National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquids consumption increases

  1. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  2. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore »immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  3. Efficiency alone as a solution to increasing energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haidorfer, Luke

    2005-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed to determine the effect of efficiency on the total US energy consumption of automobiles and refrigerators. Review of literature shows that there are many different opinions regarding ...

  4. Domestic electricity consumption is con-tinuously increasing and now accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domestic electricity consumption is con- tinuously increasing and now accounts for about one third") enable detailed electricity consumption infor- mation to be captured, processed, and communicated electricity consumption infor- mation in real-time, enabling occupants to better understand their electricity

  5. INCREASED FOOD AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF LACTATING NORTHERN FUR SEALS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nursing females require considerably more energy than do nonnursing females of the same species, age times greater than that observed in nonpregnant, nonlactating adult females, and lactating animals often that adult female sperm whales, Pkyseter macro- cephalus, need to increase their food intake by about 32

  6. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  7. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  8. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  9. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Electricity (million square...

  10. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  11. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  12. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 1" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  13. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 2" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  14. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  15. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Electricity...

  16. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  17. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  18. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  19. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using...

  20. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  1. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of...

  2. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 3" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total...

  3. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of...

  4. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Fuel Oil...

  5. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  6. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Building Size for Sum of Major Fuels for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,"Total Floorspace...

  7. Essays in financial economics : terror, consumption, and investment, currency options and liquidity premium, and purchasing power parity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HajYehia, Samer

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is composed of three chapters, each includes one paper. The first chapter includes a paper that analyses the impact of terror on consumption and investment. This paper provides evidence on how consumers and ...

  8. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  9. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218in a V2O5 BatteryIncreased confinement

  10. The Application of Ultrasonic Energy into Liquid Mediums to Increase Effectiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    could perform such a useful function. High intensity waves perform work through the creation of cavitation. Cavitation is the phenomenon associated with the passage of intense sound waves through a liquid medium. When sound waves pass through... or dust. If the shock waves encounter agglomerates, they will break them up. The energy released by cavitation is in two forms: heat and pressure. Pressures generated by cavitation implosions have been measured to over 15,000 PSI. And temperatures...

  11. Consumption conundrums unravelled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane; Sneath, Ken

    2014-12-17

    revolution’.16 Indeed, some economic historians have been sceptical about the extent to which tastes could drive consumption, arguing instead that improved technology reduced costs so that increased consumption of new items was a passive (and standard... that is entirely consistent with the idea of a systematic sifting of property for it attractiveness and value. Thieves are described as well-equipped and organised, often starting on the top floor of premises and working their way through the building, pausing...

  12. NOAAINMFS Developments Shrimp 1980: Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAAINMFS Developments Shrimp 1980: Consumption Is Up in a Difficult Year Table 1.-Supplles and uses 01 all shrimp, 1974-78 s.ersge, 1979, anil 1980, hesds oil weight. Data are preliminary with the slight increase in landings easily offset the drop in im- ports. Increased supplies went to consumption

  13. Significant Nusselt number increase in microchannels with a segmented flow of two immiscible liquids: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    . For the segmented flow, up to four-fold increase of the Nusselt number was observed compared to pure water flow. Ó] achieved heat fluxes in excess of 10 kW/cm2 with flow boiling in small diameter tubes. However in microchannels as po- tential chemical reactors. Gunther et al. [6] reported the visualiza- tion

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  15. Progressive consumption : strategic sustainable excess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonham, Daniel J. (Daniel Joseph MacLeod)

    2007-01-01

    Trends in the marketplace show that urban dwellers are increasingly supporting locally produced foods. This thesis argues for an architecture that responds to our cultures consumptive behaviors. Addressing the effects of ...

  16. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  17. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  18. Factors of material consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva Díaz, Pamela Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Historic consumption trends for materials have been studied by many researchers, and, in order to identify the main drivers of consumption, special attention has been given to material intensity, which is the consumption ...

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  1. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  2. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic Liquid Processing Increasing sugar yields from diverse biomass feedstock with ionic liquid processing and cultivation of renewable ionic liquids Liberating Sugars from...

  3. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  4. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  5. & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION In the United States hydropower supplies the NAO. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION IN NORWAY AND THE NAO The demand for heating oil in Norway Average Winter Temperature NORWAY kilotonsofoilmillibars°Cmmofrainfall Annual Heating Oil Consumption

  6. Population, Consumption & the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    consumes the 77 trillion barrels of oil energy equivalent per year ­ Fossil fuel consumption (oil, coal12/11/2009 1 Population, Consumption & the Environment Alex de Sherbinin Center for International of carbon in 2001 · The ecological footprint, a composite measure of consumption measured in hectares

  7. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  8. Connected Consumption: The hidden networks of consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, David P.

    In this paper, we present the Connected Consumption Network (CCN) that allows a community of consumers to collaboratively sense the market from a mobile device, enabling more informed financial decisions in geo-local ...

  9. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  10. Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    These studiesprojected electricity consumption EVs and theMPG) and EV electricity consumption (in Kwh per mile).weight of increases. 3.2. Electricity Consumption EVs of To

  11. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  12. Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Applications Behind the Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilevich, Eli

    Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Applications Behind the Scenes Young-Woo Kwon and Eli, an increasing number of perfective maintenance tasks are concerned with optimizing energy consumption. However, optimizing a mobile application to reduce its energy consumption is non-trivial due to the highly volatile

  13. Influences of landscape and lifestyle on home energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Influences of landscape and lifestyle on home energy consumption Cara Nelson & Melissa R. Mc conservation and carbon dioxide emissions reduction. Urban residential energy consumption is a valuable place to increase considerably, therefore, understanding the drivers of home energy consumption should be a priority

  14. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  15. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BENEFITS A Motor Challeng NEW WATER BOOSTER PUMP SYSTEM REDUCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY 80 PERCENT AND INCREASES RELIABILITY Summary Due to major renovations at their Pontiac...

  16. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based on a "disappearance" model. The total U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed in 1994. Per capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 10.0 pounds, a decrease of 0 raised catfish. Consumption of canned fishery products was 4.7 pounds per capita in 1995, an increaseREVIEW PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  17. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  18. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Revision Increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month802 827 788 811882 1,232

  20. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  1. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  2. Water Consumption Footprint and Land Requirements of Large-Scale Alternative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence

  3. & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION In the United States hydropower supplies 12% of the nation's electricity. Hydropower produces more than 90,000 megawatts of electricity, which is enough to meet the needs of 28.3 million consumers. Hydropower accounts for over 90% of all electricity

  4. Understanding environmentally significant consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 Consumer choices can have emissions by 7% through modest policies to encourage more efficient household energy consumption (1 that consumers also misunderstood household energy use (5, 6). Respondents underestimated the amount of energy

  5. MFR PAPER 1012 Increased U.S. fish consumption and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    eaters-perhaps some ne'A ones-but It I IIk.el) that a large num- ber 'Aere already regular consumers

  6. Increasing the Consumption of Whole Grain Foods in School Meals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Cynthia Ann

    2011-08-08

    Current national dietary policy recommends that half, or three, of the six daily servings of grain foods be consumed as whole grains. However, most American children prefer to consume enriched, refined over whole grains. ...

  7. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    addressing a number of questions related to biofuels, food, and gasoline and diesel prices. This is a fact sheet on how biofuels are reducing America's dependence on oil. Fact...

  8. TRANSACTION ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Minimizing Energy Consumption for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    % of commercial electrici- ty consumption; a large data center can consume as much electricity as a city. HighTRANSACTION ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Minimizing Energy Consumption for Frame. As the performance increases, the energy consumption in these systems also increases significantly. Dynamic Voltage

  9. Health Care Buildings: Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption Tables Sum of Major Fuel Consumption by Size and Type of Health Care Building Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) Dollars per...

  10. Fuel consumption prediction methodology for early stages of naval ship design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gheriani, Eran (Eran Y.)

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, fuel consumption has increased in importance as a design parameter in Navy ships. Economical fuel consumption is important not only for operating cost measures but also for ship endurance tankage requirements. ...

  11. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  12. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  13. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  14. METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS IN IMPUTATION, FOOD CONSUMPTION AND OBESITY RESEARCH 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyureghian, Gayaneh

    2010-07-14

    Obesity is a rapidly growing public health threat as well as an economic problem in the United States. The recent changes in eating habits, especially the relative increase of food away from home (FAFH) consumption over ...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in water consumption if the increased natural gas production is used at natural gas combined cycle power water consumption in natural gas production have focused on quantifying the total water used4Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use Adam

  16. Accounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    that computing consumes more than 3% of the global electricity consumption. (ii) We characterize the powerAccounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices Pavel.S.A vinod.namboodiri@wichita.edu ABSTRACT In light of the increased awareness of global energy consumption

  17. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  18. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  19. World energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Historical and projected world energy consumption information is displayed. The information is presented by region and fuel type, and includes a world total. Measurements are in quadrillion Btu. Sources of the information contained in the table are: (1) history--Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1992, DOE/EIA-0219(92); (2) projections--EIA, World Energy Projections System, 1994. Country amounts include an adjustment to account for electricity trade. Regions or country groups are shown as follows: (1) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), US (not including US territories), which are included in other (ECD), Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, other Europe, and other OECD; (2) Eurasia--China, former Soviet Union, eastern Europe; (3) rest of world--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other countries not included in any other group. Fuel types include oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and other. Other includes hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, biomass, wind, and other renewable sources.

