Sample records for liquids consumption increases

  1. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and...

  2. Increasing Underwater Vehicle Autonomy by Reducing Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyba, Monique

    : Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Minimum Energy Consumption, Optimal Control, Experiments. 1 IntroductionIncreasing Underwater Vehicle Autonomy by Reducing Energy Consumption M. Chybaa , T. Haberkornd , S, we concern ourselves with finding a control strategy that minimizes energy consumption along

  3. INCREASED FOOD AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF LACTATING NORTHERN FUR SEALS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    respectively. Fish accounted for 66.4% of food biomass (69.4% of total energy consumption); squidINCREASED FOOD AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF LACTATING NORTHERN FUR SEALS, CALWRHINUS URSINUS MICHAEL A on ter- restrial mammals have specifically shown increased energy consumption by lactating females

  4. Efficiency alone as a solution to increasing energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haidorfer, Luke

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical analysis was performed to determine the effect of efficiency on the total US energy consumption of automobiles and refrigerators. Review of literature shows that there are many different opinions regarding ...

  5. Domestic electricity consumption is con-tinuously increasing and now accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domestic electricity consumption is con- tinuously increasing and now accounts for about one third") enable detailed electricity consumption infor- mation to be captured, processed, and communicated electricity consumption infor- mation in real-time, enabling occupants to better understand their electricity

  6. Qualitatively an important increase in ham imports can be noted during the last ten years. It has probably been encouraged by an increasing, per capita, of ham consumption and also by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    probably been encouraged by an increasing, per capita, of ham consumption and also by progressive consumption is beginning to change. French foreign trade in pork also shows conjunctural variations mainly due and consumption in the different countries. Self-supply in !.$.C. with 6 countries, then E.E.C. with 9, slightly

  7. Bubble statistics and coarsening dynamics for quasi-two dimensional foams with increasing liquid content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Roth; C. D. Jones; D. J. Durian

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the statistics of bubble size, topology, and shape and on their role in the coarsening dynamics for foams consisting of bubbles compressed between two parallel plates. The design of the sample cell permits control of the liquid content, through a constant pressure condition set by the height of the foam above a liquid reservoir. We find that in the scaling state, all bubble distributions are independent not only of time but also of liquid content. For coarsening, the average rate decreases with liquid content due to the blocking of gas diffusion by Plateau borders inflated with liquid. By observing the growth rate of individual bubbles, we find that von Neumann's law becomes progressively violated with increasing wetness and with decreasing bubble size. We successfully model this behavior by explicitly incorporating the border blocking effect into the von Neumann argument. Two dimensionless bubble shape parameters naturally arise, one of which is primarily responsible for the violation of von Neumann's law for foams that are not perfectly dry.

  8. Paradoxical increase of positive answers to the CAGE questionnaire during a period of decreasing alcohol consumption: results from two population-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    first worldwide until 1983, in per capita yearly alcohol intake, and stayed in the top 6 countries since alcohol consumption: results from two population- based surveys in Île-de-France, 1991 and 2005. Short questionnaire during a period of decreasing alcohol consumption: results from two population- based surveys

  9. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  10. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300AptamersstabilityIncreased confinement

  11. The Application of Ultrasonic Energy into Liquid Mediums to Increase Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, M. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of high frequency or ultrasonic vibrations transmitted into and through a suitable medium can increase solution effectiveness. This means that in a continuous cleaning process, ultrasonic activation of the cleaning solution can increase...

  12. HOTSPOTS OF CLIMATEDRIVEN INCREASES IN RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This paper provides reduced form estimates of changes in electricity consumption due to increased use to higher projections of electricity consumption. These increases in projected electricity consumption were: climate change, vulnerability, electricity consumption, heating, cooling Please use the following citation

  13. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases...

  14. Progressive consumption : strategic sustainable excess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonham, Daniel J. (Daniel Joseph MacLeod)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends in the marketplace show that urban dwellers are increasingly supporting locally produced foods. This thesis argues for an architecture that responds to our cultures consumptive behaviors. Addressing the effects of ...

  15. Rice consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan, Jin

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Agricultural Economics. products has shifted away from staple grains and toward meat, dairy products, eggs, and other secondary foods. Rapid growth of animal production and the government's present target for increased production of specific non-grain crops... could lead to a, large shortage of the coarse grain needed for development of animal husbandry. If per capita. rice consumption grows slowly, there is the potential for excess capacity in rice production if the annual rice production growth rate...

  16. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  17. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, Reference

  18. Margins up; consumption down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantho, M.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a survey of dealers in the domestic fuel oil industry are reported. Wholesale prices, reacting to oversupply, decreased as did retail prices; retail prices decreased at a slower rate so profit margins were larger. This trend produced competitive markets as price-cutting became the method for increasing a dealer's share of the profits. Losses to other fuels decreased, when the figures were compared to earlier y; and cash flow was very good for most dealers. In summary, profits per gallon of oil delivered increased, while the consumption of gasoline per customer decreased. 22 tables.

  19. Factors of material consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva Díaz, Pamela Cristina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historic consumption trends for materials have been studied by many researchers, and, in order to identify the main drivers of consumption, special attention has been given to material intensity, which is the consumption ...

  20. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  1. Amine-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids: a mechanistic explanation for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation with CO{sub 2} from molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, K.E.; Maginn, E.J. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion, particularly in coal-fired power plants, represents a critical component of efforts aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. Recently, a series of second-generation task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing amine functional groups have been synthesized and demonstrated to have much higher capacities for CO{sub 2} due to their reactivity with CO{sub 2}, as well unusually high viscosities in both the neat and complexed states. The current work extends the seminal studies of CO{sub 2} capture with ionic liquids (ILs) by providing insight from simulations into the mechanism responsible for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation. Simulations conclusively demonstrate that the slow translational and rotational dynamics, which are manifest in the high viscosity, may be attributable to the formation of a strong, pervasive hydrogen-bonded network. Semiquantitative estimates of the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients and rotational time constants, as well as detailed hydrogen bond analysis, are consistent with the experimentally observed formation of glassy or gel-like materials upon contact with CO{sub 2}. This has significant implications for the design of new approaches or materials involving ILs that take advantage of these preconceived limitations, in the synthesis or manipulation of new TSIL frameworks for CO{sub 2} capture, and in novel experimental studies of chemistries and dynamics in persistent heterogeneous environments.

  2. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  3. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  4. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, Reference case,A5.On-HighwayDAD

  5. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, Reference case,A5.On-HighwayDADE

  6. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, ReferenceG (2005) - Household

  7. Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  8. Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These studiesprojected electricity consumption EVs and theMPG) and EV electricity consumption (in Kwh per mile).weight of increases. 3.2. Electricity Consumption EVs of To

  9. Changing patterns of world energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, S.H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The substantial increases in oil prices since 1973 have had tremendous impacts on world energy, and particularly on oil consumption. These impacts have varied across regions and energy types. As shown in a table, from 1960 through 1973 the real price of internationally traded crude oil, as measured in constant US dollars, changed very little. In this stable oil price environment, Free World energy consumption grew at 5.3% per year and oil use rose at 7.5% per year, increasing its share of Free World energy consumption from 43 to 56%. 6 tables.

  10. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  11. Energy Consumption of Transponders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Energy Consumption of Transponders Lei Shi Apr. 26, 2011 #12;Contents · Energy Efficient Ethernet · Energy Efficient EPON · Core Network ­ MLR: Reach and Energy Cost #12;Ethernet Energy Consumption is usually over 5 W · Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE), uses a Low Power Idle mode to reduce energy

  12. Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Applications Behind the Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilevich, Eli

    Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Applications Behind the Scenes Young-Woo Kwon and Eli, an increasing number of perfective maintenance tasks are concerned with optimizing energy consumption. However, optimizing a mobile application to reduce its energy consumption is non-trivial due to the highly volatile

  13. Getting to Green: Understanding Resource Consumption in the Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grinter, Rebecca Elizabeth

    energy [19], increasing awareness of resource consumption in the workplace [20] and building homes manage their energy consumption. Next, we outline our methods and findings from a qualitative study of 15 households' current practices around resource consumption and management in a US metropolitan area. We find

  14. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  15. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic Liquid Processing Increasing sugar yields from diverse biomass feedstock with ionic liquid processing and cultivation of renewable ionic liquids Liberating Sugars from...

  16. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  17. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  18. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  19. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  20. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  1. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  2. & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION In the United States hydropower supplies 12% of the nation's electricity. Hydropower produces more than 90,000 megawatts of electricity, which is enough to meet the needs of 28.3 million consumers. Hydropower accounts for over 90% of all electricity

  3. Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

  4. Transportation Energy Consumption Surveys

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008Product:7.1Energy Consumption (RTECS)

  5. Increasing the Consumption of Whole Grain Foods in School Meals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Cynthia Ann

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    nutritious meals in their cafeterias, while maintaining customer acceptance of the foods. Whether or not students consume whole grains determines if these foods are served again. Input from participants determined which whole grain were foods tested...

  6. MFR PAPER 1012 Increased U.S. fish consumption and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    eaters-perhaps some ne'A ones-but It I IIk.el) that a large num- ber 'Aere already regular consumers

  7. The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Michael Schaal (michael.schaal@eia.doe.gov, 202586-5590), Director of its Oil and Gas Division. Specific questions about the report can be directed to the following...

  8. Fuel consumption prediction methodology for early stages of naval ship design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gheriani, Eran (Eran Y.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, fuel consumption has increased in importance as a design parameter in Navy ships. Economical fuel consumption is important not only for operating cost measures but also for ship endurance tankage requirements. ...

  9. Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Revision Increases

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Marthrough Monthly Download Series882 1,232 968 845

  10. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  11. World energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historical and projected world energy consumption information is displayed. The information is presented by region and fuel type, and includes a world total. Measurements are in quadrillion Btu. Sources of the information contained in the table are: (1) history--Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1992, DOE/EIA-0219(92); (2) projections--EIA, World Energy Projections System, 1994. Country amounts include an adjustment to account for electricity trade. Regions or country groups are shown as follows: (1) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), US (not including US territories), which are included in other (ECD), Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, other Europe, and other OECD; (2) Eurasia--China, former Soviet Union, eastern Europe; (3) rest of world--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other countries not included in any other group. Fuel types include oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and other. Other includes hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, biomass, wind, and other renewable sources.

  12. Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) the building consumed 208.7 kWh m-2 yr-1, 83% of the expected energy consumption (250 kWh m-2 yr-1). This dropped further to 176.1 kWh m-2 yr-1 in 2012 (70% below expected). Factors affecting building energy consumption have been discussed and appraised...

