National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid water distribution

  1. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) ...

  2. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf (809.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost

  3. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) * U. (Balu) Balachandran, T. H. ... Objective & Rationale Objective: Develop compact dense ceramic membrane reactors that ...

  4. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and ...

  6. Liquid and gas distribution in trickle-bed reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, L.B.; Halken, C.; Hansen, J.A.; Bartholdy, J.

    1996-03-01

    In the refining industry, the flow distribution in hydroprocessing trickle-bed reactors is often not ideal. Liquid and gas distribution in trickle-bed reactors was investigated in a column packed with commercial catalyst particles. Distilled water and air were used as liquid and gas phases, respectively. Surface tension effects were tested by adding detergent to the water. The influence of both liquid load and gas load on the distribution was studied. Flow rates corresponded to those used in industrial hydroprocessing units. It was found that the liquid distribution at a given liquid load can be improved considerably by either increasing the liquid load or flooding the column in advance. The gas distribution is shown to be correlated inversely with the liquid distribution. Use of a large-particle top layer results in an improved distribution.

  7. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  8. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water content The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded

  10. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    path ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water path A measure of the weight of the liquid water droplets in the atmosphere above a unit surface area on the earth, given in units of kg m-2. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  13. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  14. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  15. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  16. Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map This is a "pre-decisional draft of the Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map. biliwg06_schlasner.pdf (36.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to

  17. A New Model for Liquid Water Absorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for Liquid Water Absorption For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Liquid water path (LWP) is a critical measurement for a wide range of atmospheric studies, as the amount of liquid in a cloud is critical to understanding many cloud processes. For example, the radiative impact of the cloud (in both the longwave and shortwave portions of the spectrum) depends heavily on the LWP. Thus, the Atmospheric

  18. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The ...

  19. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Title: Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Two datasets, one a ...

  20. Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Many of the ...

  1. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  2. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, Nancy E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  5. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia.

  6. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  8. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and hydrogen recovery and purification steps. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with each other and with members of the DOE Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

  9. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 01doebio-derivedliquidstoh2refor...

  10. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review | Department of Energy Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review This is the agenda for the working group sessions held in Laurel, Maryland on November 6, 2007. biliwg_agenda.pdf (145.59 KB) More Documents

  11. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  12. First Principles Simulations of the Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Water |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Infrared spectra of liquid water Infrared spectra of liquid water computed using hybrid (solid lines) and semi-local (dotted line) functionals, computed by ab-initio molecular dynamics with the Qbox code. Cui Zhang, UC-Davis. First Principles Simulations of the Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Water PI Name: Giulia Galli PI Email: gagalli@ucdavis.edu Institution: University of California-Davis Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 15 Million

  13. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the

  14. Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for retrieving cloud liquid water content and drizzle characteristics using a K -band Doppler radar (Kropfli et al. 1990) and microwave radiometer (Hogg et al. 1983). The...

  15. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file...

  17. An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave

  18. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  19. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  20. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  1. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  2. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  3. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  4. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  5. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  6. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team | Department of Energy Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team 2007 Annual and Merit Review Reports compiled for the

  7. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  8. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System ...

  9. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage ...

  10. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At ...

  11. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & ...

  12. Comparison of Cloud Fraction and Liquid Water Path between ECMWF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Comparison of Cloud Fraction and Liquid Water Path between ECMWF Simulations and ARM Long-term Observations at the NSA Site Ming Zhao (mzhao@uwyo.edu) and Zhien Wang ...

  13. Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a ...

  14. Dielectric Properties of Ice and Liquid Water from First Principles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Dielectric Properties of Ice and Liquid Water from First Principles Calculations Authors: Lu, D., Gygi, F., Galli, G. We present a first-principles study of the static dielectric properties of ice and liquid water. The eigenmodes of the dielectric matrix ϵ are analyzed in terms of maximally localized dielectric functions similar, in their definition, to maximally localized Wannier orbitals obtained from Bloch eigenstates of the electronic

  15. Entropy of Liquid Water from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Entropy of Liquid Water from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Authors: Zhang, C., Spanu,L., Galli, G. We have computed the entropy of liquid water using a two-phase thermodynamic model and trajectories generated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We present the results obtained with semilocal, hybrid, and van der Waals density functionals. We show that in all cases, at the experimental equilibrium density and at temperatures in the vicinity of 300 K, the

  16. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  17. ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us...

  18. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    II: How to Get it Right DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get ... Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems - affecting energy use , water ...

  19. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  20. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems - affecting energy use , water consumption, and resident convenience and comfort. In this initial session Gary Klein covers ...

  1. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to ...

  2. ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution September 14, 2016 12:00PM to 1:00PM EDT You Know that Hot Water Distribution is Important...Now Learn Design Details for Systems that Work Efficient hot water distribution systems route water more efficiently, with the added convenience of not waiting for hot water. For consumers, this also means a great feeling from not wasting thousands of gallons of water needlessly each year along with money saved

  3. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  4. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore » 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  5. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-03-07

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

  6. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system A method for treating a process gas with ...

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - November 2007 | Department of Energy Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen

  8. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document ...

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye Mazzola, Guglielmo Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-04-14

    Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.

  10. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  11. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  12. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  13. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  14. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  15. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  16. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  17. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  18. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  19. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen ... Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ...

  20. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

  1. Manifold to uniformly distribute a solid-liquid slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kern, Kenneth C.

    1983-01-01

    This invention features a manifold that divides a stream of coal particles and liquid into several smaller streams maintaining equal or nearly equal mass compositions. The manifold consists of a horizontal, variable area header having sharp-edged, right-angled take-offs which are oriented on the bottom of the header.

  2. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  3. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  4. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of using stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.

