen successfully from a gas-to-liquid (GtL) fuel.

Grazyna Straczewski; Johannes Völler-Blumenroth; Hubert Beyer; Peter Pfeifer; Michael Steffen; Ingmar Felden; Angelika Heinzel; Matthias Wessling; Roland Dittmeyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels * Pourable, storable and transportable liquid fuel * Contains approximately 50-55% energy content of fossil fuel * Meets applicable ASTM Standard for industrial use (ASTM...

367

Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Liquid Fuels from Biomass BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf...

368

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

369

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Using Ionic Liquids to Make...

370

EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

371

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Background The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction converts a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-derived from coal, methane or biomass-to liquid fuels. The Department of Energy (DOE) refers to the coal-based process as Coal-to-Liquids. The F-T process was discovered by German scientists and used to make fuels during World War II. There has been continued interest of varying intensity in F-T technology

372

Superfast oxygen exchange kinetics on highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5+? thin films for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Superfast chemical dynamics on highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5+? (LBCO) heterostructures were systematically studied with symmetric half-cell LBCO/Gd0.2Ce0.8O2 (GCO):Y0.08Zr0.92O2 (YSZ)/LBCO heterostructures on (001) LaAlO3. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the LBCO film electrodes have an ultralow polarization resistance as low as 0.11 ??cm2 at 600 °C in air a superfast surface exchange coefficient of 0.017 cm/s at 600° and an extremely low activation energy value of 0.49 eV. These excellent physical chemistry properties and superfast chemical dynamics on the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films are considered to be somewhat related to the structure entropy of the nano ordered oxygen vacancy structure.

Jian Liu; Gregory Collins; Ming Liu; Chonglin Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Sulfur behavior in chemical looping combustion with NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology where CO{sub 2} is inherently separated during combustion. Due to the existence of sulfur contaminants in the fossil fuels, the gaseous products of sulfur species and the interaction of sulfur contaminants with oxygen carrier are a big concern in the CLC practice. The reactivity of NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier reduction with a gas mixture of CO/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S is investigated by means of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum analyzer in this study. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are used to evaluate the phase characterization of reacted oxygen carrier, and the formation mechanisms of the gaseous products of sulfur species are elucidated in the process of chemical looping combustion with a gaseous fuel containing hydrogen sulfide. The results show that the rate of NiO reduction with H{sub 2}S is higher than the one with CO. There are only Ni and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} phases of nickel species in the fully reduced oxygen carrier, and no evidence for the existence of NiS or NiS{sub 2}. The formation of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} is completely reversible during the process of oxygen carrier redox. A liquid phase sintering on the external surface of reduced oxygen carriers is mainly attributed to the production of the low melting of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} in the nickel-based oxygen carrier reduction with a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}S. Due to the sintering of metallic nickel grains on the external surface of the reduced oxygen carrier, further reaction of the oxygen carrier with H{sub 2}S is constrained, and there is no increase of the sulfidation index of the reduced oxygen carrier with the cyclical reduction number. Also, a continuous operation with a syngas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen containing H{sub 2}S is carried out in a 1 kW{sub th} CLC prototype based on the nickel-based oxygen carrier, and the effect of the fuel reactor temperature on the release of gaseous products of sulfur species is investigated. (author)

Shen, Laihong; Gao, Zhengping; Wu, Jiahua; Xiao, Jun [Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Philip D. Weyman (Primary Contact), Isaac T. Yonemoto, Hamilton O. Smith J. Craig Venter Institute 10355 Science Center Dr. San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: (858) 200-1815 Email: pweyman@jcvi.org DOE Managers HQ: Eric Miller Phone: (202) 287-5829 Email: Eric.Miller@hq.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15027 National Laboratory Collaborators: * Karen Wawrousek, Scott Noble, Jianping Yu, and Pin-Ching Maness * National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO Project Start Date: May 1, 2005 Project End Date: January 30, 2014

376

Diesel fuel containing a tetrazole or triazole cetane improver  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid fuel adapted for use in a diesel engine containing a cetane number increasing amount of at least one fuel soluble additive compound.

Martella, D.J.