  13. Accounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    Accounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices Pavel.S.A vinod.namboodiri@wichita.edu ABSTRACT In light of the increased awareness of global energy consumption the share of energy consumption due to these equipment over the years, these have rarely characterized

  14. An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii consumption was a concern pri- marily for mobile computing domains. The rising cost of energy and increased

  15. Population, Consumption & the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , natural gas) is 66 trillion barrels of oil energy equivalent 9 Summer 2006 Energy use impacts: air related, and percentage is increasing · In China there is a transition from food & housing HEIs

  16. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  17. Energy consumption of building 39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopeman, Lisa Maria

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT community has embarked on an initiative to the reduce energy consumption and in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol. This thesis seeks to further expand our understanding of how the MIT campus consumes energy and ...

  18. The Wealth-Consumption Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdelhan, Adrien Frederic

    We derive new estimates of total wealth, the returns on total wealth, and the wealth effect on consumption. We estimate the prices of aggregate risk from bond yields and stock returns using a no-arbitrage model. Using these ...

  19. US WSC TX Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    an average of 77 million Btu per year, about 14% less than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption per Texas home is 26% higher than the national average, but...

  20. US ESC TN Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    an average of 79 million Btu per year, about 12% less than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption for Tennessee households is 33% higher than the national average...

  1. Energy Consumption Profile for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    317 Chapter 12 Energy Consumption Profile for Energy Harvested WSNs T. V. Prabhakar, R Venkatesha.............................................................................................318 12.2 Energy Harvesting ...................................................................................318 12.2.1 Motivations for Energy Harvesting...............................................319 12

  2. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide?range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  4. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4A. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for All Buildings, 2003 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures per Building (thousand kWh) per Square Foot (kWh)...

  5. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003 All Buildings Using Electricity Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures Number of Buildings...

  6. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace...

  7. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  8. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  9. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace...

  10. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table C22. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace...

  11. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  12. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace of...

  13. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  14. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  15. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  16. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings (million square feet)...

  18. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings (million square...

  19. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9A. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet) Total Floorspace...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  2. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

  3. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest Industrial Enterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprise Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daily, 2007. Energy consumption per unit GDP down 1.23%increase in energy use per unit of GDP after 2002 following2006, the energy consumption per unit of GDP declined 1.23%

  4. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  5. Today in Energy - commercial consumption & efficiency

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short, timely articles with graphs about recent commercial consumption and efficiency issues and trends.

  6. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  7. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  8. Fuel consumption model for FREFLO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Kethireddipalli Srinivas

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    above, Biggs and Akcelik (1985) proposed a model of the following form: f = fsito + &Pr + z[apr)o o (5) where, Po = total drag power P, = inertia power a = instantaneous acceleration 8, = fuel consumption per unit power 8, = fuel consumption per... that is additional to S, P, . This component is expressed as SzaP, , where &z is considered to be a secondary efficiency parameter that relates fuel to the product of inertia power and acceleration rate, for positive accelerations. This term allows for the effects...

  9. Reducing Petroleum Consumption from Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States consumed more petroleum-based liquid fuel per capita than any other OECD- high-income country- 30 percent more than the second-highest country (Canada) and 40 percent more than the third-highest (Luxemburg). ...

  10. Reducing Petroleum Consumption from Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States consumes more petroleum-based liquid fuel per capita than any other OECD high-income country—30 percent more than the second-highest country (Canada) and 40 percent more than the third-highest (Luxembourg). ...

  11. Heart Rate and Oxygen Consumption of Northern Elephant Seals during Diving in the Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Paul M.

    116 Heart Rate and Oxygen Consumption of Northern Elephant Seals during Diving in the Laboratory Paul M. Webb1 heart rate over the entire dive cycle increased with increasing oxygen consumption in all, which casts some doubt on the usefulness of heart rate as an indicator of metabolicBurney J. Le Boeuf1 1

  12. Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

  13. Power consumption in gas-inducing-type mechanically agitated contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, K.; Mundale, V.D.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Joshi, J.B. [Univ. of Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology] [Univ. of Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power consumption was measured in 0.57, 1.0, and 1.5 m i.d. gas inducing type of mechanically agitated contactors (GIMAC) using single and multiple impellers. The ratio of impeller diameter to vessel diameter was varied in the range of 0.13 < D/T < 0.59. The effect of liquid submergence from the top and impeller clearance from the vessel bottom was investigated in detail. In the case of multiple impeller systems, six different designs were investigated. The designs included pitched blade downflow turbine (PBTD), pitched blade upflow turbine (PBTU), downflow propeller (PD), upflow propeller (PU), straight bladed turbine (SBT) and disc turbine (DT). The effect of interimpeller clearance was studied for the multiple impeller system. The effect of impeller speed was studied in the range of 0.13 < N < 13.5 rotations/s. A mathematical model has been developed for power consumption before and after the onset of gas induction.

  14. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster Fishery Investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 $ By PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster _ ~ethod _ Oxygen consumption of normal oyster _ Effect of oxygen tension on oxygen con- sumption _ Page 489 Increased rate of metabolism _ 490 Experiments with green oysters _ 493 Oxygen consumption

  15. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, Reference case,A5.On-HighwayD

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Region for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  18. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C3. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 All Buildings* Sum of Major Fuel Consumption Number of Buildings (thousand)...

  19. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Building Size for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C7A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Division for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    . Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Region for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  2. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Division for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  3. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    . Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of...

  4. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C3A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003 All Buildings Sum of Major Fuel Consumption Number of Buildings (thousand) Floorspace...

  5. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table C8A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Division for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total...

  6. Essays on aggregate and individual consumption fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Youngjin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis consists of three essays on aggregate and individual consumption fluctuations. Chapter 1 develops a quantitative model to explore aggregate and individual consumption dynamics when the income process exhibits ...

  7. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  8. Monitoring Energy Consumption In Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    Monitoring Energy Consumption In Wireless Sensor Networks Matthias Witt, Christoph Weyer, it may impair the ability of the sensor network to function. Therefore, minimizing energy consumption energy consumption in both standby and active modes is the basis of wireless networks. Energy preserving

  9. Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

  10. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scitovski, Rudolf

    Mathematical models of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan Vazler , Marijana Zeki-Susac ksabo of natural gas consumption hourly fore- cast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas

  11. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  12. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based to estimate per capita consumption. Data for the model are derived primarily from second- ary sources a significant effect on the resulting calculation. U.S. per capita consumption of fish and shellfish was 15

  13. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based to estimate per capita consumption. Data for the model are derived primarily from second- ary sources effect on the resulting calculation. U.S. per capita consumption of fish and shellfish was 16.0 pounds

  14. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based to estimate per capita consumption. Data for the model are derived primarily from second- ary sources effect on the resulting calculation. U.S. per capita consumption of fish and shellfish was 16.5 pounds

  15. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based to estimate per capita consumption. Data for the model are derived primarily from second- ary sources effect on the resulting calculation. U.S. per capita consumption of fish and shellfish was 16.3 pounds

  16. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Consumption 84 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based to estimate per capita consumption. Data for the model are derived primarily from second- ary sources effect on the resulting calculation. U.S. per capita consumption of fish and shellfish was 16.3 pounds

  17. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a forecast for total energy consumption in network standbyconsiderable impact on total energy consumption from TVs.factors affecting total energy consumption. Although further

  18. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies impact on energy consumption in residentialBEHAVIOUR ON HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Nicola Combe 1 ,2 ,nearly 60% of domestic energy consumption and 27% of total

  19. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Low Power Mode Energy Consumption”, Energy Efficiency inEnergy Consumption ..26 3.1.3. 3D TV Energy Consumption and Efficiency

  20. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    49 3.3.3. Pre-installation electricity consumption of CSIE. Kahn (2011). Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing:on Electricity Consumption .

  1. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  2. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  3. US ENC IL Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,CoalThousandIL Site Consumption million

  4. US ENC MI Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,CoalThousandIL Site Consumption

  5. US ENC WI Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,CoalThousandIL Site Consumption120 US

  6. US ESC TN Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,CoalThousandIL Site Consumption120 USESC

  7. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  8. PREDICTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MPEG VIDEO PLAYBACK ON HANDHELDS Srijan Chakraborty and David K. Y. Yau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, David K Y

    PREDICTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MPEG VIDEO PLAYBACK ON HANDHELDS Srijan Chakraborty and David K. Y to construct simple polynomial models of energy us- age with good least square fit (R value of 0.92 and higher computing is the need to re- duce the energy consumption of these devices, thereby increasing the lifetime

  9. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  10. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times/wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.

  11. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gross world product, E is global energy consumption, Authorworld GDP, f = F/E is carbon intensity of energy consumption,

  12. Flow shop scheduling with peak power consumption constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Fang

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 29, 2012 ... Flow shop scheduling with peak power consumption constraints ... Keywords: scheduling, flow shop, energy, peak power consumption, integer ...

  13. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  14. Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents a summary of the nation’s renewable energy consumption in 2010 along with detailed historical data on renewable energy consumption by energy source and end-use sector. Data presented also includes renewable energy consumption for electricity generation and for non-electric use by energy source, and net summer capacity and net generation by energy source and state. The report covers the period from 2006 through 2010.

  15. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","331...

  16. ,"New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","12312014"...

  17. Resource Consumption of Additive Manufacturing Technology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nopparat, Nanond

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The degradation of natural resources as a result of consumption to support the economic growth of humans society represents one of the greatest sustainability challenges.… (more)

  18. Pricing Conspicuous Consumption Products in Recession Periods ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Conspicuous consumptions products as luxury cars, designer brands, and fancy hotel rooms .... mand D is driven by the brand image and the pricing strategy p.

  19. Heavy Oil Consumption Reduction Program (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program helps heavy oil consumers move toward sustainable development while improving their competitive position by reducing their consumption. Financial assistance is offered to carry out...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled. NNo responding cases in sample. Notes: Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to totals. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey....

  2. Permitting of Consumptive Uses of Water (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Local water management districts are required to establish programs and regulations to provide for the permitting of consumptive uses of water. Such permitting programs are subject to the...

  3. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Consumption by End Use",6,"Monthly","112014","1151989" ,"Release...

  4. Sources and characteristics of oil consumption in a spark-ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yilmaz, Ertan, 1970-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) At low load, oil flowing past by the piston was found to be the major consumption source, while the contributions of oil evaporation and of blowby entrainment became more significant with increasing engine load. ...