  20. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    consumption, increasing imports, supply shortages, and difficulties integrating fully into global energyconsumption has a growing impact on world energy markets, affecting the availability of energy resources and global

  1. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  2. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

    2008-01-01

    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  3. Fact #839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues to Rise despite Declines from the United States and Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 1980 to 2013, overall world petroleum consumption has increased from 63 to 90 million barrels per day. Overall consumption is the total of the individual countries/regions shown below....

  4. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 11.8 pounds, 0.4 pound more than 2003. Fresh in the world. #12;Per Capita Consumption 79 U.S. Consumption Annual per capita consumption of seafood productsPer Capita Consumption 78 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  5. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 11.6 pounds, 0.2 pound less than 2004. Fresh in the world. #12;Per Capita Consumption 74 U.S. Consumption Annual per capita consumption of seafood productsPer Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  6. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4A. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for All Buildings, 2003 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures per Building (thousand kWh) per Square Foot (kWh)...

  9. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  10. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  11. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  12. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of...

  13. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  14. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  15. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table C13. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 All Buildings* Using Electricity Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures Number of...

  16. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  18. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table C22. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace...

  19. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003 All Buildings Using Electricity Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures Number of Buildings...

  1. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  2. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  3. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  4. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings (million square feet)...

  5. New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The New York State Homes and...

  6. The Impact of Using Derived Fuel Consumption Maps to Predict...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Using Derived Fuel Consumption Maps to Predict Fuel Consumption The Impact of Using Derived Fuel Consumption Maps to Predict Fuel Consumption Poster presented at the...

  7. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    dielectric semiconductor-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. 2. Relationships and

  8. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  9. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  11. Monitoring Energy Consumption of Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Fangwei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xuhai; Ma, Chengchuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of new and innovative applications for mobile devices like smartphones, advances in battery technology have not kept pace with rapidly growing energy demands. Thus energy consumption has become a more and more important issue of mobile devices. To meet the requirements of saving energy, it is critical to monitor and analyze the energy consumption of applications on smartphones. For this purpose, we develop a smart energy monitoring system called SEMO for smartphones using Android operating system. It can profile mobile applications with battery usage information, which is vital for both developers and users.

  12. Reducing Petroleum Consumption from Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01

    The United States consumed more petroleum-based liquid fuel per capita than any other OECD- high-income country- 30 percent more than the second-highest country (Canada) and 40 percent more than the third-highest (Luxemburg). ...

  13. Reducing Petroleum Consumption from Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    2012-01-01

    The United States consumes more petroleum-based liquid fuel per capita than any other OECD high-income country—30 percent more than the second-highest country (Canada) and 40 percent more than the third-highest (Luxembourg). ...

  14. Per Capita Consumption The NM.S calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed in 2001. Per capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 11.0 pounds, 0.7 pound more than catfish. Consumption of canned fishery products was 4.3 pounds per capita in 2002, 0.1 pound more than in the world. #12;Per Capita Consumption 86 U.S. Consumption Annual per capita consumption of seafood products

  15. Figure 1:Energy Consumption in USg gy p 1E Roberts, Energy in US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Michael

    ;Figure 32: Alternative Transportation Fuels T k l fTank volume for same energy as 55 liters of gasolineFigure 1:Energy Consumption in USg gy p 2008 1E Roberts, Energy in US Source: www.eia.gov #12;Figure 2: US Liquid Demand by Sector and Fuel 2E Roberts, Energy in US Source: EIA: Annual Energy Outlook

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  17. Energy Consumption Profile for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    ...................................................................................318 12.2.1 Motivations for Energy Harvesting...............................................319 12 the example of a "smart application'' assisted by a decision engine that transforms itself into an "energy317 Chapter 12 Energy Consumption Profile for Energy Harvested WSNs T. V. Prabhakar, R Venkatesha

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  19. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  20. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  1. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  2. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"West South Central","Moun- tain","Pacific","West South Central","Moun-...

  3. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 2003","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  4. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West North...

  5. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone 4","Zone 5","Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone...

  6. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 2003","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  7. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  8. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","New England","Middle...

  9. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West North...

  10. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  11. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  12. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","New England","Middle...

  13. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","Over 100,000...

  14. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone 4","Zone 5","Zone 1","Zone 2","Zone 3","Zone...

  15. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Using Natural Gas (million square feet)",,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 1999","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  16. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btu square foot)" ,"West South Central","Moun- tain","Pacific","West South Central","Moun-...

  17. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"1959 or Before","1960 to 1989","1990 to 1999","1959 or Before","1960 to...

  18. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)",,,,"Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"North- east","Mid- west","South","West","North- east","Mid-...

  19. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    90,1024,3251,1511,"Q",106.6,97.3,100.6 "Office ...",305,325,329,175,3012,2989,3782,2425,101.2,108.8,87,72.1 "Public Assembly ...",93,103,109,64,1048,...

  20. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,60,56.7,43.1,31.4,22.1 "1990 to 1999 ...",69,87,51,93,34,1735,1988,1202,3012,1267,40,43.8,42.4,30.9,26.9 "2000 to 2003 ...",23,40,"Q",28,15,693,1086,7...

  1. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  3. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  4. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  5. Jrgen Richter Consumption and Production: Transformational Pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Robert

    Jürgen Richter Consumption and Production: Transformational Pro- cesses in the Upper Levels as cores (1) Only one example of a "migrating core" was aested: Jürgen Richter Consumption and Production, also imported for bifacial production. Conclusion: Consumption of lithics Unit VI, level 1 delivered

  6. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scitovski, Rudolf

    tolerance interval. Previous research in the area of energy consumption (gas or electricity) revealsMathematical models of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan Vazler , Marijana Zeki-Susac ksabo

  7. Forecasting Hot Water Consumption in Residential Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    and technological advancement in energy-intensive applications are causing fast electric energy consumption growth and consumption of electricity [8], as long as there is no significant correlation between intermittent energyArticle Forecasting Hot Water Consumption in Residential Houses Linas Gelazanskas * and Kelum A

  8. Energy Consumption ESPRIMO E7935 E80+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    Computers is also taking significant effort to reduce the energy consumption in data centres by providingEnergy Consumption ESPRIMO E7935 E80+ White Paper Issue: September 2008 In order to strengthen all important energy information about their products. With the publication of energy consumption

  9. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    separation of production and consumption complicates theto compare production- and consumption-based emissions2008) From production-based to consumption-based national

  10. Residential Energy Consumption Survey Results: Total Energy Consumptio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Energy Consumption Survey Results: Total Energy Consumption, Expenditures, and Intensities (2005) The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a national survey...

  11. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    49 3.3.3. Pre-installation electricity consumption of CSIE. Kahn (2011). Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing:on Electricity Consumption .

  12. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01

    strategies impact on energy consumption in residentialBEHAVIOUR ON HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Nicola Combe 1 ,2 ,nearly 60% of domestic energy consumption and 27% of total

  13. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01

    and Low Power Mode Energy Consumption”, Energy Efficiency inEnergy Consumption ..26 3.1.3. 3D TV Energy Consumption and Efficiency

  14. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the ResidentialFall 2012 Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in theAbstract Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the

  15. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01

    technology. Power consumption of self-emissive displays suchtechnology. Power consumption of self-emissive displays suchof PDP Power Consumption PDPs are self-emissive displays

  16. Modeling overall energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamyabpour, Najmeh

    2011-01-01

    Minimizing the energy consumption of a wireless sensor network application is crucial for effective realization of the intended application in terms of cost, lifetime, and functionality. However, the minimizing task is hardly possible as no overall energy cost function is available for optimization. Optimizing a specific component of the total energy cost does not help in reducing the total energy cost as this reduction may be negated by an increase in the energy consumption of other components of the application. Recently we proposed Hierarchy Energy Driven Architecture as a robust architecture that takes into account all principal energy constituents of wireless sensor network applications. Based on the proposed architecture, this paper presents a single overall model and proposes a feasible formulation to express the overall energy consumption of a generic wireless sensor network application in terms of its energy constituents. The formulation offers a concrete expression for evaluating the performance of ...