  5. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-23

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of usingmorestereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.less

  6. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  7. The individual and collective effects of exact exchange and dispersion interactions on the ab initio structure of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStasio, Robert A.; Santra, Biswajit; Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2014-08-28

    In this work, we report the results of a series of density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of ambient liquid water using a hierarchy of exchange-correlation (XC) functionals to investigate the individual and collective effects of exact exchange (Exx), via the PBE0 hybrid functional, non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions, via a fully self-consistent density-dependent dispersion correction, and an approximate treatment of nuclear quantum effects, via a 30 K increase in the simulation temperature, on the microscopic structure of liquid water. Based on these AIMD simulations, we found that the collective inclusion of Exx and vdW as resulting from a large-scale AIMD simulation of (H{sub 2}O){sub 128} significantly softens the structure of ambient liquid water and yields an oxygen-oxygen structure factor, S{sub OO}(Q), and corresponding oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function, g{sub OO}(r), that are now in quantitative agreement with the best available experimental data. This level of agreement between simulation and experiment demonstrated herein originates from an increase in the relative population of water molecules in the interstitial region between the first and second coordination shells, a collective reorganization in the liquid phase which is facilitated by a weakening of the hydrogen bond strength by the use of a hybrid XC functional, coupled with a relative stabilization of the resultant disordered liquid water configurations by the inclusion of non-local vdW/dispersion interactions. This increasingly more accurate description of the underlying hydrogen bond network in liquid water also yields higher-order correlation functions, such as the oxygen-oxygen-oxygen triplet angular distribution, P{sub OOO}(θ), and therefore the degree of local tetrahedrality, as well as electrostatic properties, such as the effective molecular dipole moment, that are in much better agreement with experiment.

  8. Characterization and Modeling of a Water-based Liquid Scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    L. J. Bignell; Beznosko, D.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; S. Kettell; Rosero, R.; Themann, H. W.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; et al

    2015-12-15

    We characterised Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) using low energy protons, UV-VIS absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have also developed and validated a simulation model that describes the behaviour of WbLS in our detector configurations for proton beam energies of 210 MeV, 475 MeV, and 2 GeV and for two WbLS compositions. These results have enabled us to estimate the light yield and ionisation quenching of WbLS, as well as to understand the influence of the wavelength shifting of Cherenkov light on our measurements. These results are relevant to the suitability of WbLS materials for next generation intensity frontier experiments.

  9. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  10. LIQUID-FLUIDIZED-BED HEAT' EXCHANGER FLOW DISTRIBUTION MODELS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a t the Idaho National Engineering Labora- t o r y i s ... Sand f 1 u i d i zed by geothermal water on the shell side ... The heater sheath has a 0.1 c m deep groove machined from ...

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's session on hot water distribution is one of a continuing series of tech training webinars to support our...

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) Below is the text version of the...

  13. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  14. Network analysis of proton transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevchuk, Roman; Rao, Francesco; Agmon, Noam

    2014-06-28

    Proton transfer in macromolecular systems is a fascinating yet elusive process. In the last ten years, molecular simulations have shown to be a useful tool to unveil the atomistic mechanism. Notwithstanding, the large number of degrees of freedom involved make the accurate description of the process very hard even for the case of proton diffusion in bulk water. Here, multi-state empirical valence bond molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with complex network analysis are applied to study proton transfer in liquid water. Making use of a transition network formalism, this approach takes into account the time evolution of several coordinates simultaneously. Our results provide evidence for a strong dependence of proton transfer on the length of the hydrogen bond solvating the Zundel complex, with proton transfer enhancement as shorter bonds are formed at the acceptor site. We identify six major states (nodes) on the network leading from the special pair to a more symmetric Zundel complex required for transferring the proton. Moreover, the second solvation shell specifically rearranges to promote the transfer, reiterating the idea that solvation beyond the first shell of the Zundel complex plays a crucial role in the process.

  15. Structural and Vibrational Properties of Liquid Water from van der Waals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density Functionals | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Structural and Vibrational Properties of Liquid Water from van der Waals Density Functionals Authors: Zhang, C., Wu, J., Gygi, F., Galli, G. We present results for the structural and vibrational properties of the water molecule, water dimer, and liquid water at the experimental equilibrium density, as obtained with several van der Waals density functionals. The functional form originally proposed by Dion et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett.

  16. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  17. Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

  18. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00 The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding

  19. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Liquid water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    models (Liebe,1987; Rosenkranz,1998; Liljegren, 2004) and 3 liquid dielectric models (Grant, 1957; Liebe, 1991; Rosenkranz, 2003) are evaluated. The choice of gaseous...

  1. Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, William H.

    1976-09-21

    A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

  2. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa; Departamento de Qumica e Bioqumica, Faculdade de Cincias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa; Instituto de Fsica da Universidade de So Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 So Paulo, SP

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the OH stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  3. Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds K. Ivanova Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Ausloos University of Liège B-4000 Liège, Belgium Abstract We present a method on how to derive an underlying mathematical (statistical or model free) equation for a liquid water path (LWP) signal directly from empirical data. The evolution of the probability density

  4. Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2006-02-21

    This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

  5. Pressure Effect on the Boson Peak in Deeply Cooled Confined Water: Evidence of a Liquid-Liquid Transition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Ito, Kanae; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-12-03

    We studied the boson peak in deeply cooled water confined in nanopores in order to examine the liquid-liquid transition (LLT). Below ~180 K, the boson peaks at pressures P higher than ~3.5 kbar are evidently distinct from those at low pressures by higher mean frequencies and lower heights. Moreover, the higher-P boson peaks can be rescaled to a master curve while the lower-P boson peaks can be rescaled to a different one. Moreover, these phenomena agree with the existence of two liquid phases with different densities and local structures and the associated LLT in the measured (P, T) region. Additionally,more » the P dependence of the librational band also agrees with the above conclusion.« less

  6. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  7. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  8. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  9. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings from the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  10. Effect of gravity on three-dimensional coordination number distribution in liquid phase sintered microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.; Gereman, R.M.