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

gas produced from biomass, where biomass is defined as any organic material other than oil, natural gas, and coal; liquid, gaseous or solid synthetic fuels produced from coal; or...

378

Fossil Fuels Without CO2 Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...oxygen, or by steam reforming of the fuel to yield...coal beds contain methane adsorbed on...oxygen, or by steam reforming of the...coal beds contain methane adsorbed on...to coal-bed methane production, these...

E. A. Parson; D. W. Keith

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

379

Fuel Equivalence Ratio Imaging for Methane Jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 2-D fuel/oxygen equivalence ratio imaging system has been developed. The technique exploits the efficient quenching of the fluorescence of organic molecules by molecular oxygen in...

Ni, T Q; Melton, L A

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115�130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen Runjun Li, Karl A clusters of oxygen. Oxygen clusters and liquid oxygen have a com- plicated chemistry due to numerous low) dynamics of small anionic clusters of oxygen. We Ðnd that the dynamics of the neutral DPD pathway

Continetti, Robert E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Availability and Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in the United States as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

148% of the state’s diesel fuel market or 22% of total U.S.diesel gallon equivalent, therefore 6.5 dge amounts to 4.46 (10 -5 ) mi/kJ. California Clean Fuels Market

Valkenburg, C; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

5, 1206712102, 2005 Alternative fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J.-F. Vinuesa et al and Physics Discussions Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality License. 12067 #12;ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (\\iDe's), to supplement fossil fuels, will be considered a key element of the management strategy for industrial power plants. The increase...ALTERNATE FUELS: IS YOUR WASTE STREAM A FUEL SOURCE? PHn, COERPER. MANAGER ALTERNATE FUEL SYSTEMS. CLEAVER-BROOKS. Mn,WAUKEE. WI ABSTRACT Before the year 2000. more than one quarter of u.s. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels...

Coerper, P.

384

Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part II: analysing the chemical structure of the films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical structure of cobalt--polypyrrole -- produced by a dual plasma process -- is analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS).It is shown that only nanoparticles of a size of 3\\,nm with the low temperature crystal structure of cobalt are present within the compound. Besides that, cobalt--nitrogen and carbon--oxygen structures are observed. Furthermore, more and more cobalt--nitrogen structures are produced when increasing the magnetron power. Linking the information on the chemical structure to the results about the catalytic activity of the films -- which are presented in part I of this contribution -- it is concluded that the cobalt--nitrogen structures are the probable catalytically active sites. The cobalt--nitrogen bond length is calculated as 2.09\\,\\AA\\ and the carbon--nitrogen bond length as 1.38\\,\\AA.

Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.043209jes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

On some eigenvalue problems in fuel–cell dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...arising from fuel-cell dynamics...production by fuel cells. This...code, yield solutions of the applied...Bailey and others air side (oxygen rich) fuel side (oxygen...stations run on fossil fuels. In general...the level of pollution is often much...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fuel Cell 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell 101 Fuel Cell 101 Don Hoffman Don Hoffman Ship Systems & Engineering Research Division March 2011 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fuel Cell Operation * A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical power source * It supplies electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically without combustion. * It is configured like a battery with anode and cathode. * Unlike a battery, it does not run down or require recharging and will produce electricity and will produce electricity, heat and water as long as fuel is supplied. 2H + + 2e - O 2 + 2H + + 2e - 2H 2 O H 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 FUEL FUEL CONTROLS Fuel Cell System HEAT & WATER CLEAN CLEAN EXHAUST EXHAUST

387

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July Uncertainties in our understanding of the oxygen reduction mechanism (ORR) at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC studies have shown that cathodic or anodic dc polarization of the solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes

Yildiz, Bilge

388

Application of Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled by Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, ester-based oxygenated fuels have been used in compression ignition engines in pure form or as an addition to diesel fuel. ... In hydrocarbon steam reforming (SR), high-temperature steam separates hydrogen from carbon atoms. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski

2003-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

389

Liquid phase oxidation of thiophene compounds by tert-butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative instability problems in both shale and petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels are related to the presence of hydroperoxides. Although a good body of knowledge exists concerning the formation of peroxides in the liquid phase, relatively little is known about the reaction/decomposition pathways when other functional groups are present. One of the significant and undesirable problems is the formation of solid deposits which can plug nozzles and filters and coal heat exchanger surfaces. Deposit formation in fuels is triggered by autoxidation reactions and is closely associated with elemental oxygen and/or hydroperoxide concentration. This paper reports on the reaction between a primary autoxidation product, a hydroperoxide, and sulfur compounds of the type present in petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels. Specifically, we examine the t-butyl hydroperoxide oxidation of thiophene, 2, 5-dimethylthiophene, tetrahydrothiophene and benzothiophene in a deaerated model fuel, tetradecane, at 120{degree}C.