  17. Per Capita Consumption The NM.S calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 10.5 pounds, 0.1 pound more than 1999. .resh in the world. Fish and Fishery Products Apparent Consumption Average 1995-1997 (LiveWeightEquivalent) 3,400 3Per Capita Consumption 85 The NM.S calculation of per capita consumption is based

  18. Per Capita Consumption The NM.S calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 10.3 pounds, 0.1 pound more than 2000. .resh of the consumption. PER CAPITA USE. Per capita use is based on the supply of fishery products, both edible and non.S. Consumption Annual per capita consumption of seafood products represents the pounds of edible meat consumed

  19. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumption of fresh and frozen products was 11.8 pounds, 0.3 pound less than in 2007. Fresh and frozen consumption of seafood products represents the pounds of edible meat consumed from domesticallyPer Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  20. Per Capita Consumption The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumption of fresh and frozen products was 12.1 pounds, 0.2 pound less than in 2006. Fresh and frozen consumption of seafood products represents the pounds of edible meat consumed from domesticallyPer Capita Consumption 73 The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  1. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  2. Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    a wide viewing angle. The lower operation voltage helps to reduce power consumption and heat dissipationLiquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1 Young Joo August 2008 A high performance liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane horizontal

  3. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  4. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  5. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  6. A structural analysis of natural gas consumption by income class from 1987 to 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This study had two major objectives: (1) assess and compare changes in natural gas consumption between 1987 and 1993 by income group and (2) assess the potential influence of energy policy on observed changes in natural gas consumption over time and across income groups. This analysis used U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data files and involved both the generation of simple descriptive statistics and the use of multivariate regression analysis. The consumption of natural gas by the groups was studied over a six-year period. The results showed that: (1) natural gas use was substantially higher for the highest income group than for the two lower income groups and (2) natural gas consumption declined for the lowest and middle income quintiles and increased for the highest income quintile between 1987 and 1990; between 1990 and 1993, consumption increased for the lowest and middle income quintile, but remained relatively constant for the highest income quintile. The relative importance of the structural and variable factors in explaining consumption changes between survey periods varies by income group. The analysis provides two major energy policy implications: (1) natural gas intensity has been the highest for the lowest income group, indicating that this group is more vulnerable to sudden changes in demand-indicator variables, in particular weather-related variables, than increase natural gas consumption, and (2) the fall in natural gas intensity between 1987 and 1993 may indicate that energy policy has had some impact on reducing natural gas consumption. 11 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Full Consumption Report.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6Fuel Oil andF2:

  8. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  9. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane or liquefied natural gas could form an extremely flammable mixtureGuidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature

  10. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01

    3. Actual heating and hot water energy consumption of theon-site energy consumption for heating and hot water. The

  11. Sources and characteristics of oil consumption in a spark-ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yilmaz, Ertan, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    (cont.) At low load, oil flowing past by the piston was found to be the major consumption source, while the contributions of oil evaporation and of blowby entrainment became more significant with increasing engine load. ...

  12. Changing Trends: A Brief History of the US Household Consumption of Energy, Water, Food, Beverages and Tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at 215 million Btu. The rate of consumption generally increased until the oil price shocks of the mid and Tobacco Rick Diamond and Mithra Moezzi, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Can an historic. By reviewing the trends in historic consumption we see examples of where policy has led to increases

  13. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

  14. Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Presents a summary of the nation’s renewable energy consumption in 2010 along with detailed historical data on renewable energy consumption by energy source and end-use sector. Data presented also includes renewable energy consumption for electricity generation and for non-electric use by energy source, and net summer capacity and net generation by energy source and state. The report covers the period from 2006 through 2010.

  15. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  16. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appendix I Related EIA Publications on Energy Consumption For information about how to obtain these publi- cations, see the inside cover of this report. Please note that the...

  17. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appendix A How the Survey Was Conducted Introduction The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on a...

  18. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distribution Category UC-950 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992 April 1995 Energy Information Adminstration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S....

  19. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this report were based on monthly billing records submitted by the buildings' energy suppliers. The section, "Annual Consumption and Expenditures" provide a detailed...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2003 Fuel Oil Consumption Fuel Oil Expenditures per Building (gallons) per Square Foot (gallons) per Building (thousand dollars) per Square Foot (dollars) per Gallon...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption Natural Gas Expenditures per Building (thousand cubic feet) per Square Foot (cubic feet) Distribution of Building-Level Intensities (cubic feetsquare foot) 25th...

  2. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heat Consumption District Heat Expenditures per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) per Building (thousand dollars) per Square Foot (dollars) per Thousand...

  3. ,"Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  4. ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; GREENHOUSES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses Rafferty, K. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; GREENHOUSES; AUXILIARY HEATING; CAPITALIZED COST; OPERATING...

  5. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By enabling process heaters to utilize...

  6. ,"Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  7. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  8. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1995...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel oil, and district heat consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings by building characteristics. Previous Page Arrow Separater Bar File Last Modified: January 29,...

  9. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  10. ,"Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  11. ,"Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  12. ,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  13. Convex-Based Thermal Management for 3D MPSoCs Using DVFS and Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Convex-Based Thermal Management for 3D MPSoCs Using DVFS and Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling Francesco multi-processors system on chip (MPSoCs) using microfluidic cooling. The controller uses dynamic volt consumption+cooling power consumption). Our experimental results illustrate that our policy satis- fies

  14. Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Consumption by Plant Type 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Coal Gas Comb. Cycle Nuclear Plant Type Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Consumption by Plant Type Water

  15. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  16. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  17. Effect of oxygen compounds addition on the hydrocracking of coal derived liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Yoshiki; Kodera, Yoichi; Kamo, Tohru; Kushiyama, Satoshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Hydrocarbon Research Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Coal derived liquid from liquefaction, coking and low temperature pyrolysis contains considerable amounts of alkylphenols with alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes. To produce and purify useful chemicals from coal-derived liquid, hydrocracking and hydrotreating of alkylphenol mixture is a very important process. In this study the effects of oxygen compounds such as dimethylcarbonate (DMC) addition on the hydrocracking of alkylphenols and coal-derived liquid were investigated to decrease hydrogen consumption due to the production of water from the removal of OH group. From the hydrocracking of 3,5-dimethylphenol (3,5-DMP) without DMC at 700 C, residence time of 3--10 sec under hydrogen-to-reactant molar ratio of more than 10 using atmospheric flow apparatus with quartz reactor, m-xylene and m-cresol were produced with the production ratio of 1:1.8. However the dehydroxylation to produce m-xylene was decreased by the addition of 10% DMC with the 50% increased production ratio of 1:2.7. These are considered due to the strong interaction between OH group and DMC. Similar reaction behavior was observed in the hydrocracking of 2,5-DMP and the production ratio of (o-cresol + m-cresol)/p-xylene slightly increased from 3.0 to 3.5 by the addition of DMC. On the other hand, the products distribution did not change with and without DMC in the case of 2,6-DMP. This indicates the interaction is hindered by steric effect by the neighboring CH{sub 3} group. The effect of other oxygen compounds on the hydrocracking and the products distribution from the hydrocracking of coal-derived liquids is also discussed.

  18. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  19. Determinants of measured energy consumption in public housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greely, K.M.; Mills, E.; Goldman, C.A.; Ritschard, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a two-part methodology to analyze metered energy use patterns in 91 public housing projects. Their goal was to develop a technique that could be used by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and public housing authorities (PHAs) to derive reasonable energy use guidelines for different segments of the public housing stock. In the authors' approach, actual energy use was first normalized to consumption in a year with ''typical'' weather and then used in a multiple regression analysis of different cross-sectional variables. The regression model explained 80% of the variation in energy use, with the type of account and the management practices of PHAs emerging as important explanatory factors. As compared to previous engineering estimates of public housing consumption, the projects in this study used 8% (per square foot) to 16% (per apartment) less fuel and electricity, but consumption was still significantly higher (43%) than that of privately owned multifamily housing. They conclude that this methodology could be used to help HUD and PHAs increase their understanding of energy use patterns and appropriate consumption levels in public housing.

  20. How do banks respond to increased funding uncertainty?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritz, Robert A.; Walther, Ansgar

    2015-01-10

    liquidity in money markets where lenders are con- cerned about counterparty risk. This creates convex wholesale borrowing costs: Its (expected) wholesale funding rate increases in the amount borrowed, and also in- creases in the degree of liquidity... raises the expected marginal cost of wholesale funds, ?? > 0. Example 1: Counterparty risk and aggregate liquidity shocks This example is based on two basic frictions: (i) potential lenders in money markets are concerned about default...

  1. Design, operation factors can up coker liquid yields. [Delayed liquid cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.D. (Foster Wheeler Corp., Clinton, NJ (US))

    1991-02-04

    Among refineries with delayed cokers, there is now major incentive to maximize coker fresh feed throughput while producing maximum possible liquid yields. There are design features and operating considerations that can increase liquid yields. Maximizing coke throughput is typically a necessity in overall refinery operations because coker capacity to process the bottom of the barrel can be a bottleneck to the entire refinery crude throughput. The incentive for achieving the maximum liquid yield from a coker is: clean distillates, even cracked distillates, are valuable while fuel grade coke is not. Another way to look at a maximum liquid yield coker operation is as a minimum coke yield operation.

  2. Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department theories and mole- cular theories separately. In addition, a theory for liquid crystalline materials has, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada INTRODUCTION Liquid crystallinity refers to an intermediate state

  3. Monitoring Energy Consumption In Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    Monitoring Energy Consumption In Wireless Sensor Networks Matthias Witt, Christoph Weyer to monitor the consump- tion of energy in wireless sensor networks based on video streams com- posed from energy consumption in both standby and active modes is the basis of wireless networks. Energy preserving

  4. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. ©2012 Optical Society

  5. COMPUTER POWER CONSUMPTION BENCHMARKING FOR GREEN COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Way, Thomas

    COMPUTER POWER CONSUMPTION BENCHMARKING FOR GREEN COMPUTING A Thesis Presented to the Faculty Computing Sciences Full Title of Thesis Computer Power Consumption Benchmarking for Green Computing Dr would like to thank my friend and colleague Christopher Continanza for our past collaborations on power

  6. Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks Benigno Zurita Ares://www.ee.kth.se/control Abstract. A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate perfor- mance analysis of minimum energy coding energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE INTRODUCTION Even thoughHPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  8. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tru?c?, M. R. C. Albert, ?. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. F?rca?, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  9. Minimize oil field power consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.; Ennis, P.