  5. Vol. XV No.2 The Global Seafood Industry: A Perspective on Consumption and Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    of seafood has kept up not only with a rapidly increasing population but also with increases in per capita million tons in 2003, an increase of 260%, representing an annual growth rate of 3%. Growth in per capita fish consumption has increased from about 28 pounds per year in 1960 to about 48 pounds per year

  6. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  7. Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks Benigno Zurita Ares://www.ee.kth.se/control Abstract. A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate perfor- mance analysis of minimum energy coding energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding

  8. DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT OF POWER CONSUMPTION Tajana Simunic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    of the system and decides when and how to force power state transitions. The power manager makes state transition decisions according to the power management policy. The choice of the policy that minimizes powerChapter 1 DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT OF POWER CONSUMPTION Tajana Simunic HP Labs Abstract Power consumption

  9. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  10. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tru?c?, M. R. C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Albert, ?., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Tudoran, C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Soran, M. L., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; F?rca?, F., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Abrudean, M. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  11. Effects of rheological properties on power consumption with helical ribbon agitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreau, P.J.; Chhabra, R.P.; Cheng, J. (Centre de Recherche Appliquee sur les Polymeres, Montreal (Canada))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of shear thinning and viscoelasticity on the power required for the mixing of viscous liquids using six different helical ribbon agitators has been investigated. Four Newtonian and 12 non-Newtonian fluids prepared using several polymers dissolved in varying concentrations in different solvents cover a wide range of rheological properties. By a careful choice of test media, the specific and combined effects of shear thinning and viscoelasticity on the power requirement have been examined. Simple models are proposed to predict the effective shear rate in the tank from the knowledge of the torque or power number. The effective shear rate predictions compared with the effective shear rate estimated using the scheme of Metzner and Otto (1957) show that they slightly depend on the shear thinning properties. Fluid's elasticity increases appreciably the power requirement, and departures from the generalized Newtonian power curve in the laminar regime are observed at smaller Reynolds numbers for viscoelastic fluids. Bottom wall resistance of the mixing vessel makes a negligible contribution to the power consumption.

  12. Fuel consumption analyses for urban traffic management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, D.P.; Akcelik, R.; Biggs, D.C.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary output from the fuel consumption research conducted by the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) is the ARRB Special Report, Guide to Fuel Consumption Analyses. This article briefly summarizes the background of the guide, describes its major features, and considers its relevance to urban traffic management decision. The guide was a result of a technical audit of studies relating to energy consumption in traffic and transport systems. A brief summary of the audit process and findings is given. The guide is intended primarily as an aid to effective use of fuel consumption models in the design of traffic management schemes. The forms of four interrelated fuel consumption models of the guide are described and their likely transferability to various situations is indicated. Each traffic and fuel consumption model is appropriate to a particular scale of traffic system. This link is shown for several selected traffic models. As an example, a discussion of the importance of accurate fuel consumption estimates for the case of priority control at a particular intersection is given.

  13. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  14. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  15. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  16. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  17. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  19. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:04:17 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3035NM2" "Date","New...

  20. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:01:29 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3010NM2" "Date","New...

  1. ,"New York Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"182015 12:45:53 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3010NY2" "Date","New...

  2. ,"New York Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"182015 12:47:17 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3035NY2" "Date","New York...

  3. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  4. Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption Eric Niemeyer, Operations Superintendent Drilling Specialties Company A division of Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP ESL-IE-14-05-31 Proceedings of the Thrity...

  5. US SoAtl VA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    an average of 86 million Btu per year, about 4% less than the U.S. average. * Average electricity consumption and costs are higher for Virginia households than the national...

  6. US MidAtl NY Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    consume an average of 103 million Btu per year, 15% more than the U.S. average. * Electricity consumption in New York homes is much lower than the U.S. average, because...

  7. US SoAtl GA Site Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    household (2,067) in Georgia are similar to the U.S. household averages. * Per household electricity consumption in Georgia is among the highest in the country, but similar to...

  8. Energy consumption metrics of MIT buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Justin David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With world energy demand on the rise and greenhouse gas levels breaking new records each year, lowering energy consumption and improving energy efficiency has become vital. MIT, in a mission to help improve the global ...

  9. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    sum to totals. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey....

  10. Essays on consumption cycles and corporate finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issler, Paulo Floriano

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption . . . . . 1.5.3 EIS and the timing of durablefor the CRRA case (? = 2, EIS = 0.5). The right and leftof intertemporal substitution (EIS). When the economy is

  11. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Low Power Mode Energy Consumption”, Energy Efficiency inTV Shipments on Energy Consumption.. 22 Figure 3-1.Estimates of Annual Energy Consumption in 3D mode of 3D TVs

  12. Research on Building Energy Consumption Situation in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, X.; Tan, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper surveys the present situation of building energy consumption in Shanghai and points out the problems of insufficient energy consumption statistics based on the survey data. We analyze the relationships of energy consumption between...

  13. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium between predicted and actual building energy consumption can be attributed to uncertainties introduced in energy consumption due to actual weather and building operational practices, using a simulation

  14. Using occupancy to reduce energy consumption of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Bharathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meter allows us to study the energy consumption patterns onThis allows us to study the energy consumption of individualgives us a good framework to study the energy consumption

  15. Monitoring and Management of Refinery Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelham, R. O.; Moriarty, R. D.; Hudgens, P. D.

    MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF REFINERY ENERGY CONSUMPTION Roger O. Pelham Richard D. Moriarty Patrie D. Hudgens Profimatics, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California ABSTRACT Since 1972, the u.s. refining industry has made much progress in reduci... ng energy consumption. Lately, falling energy prices have de-emphasized the need to appropriate new capital for additional energy conservation projects. One area neglected in most refineries is the need to monitor and man age the daily use...

  16. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  17. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  18. The importance of population growth in future commercial energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolsrud, G. [Congress, Washington, DC (United States); Torrey, B.B. [Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the contribution of population growth to commercial energy consumption, which is considered a major cause of increases in air pollution and greenhouse gases. This paper first summarizes some of the recent estimates of future energy use developed by well-known models. It then develops several alternative scenarios that use different assumptions about population growth and energy use per capita for 122 countries for the years 2020 and 2050. It calculates the relative contribution of population growth to the change in total commercial energy use and demonstrates the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions. Individual country data are separately summed to totals for more-developed countries (MDCs) and less-developed countries (LDCs). Under a business as usual scenario for both MDCs and LDCs, population growth is important, but not the most important factor, in future increases in global energy consumption. Analysis of other scenarios shows that while slower population growth always contributes to a slowing of future global energy consumption, such changes are not as effective as reductions in per capita commercial energy use. Calculations on a global basis are made in two ways: from global aggregates and by summing individual country data. Comparison of the results shows that the first method is misleading because of the heterogeneity of population growth rates and energy consumption rates of individual countries. The tentative conclusions reached in this paper are only small pieces of a much larger puzzle. More work needs to be done to better understand the dynamics of these relationships before the analysis is extended to the broader questions of population growth and environmental change.

  19. Fact #705: December 12, 2011 Fuel Consumption Standards for Combinatio...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5: December 12, 2011 Fuel Consumption Standards for Combination Tractors Fact 705: December 12, 2011 Fuel Consumption Standards for Combination Tractors The National Highway...

  20. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and DOE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and DOE Test Procedures Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and DOE Test Procedures This study investigates...

  1. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Preliminary measured drying time of fabric sample using ultrasonic...

  2. Fact #749: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption for Transportation by State, 2010 Fact 749: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption for Transportation by...

  3. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles...

  4. The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust...

  5. Fact #840: September 29, 2014 World Renewable Electricity Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    40: September 29, 2014 World Renewable Electricity Consumption is Growing Fact 840: September 29, 2014 World Renewable Electricity Consumption is Growing Electricity generated...

  6. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency Below is...

  7. Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring fuel quality on electronically fuel injected engines. Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring...

  8. Fact #839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    39: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues to Rise despite Declines from the United States and Europe Fact 839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption...

  9. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  10. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption. Total energy consumption (in thousand BTUs) waselectricity and total energy consumption. Because all homesin gas, electric, and total energy consumption. Removing

  11. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  12. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

  13. International Journal of Chemistry; 2013[02] ISSN 2306-6415 Preservation Ways and Energy Consumption in Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Samimi

    Abstract: Preservation increase and energy return is one of the effective tools in saving. Studies show that energy consumption for each productive crude oil barred is dependence on the refinery complicated in reconfiguration of forge. Energy recovery increase in refinery over time that is due to economic factors like consumption fuel increase, it means that return increase is consistent with fuel price. It developed use of crude oil capability, distillation products in modern refinery. Modern refinery recovery dead to 10 to 15 % saving in energy consumption, Modern refinery.can developed energy return in several ways such as: Thermal exchange increase between processes streams, effective hydro exchange in process units, use of heaters with high thermal return and use of gas turbines with preheated air and produce steam of waste thermal. This paper investigates management ways and energy consumption recovery in different parts of oil refinery.

  14. Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

  15. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  16. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  17. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  18. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  20. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  1. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  2. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  3. Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    on Environmental Decisions, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; b Department of Psychology, Ohio StatePublic perceptions of energy consumption and savings Shahzeen Z. Attaria,1 , Michael L. De February 12, 2010) In a national online survey, 505 participants reported their percep- tions of energy

  4. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  5. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with air. Liquid carbon monoxide is extremely toxic and extremely flammable. #12;Cryogenic liquids connecting cylinder to lower pressure piping or systems. 6. Use a check valve or trap in the discharge line

  6. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Sever, L.E. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  8. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  9. Effect of increased social unacceptability of cigarette smoking on reduction in cigarette consumption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon PennsylvaniaCarolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania

  10. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxideof Energy Clean CoalDNV KEMA|

  11. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA5 &ofDepartment of Energy On November 5,2012) |Department

  12. Microsoft Word - Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping RichlandScatteringWater Vapor Continuum in1 WorkFor Immediate

  13. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80% and Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S iPartnership Program |Million DOE Award |DepartmentGRID BENEFITS

  14. Trends in energy use in commercial buildings -- Sixteen years of EIA's commercial buildings energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Swenson, A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects basic statistical information on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of commercial buildings in the US. The first CBECS was conducted in 1979 and the most recent was completed in 1995. Over that period, the number of commercial bindings and total amount of floorspace increased, total consumption remained flat, and total energy intensity declined. By 1995, there were 4.6 million commercial buildings and 58.8 billion square feet of floorspace. The buildings consumed a total of 5.3 quadrillion Btu (site energy), with a total intensity of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity consumption exceeded natural gas consumption (2.6 quadrillion and 1.9 quadrillion Btu, respectively). In 1995, the two major users of energy were space heating (1.7 quadrillion Btu) and lighting (1.2 quadrillion Btu). Over the period 1979 to 1995, natural gas intensity declined from 71.4 thousand to 51.0 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity intensity did not show a similar decline (44.2 thousand Btu per square foot in 1979 and 45.7 thousand Btu per square foot in 1995). Two types of commercial buildings, office buildings and mercantile and service buildings, were the largest consumers of energy in 1995 (2.0 quadrillion Btu, 38% of total consumption). Three building types, health care, food service, and food sales, had significantly higher energy intensities. Buildings constructed since 1970 accounted for half of total consumption and a majority (59%) of total electricity consumption.