Mushrush, G.W.; Watkins, J.M. Jr.; Hazlett, R.N.; Hardy, D.R.; Eaton, H.G. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

391

2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

392

Computational simulation of liquid-fuelled HVOF thermal spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid-fuelled high-velocity oxygen–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying systems are gaining more attentions due to their advantage of producing denser coatings in comparison to their gas-fuelled counterparts. The flow through a HVOF gun is characterized by a complex array of thermodynamic phenomena involving combustion, turbulence and compressible flow. Advanced computational models have been developed to gain insight to the thermochemical processes of thermal spraying, however little work has been reported for the liquid-fuelled systems. This investigation employs a commercial finite volume CFD code to simulate the flow field through the most widely used liquid-fuel HVOF gun, JP5000 (Praxair, US). By combining numerical combustion and discrete phase models the turbulent spray flame is captured and the development of supersonic gas flow is revealed. The flow field is thoroughly examined by adjusting the nozzle throat diameter and combustion chamber size. The influence of fuel droplet size on the flame shame shape and combusting gas flow is also examined.

H. Tabbara; S. Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

How Fuel Cells Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Fuel Cells Work How Fuel Cells Work Diagram: How a PEM fuel cell works. 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell. 2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons. 3. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode. The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current. 4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.

394

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

395

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Definition: Diesel fuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diesel fuel Diesel fuel Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Diesel fuel A liquid fuel produced from petroleum; used in diesel engines.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Diesel oil and Gazole (fuel) redirect here. Sometimes "diesel oil" is used to mean lubricating oil for diesel engines. Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost

397

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

398

Liquid and solid phase compositions in a partially frozen JP-5 fuel low in n-alkanes. Memorandum report April 1983-January 1984  

SciTech Connect

A JP-5 low in n-alkanes was partially frozen at several temperatures 9 to 15 C below its normal freezing point of -53 C. In spite of their low concentrations in the starting fuel, the n-alkanes were the predominant components in the solid phase crystallizing from the fuel. In this respect, this JP-5 behaves in a fashion similar to other jet fuels which contain 3 to 5 times the amounts of n-alkanes.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

399

NREL: Learning - Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells and their ability to cleanly produce electricity from hydrogen and oxygen are what make hydrogen attractive as a "fuel" for transportation use particularly, but also as a general energy carrier for homes and other uses, and for storing and transporting otherwise intermittent renewable energy. Fuel cells function somewhat like a battery-with external fuel being supplied rather than stored electricity-to generate power by chemical reaction rather than combustion. Hydrogen fuel cells, for instance, feed hydrogen gas into an electrode that contains a catalyst, such as platinum, which helps to break up the hydrogen molecules into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged electrons. The electrons flow from the electrode to a terminal that

400

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of benzene/benzene plus phenol from the Great Pplains Gasification Plant crude phenol stream. Interim report, September 1987-February 1988  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential for production of jet fuels from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant located in Buelah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This report details the program with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., a subcontractor to Burns and Roe Services Corporation, who, as a subcontractor to DOE, investigated the potential of producing benzene or benzene plus phenol from the crude phenol stream.