    1999-10-08

    Gravity affects microstructural evolution when a liquid phase is present during sintering. The effect of gravity on the three-dimensional coordination number distribution of tungsten grains in liquid phase sintered heavy alloy specimens is quantitatively characterized. A combination of montage serial sectioning, digital image processing, and unbiased stereological sampling procedures is used to estimate the coordination number distribution in three-dimensional microstructures. The microgravity environment decreases the mean coordination number. However, hardly any isolated grains are observed in the specimens, liquid phase sintered in a microgravity environment. The effect of microgravity on the coordination numbers mainly resides in its effect on the mean coordination number. In all specimens, there is a strong correlation between grain size and coordination number, which can be expressed as [D{sub c}/{bar D}]{sup 2} = C/C{sub 0} where C{sub 0} is the mean coordination number, {bar D} the global average size of the tungsten grains, and D{sub c} the average size of only those grains which have coordination number C.

  11. Anomalous Density Properties and Ion Solvation in Liquid Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to a number of fields, ranging from biologybiochemistry to energy storage and electrochemistry. Several key properties of water, are crucial for understanding and predicting...

  12. Liquid Water the Key to Arctic Cloud Radiative Closure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water the Key to Arctic Cloud Radiative Closure For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight...

  13. Interactions between liquid-water and gas-diffusion layers in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Prodip K.; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2015-06-11

    Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has been conducted to improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of fuel cell systems. However, the cost associated with the platinum (Pt) catalyst remains a barrier to their commercialization and PEFC durability standards have yet to be established. An effective path toward reducing PEFC cost is making the catalyst layers (CLs) thinner thus reducing expensive Pt content. The limit of thin CLs is high gas-transport resistance and the performance of these CLs is sensitive to the operating temperature due to their inherent lowmore » water uptake capacity, which results in higher sensitivity to liquid-water flooding and reduced durability. Therefore, reducing PEFC's cost by decreasing Pt content and improving PEFC's performance and durability by managing liquid-water are still challenging and open topics of research. An overlooked aspect nowadays of PEFC water management is the gas-diffusion layer (GDL). While it is known that GDL's properties can impact performance, typically it is not seen as a critical component. In this work, we present data showing the importance of GDLs in terms of water removal and management while also exploring the interactions between liquid-water and GDL surfaces. The critical interface of GDL and gas-flow-channel in the presence of liquid-water was examined through systematic studies of adhesion forces as a function of water-injection rate for various GDLs of varying thickness. GDL properties (breakthrough pressure and adhesion force) were measured experimentally under a host of test conditions. Specifically, the effects of GDL hydrophobic (PTFE) content, thickness, and water-injection rate were examined to identify trends that may be beneficial to the design of liquid-water management strategies and next-generation GDL materials for PEFCs.« less

  14. Interactions between liquid-water and gas-diffusion layers in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2015-06-11

    Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has been conducted to improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of fuel cell systems. However, the cost associated with the platinum (Pt) catalyst remains a barrier to their commercialization and PEFC durability standards have yet to be established. An effective path toward reducing PEFC cost is making the catalyst layers (CLs) thinner thus reducing expensive Pt content. The limit of thin CLs is high gas-transport resistance and the performance of these CLs is sensitive to the operating temperature due to their inherent low water uptake capacity, which results in higher sensitivity to liquid-water flooding and reduced durability. Therefore, reducing PEFC's cost by decreasing Pt content and improving PEFC's performance and durability by managing liquid-water are still challenging and open topics of research. An overlooked aspect nowadays of PEFC water management is the gas-diffusion layer (GDL). While it is known that GDL's properties can impact performance, typically it is not seen as a critical component. In this work, we present data showing the importance of GDLs in terms of water removal and management while also exploring the interactions between liquid-water and GDL surfaces. The critical interface of GDL and gas-flow-channel in the presence of liquid-water was examined through systematic studies of adhesion forces as a function of water-injection rate for various GDLs of varying thickness. GDL properties (breakthrough pressure and adhesion force) were measured experimentally under a host of test conditions. Specifically, the effects of GDL hydrophobic (PTFE) content, thickness, and water-injection rate were examined to identify trends that may be beneficial to the design of liquid-water management strategies and next-generation GDL materials for PEFCs.

  15. Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arizona, Site | Department of Energy Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site (7.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Diffusion Multilayer Sampling of Ground Water in Five Wells at the

  16. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  17. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Starr, Francis W.

    2014-03-21

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  18. Remote Spectroscopic Sounding of Liquid Water Path in Thick Clouds in Winter Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Spectroscopic Sounding of Liquid Water Path in Thick Clouds in Winter Conditions S. V. Dvoryashin and G. S. Golitsyn A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia The liquid water path (LWP) in mixed clouds is restored based on remote measurements of spectral brightness of a cloudy layer in the spectral range 2.15-2.35µm. The results of spectroscopic sounding of dense clouds sounding are presented. Introduction Since the 1980s, in A. M. Obukhov

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I-- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake, presented in January 2014.

  20. Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on

  1. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  2. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  3. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Turner, David

    2015-12-14

    Two datasets, one a compilation of laboratory data and one a compilation from three field sites, are provided here. These datasets provide measurements of the real and imaginary refractive indices and absorption as a function of cloud temperature. These datasets were used in the development of the new liquid water absorption model that was published in Turner et al. 2015.