    1999-08-01

    Though electric power is a major operating cost of oil production, few producers have systematically evaluated their power consumption for ways to be more efficient. There is significant money to be saved by doing so, and now is a good time to make an evaluation because new power options are at hand. They range from small turbo generators that can run on casing head gas and power one or two lift pumps, to rebuilt major turbines and ram-jet powered generators that can be set in a multi-well field and deliver power at bargain prices. Power industry deregulation is also underway. Opportunities for more advantageous power contracts from competitive sources are not far off. This two-part series covers power efficiency and power options. This article reviews steps you can take to evaluate the efficiency of your power use and go about improving it. Part 2 will discuss opportunities for use of distributed power and changes you can expect from decentralized power.

  10. Simulations of liquid ribidium expanded to the critical density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M; Yang, L H; Pilgrim, W

    2006-05-16

    Quantum molecular dynamic simulations were used to examine the change in atomic and electronic structure in liquid rubidium along its liquid-vapor coexistence curve. Starting from the liquid at the triple point, with increasing expansion we observe a continuous increase in the electron localization leading to ion clustering near the metal-nonmetal transition at about twice the critical density, in agreement with electrical measurements, and to the presence of dimers near and below the critical density.

  11. Comparison of Two Statistical Approaches to Detect Abnormal Building Energy Consumption with Simulation Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, G.; Claridge, D.

    2012-01-01

    :?How?to?keep?the?optimal?building?energy? performance?after?Cx? ? Solution:?Whole?building?fault?detection? ? A?process?of?identifying?abnormal?energy?consumption ? Alert?operators?early?after?the?onset?of?significant? increases/decreases?in?consumption 2 Paper Model Fault Detection Dodier and...?Kreider (1999) Neural?network |Energy consumption index| > 1 Seem (2007) Historical measurement Outliers identification Lee and Claridge (2007) Calibrated simulation model (ASHRAE SEAP) Visual?comparison?of?E_Meas and?E_Sim Curtin (2007): ABCAT Calibrated...

  12. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  13. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  14. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  15. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  16. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  17. Applications of liquid cathode electrochemistry towards the nuclear industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brockie, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Projections of the World Energy Council indicate a significant increase in global energy consumption in the medium and long term due to a growing world population and rising prosperity whilst global fossil fuel reserves ...

  18. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  19. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  20. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  1. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  2. Colloidal Particles at Chiral Liquid Crystal Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne Claire Pawsey; Juho Lintuvuori

    2014-03-19

    Colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two fluids can form a wide range of different structures. Replacing one of the fluid with a liquid crystal increases the complexity of interactions and results in a greater range of possible structures. New behaviour emerges when colloidal particles interact with defects in the liquid crystal phases. Here we discuss the templating of colloids at a cholesteric isotropic interface.

  3. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavousian, A; Rajagopal, R; Fischer, M

    2013-06-15

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    % of the nation's total electricity consumption. Unfortunately, due to inefficient energy consumption patternSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang of Software, TNLIST, Tsinghua University Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University

  5. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01

    of LCD TVs to global energy consumption due to theoverall household or global energy consumption is uncertainFigure ES-3. Global TV Energy Consumption by Display Type in

  6. Research on Building Energy Consumption Situation in Shanghai 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, X.; Tan, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the present situation of building energy consumption in Shanghai and points out the problems of insufficient energy consumption statistics based on the survey data. We analyze the relationships of energy consumption between...

  7. Communities of Pottery Production and Consumption on the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia, 200 BC-300 AD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roddick, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    worlds: ceramic production and consumption in Banda, Ghanaceramic economies: production and consumption of householdceramic economies: production and consumption of household

  8. Risk and risk reduction involving arginine intake and meat consumption in colorectal tumorigenesis and survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    food consumption: Food consumption was self-reported via aself-reported meat (as a surrogate for arginine) consumption.

  9. Energy consumption metrics of MIT buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Justin David

    2010-01-01

    With world energy demand on the rise and greenhouse gas levels breaking new records each year, lowering energy consumption and improving energy efficiency has become vital. MIT, in a mission to help improve the global ...

  10. GIS-based energy consumption mapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balta, Chrysi

    2014-11-27

    This project aims to provide a methodology to map energy consumption of the housing stock at a city level and visualise and evaluate different retrofitting scenarios. It is based on an engineering, bottom-up approach. It ...

  11. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the...

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure R1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) the number of U.S. households, 2) the average size of those housing units, 3) residential source energy consumption, 4...

  13. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  14. Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingsheng

    1992-01-01

    consumption, showed that results from earlier steady-state measurements can be approximately applied to dynamic conditions when solar radiation is not present. However, this study has shown for the first time that IHEE is strongly dependent on air flow...

  15. Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Projects Reduce Energy Consumption Eric Niemeyer, Operations Superintendent Drilling Specialties Company A division of Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP ESL-IE-14-05-31 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... of the paper “Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption” by Bruce Murray and Allison Myers ESL-IE-14-05-31 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Conroe, TX Facility ESL...

  16. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  17. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  18. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles...

  19. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency Below is...

  20. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  1. Fact #749: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption for Transportation by State, 2010 Fact 749: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption for Transportation by...

  2. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  3. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Part 1. Energy Consumption Data Tables Total Energy Intensity Intensity by Energy Source Background: Site and Primary Energy Trends in Energy Consumption and Energy Sources Part...

  4. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  5. Fact #839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    39: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption Continues to Rise despite Declines from the United States and Europe Fact 839: September 22, 2014 World Petroleum Consumption...

  6. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine...

  7. Fact #704: December 5, 2011 Fuel Consumption Standards for New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thereafter. Fuel Consumption Target Standards for Gasoline Heavy Pickups and Vans, 2014-2018 Graph showing fuel consumption target standards for gasoline heavy pickups and...

  8. Annual Coal Consumption by Country - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Annual Coal Consumption by Country Total annual coal consumption by country from 1980 to 2012 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Downloaded from the Energy Information Administration...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  10. Clean coal preparation using the Liquids From Coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klugh, D.M.; Marquardt, M.M.; Hoften, S.A. van [SGI International, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With an abundance of coal located in the Pacific Rim region, many economies offer excellent opportunities for the application of clean coal technologies. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Mild Gasification Process is a clean coal technology that can greatly enhance both the economical and environmental use of coal in this area. Indonesia, with its large population and emerging industrial infrastructure, has exhibited one of the fastest growth rates of electrical power consumption in Asia. This paper demonstrates the economic and environmental advantages of the LFC Process as it applies to coals in the Pacific Rim. These advantages are assessed from the results of a technical feasibility study of coal from the Tanjung Enim Region of Indonesia. While Tanjung Enim provides an example of added value and increased lifetime of an existing resource with some environmental benefits, other examples illustrate the excellent opportunity for upgrading coals for export into the Pacific Rim Steaming Coal Trade. These upgraded coals are expected to be very competitive in cost and are expected to be environmentally attractive.

  11. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  12. Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity consumption in the tertiary sector in the EU is still increasing and a further increase is expected of more than 2 % per year during the next 15 years. This sector includes companies and institutions of public and private services...

  13. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  14. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  15. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  16. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  17. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  18. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  19. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  20. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  1. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  3. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  4. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  5. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  6. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    gross world product, E is global energy consumption, Authorglobal consumption-based CO 2 emissions inventory and calcula- tions of associated consumption-based energyenergy consumption, and combustion-based CO 2 emissions of each region sector were all taken from Version 7 of the Global

  7. Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

  8. Microsoft Word - Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on darkMicroorganismsnowReportJ.NextWater Vapor ContinuumFor

  9. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to Congress MoreHyd rog enOffice|DOE and| Department of

  10. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007TrafficDepartmentinofDNV KEMA| Department

  11. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  12. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  13. Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    October 2005. [1] We examine liquid water paths (LWPs) derived from ship-based microwave radiometer to microwave absorption model differences are 10­25 g mÀ2 , increasing with LWP. The most recent models produce cycle, through the longwave cloud top radiative cooling and liquid water's ability to absorb solar

  14. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  15. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  16. Trends in energy use in commercial buildings -- Sixteen years of EIA's commercial buildings energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Swenson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects basic statistical information on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of commercial buildings in the US. The first CBECS was conducted in 1979 and the most recent was completed in 1995. Over that period, the number of commercial bindings and total amount of floorspace increased, total consumption remained flat, and total energy intensity declined. By 1995, there were 4.6 million commercial buildings and 58.8 billion square feet of floorspace. The buildings consumed a total of 5.3 quadrillion Btu (site energy), with a total intensity of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity consumption exceeded natural gas consumption (2.6 quadrillion and 1.9 quadrillion Btu, respectively). In 1995, the two major users of energy were space heating (1.7 quadrillion Btu) and lighting (1.2 quadrillion Btu). Over the period 1979 to 1995, natural gas intensity declined from 71.4 thousand to 51.0 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity intensity did not show a similar decline (44.2 thousand Btu per square foot in 1979 and 45.7 thousand Btu per square foot in 1995). Two types of commercial buildings, office buildings and mercantile and service buildings, were the largest consumers of energy in 1995 (2.0 quadrillion Btu, 38% of total consumption). Three building types, health care, food service, and food sales, had significantly higher energy intensities. Buildings constructed since 1970 accounted for half of total consumption and a majority (59%) of total electricity consumption.