Harris, E.C.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

SciTech Connect

The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

clean clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 power installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility

404

HISTORY | Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Together with the electric motor, dynamo, gas turbine, internal combustion engine, and the fused salt electrolysis of aluminum, the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century brought about the fuel cell – the silent or cold combustion of fossil fuels by the electrochemical oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to water and carbon dioxide. Wilhelm Ostwald, in 1894, emphasized the high efficiency and the nonpolluting properties of the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity – in contrast to the then combination of steam engine and dynamo, which reached only about 10% efficiency. Direct coal fuel cells designed for the propulsion of ships, however, have not become a reality so far. Instead of fuel cells and batteries, internal combustion engines determined the nineteenth- and twentieth- century technological landscape. Against the background of the oil crisis and the long-term scarcity of natural gas, crude oil, and coal, new hopes have focused on fuel cell technology, which saw first early splendid applications during the space programs of the 1960s, in submarines since the 1980s, and in experimental zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) since the 1990s. This article outlines (1) early insights about energy conversion: Grove's cell, direct conversion of coal and indirect fuel cells; (2) historical roots of alkaline fuel cells: the discovery of gas diffusion electrodes; low-pressure alkaline fuel cell conquer spacecrafts and submarines; (3) polymer electrolyte fuel cells: solid polymer technology, electric vehicles, direct methanol fuel-cell, stationary power systems and portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems; (4) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC): acid fuel cells, PAFC plants in Japan, gasoline fuel cells; and (5) high-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

P. Kurzweil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

407

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

408

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Fourth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues that may be categorized as direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Combustion Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Combustion Lab Fuel Combustion Lab NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on characterizing fuels at the molecular level. This information can then be used to understand and predict the fuel's effect on engine performance and emissions. By understanding the effects of fuel chemistry on ignition we can develop fuels that enable more efficient engine designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the distributed Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory, and the Biofuels activity. Photo of assembled IQT. Ignition Quality Tester The central piece of equipment in the Fuel Combustion Laboratory is the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT(tm)). The IQT(tm) is a constant volume combustion vessel that is used to study ignition properties of liquid

413

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Behind the Scenes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paramagnetism Paramagnetism Previous Video (Paramagnetism) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Opposites Attract and Likes Repel) Opposites Attract and Likes Repel Behind the Scenes A behind the scenes look at the making of an episode of Frostbite Theater! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Welcome to the behind the scenes look at the making of Frostbite Theater. Steve: Yes, today we're hoping to film three... three? Joanna: Two. Steve: Because Joanna doesn't think she knows her lines for the third one yet. But three episodes, well, two episodes of Frostbite Theater. But, before we do that, we want to give you sort of feel for what goes on into

414

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

product separations. For developing environmentally sustainable processes, ionic liquids are touted as greener alternative to organic solvents not only because of their relatively low volatility but also due to the ability to tune their properties...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Propane Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fuel Prices Find propane fuel prices and trends. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, has been used worldwide as a vehicle fuel for decades. It is stored as a liquid, and

416

Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

P-Series to someone by P-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels P-Series P-Series fuels are blends of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a biomass co-solvent. P-Series fuels are clear, colorless, 89-93 octane, liquid blends used either alone or mixed with gasoline in any proportion in flexible fuel vehicles. These fuels are

417

Symposium on bioelectrochemistry of microorganisms. IV. Biochemical fuel cells.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photosynthesis of algae. A possible ad...a few of the bio-fuel cells will be considered...hydrogen- oxygen fuel cell. Pt electrodes...coated with marine algae developed more cathodic...Similarly, the algae yield oxygen which...with conventional fuel cells or solar cells...

K Lewis

1966-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Catalyst optimization in gas-to-liquid technology : an operations view / Israel Olalekan Jolaolu.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology is a general term used for a group of technologies that has the capability to create liquid hydrocarbon fuels from… (more)

Jolaolu, Israel Olalekan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A new technology for producing synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from gaseous hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional technologies of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF) production from gaseous hydrocarbons by producing synthesis ... liquid hydrocarbons are examined. A high-efficiency SLF production technology that allows ...

D. L. Astanovskii; L. Z. Astanovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cerium Oxide Promoted Iron-based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cerium Oxide Promoted Iron-based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion ... It entails the use of an oxygen carrier (OC), usually a metal oxide, to provide oxygen for combusting fuels in a fuel reactor (FR) and then the reoxidization of the OC in a separate air reactor (AR). ... Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry (2004), 49 (2), 815-816 CODEN: PSADFZ; ISSN:1521-4648. ...