  4. Joint physical and numerical modeling of water distribution networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Adam; O'Hern, Timothy John; Orear, Leslie Jr.; Kajder, Karen C.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Wright, Jerome L.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Chwirka, J. Benjamin; Hartenberger, Joel David; McKenna, Sean Andrew; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and modeling effort undertaken to understand solute mixing in a water distribution network conducted during the last year of a 3-year project. The experimental effort involves measurement of extent of mixing within different configurations of pipe networks, measurement of dynamic mixing in a single mixing tank, and measurement of dynamic solute mixing in a combined network-tank configuration. High resolution analysis of turbulence mixing is carried out via high speed photography as well as 3D finite-volume based Large Eddy Simulation turbulence models. Macroscopic mixing rules based on flow momentum balance are also explored, and in some cases, implemented in EPANET. A new version EPANET code was developed to yield better mixing predictions. The impact of a storage tank on pipe mixing in a combined pipe-tank network during diurnal fill-and-drain cycles is assessed. Preliminary comparison between dynamic pilot data and EPANET-BAM is also reported.

  5. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  6. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2010-05-01

    We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

  7. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy II: How to Get it Right DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right Watch the video or view the presentation slides below Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance. Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems - affecting energy use , water consumption, and resident convenience and comfort. In this second session on hot water distribution, Gary Klein will explain design

  8. Formation of H-type liquid crystal dimer at air-water interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, C. Gupta, Adbhut Joshi, Aditya Manjuladevi, V. Gupta, Raj Kumar; Varia, Mahesh C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-04-24

    We have formed the Langmuir monolayer of H-shaped Azo linked liquid crystal dimer molecule at the air-water interface. Isocycles of the molecule showed hysteresis suggesting the ir-reversible nature of the monolayer formed. The thin film deposited on the silicon wafer was characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The images showed uniform domains of the dimer molecule. We propose that these molecules tend to take book shelf configuration in the liquid phase.

  9. Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-09-23

    Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

  10. The effects of charge transfer on the properties of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Alexis J.; Rick, Steven W.

    2011-05-14

    A method for treating charge transfer interactions in classical potential models is developed and applied to water. In this method, a discrete amount of charge is transferred for each hydrogen bond formed. It is designed to be simple to implement, to be applicable to a variety of potential models, and to satisfy various physical requirements. The method does not transfer charge at large intramolecular distances, it does not result in a conductive liquid, and it can be easily parameterized to give the correct amount of charge transfer. Two charge transfer models are developed for a polarizable and a non-polarizable potential. The models reproduce many of the properties of liquid water, including the structure, the diffusion constant, and thermodynamic properties over a range of temperatures.

  11. Distribution and geochemistry of contaminated subsurface waters in fissured volcanogenic bed rocks of the Lake Karachai Area, Chelyabinsk, Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solodov, I.N.; Belichkin, V.I.; Zotov, A.V.; Kochkin, B.T.; Drozhko, E.G.; Glagolev, A.V.; Skokov, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    The present investigation is devoted to the study of the distribution and geochemistry of contaminated subsurface waters, beneath the site of temporary storage of liquid radioactive waste known as Lake Karachai. For this purpose a method of hydrogeochemical logging (HGCL) together with standard hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods of uncased hole logging were used. The distribution of sodium nitrate brine plumes in the subsurface was determined by the physical and physico-chemical properties of these brines and by the petrochemical composition of enclosing rocks and the structural setting of the flow paths. The latter is represented by fractures and large faults in the bedrock of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of intermediate-to-basic composition. The volcanogenic rocks are overlain in some places by a thin cover of unconsolidated sediments, i.e., by loams and relatively impermeable silts. Contaminated waters flow-in accordance with the eluvium bottom relief towards local areas of natural (Mishelyak and Techa rivers) and artificial (Novogomenskii water intake) discharge of subsurface waters. The large Mishelyak fault, southwest of Lake Karachai and under fluvial sediments of the Mishelyak, is assumed to significantly influence the flow pattern of contaminated waters, diverting them from an intake of drinking water.

  12. Generic component failure data base for light water and liquid sodium reactor PRAs (probabilistic risk assessments)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, S.A.; Chmielewski, S.V.; Swantz, T.D.

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates. 21 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers M. M. Khaiyer and J. Huang Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, B. Lin, and W. L. Smith, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia A. Fan Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia A. Rapp Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Satellites are useful for monitoring climatological parameters over

  14. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 | Department of Energy Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Presentation on Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry, given by Aditya Kumar of GE Global Research, at

  15. Ultrafast dynamics of liquid water: Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-07-28

    Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend in liquid water are reported from the third-order response function evaluated using the TTM3-F potential for water. The simulated two-dimensional infrared (IR) spectra of the OH stretch are similar to previously reported theoretical results. The present study suggests that the frequency fluctuation of the HOH bend is faster than that of the OH stretch. The ultrafast loss of the frequency correlation of the HOH bend is due to the strong couplings with the OH stretch as well as the intermolecular hydrogen bond bend.

  16. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm{sup −1} and a positive band centered at 1670 cm{sup −1}. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  17. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  18. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  19. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  20. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COD reduction * Meetimprove discharge water quality (COD, NH 3 , NO 3 ) * Reduce ... UASB EGSB Gas UASB UASB EGSB EGSB Gas Waste Water Effluent Digester AS MBR 3 State of ...

  1. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy I: What's at Stake DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake Watch the video or view the presentation below Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance. Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems - affecting energy use , water consumption, and resident convenience and comfort. In this initial session Gary Klein covers the basics of residential hot water plumbing systems

  2. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  3. The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

    1993-12-01

    Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

  4. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  5. Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-02-07

    The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

  6. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Majid, Amran Ab.; Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.