  15. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  17. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  18. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  19. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  20. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  1. Energy Consumption ESPRIMO E7935 E80+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    joined the "Green Grid" and "Climate Savers Computing" initiatives and publishes SPECpower benchmark (WOL enabled) 4) 96.7 kWh/year Heat dissipation, WOL enabled (MJ, 1 W = 3.6 kJ/h) 348.3 MJ/year Heat Consumption (WOL enabled) 4) 103.6 kWh/year Heat dissipation, WOL enabled (MJ, 1 W = 3.6 kJ/h) 373.0 MJ

  2. Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingsheng

    SYSTEMATIC ERROR DUE TO THE STEADY-STATE COMBINED MODELS 127 SIMULATION AND NUMERICAL RESULTS 141 APPLICATION 150 SUMMARy 157 METHODOLOGy 158 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 159 DISCRETIZATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 161 EXTERNAL NODE EQUATIONS 164... temperature. Clearly, the room heater does not need to heat the air from the outside temperature to the room temperature because it has already captured part of the conduction heat flowing through the wall. To properly estimate house energy consumption...

  3. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  4. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  5. Something to buy paraffin with: an investigation into domestic energy consumption in rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, two government agencies have surveyed energy consumption in Kenya. These two studies yielded conflicting results, necessitating that a third, more carefully conducted survey be used as the basis for this study. The survey instrument used was designed by the author and included questions regarding the types and quantities of fuels used, income information, and demographic data; 572 households were surveyed. The results are first aggregated by ecological zone and compared with the responses of the same households from the 1979 energy survey. Two findings emerge. First, wood consumption is lower in the high and medium potential lands. Fuelwood scarcity appears to be caused by high population density, not low ecological potential. Second, consumption of fuelwood and paraffin (i.e., kerosene) has decreased significantly over the past two years, due mainly to the increased price of the latter and the increased scarcity of the former. Next, the survey results are analyzed by way of a farm-type classification system which classifies the respondents into five groups: non-surplus farmers, surplus farmers, cash-surplus farmers, cash crop farmers, and wage workers. Finally, the analysis takes a relational perspective relying upon regression analysis. Income serves as a determinant of kerosene consumption, but not of fuelwood consumption.

  6. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING...

  7. Home, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    , habitual, and irrational. Implications for the design of energy-conserving interactions with technology investigate the relationships among "normal" domestic interactions with technology, energy consumptionHome, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption James Pierce1

  8. Characterizing System Level Energy Consumption in Mobile Computing Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    1 Characterizing System Level Energy Consumption in Mobile Computing Platforms Cintia B. Margi 1156 High Street Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Abstract--- This paper approaches energy consumption charac­ terization in mobile computing platforms by assessing energy con­ sumption of ''basic'' application

  9. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    real-world thermostat settings and heat energy consumptionto real-world behaviours. The actual energy consumption goesworld data indicates that the houses heated during the night had higher annual heat energy consumption.

  10. The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

  11. Evaluating Texas State University Energy Consumption According to Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnes, D.; Hunn, B. D.; Jones, J. W.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Utilization Index, energy consumption per square foot of floor area, is the most commonly used index of building energy consumption. However, a building or facility exists solely to support the activities of its occupants. Floor area...

  12. The individual contribution of automotive components to vehicle fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Parhys L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel consumption has grown to become a major point of interest as oil reserves are depleted. The purpose of this study is to determine the key components that cause variation in the instantaneous fuel consumption of vehicles ...

  13. Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie, Pisa (Italy)] [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

  14. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  15. Heat capacity of liquids: an approach from the solid phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostya Trachenko

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the energy and heat capacity of a liquid on the basis of its elastic properties and vibrational states. The experimental decrease of liquid heat capacity with temperature is attributed to the increasing loss of two transverse modes with frequency $\\omegaliquid relaxation time. In a simple model, liquid heat capacity is related to viscosity and is compared with the experimental data of mercury. We also calculate the vibrational energy of a quantum liquid, and show that transverse phonons can not be excited in the low-temperature limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of the proposed approach to liquids for the problem of glass transition.

  16. 2008 Erik Hinterbichler DESIGNING A BETTER ENERGY CONSUMPTION INDICATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    in which HCI can contribute to energy conservation is in interfaces for residential energy consumption on the effects of energy consumption feedback in the home. From this analysis, we created a theoretical framework© 2008 Erik Hinterbichler #12;DESIGNING A BETTER ENERGY CONSUMPTION INDICATOR INTERFACE

  17. FISHERY PRODUCTS SITUATION Consumption of fishery products is ex-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Per -capita sales likely will be near 11.2 pounds--down from 11.4 pounds in 1970. Consumption had beenFISHERY PRODUCTS SITUATION Consumption of fishery products is ex- pected to be off a little in 1971 to attract more imports in 1971 . Since U.S. fish consumption is about 550/0-de- pendent on imports

  18. Per Capita Annual Utilization and Consumption of Fish and Shellfish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Capita Annual Utilization and Consumption of Fish and Shellfish in Hawaii, 1970-77 Table I was 5.82 kg (12.8 pounds). It has been speculated that the per capita consumption of fishery prod- ucts is that the per capita consumption rate in Hawaii for 1977 was about 77 percent higher than the U.S. average

  19. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrlich, Paul R.

    influence per capita consumption7,8 and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, and resultant higher per capita resource con- sumption in smaller households15­19 pose serious challenges on resource consumption and biodiversity Jianguo Liu*, Gretchen C. Daily, Paul R. Ehrlich & Gary W. Luck

  20. A Realistic Power Consumption Model for Wireless Sensor Network Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hempstead, Mark

    . Recent analyses of WSN energy efficiency have been widely based on a sensor node power consumption model1 A Realistic Power Consumption Model for Wireless Sensor Network Devices Qin Wang, Mark Hempstead}@eecs.harvard.edu Abstract-- A realistic power consumption model of wireless communication subsystems typically used in many

  1. On the Interplay of Parallelization, Program Performance, and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchal, Loris

    to either minimize the total energy consumption or minimize the energy-delay product. The impact of staticOn the Interplay of Parallelization, Program Performance, and Energy Consumption Sangyeun Cho through parallel execution of applications, suppressing the power and energy consumption remains an even

  2. Energino: a Hardware and Software Solution for Energy Consumption Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Energino: a Hardware and Software Solution for Energy Consumption Monitoring Karina Gomez, Roberto.granelli@disi.unitn.it Abstract--Accurate measurement of energy consumption of practical wireless deployments is vital in the availability of affordable and scalable energy consumption monitoring tools for the research community

  3. On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadok, Erez

    On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software Appears in the proceedings of the 4th,grosu,psehgal,sas,stoller,ezk}@cs.stonybrook.edu ABSTRACT Models of energy consumption and performance are necessary to understand and identify system. This paper considers the energy consumption and performance of servers running a relatively simple file

  4. Energy Consumption Characteriation of Heterogeneous Servers School of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    Energy Consumption Characteriation of Heterogeneous Servers Xiao Zhang School of Computer Science Machine between servers to save energy. An accurate energy consumption model is the basic of energy management. Most past studies show that energy consumption has linear relation with resource utilization. We

  5. Modeling energy consumption in cellular networks L. Decreusefond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modeling energy consumption in cellular networks L. Decreusefond Telecom Paristech, LTCI Paris Abstract--In this paper we present a new analysis of energy consumption in cellular networks. We focus on the distribution of energy consumed by a base station for one isolated cell. We first define the energy consumption

  6. GENETIC HEURISTICS FOR REDUCING MEMORY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schott, René - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    GENETIC HEURISTICS FOR REDUCING MEMORY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Maha IDRISSI AOUAD.loria.fr/zendra Keywords: Energy consumption reduction, Genetic heuristics, memory allocation management, optimizations on heuristic methods for SPMs careful management in order to reduce memory energy consumption. We propose

  7. Energy Consumption in Coded Queues for Wireless Information Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Energy Consumption in Coded Queues for Wireless Information Exchange Jasper Goseling, Richard J customers. We use this relation to ob- tain bounds on the energy consumption in a wireless information, for example, from the observations in [3] that using network coding can reduce the energy consumption

  8. The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilevich, Eli

    The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption Young-Woo Kwon of their energy consumption patterns. By varying the abstractions with the rest of the functionality fixed, we measure and analyze the impact of distributed programming abstractions on application energy consumption

  9. Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Cornbased Ethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Corn­based Ethanol Plants Elvis Ahmetovi). First, we review the major alternatives in the optimization of energy consumption and its impact for the water streams. We show that minimizing energy consumption leads to process water networks with minimum

  10. Optimizing Communication Energy Consumption in Perpetual Wireless Nanosensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigle, Michele

    Optimizing Communication Energy Consumption in Perpetual Wireless Nanosensor Networks Shahram}@cs.odu.edu Abstract--This paper investigates the effect of various param- eters of energy consumption. Finding the optimum combination of parameters to minimize energy consumption while satisfying the Qo

  11. Automated Analysis of Performance and Energy Consumption for Cloud Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jean-Guy

    Automated Analysis of Performance and Energy Consumption for Cloud Applications Feifei Chen, John providers is thus to develop resource provisioning and management solutions at minimum energy consumption system performance and energy consumption patterns in complex cloud systems is imperative to achieve

  12. Hybrid Heuristics for Optimizing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schott, René - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    Hybrid Heuristics for Optimizing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems Maha IDRISSI AOUAD1 , Ren to BEH). Keywords: Energy consumption reduction, Genetic algorithms, hybrid heuristics, memory allocation energy consumption of embedded systems is of great importance. To do so, numerous options to save energy

  13. On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoller, Scott

    On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software Zhichao Li, Radu Grosu, Priya Sehgal {zhicli,grosu,psehgal,sas,stoller,ezk}@cs.stonybrook.edu ABSTRACT Models of energy consumption that can balance out performance and energy use. This paper considers the energy consumption

  14. Minimizing Energy Consumption in Body Sensor Networks via Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovendran, Radha

    Minimizing Energy Consumption in Body Sensor Networks via Convex Optimization Sidharth Nabar energy consumption while limiting the latency in data transfer. In this paper, we focus on polling energy consumption and latency. We show that this problem can be posed as a geometric program, which

  15. Classification of Energy Consumption in Buildings with Outlier Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    . Then a canonical variate analysis is employed to describe latent variables of daily electricity consumption is used to predict the daily electricity consumption profiles. A case study, based on a mixed use consumption data within a buildings energy management system. Electrical peak load forecasting plays

  16. Profiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    .2% of the overall electricity consumption in the U.S. More alarmingly, if current practices for the designProfiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi be able to charac- terize the power consumption of groups of co-located ap- plications

  17. Profiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    - puting platforms (or data centers) accounts for 1.2% of the overall electricity consumption in the UProfiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi the power consumption of groups of co-located applications. Such characterization is crucial for effective

  18. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  19. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China, 2008,The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Human andcan be measured using energy consumption per capita values.