  17. Empowering Developers to Estimate App Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    are not even aware of the amount of energy their app consumes un- der a typical usage pattern. While they couldEmpowering Developers to Estimate App Energy Consumption Radhika Mittal , Aman Kansal , Ranveer on mobile devices. However, it is difficult for app developers to mea- sure the energy used by their apps

  18. Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    processing unit (CPU) processing power and capacity of mass storage devices doubles every 18 months. Such growth in both processing and storage capabilities fuels the production of ever more powerful portableEnergy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1

  19. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Terahertz Band Nanonetworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigle, Michele

    1 Optimizing Energy Consumption in Terahertz Band Nanonetworks Shahram Mohrehkesh, IEEE Student the maximum utilization of harvested energy in perpetual wireless nanonetworks, where nanonodes communicate of energy. Compounding the problem, the arrival of energy is not constant, but follows a stochastic process

  20. CONSUMPTION ORIENTED FREE CAPITALISM Qiudong Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quidong

    CONSUMPTION ORIENTED FREE CAPITALISM Qiudong Wang The following pages are divided into two parts time-tested means of material production for subsistence. Life is a game of self-preservation in which, the first principle of individual human behavior is the principle of self-interest. Individuals, however

  1. Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigo, Damiano

    Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures GARP Seminar, London, Nov://www.capco.com/capco-insights -- Joint work with Claudio Nordio Prof. D. Brigo (Imperial College and Capco) Risk Management under Management under Liquidity Risk GARP Seminar London 2 / 60 #12;Introduction Liquidity in Risk Measurement

  2. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids Lease Condensate, ProvedShale ProvedConsumption by End

  3. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids Lease Condensate, ProvedShaleUndergroundCrude Oil +Consumption

  4. ,"Montana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids LeaseAnnual",2014Wellhead PriceConsumption by End

  5. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -LiquidsAnnual",2014 ,"ReleaseAssociated-DissolvedConsumption

  6. ,"New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 ©Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseLiquids Lease Condensate,CoalbedConsumption by End

  7. Effective Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Liquid Alloy Electrowetting Kamran Mohseni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Kamran

    Effective Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Liquid Alloy Electrowetting Kamran Mohseni of a cooling system can be enhanced significantly, (ii) Electrowetting is an efficient, low power consumption a viable cooling strategy to achieve the most important objectives of electronic cooling; i.e. minimization

  8. Evaluation of coal liquids in a single cylinder direct-injection, stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, R.J.; Freeman, L.E.; Harrington, J.A.; Chui, G.K.; Tallent, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Indicated specific energy consumption and exhaust emissions were measured for three coal-derived liquids in a direct injection, stratified-charge (PROCO) engine. The three fuels were obtained from different coal refining processes. One of the fuels met current gasoline specifications while the other two had volatilities somewhat below the specification and were more typical of some current gasoline blending components. 6 refs.

  9. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  10. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  11. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudgeon, R. Greg

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

  12. Fractons and Luttinger liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-10-05

    We consider the concept of fractons as particles or quasiparticles which obey a specific fractal statistics in connection with a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid theory. We obtain a dual statistics parameter ${\\tilde{\

  13. Accurate measure by weight of liquids in industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.R.

    1992-12-12

    This research's focus was to build a prototype of a computerized liquid dispensing system. This liquid metering system is based on the concept of altering the representative volume to account for temperature changes in the liquid to be dispensed. This is actualized by using a measuring tank and a temperature compensating displacement plunger. By constantly monitoring the temperature of the liquid, the plunger can be used to increase or decrease the specified volume to more accurately dispense liquid with a specified mass. In order to put the device being developed into proper engineering perspective, an extensive literature review was undertaken on all areas of industrial metering of liquids with an emphasis on gravimetric methods.

  14. Accurate measure by weight of liquids in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.R.

    1992-12-12

    This research`s focus was to build a prototype of a computerized liquid dispensing system. This liquid metering system is based on the concept of altering the representative volume to account for temperature changes in the liquid to be dispensed. This is actualized by using a measuring tank and a temperature compensating displacement plunger. By constantly monitoring the temperature of the liquid, the plunger can be used to increase or decrease the specified volume to more accurately dispense liquid with a specified mass. In order to put the device being developed into proper engineering perspective, an extensive literature review was undertaken on all areas of industrial metering of liquids with an emphasis on gravimetric methods.

  15. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  16. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  17. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  18. Does Deinstitutionalization Increase Suicide?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jangho; Bruckner, Tim A

    2009-01-01

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Does Deinstitutionalization IncreaseHowever, the literature does not support this notion ofsupply. If privatization does not influence the availability

  19. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  20. Instrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    and cooling [17]. By increasing the energy efficiency of algorithms, both costs can be reduced. On the otherInstrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters James Demmel Andrew Gearhart Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report

  1. Energy consumption series: Lighting in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-11

    Lighting represents a substantial fraction of commercial electricity consumption. A wide range of initiatives in the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Energy Strategy have focused on commercial lighting as a potential source of energy conservation. This report provides a statistical profile of commercial lighting, to examine the potential for lighting energy conservation in commercial buildings. The principal conclusion from this analysis is that energy use for lighting could be reduced by as much as a factor of four using currently available technology. The analysis is based primarily on the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 1986 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The more recent 1989 survey had less detail on lighting, for budget reasons. While changes have occurred in the commercial building stock since 1986, the relationships identified by this analysis are expected to remain generally valid. In addition, the analytic approach developed here can be applied to the data that will be collected in the 1992 CBECS.

  2. Power Consumption Characterization of a Graphics Processing Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    Power Consumption Characterization of a Graphics Processing Unit A Thesis in STS 402 Presented.....................................................................................................................VI CHAPTER ONE: THE NEED FOR A POWER CHARACTERIZATION............... 1 HISTORY OF GRAPHICS PROCESSORS .......................................................... 1 ENERGY AMBIGUITY OF MODERN GRAPHICS PROCESSORS ................. 2 POWER CONSUMPTION

  3. The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

  4. Community Currencies: A New Tool for Sustainable Consumption?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), School of Environmental Sciences are discussed. Keywords: sustainable consumption, community currencies, institutions, environmental governance the environmental impacts of consumption (DEFRA, 2003). While new international environmental governance

  5. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING...

  6. The individual contribution of automotive components to vehicle fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Parhys L

    2011-01-01

    Fuel consumption has grown to become a major point of interest as oil reserves are depleted. The purpose of this study is to determine the key components that cause variation in the instantaneous fuel consumption of vehicles ...

  7. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building Liping Wang, Paul Mathew, Xiufeng Pang Environmental Energy Technologies Division between predicted and actual building energy consumption can be attributed to uncertainties introduced

  8. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  9. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  10. Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martína of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract In this work we address the water consumption

  11. Constant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    ;48 Frederic Y. M. Wan resources which are essential to the production of consumption goods. To those concernedConstant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources* By Frederic Y's criterion of maximum sustainable consumption rate, previously formulated as a minimum

  12. SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION, THE NEW ECONOMICS AND LOCAL ORGANIC FOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    as a practical means of making the desired changes to conventional production and consumption systems. This paper (comprising production, marketing, distribution, retail and consumption in social and cultural context) which mediate between and link `a particular pattern of production with a particular pattern of consumption

  13. Sustainable Consumption and the New Economics: Exploring an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    ), and in 2003 the UK Government announced its strategy for sustainable consumption and production ­ definedSustainable Consumption and the New Economics: Exploring an Alternative Approach by Gill Seyfang CSERGE Working Paper ECM 07-05 #12;Sustainable Consumption and the New Economics: Exploring

  14. Forecasting Hot Water Consumption in Dwellings Using Artifitial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    electricity consumption in time. This paper investigates the ability on Artificial Neural Networks to predict shift electric energy. Keywords--Hot Water Consumption; Forecasting; Artifitial Neural Networks; SmartForecasting Hot Water Consumption in Dwellings Using Artifitial Neural Networks Linas Gelazanskas

  15. Getting to Green: Understanding Resource Consumption in the Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grinter, Rebecca Elizabeth

    householders currently manage their consumption of natural gas, electricity and water, what their frustrationsGetting to Green: Understanding Resource Consumption in the Home Marshini Chetty, David Tran managing their domestic resource consumption. Yet, the question of what tools Ubicomp researchers can

  16. Social Networking Reduces Peak Power Consumption in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    in buildings represents approximately 74% of the nation's electricity consumption [1]. However, electricity the peak power consumption of schedulable jobs of electrical appliances of users under de- lay requirements1 Social Networking Reduces Peak Power Consumption in Smart Grid Qiuyuan Huang, Xin Li, Jing Zhao

  17. Energy Consumption in Coded Queues for Wireless Information Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Energy Consumption in Coded Queues for Wireless Information Exchange Jasper Goseling, Richard J customers. We use this relation to ob- tain bounds on the energy consumption in a wireless information. In this work we will analyze the energy consumption of coded wireless networks under the scenario that the ar

  18. On the Interplay of Parallelization, Program Performance, and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarano, Vittorio

    On the Interplay of Parallelization, Program Performance, and Energy Consumption Sangyeun Cho to either minimize the total energy consumption or minimize the energy-delay product. The impact of static through parallel execution of applications, suppressing the power and energy consumption remains an even