Fang Liu; Liangyong Chen; James K. Neathery; Kozo Saito; Kunlei Liu

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

422

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

423

Experimental investigation of DI diesel engine operating with eucalyptus biodiesel/natural gas under dual fuel mode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract With the gradual depletion of petroleum and environmental degradation, intensive research activity has been addressed to the utilization of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to study the effect of eucalyptus biodiesel and natural gas under dual fuel combustion mode on the performance and the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder DI diesel engine. The natural gas (NG) is inducted with the intake air through the inlet manifold. The liquid pilot fuel (eucalyptus biodiesel or diesel fuel) is injected into the combustion chamber to cover approximately 10% of the maximum power output. Then, keeping constant the pilot fuel flow rate, the power output is further increased using only natural gas. The combustion characteristics (cylinder pressure, ignition delay and heat release rate), performance and exhaust emissions of the dual fuel mode (NG–diesel fuel and NG–biodiesel) are compared with those of conventional diesel engine mode at various load conditions. The combustion analysis has shown that biodiesel as pilot fuel exhibits similar pressure–time history, with highest peak, as diesel fuel in conventional and dual fuel modes. The performance and pollutant emission results show that, compared to diesel fuel in dual fuel mode, the use of eucalyptus biodiesel as pilot fuel reduces the high emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) particularly at high engine loads. However this is accompanied by an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which can be explained by the lower calorific value and the oxygen presence in the molecule of the eucalyptus biodiesel, respectively.

L. Tarabet; K. Loubar; M.S. Lounici; K. Khiari; T. Belmrabet; M. Tazerout

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, held March 12, 2013.

425

Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, originally presented on March 12, 2013.

426

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Derived from Polyaniline, Iron, and Cobalt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...especially in the fuel cell cathode...G. Popov B. N. , Development of high performance...A new fuel cell cathode catalyst...high-area carbon as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction...Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program. Microscopy...

Gang Wu; Karren L. More; Christina M. Johnston; Piotr Zelenay

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

428

Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid electrolyte fuel cells Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

430

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fuel performance Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

431

STATE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN COMMISSIONREPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Liquids Alliance of Automotive Manufacturers American Bioethanol Corporation American Honda Motor Company Resources California Electric Transportation Coalition California Environmental Protection Agency California. Dupont #12;iii ECO Fuel Systems Inc Electric Power Research Institute EMPA Technology and Society

432

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary… (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

434

Definition: Fuel cell | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel cell Fuel cell Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fuel cell An electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction; however, fuel cells can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. In 1838, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein invented the first

435

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2011 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Printable Version 2011 Annual Progress Report II. Hydrogen Production This section of the 2011 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on hydrogen production. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview, Sara Dillich, DOE A. Distributed Bio-Derived Liquid Production Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming, David King, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Stefan Czernik, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids Using Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs), Balu Balachandran, Argonne National Laboratory Back to Top B. Biomass Gasification A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process, Sean Emerson, United

436

Argonne Transportation Technology R&D Center - Alternative Fuels -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels SunDiesel fuel This Sun Diesel BTL fuel, made from wood chips, results in lower particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels are synthetic diesel fuels produced by converting gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and gasified coal or biomass, into liquid fuel. These fuels are commonly categorized into the following groups: Biomass to liquids (BTL) Gas to liquids (GTL) Coal to liquids (CTL) Argonne engineers are investigating the performance and emissions data of F-T fuels for both older and newer vehicles. The goal is to provide this data to the U.S. Department of Energy, the auto industry and energy suppliers. Part of the lab's strategy also includes publishing the data to solicit ideas and input from the fuels and combustion community.

437

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biogas to someone by Biogas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Renewable Natural Gas (Biogas) Biogas-also known as biomethane, swamp gas, landfill gas, or digester gas-is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion (decomposition without oxygen) of organic matter. In addition to providing electricity and heat, biogas is useful as a vehicle fuel. When processed to purity standards,

439

Oxygen Limitation within a Bacterial Aggregate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...standard deviation of the average of cells exposed to 2...and Doring G. 2002. Effects of reduced mucus oxygen...Lewandowski Z. 1994. Effects of biofilm structures...Dietrich LE , Okegbe C, Price-Whelan A, Sakhtah...capability. Energy Fuels 20 :1565-1571. doi...