  20. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001). "Residential Energy Consumption Survey." 2006, fromCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey." from http://Total Building Energy Consumption (Trillion BTU/yr) Area,

  1. Cost and Energy Consumption Optimization of Product Manufacture in a Flexible Manufacturing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Nancy; Dornfeld, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection for Energy Consumption Reduction in Machining,Dornfeld, D. (2011): Energy Consumption Characterization and2011): Unit Process Energy Consumption Models for Material

  2. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABORATORY Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissionscomponent of China’s total energy consumption mix. However,about 19% of China’s total energy consumption, while others

  3. Total and Peak Energy Consumption Minimization of Building HVAC Systems Using Model Predictive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combination of the total energy consumption and the peakalso reduces the total energy consumption of the occupancyTotal and Peak Energy Consumption Minimization of Building

  4. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the fraction of total energy consumption attributable toFraction of Total Energy Consumption Background Although thewindow fraction of total energy consumption. We believe that

  5. Video game console usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about half of the total energy consumption from Wii consolescan estimate total national energy consumption due to videoof on mode energy consumption to the total AEC. For most

  6. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China, 2008,The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Human andfor Residential Energy Consumption in China Nan Zhou,

  7. ResPoNSe: modeling the wide variability of residential energy consumption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese; Burke, William; Auslander, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    affect appliance energy consumption. For example, differentStates, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: HousingModeling of End-Use Energy Consumption in the Residential

  8. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001). "Residential Energy Consumption Survey." 2006, fromCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey." from http://Scale window-related energy consumption to account for new

  9. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China’sof China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accuratelyof China’s total energy consumption, while others estimate

  10. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  11. The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golob, Thomas F.; Brownstone, David

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption Table 2 Housing Unitsresidential vehicular energy consumption is graphed as aon Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption with vehicles, but

  12. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid:A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  13. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the total annual energy consumption. The behavior patternsin total residential energy consumption per home, even whenthe variability in energy consumption can vary by factors of

  14. Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison o f energy consumption i n housing (1998) (Trends i n household energy consumption (Jyukankyo Research4) Average (N=2976) Energy consumption [GJ / household-year

  15. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  16. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Human andof Residential Building Energy Consumption in China Nan ZhouResidential Building Energy Consumption in China Nan Zhou*,

  17. Household activities through various lenses: crossing surveys, diaries and electric consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand-Daubin, Mathieu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison between electricity consumption and behavioralU.S. residential electricity consumption” Energy Policy, 42(of the residential electricity consumption. ” Energy Policy,

  18. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimates of gas and electricity consumption were preparedestimates the gas and electricity consumption in a typicalthat lacked electricity consumption data were discarded for

  19. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    end-use Residential primary energy consumption was 6.6 EJ inof primary energy. Primary energy consumption includes final14 Residential Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel (with

  20. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    18 Figure 6 Primary Energy Consumption by End-Use in24 Figure 7 Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel in Commercialbased on total primary energy consumption (source energy),

  1. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liters Figure 7 Primary Energy Consumption (EJ) Refrigeratorby Efficiency Class Primary Energy Consumption (EJ) Figure 8by Fuel Figure 1 Primary Energy Consumption by End-use)

  2. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  3. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  4. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  5. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  6. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7, 199930,ConsumptionSurvey (MECS)

  7. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7, 199930,ConsumptionSurvey

  8. US MidAtl NJ Site Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,CoalThousandIL Site Consumption120MidAtl

  9. Effect of nitroimidazoles on the oxygen consumption rate and respiratory control ratio of beef heart mitochondria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, C.F.; Ting, L.; Subjeck, J.R.; Johnson, R.J.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neurotoxic effect of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has seriously compromised their clinical effectiveness. The authors compare here the effect of MISO and DMM on oxygen consumption in purified beef heart mitochondria. MISO has been found to significantly increase the oxygen consumption rate and decrease the respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria when incubated in the presence of the NAD+ dependent substrate, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. DMM has a similar but less pronounced effect than MISO on these respiratory parameters. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of these radiosensitizers for 8, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, the oxygen consumption rate was decreased when succinate, a FAD dependent substrate, was added following the incubation. This decrease, which is both time and dosage dependent, is equivalent for MISO and DMM.

  10. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  11. Absorption of sound in liquids and liquid mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musa, Raiq S

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTION OF SOUND IN LIQUIDS AND LIQUID MIXTURES A Thesis Raiq S. causa Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) January 1955 L1BRARY A 4 M COLLEOE OF IEXAS ADSORPTION OF SOfP@ LIQUIDS AND LIQUID NIXTURES A Thesis... Introduction to the Problem Experimental Methods and Procedures Results Discussion of Results Acknowledgements Bib 1 io graphy 22 4I 42 Introduction to the Problem The study of sound absorption in liquids and liquid mixtures is of considerable...

  12. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  13. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  14. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  15. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  16. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  17. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the total primary energy consumption in 2000. Furthermore,The Commercial Primary Energy Consumption by Sector GDP

  18. Liquid phase oxidation kinetics of oil sands bitumen: Models for in situ combustion numerical simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adegbesan, K.O.; Donnelly, J.K.; Moore, R.G.; Bennion, D.W.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiresponse kinetic models are established for the low-temperature oxidation (LTO) reaction of Athabasca oil sands bitumen. The models provide adequate description of the overall rate of oxygen consumption and of the reactions of the liquid phase bitumen components. The LTO models are suitable for use in the in situ combustion numerical simulators of oil sands.

  19. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

  20. Regression analysis of residential air-conditioning energy consumption at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Nabi, D.Y.; Zubair, S.M.; Abdelrahman, M.A.; Bahel, V. (Energy Systems Group, Div. of Energy Resources, Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of a house air conditioner located at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, is modeled as a function of weather parameters and total (global) solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The selection of effective parameters that significantly influence energy consumption is carried out using general stepping regression methods. The problem of collinearity between the regressors is also investigated. The final model involves parameters of total solar radiation on a horizontal surface, wind speed, and temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. However, the model coefficients are functions of relative humidity and/or temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. Model adequacy is examined by the residual analysis technique. Model validation is carried out by the data-splitting technique. The sensitivity of the model indicates that relative humidity and temperature difference strongly influence the cooling energy consumption. It was found that an increase in relative humidity from 20% to 100% can cause a 100% increase in cooling energy consumption during the high cooling season.

  1. Addressing the lack of Baseball Consumption amongst African Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Brandon Leigh

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    . This is particularly relevant to African American sport consumption, as Armstrong (2002b) suggests African Americans require a particular set of motivational factors to be present in a sport if they are to consider consumption. The current study will therefore..., it is also important to understand racial identity; for scholars suggest ?racial identification? to be an important factor influencing African American sport consumption (Armstrong 2002a; Armstrong, 2002b; Hanssen, 2001; Liu, Huand, & Minghua, 2007...

  2. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  3. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  4. Strategies for Decreasing Petroleum Consumption in the Federal Fleet (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putsche, V.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation offers strategies federal agency fleets can use to reduce petroleum consumption and build or gain access to alternative fuel infrastructure.

  5. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use",6,"Monthly","12015","1151989" ,"Release...

  6. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region… (more)

  7. ,"New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use",6,"Monthly","102014","1151989" ,"Release...

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by Low-Income Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sisson, Aimee

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ML, Schillo BA. 5 A Day fruit and vegetable interventionof perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable consumptionKA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a

  9. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

  10. On Minimizing the Energy Consumption of an Electrical Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelkader Merakeb

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 20, 2011 ... The problem that we focus on, is the minimization of the energy consumption of an electrical vehicle achievable on a given driving cycle.

  11. Fact #706: December 19, 2011 Vocational Vehicle Fuel Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    recently published final fuel consumption standards for heavy vehicles called "vocational" vehicles. A vocational vehicle is generally a single-unit work vehicle over 8,500 lbs...

  12. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey 2003 - Detailed Tables

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tables contain information about energy consumption and expenditures in U.S. commercial buildings and information about energy-related characteristics of these buildings.

  13. Pantex installs new meters to help to reduce energy consumption...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    installs new meters to help to reduce energy consumption | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  14. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    come from space heating within homes (Boardman, 2007). If weassociated with heating the home must be an imperative. Theheating and hot water energy consumption of the homes (Zack

  15. ,"New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release...

  16. ,"New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","2272015"...

  17. Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dongxing

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte… (more)

  18. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangalore can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of...

  19. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  20. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings compared to the northern regions, a result possibly due to a small, offsetting increase in household air conditioning usage. (4) Changes in national traffic volume and motor gasoline consumption for passenger vehicles in 2007 were determined to be statistically insignificant and therefore, could not be attributed to Extended Daylight Saving Time.

  1. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  2. Experiences on the Implementation of the 'Energy Balance' Methodology as a Data Quality Control Tool: Application to the Building Energy Consumption of a Large University Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Sakurai, Y.; Masuda, H.; Feinauer, D.; Liu, J.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the energy costs have been increasing the more energy efficient measures have been promoted in the buildings sector, the reliability of energy consumption data has been attracting significant attention. For example, the reliability...

  3. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  4. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  5. An Energy and Power Consumption Analysis of FPGA Routing Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilton, Steve

    An Energy and Power Consumption Analysis of FPGA Routing Architectures Peter Jamieson, Elec of energy and power consumption using an updated power estimation framework compatible with VPR 5.0. The goal of this research is to help FPGA vendors find the best FPGA architectures. Initially, we make some

  6. On Achieving Balanced Power Consumption in Software Pipelined Loops #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Guang R.

    . The benchmarks are executed on the Wattch power simulator. In comparison to the original (powerOn Achieving Balanced Power Consumption in Software Pipelined Loops # Hongbo Yang Dept of ECE Univ@capsl.udel.edu ABSTRACT While a significant body of work in compilers has been de­ voted to reducing energy consumption

  7. Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance Lin Zhong lzhong of their complexity, parallelism and latency. Insights are found for tradeoff between energy consumption of a tree structure. For example, Figure 1.3 shows to add 5 k-bit integers together in a tree sequence. It

  8. Power Consumption Prediction and Power-Aware Packing in Consolidated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    -term energy consumption within that level and 2) a sustained budget to capture any restrictions on sustainedPower Consumption Prediction and Power-Aware Packing in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi--Consolidation of workloads has emerged as a key mechanism to dampen the rapidly growing energy expenditure within enterprise

  9. Bounds on the Energy Consumption of Computational Andrew Gearhart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Bounds on the Energy Consumption of Computational Kernels Andrew Gearhart Electrical Engineering Fall 2014 #12;Bounds on the Energy Consumption of Computational Kernels Copyright 2014 by Andrew Scott, little consideration was given to the potential energy efficiency of algorithms them- selves. A dominant

  10. Methodology for reconstruction of historical food consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was written to provide the food consumption methodology to be used in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HDER) Project beyond Phase I (which ended in July 1990). In Phase I (Callaway 1992), baseline food consumption estimates (grams per day) for 10 primary food types in the original 10-county study region were derived from the 1977--1978 National Food Consumption Survey (USDA 1983). The baseline estimates were multiplied by the 1945:1977 ratios to produce consumption estimates for 1945. This ratio backcasting method used in Phase I to project consumption estimates from 1977 back to 1945 will be refined using additional USDA data to improve and document the acceptability of the ratios for deriving backcast consumption estimates. The number of food types and population groups will be expanded to provide more disaggregated estimates of food consumption. Food consumption estimates will be developed for 1945, 1951, and 1957. A database of individual diets will be created from which daily diets will be randomly selected for use in the dose model to calculate doses for reference individuals.