  19. Optimizing Communication Energy Consumption in Perpetual Wireless Nanosensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigle, Michele

    Optimizing Communication Energy Consumption in Perpetual Wireless Nanosensor Networks Shahram}@cs.odu.edu Abstract--This paper investigates the effect of various param- eters of energy consumption. Finding the optimum combination of parameters to minimize energy consumption while satisfying the Qo

  20. Home, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Home, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption James Pierce1 in the home are performed without conscious consideration of energy consumption but rather are unconscious. Put another way, energy consumption can be characterized as "the routine accomplishment of what people

  1. Minimizing Energy Consumption in Body Sensor Networks via Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovendran, Radha

    Minimizing Energy Consumption in Body Sensor Networks via Convex Optimization Sidharth Nabar energy consumption while limiting the latency in data transfer. In this paper, we focus on polling energy consumption and latency. We show that this problem can be posed as a geometric program, which

  2. Automated Analysis of Performance and Energy Consumption for Cloud Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jean-Guy

    Automated Analysis of Performance and Energy Consumption for Cloud Applications Feifei Chen, John providers is thus to develop resource provisioning and management solutions at minimum energy consumption system performance and energy consumption patterns in complex cloud systems is imperative to achieve

  3. On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadok, Erez

    On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software Appears in the proceedings of the 4th,grosu,psehgal,sas,stoller,ezk}@cs.stonybrook.edu ABSTRACT Models of energy consumption and performance are necessary to understand and identify system. This paper considers the energy consumption and performance of servers running a relatively simple file

  4. Energy Consumption Characteriation of Heterogeneous Servers School of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    Energy Consumption Characteriation of Heterogeneous Servers Xiao Zhang School of Computer Science Machine between servers to save energy. An accurate energy consumption model is the basic of energy management. Most past studies show that energy consumption has linear relation with resource utilization. We

  5. The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilevich, Eli

    The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption Young-Woo Kwon of their energy consumption patterns. By varying the abstractions with the rest of the functionality fixed, we measure and analyze the impact of distributed programming abstractions on application energy consumption

  6. On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Radu

    On the Energy Consumption and Performance of Systems Software Zhichao Li, Radu Grosu, Priya Sehgal,grosu,psehgal,sas,stoller,ezk}@cs.stonybrook.edu Abstract Models of energy consumption and performance are necessary to understand and identify system consid- ers the energy consumption and performance of servers running a relatively simple file

  7. Power Consumption Prediction and Power-Aware Packing in Consolidated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    prediction and enforcement of appropriate limits on power consumption--power budgets--within the data center-term energy consumption within that level and 2) a sustained budget to capture any restrictions on sustained as the well-being of our environ- ment. Trends from such platforms suggest that the power consumption in data

  8. Experimental Measurements of the Power Consumption for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Javier

    consumption. Therefore, in order to give some recommendations to de- velopers and optimize the energy spent of the energy consumption should be performed for the most common operations in a sensor node. This knowledge common operations: (i) CPU change state and (ii) data transfer radio. CPU change state. The consumption

  9. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  10. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    of the impacts of oil production and consumption. The reviewimpacts of oil production and consumption conclude theincreased oil production and consumption. But how well do

  11. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    estimates of gas and electricity consumption were preparedestimates the gas and electricity consumption in a typicalthat lacked electricity consumption data were discarded for

  12. Household activities through various lenses: crossing surveys, diaries and electric consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand-Daubin, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    comparison between electricity consumption and behavioralU.S. residential electricity consumption” Energy Policy, 42(of the residential electricity consumption. ” Energy Policy,

  13. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    accounting for 79% of non-biomass energy consumption inreliance on biomass for rural energy consumption shows thereliance on biomass for rural energy consumption shows the

  14. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China, 2008,The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Human andfor Residential Energy Consumption in China Nan Zhou,

  15. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    2001). "Residential Energy Consumption Survey." 2006, fromCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey." from http://Scale window-related energy consumption to account for new

  16. The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golob, Thomas F.; Brownstone, David

    2005-01-01

    Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption Table 2 Housing Unitsresidential vehicular energy consumption is graphed as aon Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption with vehicles, but

  17. Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    comparison o f energy consumption i n housing (1998) (Trends i n household energy consumption (Jyukankyo Research4) Average (N=2976) Energy consumption [GJ / household-year

  18. ResPoNSe: modeling the wide variability of residential energy consumption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese; Burke, William; Auslander, David

    2010-01-01

    affect appliance energy consumption. For example, differentStates, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: HousingModeling of End-Use Energy Consumption in the Residential

  19. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  20. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    the total annual energy consumption. The behavior patternsin total residential energy consumption per home, even whenthe variability in energy consumption can vary by factors of

  1. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Human andof Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China, 2008,and Policy of Uniti Energy Consumption (kWh/yr) Ordinary

  2. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    to slow the growth of energy consumption in buildings. Thisimprovement on energy consumption in commercial buildings inCommercial Building Energy Consumption in China The service

  3. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid:A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  4. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01

    on Game- Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for theIn this paper, energy consumption scheduling based on non-Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-

  5. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China’sof China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accuratelyof China’s total energy consumption, while others estimate

  6. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    Loads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond InfiltrationLoads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond InfiltrationLoads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond Infiltration

  7. Reinventing the self : the construction and consumption of identity within transatlantic modernism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Donald Edward

    2011-01-01

    the Self: The Construction and Consumption of Identitythe Self: The Construction and Consumption of Identityera in changing forms of consumption and self- expression,

  8. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION . . . . . . .and the location of oil consumption necessitates that crudere?neries. VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION The combustion of

  9. Local fish consumption and serum PCB concentrations among Mohawk men at Akwesasne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, E.F.; Deres, D.A.; Hwang, S.A.; Bush, B.; Yang, B. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)] [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Tarbell, A.; Jacobs, A. [Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (United States). Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment] [Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (United States). Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment

    1999-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess local fish consumption patterns and their relationship to concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of Mohawk men residing near three hazardous waste sites. From 1992 to 1995, 139 men were interviewed and donated a 20-ml venous blood sample. The results indicated that the men ate a mean of 21.2 local fish meals during the past year, compared with annual means of 27.7 meals 1--2 years before and 88.6 meals more than 2 years before. This change is probably a consequence of advisories issued against the consumption of local fish, since 97% of the mean were aware of the advisories and two-third had changed their behavior as a result. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum PCB levels increased with age and local fish consumption. The data suggest that local fish consumption has contributed to body burdens in this population and that the advisories have been effective in modifying local fish consumption habits.

  10. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  11. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  12. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines....

  13. User-needs study for the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. [Energy Consumption Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) that is conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the primary source of energy data for commercial buildings in the United States. The survey began in 1979 and has subsequently been conducted in 1983, 1986, and 1989. The next survey will cover energy consumption during the year 1992. The building characteristic data will be collected between August 1992 and early December 1992. Requests for energy consumption data are mailed to the energy suppliers in January 1993, with data due by March 1993. Before each survey is sent into the field, the data users' needs are thoroughly assessed. The purpose of this report is to document the findings of that user-needs assessment for the 1992 survey.

  14. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  15. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  16. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

  17. Commercial Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 Consumption and

  18. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption Survey-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tables 0. Consumption and

  19. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption Survey-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tables 0. Consumption and2003

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption Survey-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tables 0. Consumption

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption Survey-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tables 0. Consumption2003

  2. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption Survey-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tables 0. Consumption20032003

  3. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption Survey (CBECS)aboutSurvey

  4. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Manufacturing Energy Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption Survey

  5. Energy Information Administration - Transportation Energy Consumption by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption SurveyVehicles Energy

  6. Energy Preview: Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6 1 April 2006January5t 7

  7. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Computing Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costantino S. Yannoni; Mark H. Sherwood; Lieven M. K. Vandersypen; Dolores C. Miller; Mark G. Kubinec; Isaac L. Chuang

    1999-12-12

    Liquid crystals offer several advantages as solvents for molecules used for nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing (NMRQC). The dipolar coupling between nuclear spins manifest in the NMR spectra of molecules oriented by a liquid crystal permits a significant increase in clock frequency, while short spin-lattice relaxation times permit fast recycling of algorithms, and save time in calibration and signal-enhancement experiments. Furthermore, the use of liquid crystal solvents offers scalability in the form of an expanded library of spin-bearing molecules suitable for NMRQC. These ideas are demonstrated with the successful execution of a 2-qubit Grover search using a molecule ($^{13}$C$^{1}$HCl$_3$) oriented in a liquid crystal and a clock speed eight times greater than in an isotropic solvent. Perhaps more importantly, five times as many logic operations can be executed within the coherence time using the liquid crystal solvent.

  11. California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724perSalesFuel ConsumptionFuelLiquids, Proved

  12. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012 2013(MillionYear Jan FebFuel ConsumptionLiquids,

  13. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  14. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  15. Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    on Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacementon Primary Energy Consumption and Petroleum Displacementprimary energy savings impacts and petroleum displacement

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oilpropanepropane price increases

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oilpropanepropane price increases4,

  18. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propane prices increase The

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propane prices increase

  20. Diesel prices increase nationally

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural Gas UsageDiesel prices increase nationally The

  1. Diesel prices slightly increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural Gas UsageDiesel prices increaseDieselDieselDiesel

  2. Experiences on the Implementation of the 'Energy Balance' Methodology as a Data Quality Control Tool: Application to the Building Energy Consumption of a Large University Campus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Sakurai, Y.; Masuda, H.; Feinauer, D.; Liu, J.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H.