    2015-04-29

    Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is an innovative design for the thermal breeder reactor that has important potential benefits over the traditional reactor design. LFTR is fluoride based liquid fuel, that use the thorium dissolved in salt mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium fluoride. Therefore, LFTR technology is fundamentally different from the solid fuel technology currently in use. Although the traditional nuclear reactor technology has been proven, it has perceptual problems with safety and nuclear waste products. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of LFTR in three aspects such as safety, fuel efficiency and nuclear waste as an alternative energy generator in the future. Comparisons between LFTR and Light Water Reactor (LWR), on general principles of fuel cycle, resource availability, radiotoxicity and nuclear weapon proliferation shall be elaborated.

  7. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  8. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  9. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 | Department of Energy Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 GE Global Research, in collaboration with GE Water & Process Technologies, GE Intelligent Platforms, SRA International, and Anheuser-Busch, developed a systematic plant-wide automation for online monitoring and supervisory control. The

  10. Double ended chilled water distribution system flow control at the Univeristy of Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, H.; Womack, W.; Notary, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis effort and resultant primary flow control strategy for an intensely interconnected chilled water distribution system that is fed by production plants at opposing ends. A brief description of the evolution of the existing campus chilled water distribution systems at the University of Arizona is followed by a statement of a problem common to many expanding chilled water distribution systems. This problem relates to the optimal control of dissimilar yet interconnected pumping and production plants. A simple hydraulic modeling spreadsheet with coupled graphical representation developed for the UA system is presented. The surprisingly simple control strategies designed for the UA system will be explained. The use of the simplified modeling approach as a long range production and distribution system planning tool will be explored. Conclusions on the applicability of the simplified approach and the extension of the UA distribution system control strategies to other district chilled water systems will be drawn.

  11. A cobalt(II) bis(salicylate)-based ionic liquid that shows thermoresponsive and selective water coordination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohno, Y; Cowan, MG; Masuda, M; Bhowmick, I; Shores, MP; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-01-01

    A metal-containing ionic liquid (MCIL) has been prepared in which the [CoII(salicylate)(2)](2-) anion is able to selectively coordinate two water molecules with a visible colour change, even in the presence of alcohols. Upon moderate heating or placement in vacuo, the hydrated MCIL undergoes reversible thermochromism by releasing the bound water molecules.

  12. Determination of formate in natural waters by a coupled enzymatic/high-performance liquid chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieber, D.J.; Vaughan, G.M.; Mopper, K.

    1988-09-01

    An enzymatic method was developed to quantify formic acid in natural water samples at submicromolar concentrations. The method is based on the oxidation of formate by formate dehydrogenase with corresponding reduction of ..beta..-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (..beta..-NAD/sup +/) to reduced ..beta..-NAD/sup +/ (..beta..-NADH); ..beta..-NADH is quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. An important feature of this method is that the enzymatic reaction occurs directly in aqueous media, even sea water, and does not require sample pretreatment other than sample filtration. The reaction proceeds at room temperature at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5 - 8.5) and is specific for formate with a detection limit of 0.5 ..mu..M (S/N = 4) for a 200-..mu..L injection. The precision of the method was 4.6% relative standard deviation (n = 6) for a 0.6 ..mu..M standard addition of formate to Sargasso sea water. Average recoveries of 2 ..mu..M additions of formate to sea water, pore water, or rain were 103, 103, and 87%, respectively. Intercalibration with a Dionex ion chromatographic system showed an excellent agreement of 98%. Concentrations of formate present in natural samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sea water, 0.4 to 10.0 ..mu..M for Miami rain, and 0.9 to 8.4 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sediment pore water.

  13. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Department of Physics, Universit degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano ; Conroy, S.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala ; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, D. B.

    2014-02-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/? discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa.

  14. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  15. Dynamics of soft Nanomaterials captured by transmission electron microscopy in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proetto, Maria T.; Rush, Anthony M.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Patterson, Joseph P.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Olson, Norman H.; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Andolina, Christopher; Millstone, Jill; Howell, Stephen B.; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2014-01-14

    In this paper we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterization of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerization of an oxaliplatin analog, designed for an ongoing program in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point toward key design parameters that enable this new characterization approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic micellar nanoparticles to- gether with their characterization in liquid water.

  16. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-12

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

  17. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  19. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  20. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  1. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 away from the surface.

  2. Columbia River monitoring: Distribution of tritium in Columbia River water at the Richland Pumphouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents the results of a special study conducted as part of the SESP to supplement the routine Columbia River monitoring program and provide information relative to the dispersion and distribution of Hanford origin contaminants entering the river through the seepage of ground water along the Hanford Site. Sampling was conducted along cross sections to determine the distribution of tritium within the Columbia River at Richland, Washington. The investigation was also designed to evaluate the relationship between the average tritium concentrations in the river water at this location and in water collected from the routine SESP river monitoring system located at the city of Richland drinking water intake (Richland Pumphouse). This study was conducted during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Water samples were collected along cross sections located at or near the Richland Pumphouse monitoring station.

  3. Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst | Department of Energy Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines. deer10_partridge.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office

  4. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Text Version) | Department of Energy I -- What's At Stake (Text Version) DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake, presented in January 2014. Watch the presentation. Jamie Lyons: We're running a series of four-hour training sessions all around the country and we started that about a year ago, and we're continuing that, and this is our Zero Energy

  5. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right (Text Version) | Department of Energy II -- How to Get it Right (Text Version) DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January 2014. Watch the presentation. Lindsay Parker: ... Tech Training webinar series. My name is Lindsay Parker. I'm working with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's

  6. Thin liquid/gas diffusion layers for high-efficiency hydrogen production from water splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mo, Jingke; Retterer, Scott T.; Cullen, David A.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr, Johney Boyd; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2016-06-13

    Liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs) play a crucial role in electrochemical energy technology and hydrogen production, and are expected to simultaneously transport electrons, heat, and reactants/products with minimum voltage, current, thermal, interfacial, and fluidic losses. In addition, carbon materials, which are typically used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are unsuitable for PEM electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). In this study, a novel titanium thin LGDL with well-tunable pore morphologies was developed by employing nano-manufacturing and was applied in a standard PEMEC. The LGDL tests show significant performance improvements. The operating voltages required at a current density of 2.0 A/cm2 were asmore » low as 1.69 V, and its efficiency reached a report high of up to 88%. The new thin and flat LGDL with well-tunable straight pores has been demonstrated to remarkably reduce the ohmic, interfacial and transport losses. In addition, well-tunable features, including pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and thus porosity and permeability, will be very valuable for developing PEMEC models and for validation of its simulations with optimal and repeatable performance. The LGDL thickness reduction from greater than 350 μm of conventional LGDLs to 25 μm will greatly decrease the weight and volume of PEMEC stacks, and represents a new direction for future developments of low-cost PEMECs with high performance.« less

  7. Molecular orientation distributions during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers: Ex situ investigation of partially filled moldings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Bubeck, Robert A.

    2013-01-10

    The development of molecular orientation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) during injection molding has been investigated using two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering coordinated with numerical computations employing the Larson-Doi polydomain model. Orientation distributions were measured in 'short shot' moldings to characterize structural evolution prior to completion of mold filling, in both thin and thick rectangular plaques. Distinct orientation patterns are observed near the filling front. In particular, strong extension at the melt front results in nearly transverse molecular alignment. Far away from the flow front shear competes with extension to produce complex spatial distributions of orientation. The relative influence of shear is stronger in the thin plaque, producing orientation along the filling direction. Exploiting an analogy between the Larson-Doi model and a fiber orientation model, we test the ability of process simulation tools to predict TLCP orientation distributions during molding. Substantial discrepancies between model predictions and experimental measurements are found near the flow front in partially filled short shots, attributed to the limits of the Hele-Shaw approximation used in the computations. Much of the flow front effect is however 'washed out' by subsequent shear flow as mold filling progresses, leading to improved agreement between experiment and corresponding numerical predictions.

  8. The melting temperature of liquid water with the effective fragment potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Willow, Soohaeng Y.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-09-17

    Direct simulation of the solid-liquid water interface with the effective fragment potential (EFP) via the constant enthalpy and pressure (NPH) ensemble was used to estimate the melting temperature (Tm) of ice-Ih. Initial configurations and velocities, taken from equilibrated constant pressure and temperature (NPT) simulations at T = 300 K, 350 K and 400 K, respectively, yielded corresponding Tm values of 37816 K, 38214 K and 38415 K. These estimates are consistently higher than experiment, albeit to the same degree with previously reported estimates using density functional theory (DFT)-based Born-Oppenheimer simulations with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional plus dispersion corrections (BLYP-D). KRB was supported by a Computational Science Graduate Fellowship from the Department of Energy. MSG was supported by a U.S. National Science Foundation Software Infrastructure (SI2) grant (ACI 1047772). SSX acknowledges support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of lead distribution among matte, slag, and liquid copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degterov, S.A.; Pelton, A.D.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a thermodynamic database was developed for the calculation of equilibria involved in the production of copper. The present study is concerned with the further development of the thermodynamic models and the database of model parameters for the matte, slag, and blister copper phases with a view to including Pb in the database and phase equilibrium data available in the literature are reviewed, critically assessed, and optimized with the modified quasi-chemical model. When used with the Gibbs energy minimization software and other databases of the FACT thermodynamic computing system, the database developed in the present study can be used for the calculation of matte-slag-copper-gas phase equilibria during copper smelting and converting. The distribution of lead among these phases can be computed. For example, the distribution of lead among matte, silica-saturated slag, and copper has been calculated at metal saturation, or under fixed partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, and has been compared with the available experimental data. The Pb distributions among the equilibrium phases have been calculated under various conditions, which are difficult to study experimentally, such as at magnetite saturation or under various oxygen partial pressures and iron to silica ratios in the slag.

  10. Effects of excluded volume and correlated molecular orientations on Frster resonance energy transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Mino

    2014-04-14

    Frster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Frster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II-- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January2014.

  12. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judi, David R.; Mcpherson, Timothy N.

    2015-03-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  13. Modeling the Impacts of Solar Distributed Generation on U.S. Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda, Smith; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Jaron, Peck

    2015-01-01

    Distributed electric power generation technologies typically use little or no water per unit of electrical energy produced; in particular, renewable energy sources such as solar PV systems do not require cooling systems and present an opportunity to reduce water usage for power generation. Within the US, the fuel mix used for power generation varies regionally, and certain areas use more water for power generation than others. The need to reduce water usage for power generation is even more urgent in view of climate change uncertainties. In this paper, we present an example case within the state of Tennessee, one of the top four states in water consumption for power generation and one of the states with little or no potential for developing centralized renewable energy generations. The potential for developing PV generation within Knox County, Tennessee, is studied, along with the potential for reducing water withdrawal and consumption within the Tennessee Valley stream region. Electric power generation plants in the region are quantified for their electricity production and expected water withdrawal and consumption over one year, where electrical generation data is provided over one year and water usage is modeled based on the cooling system(s) in use. Potential solar PV electrical production is modeled based on LiDAR data and weather data for the same year. Our proposed methodology can be summarized as follows: First, the potential solar generation is compared against the local grid demand. Next, electrical generation reductions are specified that would result in a given reduction in water withdrawal and a given reduction in water consumption, and compared with the current water withdrawal and consumption rates for the existing fuel mix. The increase in solar PV development that would produce an equivalent amount of power, is determined. In this way, we consider how targeted local actions may affect the larger stream region through thoughtful energy development

  14. Experimental study of residence time distributions of ball-mill circuits grinding coal-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoji, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Ohtake, A.; Austin, L.G.