  11. Balancing Image Quality and Energy Consumption in Visual Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    Balancing Image Quality and Energy Consumption in Visual Sensor Networks Kit-Yee Chow, King by hop through the sensor network. To reduce the energy used in transmission, the size of the images studies the tradeoff between image quality and energy consumption. We study the scenario that a number

  12. Characterizing System Level Energy Consumption in Mobile Computing Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    1 Characterizing System Level Energy Consumption in Mobile Computing Platforms Cintia B. Margi 1156 High Street Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Abstract-- This paper approaches energy consumption charac- terization in mobile computing platforms by assessing energy con- sumption of "basic" application-level tasks

  13. MA STER'S THESIS Optimisation of fresh water consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patriksson, Michael

    MA STER'S THESIS Optimisation of fresh water consumption for Doggy AB using simulation Maja Olsson Göteborg Sweden 2005 #12;Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science Optimisation of fresh water consumption Göteborg 2005 #12;Abstract Doggy AB is the only Swedish producer of tinned pet food. In the food process

  14. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  15. Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption Physics Colloquium Presented in financial markets. Globally, data analysis of energy consumption per capita around the world shows@american.edu Similarly to the probability distribution of energy in physics, the probability distribution of money among

  16. Reducing Occupant-Controlled Electricity Consumption in Campus Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2010 Reducing Occupant-Controlled Electricity Consumption in Campus Buildings Kill­09 and is expected to spend more than $17.1 million in 2009­10. In an effort to reduce electricity consumption; 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY UC Berkeley spent $16.39 million on purchased electricity in 2008

  17. TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-085 TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN CALIFORNIA, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING** Abstract This study analyzes state and regional electricity supply and demand trends for the eleven states

  18. Exposing Datapath Elements to Reduce Microprocessor Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Reduce Microprocessor Energy Consumption by Mark Jerome Hampton Submitted to the Department of ElectricalExposing Datapath Elements to Reduce Microprocessor Energy Consumption by Mark Jerome Hampton B Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in partial ful llment

  19. Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers for Energy Efficiency Consumption in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    - tems 1 Introduction In EU countries, primary energy consumption in build- ings represents about 40Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers for Energy Efficiency Consumption in Buildings R. Alcal´a DECSAI 18071 ­ Granada, Spain e-mail: A.Gonzalez@decsai.ugr.es Abstract In EU countries, primary energy consump

  20. GreenSlot: Scheduling Energy Consumption in Green Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GreenSlot: Scheduling Energy Consumption in Green Datacenters Íñigo Goiri UPC/BSC and Rutgers Univ grid (as a backup). GreenSlot predicts the amount of solar energy that will be available in the near future, and schedules the workload to maximize the green energy consumption while meet- ing the jobs

  1. Reducing Network Energy Consumption via Sleeping and Rate-Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Reducing Network Energy Consumption via Sleeping and Rate-Adaptation Sergiu Nedevschi Lucian Popa of two forms of power management schemes that reduce the energy consumption of networks. The first the energy consumed when actively processing packets. For real-world traffic workloads and topologies and us

  2. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    for autonomous demand side management within one house. The DRS devices are able to sense and control the peak energy consumption or demand. We assume that several appliances within one building access to oneSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang

  3. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  4. An Operational Energy Consumption Evaluation Index System for Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort Vol.VII-2-2 An Operational Energy Consumption Evaluation Index System for Large Public Buildings1..., indexes system 1. PREFACE With the continuous development of urbanization level, the lack of energy and the increasing of society?s requirement for energy has become one of the prominent contradictions restricting the development of society...

  5. Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, there has been an increase in research in the application of ionic liquids containing nanoparticles as lubricants due to their properties such as thermally stability, non-volatility and non-flammability. The purpose of this thesis...

  6. The mathematical modeling of a Tuned Liquid Damper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokarczyk, Bryan Lee

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research is the simplification of the mathematical modeling process of a Tuned Liquid Damper. In an environment of increasingly flexible and lightly damped structures, the suppression of structural vibrations is an important topic...

  7. FROZEN PROCESSED FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information which could be used by the fishing industry to increase consumer demand for fishery products, Massachusetts This project was financed from funds provided by the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act to increase. RELIABILITY OF STUDY RESULTS A. Sampling Error H B. Nonresponse Error 15 C. Response Errors 16 SAMPLE

  8. A Study of Individual Household Water Consumption Borg, Edwards, Kimpel A Study of Individual Household Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    's goal is to investigate the weekly per capita indoor water use of three households in Davis, CaliforniaA Study of Individual Household Water Consumption Borg, Edwards, Kimpel A Study of Individual Household Water Consumption Maisie Borg, Orion Edwards & Sarah Kimpel Abstract Over the past several decades

  9. 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Form EIA-457C (2001)--Rental Agents, Landlords, and Apartment Managers Questionnaire

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World liquids consumption by region, Reference case,A5.On-HighwayD

  10. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  11. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  12. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  13. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  14. An Analysis Framework for Investigating the Trade-offs Between System Performance and Energy Consumption in a Heterogeneous Computing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    An Analysis Framework for Investigating the Trade-offs Between System Performance and Energy of energy and earn different amounts of utility. We demonstrate our analysis framework using real data.rambharos@gmail.com Abstract--Rising costs of energy consumption and an ongo- ing effort for increases in computing performance

  15. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  16. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, J.E. [ed.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  17. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, J.E. (ed.); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  18. Effect of milk consumption, forage availability and cow phenotype on rate of preweaning growth of calves in a semiarid Texas rangeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Susan Lynn

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption and adjusted for mean age at measurement. The influence of FA, adjusted milk consumption (AdjMC) and cow weight on preweaning daily gain (DG) and weaning weight (WW) was determined using GLM (SAS Institute Inc. , 1985a, b). Daily gain increased... 6. 3 and 31. 6 (P&, 01) g/d per kg increase in BW and AdjMC, respectively; age at weaning (AgeW) and FA were not related (P&. 10). Weaning weight increased 2. 4 (P&. 0001), . 72, (P&. 0001) and 4. 4 kg (P&. 12) per unit increase in BW, Age...

  19. Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martína optimization of second generation bioethanol production plants from lignocellulosic switchgrass when using/gal and with no or low water discharge. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, Water, Ethanol

  20. Reducing 3G energy consumption on mobile devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3G wireless interface is a significant contributor to battery drain on mobile devices. This paper describes the design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of methods to reduce the energy consumption of the 3G ...

  1. Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Tables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy use intensities in commercial buildings vary widely and depend on activity and climate, as shown in this data table, which was derived from the Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey.

  2. Broad Initiatives/Sharp Focus- Cuts Electricity Consumption 15%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gialanella, V.

    Analysis of electrical consumption can payout in reduced energy costs. Continuous monitoring of electrical usage coupled with improvements and optimization in system(s) operations can have a favorable impact on annual operating expenditures. Further...

  3. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar systems and energy efficiency and conservationEnergy Tax Act encouraged homeowners to invest in energy conservation and solarenergy consumption patterns: that some adopters of solar will thereafter become adopters of energy conservation

  4. ,"New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:38:10 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NA1570SNY2"...

  5. ,"New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:38:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","NA1570SNY2"...

  6. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  7. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global and country-specific estimates of total energyglobal and country-specific estimates of total energytotal global electricity consumption is about 5,000 TWh 68 , the energy

  8. November 2012 Key Performance Indicator (KPI): Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    and district heating scheme* data. Year Energy Consumption (KWh) Percentage Change 2005/06 65,916,243 N/A 2006 buildings are connected to the Nottingham District Heating Scheme. This service meets all the heating

  9. Power Consumption Characterization of a Graphics Processing Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skadron, Kevin

    .......................................................... 1 ENERGY AMBIGUITY OF MODERN GRAPHICS PROCESSORS ................. 2 POWER CONSUMPTIONPower Consumption Characterization of a Graphics Processing Unit A Thesis in STS 402 Presented.....................................................................................................................VI CHAPTER ONE: THE NEED FOR A POWER CHARACTERIZATION............... 1 HISTORY OF GRAPHICS PROCESSORS

  10. Smoothing consumption across households and time : essays in development economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinnan, Cynthia Georgia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies two strategies that households may use to keep their consumption smooth in the face of fluctuations in income and expenses: credit (borrowing and savings) and insurance (state contingent transfers between ...

  11. Sustainable Development in the Forest Sector: Balancing production and consumption in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainable Development in the Forest Sector: Balancing production and consumption in a challenging Consumption Workshop, Geneva, 2011 Sustainable development · Management and conservation of the natural;Promoting Sustainable Consumption Workshop, Geneva, 2011 Sustainable development (in the forest sector

  12. Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i n g s 2.1 Total Energy Consumption i n Japan's Residentialhouses. 2.1 Total Energy Consumption in Japan's Residentialorder to reduce total energy consumption. Figure 2 suggests

  13. Development of Energy Consumption Database Management System of Existing Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistic data of energy consumption are the base of analyzing energy consumption. The scientific management method of energy consumption data and the development of database management system plays an important role in building energy...

  14. The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golob, Thomas F; Brownstone, David

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption References Bento,Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption UCI-ITS-WP-05-1 Thomason Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption Thomas F. Golob

  15. Distributed Energy Consumption Control via Real-Time Pricing Feedback in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on game- theoretic energy consumption scheduling for theK }). We denote the energy consumption of consumers as l kwhere l i k is the energy consumption of consumer i (i ? N )

  16. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China Nan Zhou,Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China* Nan Zhou, 1whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed

  17. Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption Tunisian electricity consumption (the residential sector represents 68% of this class of consumers). Nevertheless, with the Tunisian electricity consumption context, models elaborating which take account weather

  18. Estimates of Energy Consumption by Building Type and End Use at U.S. Army Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4. Figure 5-5. 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by EndkWh/ft ) 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by End Useof Total) 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by End Use

  19. A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment [Extended and communications technology accounts for a significant fraction of worldwide electricity consumption. Given inferring the electricity consumption of different components of the installed base of telecommu- nications

  20. Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.von 2. The EV primary energy consumption relative to that~ Fig. 3. The EV primary energy consumption relative to thatVehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum

  1. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    window related primary energy consumption of the US building= 1.056 EJ. “Primary” energy consumption includes a site-to-the amount of primary energy consumption required by space

  2. Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e d u c i n g Primary Energy Consumption and C O 2 emissionssystem can reduce primary energy consumption by about 22system can reduce primary energy consumption by about 26

  3. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roughly 2.7% of total US energy consumption. The final tworoughly 1.5% of total US energy consumption. The final twoSpace Conditioning Energy Consumption in US Buildings Annual

  4. Heavy Duty Diesel Particulate Matter and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Transportation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scora, George Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    27% of the total US energy consumption and 72% of theof Figures Figure 2-1 U.S. energy consumption by source andU.S. (FHWA, Figure 2-1 U.S. energy consumption by source and

  5. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  6. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  7. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

  8. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  9. Oxygen consumption by asphalt films and resulting viscosity changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Frank Lee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILNS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1965 Major Subject: Chemistry OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILMS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (H o Depa ( mb ) (Membe May 1965...