    2007-01-01

    As the energy costs have been increasing the more energy efficient measures have been promoted in the buildings sector, the reliability of energy consumption data has been attracting significant attention. For example, the reliability...

  3. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

  4. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

  5. ,"Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"CoalbedGas, WetPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquids Lease

  6. ,"Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"CoalbedGas, WetPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquids

  7. A Xenon Condenser with a Remote Liquid Storage Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Slutsky; Y. -R. Yen; H. Breuer; A. Dobi; C. Hall; T. Langford; D. S. Leonard; L. J. Kaufman; V. Strickland; N. Voskanian

    2009-07-25

    We describe the design and operation of a system for xenon liquefaction in which the condenser is separated from the liquid storage vessel. The condenser is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler, while the vessel is cooled only by the liquid xenon itself. This arrangement facilitates liquid particle detector research by allowing easy access to the upper and lower flanges of the vessel. We find that an external xenon gas pump is useful for increasing the rate at which cooling power is delivered to the vessel, and we present measurements of the power and efficiency of the apparatus.

  8. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid Crystal Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid resolution for Retina display, low power consumption for long battery life, pressure resistance for touch charging problem can be resolved by using an oxide TFT with high mobility [9]. However, the slow LC

  9. RHIC The Perfect Liquid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

  10. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J.

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  11. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  12. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qian; Goncalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas

  13. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ? 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  14. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore »1.31 ± 0.59 % after ? 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  15. Measurement of Radiation Damage of Water-based Liquid Scintillator and Liquid Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignell, Lindsey J; Hans, Sunej; Jaffe, David E; Rosero, Richard; Vigdor, Steven; Viren, Brett; Worcester, Elizabeth; Yeh, Minfang; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of $5\\%$ scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of $1.74 \\pm 0.55 \\%$ and $1.31 \\pm 0.59 \\%$ after $\\approx$ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Whilst some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical conte...

  16. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    al. (2000). "Energy efficiency and consumption – the reboundinnovation, energy efficient design and the rebound effect."of an energy service, the greater the rebound effect (

  17. Fact #706: December 19, 2011 Vocational Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recently published final fuel consumption standards for heavy vehicles called "vocational" vehicles. A vocational vehicle is generally a single...

  18. SEP Request for Approval Form 7 - Other Situations for Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7Other-Situations-for-Consumption-Adjustment.docx More Documents & Publications SEP Request for Approval Form 6 - Non-Routine Adjustments SEP Request for Approval Form 5 - Model...

  19. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  20. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  1. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban...

  2. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    expenditure on energy. PV adoption differs conceptually fromeffect around residential PV adoption, and if so what arein consumption changes after PV adoption. Figure 5.5 shows

  3. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the energy consumed (elsewhere) to generate and transmit the electricity supplied to the building (see Site and Primary Energy for additional information). The primary consumption...

  4. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Energy Sources Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ** estimates adjusted to match the 1995 CBECS definition of target population Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Table 2....

  5. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document...

  6. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

  7. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Electric Solar Energy Industries Association Self Generationsolar-electric generation systems and its impacts on energyenergy consumption changes with the installation of a solar electric generation

  8. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades: All Topics: Biomass, Wind Energy, Hydropower, Solar, Geothermal Owner: The NEED Project Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and...

  9. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01

    world data from buildings, observational data from users and energyworld data indicates that the houses heated during the night had higher annual heat energy consumption. The data

  10. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  11. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  12. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  13. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release...

  14. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  15. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Report to Congress This report presents the detailed results, data, and analytical...

  16. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Documentation Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption, Technical Documentation This report presents the detailed results, data, and...

  17. Fact #840: September 29, 2014 World Renewable Electricity Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption is Growing Electricity generated from sources that are renewable - hydroelectric power, bio-fuels, geothermal, solar, wind, wood, waste - have grown 150% from 1980 to...

  18. The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size...

  19. ELECTR-6198; No of Pages 22 Please cite this article in press as: Sandiford, M.., et al., Five Years of Declining Annual Consumption of Grid-Supplied Electricity in Eastern Australia: Causes and Consequences. Electr. J. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Years of Declining Annual Consumption of Grid-Supplied Electricity in Eastern Australia: Causes Consumption of Grid-Supplied Electricity in Eastern Australia: Causes and Consequences For decades, consumption of grid-supplied electricity increased in line with a growing economy. In the five years since

  20. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  1. ,"Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids LeaseAnnual",2014Wellhead PriceConsumption byLiquids Lease

  2. ,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids LeaseAnnual",2014Wellhead PriceConsumption byLiquids

  3. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  4. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  5. ATP consumption of eukaryotic flagella measured at a single-cell level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel T. N. Chen; Michael Heymann; Seth Fraden; Daniela Nicastro; Zvonimir Dogic

    2015-11-05

    The motility of cilia and flagella is driven by thousands of dynein motors that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite decades of genetic, biochemical, structural and biophysical studies, some aspects of ciliary motility remain elusive, such as the regulation of beating patterns and the energetic efficiency of these nanomachines. Here, we introduce an experimental method to measure ATP consumption of actively beating axonemes on a single-cell level. We encapsulated individual sea urchin sperm with demembranated flagellum inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets and measured the axonemes ATP consumption by monitoring fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore-coupled reporter system for ATP turnover in the droplet. Concomitant phase contrast imaging allowed us to extract a linear dependence between the ATP consumption rate and the flagellar beating frequency, with ~2.3e5 ATP molecules consumed per beat of a demembranated flagellum. Increasing the viscosity of the aqueous medium led to modified beating waveforms of the axonemes and to higher energy consumption per beat cycle. Our single-cell experimental platform provides both new insights into the beating mechanism of flagella and a powerful tool for future studies.

  6. Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

    2010-01-14

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

  7. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  8. Liquid Fuels Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural2009343Decade Year-0DecadeLiquid

  9. Future U.S. water consumption : The role of energy production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates how meeting domestic energy production targets for both fossil and renewable fuels may affect future water demand. It combines projections of energy production developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with estimates of water consumption on a per-unit basis (water-consumption coefficients) for coal, oil, gas, and biofuels production, to estimate and compare the domestic freshwater consumed. Although total domestic freshwater consumption is expected to increase by nearly 7% between 2005 and 2030, water consumed for energy production is expected to increase by nearly 70%, and water consumed for biofuels (biodiesel and ethanol) production is expected to increase by almost 250%. By 2030, water consumed in the production of biofuels is projected to account for nearly half of the total amount of water consumed in the production of all energy fuels. Most of this is for irrigation, and the West North Central Region is projected to consume most of this water in 2030. These findings identify an important potential future conflict between renewable energy production and water availability that warrants further investigation and action to ensure that future domestic energy demand can be met in an economically efficient and environmentally sustainable manner.

  10. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  11. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  12. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  13. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    HH, Schiffrin DJ. 1989. Electrochemistry of liquid-liquidadvances in the electrochemistry of ion transfer processesDigital Simulation in Electrochemistry. Berlin Hiedelberg:

  14. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  15. A STOCHASTIC CONTROL MODEL OF INVESTMENT, PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Tao

    A STOCHASTIC CONTROL MODEL OF INVESTMENT, PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION BY WENDELL H. FLEMING, consumption and income from production. Income from production Yt fluctuates randomly, and it is proportional control model in which an economic unit has productive capital and also liabilities in the form of debt

  16. Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers for Energy Efficiency Consumption in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers for Energy Efficiency Consumption in Buildings R. Alcal´a DECSAI- tion in buildings represents about 40% of to- tal energy consumption and more than a half controllers, tuning techniques, multiobjective optimisation, en- ergy efficiency, buildings, BEMS, HVAC sys

  17. Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College 2005 - 2010 *Total campus square(MBtu) based on electricity, light fuel oil, and natural gas. Barnard's CO2 Emissions 2005 to 2010 (lbs/ft2/ft2 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 #12;2 Energy Consumption and Air

  18. Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption Physics Colloquium Presented in financial markets. Globally, data analysis of energy consumption per capita around the world shows@american.edu Similarly to the probability distribution of energy in physics, the probability distribution of money among

  19. Elective Participation in Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Elective Participation in Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption Marc R. Pearlman , Jing Deng of determining the op- timal transmission radius for minimal interference and energy consumption is considered be significant. There- fore, in order to more aggressively conserve energy, one must Currently with the GE Global

  20. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    and energy efficiency policies California Solar Initiative (CSI) data,solar installation and energy consumption, through the analysis of pre- and post-installation consumption datadata regarding 5,243 residential solar system installations located in SDG&E service territory, the energy

  1. FRE 460/503 Economics of Food Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    restrictions 11. Environment and Food (Handbook ch 34) 11-1 Waste and Foodmiles 11-2 Vegetarianism, OrganicsFRE 460/503 Economics of Food Consumption Winter 2014 Instructor: Dr. Carol A McAusland 337 Mac-class experiments -- 3% Text: The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Food Consumption and Policy (abbreviated

  2. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyde, Henry R; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Azuah, Richard T; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon W.

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.

  3. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  4. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  5. The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: a review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wishart, James F.

    2014-07-03

    Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based upon a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquid radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.