    2008-08-15

    Residence time distributions (RTDs) were estimated by water tracing in a number of wet overflow ball mills (diameters 0.38 to 4.65 m) producing dense, coal-water slurries. In open-circuit mills of 0.38 m diameter and various length-diameter (LID) ratios, the mean residence times of solid were also determined from measured mill holdups. Holdup increased with increased mill feed rate, but the mean residence times of coal and water were still equal to each other. The experimental residence time distributions were fitted to the Mori-Jimbo-Yamazaki semi-infinite, axial mixing model, and the dimensionless mixing coefficient was determined for each of 25 tests in single- and two-compartment mills. This coefficient was found to be independent to the feed rate but linearly proportional to the D/L ratio. The mixing coefficient was smaller for two-compartment mills than for single-compartment mills, showing that there was reduced mixing introduced by the diaphragm separating the compartments. Equations are given to scale residence time distributions for changes in mill diameter and length.

  15. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Carl D.

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  16. Temperature distributions of radio-frequency plasma in water by spectroscopic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Abe, Fumiaki; Kawashima, Ayato

    2009-12-01

    Distributions of emission intensity from radicals, electron temperature, and rotational temperature at a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz plasma in water are clarified by detailed spectroscopy measurement. Through this investigation, the following were observed. The points of maximum emission intensity of Halpha, Hbeta, O (777 nm), and O (845 nm) are almost the same, while that of OH shifts upward. The electron temperature decreases, while the rotational temperature increases with pressure. The distribution of the electron temperature changes at a threshold pressure, which is concerned with a change in the electron discharge mechanism. The self-bias of the electrode changes from a negative to positive at a threshold pressure. The point of the maximum rotational temperature of OH radicals shifts to approximately 1 mm above that for the maximum intensity of OH emission.

  17. Distributions of selenium, iodine, lead, thorium and uranium in Japanese river waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2007-07-01

    Long-lived radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, such as deep underground disposal facilities, could reach humans through several transfer paths in the environment. Uses of ground water and river water for agricultural field irrigation and for drinking water are important paths. In order to understand behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial water environment, we carried out a natural analogue study, that is, measurement of selenium (Se), iodine (I), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) concentrations in 45 Japanese rivers at 10 sampling points from the upper stream to the river mouth for each river. Geometric mean concentrations for Se, I, Pb, Th and U were 0.057, 1.4, 0.039, 0.0055, 0.0109 ng/mL, respectively. Distribution patterns from upper stream to river mouth were different by elements, for instance, the concentrations of I, Th and U increased when the sampling points were nearer the river mouth, while that of Se were almost constant. For Pb, the highest value was observed in the middle part of each river in many cases. (authors)

  18. Low-Pressure Solubility of Gases in Liquid Water | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Emmerich Wilhelm, Rubin Battino and Robert J. Wilcock Published Journal Chemical reviews, 1977 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  19. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  20. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  1. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  2. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Nelson, L.S.; Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  3. Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration

  4. Comparison of Internal Energy Distributions of Ions Created by Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation-Liquid Vortex Capture-Electrospray Ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-27

    Recently a number of techniques have combined laser ablation with liquid capture for mass spectrometry spot sampling and imaging applications. The newly developed non-contact liquid-vortex capture probe has been used to efficiently collect 355 nm UV laser ablated material in a continuous flow solvent stream in which the captured material dissolves and then undergoes electrospray ionization. This sampling and ionization approach has produced what appear to be classic electrospray ionization spectra; however, the softness of this sampling/ionization process versus simple electrospray ionization has not been definitely determined. A series of benzlypyridinium salts, known as thermometer ions, were used to compare internal energy distributions between electrospray ionization and the UV laser ablation liquid-vortex capture probe electrospray combination. Measured internal energy distributions were identical between the two techniques, even with differences in laser fluence (0.7-3.1 J cm-2) and when using UV-absorbing or non-UV-absorbing sample substrates. This data indicates ions formed directly by UV laser ablation, if any, are likely an extremely small constituent of the total ion signal observed. Instead, neutral molecules, clusters or particulates ejected from the surface during laser ablation, subsequently captured and dissolved in the flowing solvent stream then electrosprayed are the predominant source of ion signal observed. The electrospray ionization process used controls the softness of the technique.

  5. Comparison of Internal Energy Distributions of Ions Created by Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation-Liquid Vortex Capture-Electrospray Ionization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-27

    Recently a number of techniques have combined laser ablation with liquid capture for mass spectrometry spot sampling and imaging applications. The newly developed non-contact liquid-vortex capture probe has been used to efficiently collect 355 nm UV laser ablated material in a continuous flow solvent stream in which the captured material dissolves and then undergoes electrospray ionization. This sampling and ionization approach has produced what appear to be classic electrospray ionization spectra; however, the softness of this sampling/ionization process versus simple electrospray ionization has not been definitely determined. A series of benzlypyridinium salts, known as thermometer ions, were used to comparemore » internal energy distributions between electrospray ionization and the UV laser ablation liquid-vortex capture probe electrospray combination. Measured internal energy distributions were identical between the two techniques, even with differences in laser fluence (0.7-3.1 J cm-2) and when using UV-absorbing or non-UV-absorbing sample substrates. This data indicates ions formed directly by UV laser ablation, if any, are likely an extremely small constituent of the total ion signal observed. Instead, neutral molecules, clusters or particulates ejected from the surface during laser ablation, subsequently captured and dissolved in the flowing solvent stream then electrosprayed are the predominant source of ion signal observed. The electrospray ionization process used controls the softness of the technique.« less