Aimee K. Wessel; Talha A. Arshad; Mignon Fitzpatrick; Jodi L. Connell; Roger T. Bonnecaze; Jason B. Shear; Marvin Whiteley

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gasoline and 6% of its diesel demand by converting...conversion to liquid fuels using the FT process...total current oil consumption of 13.8 Mbbl/d by...conversion of syngas to diesel is 100% selective...liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal...the transportation engine. Therefore, for coal...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquids oxygenates fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...source of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (16, 17...gasification data provided in...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our...The resulting combustion energy not only provides heat for the endothermic...pass from the hydrocarbon conversion...well as other heat requirements...From the NRC data in Table E-23...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Fuel Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality Fuel Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality Presentation about tuning activity and stability of precious metal catalysts for the oxygen...

445

Fuel Cells (Project FC-041): DOE Hydrogen Program 2011 Annual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

approach for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysis is advantageous for both DMFC and hydrogen fuel cells. Question 1: Relevance to overall U.S. Department of Energy objectives...

446

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

448

Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

450

Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

McElroy, James F. (Hamilton, MA); Chludzinski, Paul J. (Swampscott, MA); Dantowitz, Philip (Peabody, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

1987-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

Calling All Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Calling All Fuel Cells Calling All Fuel Cells Calling All Fuel Cells December 7, 2012 - 4:31pm Addthis Altergy had more than 60 fuel cells in the immediate Hurricane Sandy disaster area that acted as backup power for cell phone towers. | Photo courtesy of Altergy. Altergy had more than 60 fuel cells in the immediate Hurricane Sandy disaster area that acted as backup power for cell phone towers. | Photo courtesy of Altergy. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technology Program What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is a device that uses a fuel and oxygen to create electricity by an electrochemical process. A fuel cell can provide energy for systems as large as a utility power station and as small as a laptop computer. During Hurricane Sandy, fuel cells were instrumental in providing backup

454

Calling All Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Calling All Fuel Cells Calling All Fuel Cells Calling All Fuel Cells December 7, 2012 - 4:31pm Addthis Altergy had more than 60 fuel cells in the immediate Hurricane Sandy disaster area that acted as backup power for cell phone towers. | Photo courtesy of Altergy. Altergy had more than 60 fuel cells in the immediate Hurricane Sandy disaster area that acted as backup power for cell phone towers. | Photo courtesy of Altergy. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technology Program What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is a device that uses a fuel and oxygen to create electricity by an electrochemical process. A fuel cell can provide energy for systems as large as a utility power station and as small as a laptop computer. During Hurricane Sandy, fuel cells were instrumental in providing backup

455

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with hydrogen economy scenario. 4. Research Approach and Results Survey of fuel cell water ASU lab fuel cell Capacity (kW) 5 ­ 150 5 ­ 250 5 50 ­ 1100 100 ­ 2000 100 ­ 250 PEM Fuel cell Oxygen (From air) Hydrogen Implications of Using water from Fuel Cells in a Hydrogen Economy · Hydrogen as an energy and water carrier

Keller, Arturo A.

456

Specifications for fuel for a gas-turbine plant on a marine platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specifications for liquid and gaseous fuel obtained directly on a marine platform for a power plant based on...

E. P. Fedorov; L. S. Yanovskii…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oxygen tolerance of an in silico-designed bioinspired hydrogen-evolving catalyst in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...highly exothermic. The overall free-energy reduction is 113.9 kcal/mol for the combined O 2...overpotential for oxygen reduction at a fuel-cell cathode . J Phys Chem B 108 : 17886...Overpotential for Oxygen Reduction at a Fuel-Cell cathode. J. Phys Chem B 108...

Patrick H.-L. Sit; Roberto Car; Morrel H. Cohen; Annabella Selloni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy)...

459

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Oxygen evolution mediated by co-based thin film electrocatalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrocatalytic conversion of water to O? is the key efficiency-determining reaction for the storage of electrical energy in the form of liquid fuels. In this thesis, the simple preparation of a cobalt-based catalyst ...

Surendranath, Yogesh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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