  10. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  11. Assessment of user satisfaction of restrooms with existing toilet fixtures and new low consumption fixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vankamamidi, Neelima Raman

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfaction in each phase. The four phases were: 1. The as-is condition of the flush valves and the lavatory valve. 2. Low consumption manual flush valve and low consumption manual lavatory valve. 3. Old style low consumption automatic flush valve... and low consumption manual lavatory valve. 3. Determine user satisfaction of the restroom for old style low consumption automatic flush valve and low consumption automatic lavatory valve. 4. Determine user satisfaction of the restroom for low...

  12. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Buildingand actual building energy consumption can be attributed touncertainties in energy consumption due to actual weather

  13. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program: Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of Direct Energy Consumption in Long-Term2007. “Constraining Energy Consumption of China’s LargestProgram: Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - antimicrobial consumption esac Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for: antimicrobial consumption esac Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biological, temporal and spatial data on human EID events were Summary: of Antimicrobial Consumption: Interactive...

  15. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing food consumption Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of transportation within a sector. Although, the animal source food production and consumption systems assessed have... production through consumption. Animal source foods...

  17. Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. R. G. Reddy

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7Ż ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

  18. Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmatad, Yael Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

  19. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  20. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  1. Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The average

  3. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The

  4. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase Thepropane

  5. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase

  6. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  7. Alabama Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet) Base Gas)1,727 1,342Increases4 16

  8. Kentucky Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0MonthIncreases (Billion Cubic200941,712

  9. A Xenon Condenser with a Remote Liquid Storage Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Slutsky; Y. -R. Yen; H. Breuer; A. Dobi; C. Hall; T. Langford; D. S. Leonard; L. J. Kaufman; V. Strickland; N. Voskanian

    2009-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design and operation of a system for xenon liquefaction in which the condenser is separated from the liquid storage vessel. The condenser is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler, while the vessel is cooled only by the liquid xenon itself. This arrangement facilitates liquid particle detector research by allowing easy access to the upper and lower flanges of the vessel. We find that an external xenon gas pump is useful for increasing the rate at which cooling power is delivered to the vessel, and we present measurements of the power and efficiency of the apparatus.

  10. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  11. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  12. Kelvin Helmholtz Instability in Strongly Coupled Yukawa Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 'first principles' molecular dynamics simulations Kelvin Helmholtz instability has been observed for the first time at the particle level in two-dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa liquids. At a given coupling strength {Gamma} a subsonic shear profile is superposed on an equilibrated Yukawa liquid and instability is observed. Linear growth rates computed directly from MD simulations are seen to increase with strong coupling. Vortex-roll formation in the nonlinear regime is reported.

  13. California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;5,,"I",86,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0000,7,00000,"WAT","HY"5YearIncreases1 -5 2 7

  14. Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases resource consumption Jesse Abstract In this study, we propose that the ability to recycle may lead to increased resource usage compared to when a recycling option is not available. Supporting this hypothesis, our first experiment

  15. Mixed-Criticality Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems: Energy Consumption vs Deadline Misses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mixed-Criticality Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems: Energy Consumption vs Deadline Misses Vincent that using the best compromise, the energy consumption can be reduced up to 17% while the percentage the energy consumption of MC systems. The energy consumption of embedded real-time systems is indeed

  16. Energy Consumption Tools Pack Leandro Fontoura Cupertino, Georges DaCosta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    Energy Consumption Tools Pack Leandro Fontoura Cupertino, Georges DaCosta, Amal Sayah, Jean Consumption Tools Pack 1 / 23 #12;Outline 1 Introduction Motivation Our proposal 2 Energy Consumption Tools Energy Consumption Library Data Acquisition Tool Data Monitoring Tool Energy Profiler 3 Conclusions

  17. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices Matias Bjrling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices Matias Bjørling IT University Abstract Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate consumption (low power

  18. A Parallel Statistical Learning Approach to the Prediction of Building Energy Consumption Based on Large Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Parallel Statistical Learning Approach to the Prediction of Building Energy Consumption Based consumption of buildings based on historical performances is an important approach to achieve energy consumption plays an important role in the total energy consumption of end use. Energy efficiency in building

  19. Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems}@swin.edu.au Abstract--Network induced energy consumption is a significant fraction of all ICT energy consumption. It is shown that using peer-to-peer and naively minimizing the transfer time results in energy consumption

  20. Demonstration Of A Monitoring Lamp To Visualize The Energy Consumption In Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the sources of consumption. Automated monitoring of the electricity consumption in a house is quite a recent or numbers, but simply alert residents that something relevant to their electricity consumption is chang- ingDemonstration Of A Monitoring Lamp To Visualize The Energy Consumption In Houses Christophe Gisler1

  1. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Consumption of Data Centers 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2000 2006 2011 Electricity consumption of US DCs Billion Energy Consumption · Improving efficiency does not promote green energy or guarantee limits on brown

  2. Optimal and Autonomous Incentive-based Energy Consumption Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    consumption scheduling (ECS) devices in smart meters for autonomous demand side management within equipment [3]. Load management, also known as demand side manage- ment [4]­[6], has been practiced since consumption management in buildings: reducing consumption and shifting consumption [2]. The former can be done

  3. Model for electric energy consumption in eastern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Garni, A.Z.; Al-Nassar, Y.N.; Zubair, S.M.; Al-Shehri, A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical energy consumption in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia is modeled as a function of weather data, global solar radiation, population, and gross domestic product per capita. Five years of data have been used to develop the energy consumption model. Variable selection in the regression model is carried out by using the general stepping-regression technique. Model adequacy is determined from a residual analysis technique. Model validation aims to determine if the model will function successfully in its intended operating field. In this regard, new energy consumption data for a sixth year are collected, and the results predicted by the regression model are compared with the new data set. Finally, the sensitivity of the model is examined. It is found that the model is strongly influenced by the ambient temperature.

  4. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch,IntroducingIonic Liquid Pretreatment EERE

  5. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  6. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  7. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  8. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  9. FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Bartoszek

    2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

  10. Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyde, Henry R [University of Delaware; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL; Azuah, Richard T [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Kirichek, Oleg [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Taylor, Jon W. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.

  12. Nodes Placement for reducing Energy Consumption in Multimedia Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    quality of multimedia traffic. Index Terms--Wireless Sensor Networks, Multimedia, Energy Saving, Quality on the energy saving by extending the lifetime of the network up to more than 15% while preserving video qualityNodes Placement for reducing Energy Consumption in Multimedia Transmissions Pasquale Pace Valeria

  13. Evolutionary Tuning of Building Models to Monthly Electrical Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    % of the world's primary energy and contributes 21% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions (DOE Buildings Data Book 2011). The largest sector of energy consumption is the ~119 million buildings in the US which New, PhD Theodore Chandler Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT Building energy models of existing buildings

  14. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ń 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  15. The Impact on Energy Consumption of Daylight Saving Clock Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Simon I.

    The Impact on Energy Consumption of Daylight Saving Clock Changes S. I. Hilla, , F. Desobrya , E. W demonstrating po- tential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain Daylight Savings result from an extension of Daylight Saving Time (DST) over the months currently on Greenwich Mean Time

  16. California Energy and Consumption Projections 2005-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    State NG US NG Imports State Nuclear US Nuclear Imports Biomass Solar Wind Small Hydro 1.0 Quad BTUs 4 Hydro Renewable Energy Biomass Solar Wind Geothermal #12;Model Energy Consumption in Quads Take the 2005 by Source Year 2005 Year 2050 Natural Gas (Heating) Gas/Diesel (Heating/Trans) Hydro (Electricity) Coal

  17. How Efficient Can We Be?: Bounds on Algorithm Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    How Efficient Can We Be?: Bounds on Algorithm Energy Consumption Andrew Gearhart #12;Relation design use feedback to "cotune" compute kernel energy efficiency #12;Previous Work: Communication Lower-optimal" algorithms #12;Communication is energy inefficient! · On-chip/Off-chip gap isn't going to improve much Data

  18. Vending Machine Energy Consumption and VendingMiser Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, J.; Hugghins, J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an effort to decrease the amount of non-critical energy used on the Texas A&M campus, and to assist Dixie Narco in evaluating the efficiency of their vending machines, the Texas A&M Energy Systems Laboratory investigated the power consumption...

  19. annual energy consumption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy consumption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Sample Annual and Monthly Energy...

  20. assess energy consumption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assess energy consumption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Analysis and Assessment...

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    decisions by offering design requirements and establishing building codes. Over the last decade, muchPreliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures By Joe Mellott, Joshua New to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back into the atmosphere. By use

  2. Survey: Techniques for Efficient energy consumption in Mobile Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Survey: Techniques for Efficient energy consumption in Mobile Architectures Sean Maloney University@cs.ucsb.edu March 16th, 2012 Abstract As the world becomes more dependent on mobile technologies, battery life battery life is a delicate balance of give and take between longer battery life and more functionality

  3. Visible Inequality, Status Competition and Conspicuous Consumption: Evidence from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Visible Inequality, Status Competition and Conspicuous Consumption: Evidence from India Punarjit representative micro data from India. I ...nd that a decrease in the level of visible inequality, ceteris paribus in one's social status due to parallel action of others. From a policy perspective, my ...ndings

  4. The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; James F. Wishart

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based upon a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquid radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.

  5. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  6. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  7. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

  8. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  9. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  10. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  11. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  12. Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Timothy

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid crystal phase is a phase of matter between the solid and liquid phase whose flow is characterized by a velocity field and a director field which describes locally the orientation of the liquid crystal. In this ...