  6. The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wishart, James F.

    2014-07-03

    Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based on a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquid radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.

  7. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  8. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  9. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  10. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  11. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  12. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  13. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

    2012-07-03

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

  14. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  15. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  16. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based on a "disappearance" model. The total U.S. supply of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed in 1996. Per capita consumption of fresh and frozen products was 9.9 pounds, 0.1 pound less than catfish. Consumption of canned fishery products was 4.4 pounds per capita in 1997, a decrease of 0.1 poundREVIEW PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION The NMFS calculation of per capita consumption is based

  17. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  18. Landauer in the age of synthetic biology: energy consumption and information processing in biochemical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Pankaj; Schwab, David J

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing h...

  19. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  20. Liquid migration in sheared unsaturated granular media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Mani; Dirk Kadau; Hans J. Herrmann

    2012-06-25

    We show how liquid migrates in sheared unsaturated granular media using a grain scale model for capillary bridges. Liquid is redistributed to neighboring contacts after rupture of individual capillary bridges leading to redistribution of liquid on large scales. The liquid profile evolution coincides with a recently developed continuum description for liquid migration in shear bands. The velocity profiles which are linked to the migration of liquid as well as the density profiles of wet and dry granular media are studied.

  1. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  2. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  4. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  5. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water MicrojetsElectrokinetic power generation using liquid water microjetscalculations of power generation and conversion efficiency.

  6. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faidas, Homer (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  7. Sustainable Development in the Forest Sector: Balancing production and consumption in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainable Development in the Forest Sector: Balancing production and consumption in a challenging (consumption and demand) V. Forest products trade VI. Conclusions VII. Discussion #12;Promoting Sustainable Sustainable Consumption Workshop, Geneva, 2011 As shaped by forest products production Sources: Worldmapper

  8. ECO-WARRIORS IN THE SUPERMARKET?: EVALUATING THE UK SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    consumption and production; ecological citizenship; government policy; environmental decisionECO-WARRIORS IN THE SUPERMARKET?: EVALUATING THE UK SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION STRATEGY AS A TOOL?: EVALUATING THE UK SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION STRATEGY AS A TOOL FOR ECOLOGICAL CITIZENSHIP by Gill Seyfang

  9. Development of Energy Consumption Database Management System of Existing Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The statistic data of energy consumption are the base of analyzing energy consumption. The scientific management method of energy consumption data and the development of database management system plays an important role in building energy...

  10. A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment [Extended and communications technology accounts for a significant fraction of worldwide electricity consumption. Given inferring the electricity consumption of different components of the installed base of telecommu- nications

  11. Social Network Users Share Electricity Consumption Habits to Reduce Energy Costs for Consumers and Utility Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    Social Network Users Share Electricity Consumption Habits to Reduce Energy Costs for Consumers approximately 74 percent of the nation's electricity consumption. During peaks in electricity demand, generators companies keep generators on, ready to respond to sudden upswings in electricity consumption

  12. Estimates of Energy Consumption by Building Type and End Use at U.S. Army Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    4. Figure 5-5. 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by EndkWh/ft ) 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by End Useof Total) 1993 Electricity Consumption Estimates by End Use

  13. reiner@hartenstein.de R. Hartenstein: Massively Reducing Electricity Consumption and Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Reiner

    reiner@hartenstein.de R. Hartenstein: Massively Reducing Electricity Consumption and Greenhouse Electricity Consumption and Greenhouse Gases by Innovative Computing Education Reiner Hartenstein CCC 2009 complete #12;reiner@hartenstein.de R. Hartenstein: Massively Reducing Electricity Consumption

  14. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01

    is cast into a non- cooperative energy consumption game,prove that the non-cooperative energy consumption game has aby introducing a non-cooperative energy consumption game in

  15. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid: A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01

    is cast into a non- cooperative energy consumption game,prove that the non-cooperative energy consumption game has aby introducing a non-cooperative energy consumption game in

  16. Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid:A Non-Cooperative Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, Ma; Guoqiang, Hu; Spanos, Costas

    2013-01-01

    is cast into a non- cooperative energy consumption game,prove that the non-cooperative energy consumption game has aby introducing a non-cooperative energy consumption game in

  17. Davis Water Consumption Efficiency Link, Phung, Purewal, Purewal, Salmon ESM 121 Water Science and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Davis Water Consumption Efficiency Link, Phung, Purewal, Purewal, Salmon ESM 121 Water Science and Management Water Consumption Efficiency of Toilets & Shower Heads in Davis: Old Davis Purewal, Kiernan Salmon Abstract The efficiency of household water consumption varies with the age

  18. The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golob, Thomas F; Brownstone, David

    2005-01-01

    on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption References Bento,Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption UCI-ITS-WP-05-1 Thomason Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption Thomas F. Golob

  19. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01

    electricity, oil and coal consumption, offset by increasedsaved in electricity, oil and gas consumption, offset by 2.4energy consumption by fuel type. Natural gas, oil and some

  20. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2015-08-05

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of $^{13}$C$_2$-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2015-11-08

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of $^{13}$C$_2$-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  2. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Buildingand actual building energy consumption can be attributed touncertainties in energy consumption due to actual weather

  3. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program: Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of Direct Energy Consumption in Long-Term2007. “Constraining Energy Consumption of China’s LargestProgram: Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest

  4. Biomarker Testing to Estimate Under-Reported Heavy Alcohol Consumption by Persons with HIV Initiating ART in Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Judith A.; Bwana, Mwebesa B.; Javors, Martin A.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We compared self-reported alcohol consumption with levels ofthan expected self-reported alcohol consumption in personsalcohol was Self-reported heavy alcohol consumption was con?

  5. Miscibility, solubility and retrograde prediction of methane in liquids. Liquid storage of natural gas (LSNG) for vehicle fuel. Annual report, July 15, 1992-July 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansoori, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The primary focus of this project is to investigate the concept of liquid storage of natural gas (LSNG) for potential natural gas vehicle (NGV) application. The research work consists of developing accurate techniques for modeling of interfacial properties, miscibility and solubility of methane in liquids. By implementing this project it will be possible: To use natural gas as the fuel for internal combustion engines; To increase the gas tank capacity about 200% more over the compressed natural gas (CNG) scheme; To increase the octane-number of low quality liquid fuels through blending them with natural gas.

  6. Assessment of user satisfaction of restrooms with existing toilet fixtures and new low consumption fixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vankamamidi, Neelima Raman

    2004-11-15

    and compare user satisfaction in each phase. The four phases were: 1. The as-is condition of the flush valves and the lavatory valve. 2. Low consumption manual flush valve and low consumption manual lavatory valve. 3. Old style low consumption... automatic flush valve and low consumption automatic lavatory valve. 4. Low consumption manual flush valve and low consumption automatic lavatory valve. iv The survey analysis for the building showed a positive response from the users for the low...

  7. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arazi, L; Coimbra, A E C; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Chepel, V; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  8. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Arazi; E. Erdal; A. E. C. Coimbra; M. L. Rappaport; D. Vartsky; V. Chepel; A. Breskin

    2015-05-13

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  9. Fact #706: December 19, 2011 Vocational Vehicle Fuel Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards, 2016-17 (Gallons per Thousand Ton-Mile) Size Category Truck Weight Class Year 2016 2017 Light heavy-duty Class 2b-5 38.1 36.7 Medium heavy-duty...

  10. Evaluating Texas State University Energy Consumption According to Productivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnes, D.; Hunn, B. D.; Jones, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    by an institution of higher education cannot be measured by a single, readily available number. Data Envelopment Analysis, a tool used primarily in management science, can find "benchmark" input consumption levels for productive entities with multiple inputs...

  11. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    renewable energy technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies hold significant potentialenergy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact." Renewable andpotential new value stream from NEM solar is monetization of the renewable energy

  12. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  13. Broad Initiatives/Sharp Focus- Cuts Electricity Consumption 15% 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gialanella, V.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of electrical consumption can payout in reduced energy costs. Continuous monitoring of electrical usage coupled with improvements and optimization in system(s) operations can have a favorable impact on annual operating expenditures. Further...

  14. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    and future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact." Renewable andrenewable energy installation in practice. This dissertation will provide insight and make recommendations for program design principles and future

  15. November 2012 Key Performance Indicator (KPI): Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    and district heating scheme* data. Year Energy Consumption (KWh) Percentage Change 2005/06 65,916,243 N/A 2006 buildings are connected to the Nottingham District Heating Scheme. This service meets all the heating

  16. Evolutionary Tuning of Building Models to Monthly Electrical Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    . With buildings being the largest single sector of energy consumption, building efficiency is one of the fastest of energy efficiency for buildings is being able to realistically model specific building types; however

  17. Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Tables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy use intensities in commercial buildings vary widely and depend on activity and climate, as shown in this data table, which was derived from the Energy Information Agency's 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey.

  18. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    be adjusted to meet plant requirements. As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 kWh per year), saving an annual 11,255 in...

  19. Reducing 3G energy consumption on mobile devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    The 3G wireless interface is a significant contributor to battery drain on mobile devices. This paper describes the design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of methods to reduce the energy consumption of the 3G ...

  20. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    emission and resource accounting. Ecol Econ 69:211–222. 12.Consumption-based accounting of CO 2 emissions Steven J.Consump- tion-based accounting of CO 2 emissions differs