  13. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  14. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  15. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  16. Effect of standard of living on energy consumption and the CO{sub 2} greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung-Yee Shu [Hung Kuang Inst. of Nursing and Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Ming-Chin Chang; Shaw, H. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Per capita energy growth patterns were lumped into 6 global regions of similar sociopolitical background, and used to project the rate of growth of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The 6 key global regions specifically considered were: (1) North America (U.S. and Canada) [NA], (2) Middle East (North Africa and Persian Gulf States) [ME], (3) Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe [CISEE], (4) China and other centrally planned Asiatic economies [CPAE], (5) Industrialized Countries (including Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Japan, and South Africa) [IC], (6) Less Developed Countries (including all of South and Central America, Central Africa, and the rest of Asia) [LDC]. LDC population will grow 2.7 times from 50 to 67% of world population from 1990 to 2100. Over the same period, world population will grow from 5.2 to 11.9 billion people, and energy use from 15 to 60 TW. LDC energy use will grow disproportionately faster from 20 to 40%, and that in IC will slow from 30 to 22% of world energy. Data on the gross domestic product (GDP) from the World Bank were used as surrogates for standard of living (SOL) to relate world energy consumption with SOL. Per capita energy consumption varied linearly with per capita GDP for the LDC, but was independent of GDP for IC. The per capita energy consumption was multiplied by the population to project the total world energy consumption. We projected that non-fossil energy sources consisting mostly of nuclear energy will overtake fossil energy consisting mostly of coal derived products in the year 2075. The growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from 6 to 18.2 GtC/a will result in an average global temperature increase of 3{degrees}C due to this source only. However, CO{sub 2} is only about half the problem. When all infrared absorbing gases are considered, an average increase of 5.6 {degrees}C is projected for 2100. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda E. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  18. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of transport used in only of little impact in the studied suburban neighborhoods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work can significant energy savings.

  19. Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

  20. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  2. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  3. Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

  4. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

  5. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  6. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

  7. State energy data report: Consumption estimates, 1960--1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Data Report presents estimates of annual energy consumption at the state and national levels by major economic sector and by principal energy type for 1960 through 1987. Included in the report are documentation describing how the estimates were made for each energy source, sources of all input data, and a summary of changes from the State Energy Data Report published in April 1988.

  8. Reducing Energy Consumption on Process Ovens & Oxidation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worachek, C.

    recovery systems are capable of metals in the heat exchangers along with stresses recovering up to 97% of the energy used in the induced by changing process conditions can oxidation process. Most units on the market severely reduce the life...REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION ON PROCESS OVENS & OXIDATION SYSTEMS Chris Worachek Design Engineer MEGTEC Systems De Pere, WI ABSTRACT With the uncertain cost of energy, optimizing the use of air in process dryers, ovens and air pollution...

  9. Simulation Models to Optimize the Energy Consumption of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burhenne, S.; Jacob, D.

    Page 1 of paper submitted to ICEBO 2008 Berlin SIMULATION MODELS TO OPTIMIZE THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BUILDINGS Sebastian Burhenne Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems Freiburg, Germany Dirk Jacob Fraunhofer...-Institute for Solar Energy Systems Freiburg, Germany ABSTRACT In practice, building operation systems are only adjusted during commissioning. This is done manually and leads to failure-free but often inefficient operation. This work deals...

  10. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

  11. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

  12. Models for estimation of car fuel consumption in urban traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.C.; Akcelik

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes four fuel-consumption models. The models are interrelated and form part of the same modeling framework. A simpler model is derived from a more complicated model keeping the vehicle characteristic such as mass, drag function, and energy efficiency as explicit parameters at all model levels. Because vehicle characteristics are likely to change over time and from country to country, this is a particularly useful model property. For simplicity here, only the instantaneous fuel-consumption model is described in any detail. However, because of the derivation procedure, many of the features and properties of this model are present in the more aggregate models. Easy-to-use functions and graphs are given for the more aggregate models based on a ''default car'' in urban driving conditions. All parameters related to the speed profile and driving environment were calibrated using on-road data collected in Sydney, Australia. Use of the models is illustrated by estimating the fuel consumption for the microtrip.

  13. To appear in: Mobile Networks and Applications 0 (2000) ?{? 1 An Energy-consumption Model for Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To appear in: Mobile Networks and Applications 0 (2000) ?{? 1 An Energy-consumption Model consumption behavior of a mobile ad hoc network. The model was used to examine the energy consumption of two. Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks, routing, energy consumption 1. Introduction Energy consumption

  14. Changing Trends: A Brief History of the US Household Consumption of Energy, Water, Food, Beverages and Tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in energy consumption. Patterns of Consumption--Historic Trends Electricity & Gas We'll start with historicChanging Trends: A Brief History of the US Household Consumption of Energy, Water, Food, Beverages analysis of consumption patterns of different commodities in the U.S. shed light on the consumption

  15. Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

  16. Experimental study of lube oil characteristics in the PCV system and effects on engine oil consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Oscar, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modem automobile engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption on ...

  17. Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the Industry Does and What the Government Can Do Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the...

  18. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Bus Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Bus 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  19. Fact #792: August 12, 2013 Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: August 12, 2013 Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1982 and 2012 Fact 792: August 12, 2013 Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1982 and 2012 In the...

  20. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were used to calculate the energy mix in manufacturing,of China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accuratelyof China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accurately

  1. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  2. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reliance on biomass for rural energy consumption shows thereliance on biomass for rural energy consumption shows theBiomass is the major energy in rural area. For lighting, an

  3. High-Throughput Mode Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; King, Richard C. [PharmaCadence

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and automated spot sampling operation mode for a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP/ESI-MS) system is reported. Prior manual and automated spot sampling methods with this probe relied on a careful, relatively slow alignment of the probe and surface distance (<20 m spacing) to form the probe-to-surface liquid microjunction critical to successful surface sampling. Moreover, sampling multiple spots required retraction of the surface from the probe and a repeat of this careful probe-to-surface distance alignment at the next sampling position. With the method described here, the probe was not positioned as close to the surface, the exact probeto-surface positioning was found to be less critical (spanning distances from about 100-300 m), and this distance was not altered during the sampling of an entire array of sample spots. With the probe positioned within the appropriate distance from the surface, the liquid microjunction was formed by letting the liquid from the sampling end of the probe extend out from the probe to the surface. This was accomplished by reducing the selfaspiration liquid flow rate of the probe to a value less than the volume flow rate pumped into the probe. When the self-aspiration rate of the probe was subsequently increased, analytes on the surface that dissolved at the liquid microjunction were aspirated back into the probe with the liquid that created the liquid microjunction and electrosprayed. Presented here are the basics of this new sampling mode, as well as data that illustrate the potential analytical capabilities of the device to conduct highthroughput quantitative analysis.

  4. Solvatochromic characterization of the liquid phase in liquid-supercritical CO{sub 2} mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, S.P.; Lemert, R.M. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvatochromic dye phenol blue (N,N-dimethylindoaniline) is used to characterize the solvent strength (polarity) of the saturated liquid phase in a series of solvent-carbon dioxide binary mixtures. Data were obtained at 35 and 55 C and at pressures up to {approximately}70 bar. Five solvents were investigated--acetone, cyclohexane, methanol, THF, and toluene. The polarity of the liquid phase decreases significantly with increasing pressure due to the increasing carbon dioxide content of this phase at equilibrium. For example, the polarity of acetone saturated with carbon dioxide at 35 C and {approximately}60 bar is equivalent to the polarity of pure cyclohexane at ambient pressure. The local environment about the dye is significantly richer in the polar liquid component than the bulk composition would indicate. The degree of enrichment reflects concentration effects at low pressure, and both concentration and pressure effects at high pressure where the mixtures are highly compressible. The NRTL model of Renon and Prausnitz is able to predict these local compositions with reasonable accuracy except at CO{sub 2}-rich conditions where compressibility effects are important.

  5. Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize seafood consumption patterns and methyle mercury exposures among

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the central nervous system (Alessandri et al., 2004). At the same time, fish consumption is also the primary

  6. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior patterns in which American households use energy causes wide variations in total residential energy consumption per home,

  7. Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

  8. Poster Abstract: Message Position Modulation for Power Saving and Increased Bandwidth in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to conserve energy and channel us- age, thus reducing the risk of collisions and increasing avail- able the neigh- bors of the base transmit some information essentially with- out energy consumption, i.e. through is generally of no concern. The base station itself usually has much larger storage, processing and energy

  9. PHASE CHANGE LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.

  10. Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

  11. Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-Based Fuel Consumption Model: Modeling Diesel1 and Hybrid Buses2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakha, Hesham A.

    Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-Based Fuel Consumption Model: Modeling Diesel1 and Hybrid Buses2 is to extend the Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-Based9 Fuel Consumption Model (VT-CPFM) to include diesel There are currently very few models for estimating diesel and hybrid bus fuel consumption and2 CO2 emission levels

  12. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , when attributed on a consumption basis, California's per capita emissions are over 25 percent higherThe CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions

  13. Instrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Instrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters James Demmel Andrew to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Instrumenting linear algebra energy consumption via on consumption is still a prevalent and growing problem within the computing sector. To evaluate energy

  14. Experimental Study on the Energy Consumption in IaaS Cloud Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental Study on the Energy Consumption in IaaS Cloud Environments Alexandra Carpen.morin@inria.fr Abstract--Energy consumption has always been a major concern in the design and cost of datacenters the energy consumption of a cloud system, the hardware-component level is one of the most intensively studied

  15. Unit Testing of Energy Consumption of Software Libraries Adel Noureddine1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Unit Testing of Energy Consumption of Software Libraries Adel Noureddine1,2 , Romain Rouvoy1. In this paper, we therefore introduce JalenUnit, a software framework that infers the energy consumption model, and comparing software libraries against their energy consumption. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2

  16. Balancing Energy and Water Consumption in an Urban Desert Environment: A Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Balancing Energy and Water Consumption in an Urban Desert Environment: A Case Study on Phoenix, AZ effect, water scarcity, and energy consumption. The transformation of native landscapes into built to cool homes. Identifying Direct and Indirect Costs of Water and Energy Consumption Study Area Although

  17. Fine-grained Energy Consumption Characterization and Modeling Catherine Mills Olschanowsky, Tajana Rosing, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Fine-grained Energy Consumption Characterization and Modeling Catherine Mills Olschanowsky, Tajana of the applications in the workload affect the energy consumption of the resource. Our experiments confirm that data the performance and energy-efficiency of candidate resources. Predicting the energy consumption of an HPC resource

  18. INFLUENCES OF RAKE RECEIVER/TURBO DECODER PARAMETERS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    INFLUENCES OF RAKE RECEIVER/TURBO DECODER PARAMETERS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND QUALITY Lodewijk T are selected and their influences on the energy consumption and quality are investigated by means power hardware is needed to save energy consumption. Furthermore, an adequate quality of the wireless

  19. Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellia, Marco

    Energy-Aware Networks: Reducing Power Consumption By Switching Off Network Elements Luca% of the worldwide energy consumption, and several initiatives are being put into place to reduce the power power consumption, even without taking into account the energy necessary for equipment cooling [4

  20. An off-line multiprocessor real-time scheduling algorithm to reduce static energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An off-line multiprocessor real-time scheduling algorithm to reduce static energy consumption, France laurent.pautet@telecom-paristech.fr Abstract--Energy consumption of highly reliable real dynamic energy consumption. This paper aims to propose a new off-line schedul- ing algorithm to put