  6. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of liquid water: Energy relaxation and transfer processes of the OH stretch and the HOH bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2015-08-27

    The vibrational energy relaxation and transfer processes of the OH stretching and the HOH bending vibrations in liquid water are investigated via the theoretical calculation of the pump-probe spectra obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with the TTM3-F interaction potential. The excitation of the OH stretch induces an instantaneous response of the high frequency librational motions in the 600-1000 cm-1 range. In addition, the excess energy of the OH stretch of a water molecule quickly transfers to the OH stretches of molecules in its first hydration shell with a time constant of ~50 fs, followed by relaxation to the HOH bends of the surrounding molecules with a time constant of 230 fs. The excitation of the HOH bend also results in the ultrafast excitation of the high frequency librational motions. The energy of the excited HOH bend of a water molecule decays, with a time constant of 200 fs, mainly to the relaxation of the HOH bends of its surrounding molecules. The energies of the HOH bends were found to transfer quickly to the intermolecular motions via the coupling with the high frequency librational motions. The excess energy of the OH stretch or the HOH bend relaxes to the high frequency intermolecular librational motions and eventually to the hot ground state with a time scale of ~1 ps via the coupling with the librational and translational motions. The energy relaxation and transfer processes were found to depend on the local hydrogen bonding network; the relaxations of the excess energy of the OH stretch and the HOH bend of four- and five-coordinated molecules are faster than those of a three-coordinated molecule due to the delocalization of the vibrational motions of the former (four- and five-coordinated molecules) compared to those of the later (three-coordinated molecules). The present results highlight the importance of the high frequency intermolecular librational modes in facilitating the ultrafast energy relaxation process in

  8. High-brightness water-window electron-impact liquid-jet microfocus source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoglund, P.; Lundstroem, U.; Vogt, U.; Hertz, H. M.

    2010-02-22

    We demonstrate stable high-brightness operation of an electron-impact water-jet-anode soft x-ray source. A 30 kV, 7.8 W electron beam is focused onto a 20 mum diameter jet resulting in water-window oxygen line emission at 525 eV/2.36 nm with a brightness of 3.0x10{sup 9} ph/(sxmum{sup 2}xsrxline). Monte Carlo-based modeling shows good quantitative agreement with the experiments. The source has potential to increase the x-ray power and brightness by another 1-2 orders of magnitude and fluid-dynamical jet instabilities is determined to be the most important limiting factor. The source properties make it an attractive alternative for table-top x-ray microscopy.

  9. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  10. Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus

    2014-11-01

    A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.

  11. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al K–edge extended X–ray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 ºC water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al T–sites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brønsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brønsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brønsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of Si–O–Si group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  13. Dynamics of Water Associated with Lithium Ions Distributed in Polyethylene Oxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ohl, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane O.; Jalarvo, Niina H.; Hong, Kunlun; Han, Youngkyu; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-11-03

    We studied the dynamics of water in polyethylene oxide (PEO)/LiCl solution with quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two different time scales of water diffusion representing interfacial water and bulk water dynamics have been identified. Furthermore, the measured diffusion coefficient of interfacial water remained 5–10 times smaller than that of bulk water, but both were slowed by approximately 50% in the presence of Li+. Detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests that Li+ is favorably found at the surface of the hydration layer, and the probability to find the caged Li+ configuration formed by the PEO is lowermore » than for the noncaged Li+-PEO configuration. In both configurations, however, the slowing down of water molecules is driven by reorienting water molecules and creating water-Li+ hydration complexes. Moreover, performing the MD simulation with different ions (Na+ and K+) revealed that smaller ionic radius of the ions is a key factor in disrupting the formation of PEO cages by allowing spaces for water molecules to come in between the ion and PEO.« less

  14. Sodium-Water Reaction and Thermal Hydraulics at Gas-Liquid Interface: Numerical Interpretation of Experimental Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Suda, Kazunori

    2006-07-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor development, coupled phenomena of thermal-hydraulics and chemical reaction of sodium and water vapor are of importance from the safety viewpoint. However, the sodium-water reaction (SWR) phenomena are generally complex and the experimental measurement technology is not well matured. Therefore, a numerical simulation is used for the investigation of the SWR. In this paper, a new computer program has been developed and the SWR in a counter-flow diffusion flame is studied by a numerical simulations and an experiment as well. In the computer program, Navier-Stokes equations and chemical reaction equations are solved interactively. In addition, a dynamic equation of airborne particulates is coupled with the governing equations of thermal hydraulics. A source of the particulates is the chemical reaction products, i.e. sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. The SWR experiment is decided based on the numerical simulation. To obtain a stable reaction flame and to measure the temperature and reaction product distributions, the flow field in the experimental cell needs to be optimized. The numerical simulation is useful for designing experiments of complex phenomena and for obtaining the data. The computations are compared with experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the computational fluid dynamics code coupled with chemical reaction well predict the SWR. (authors)

  15. Dynamics of Water Associated with Lithium Ions Distributed in Polyethylene Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ohl, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane O.; Jalarvo, Niina H.; Hong, Kunlun; Han, Youngkyu; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-11-03

    We studied the dynamics of water in polyethylene oxide (PEO)/LiCl solution with quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two different time scales of water diffusion representing interfacial water and bulk water dynamics have been identified. Furthermore, the measured diffusion coefficient of interfacial water remained 5–10 times smaller than that of bulk water, but both were slowed by approximately 50% in the presence of Li+. Detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests that Li+ is favorably found at the surface of the hydration layer, and the probability to find the caged Li+ configuration formed by the PEO is lower than for the noncaged Li+-PEO configuration. In both configurations, however, the slowing down of water molecules is driven by reorienting water molecules and creating water-Li+ hydration complexes. Moreover, performing the MD simulation with different ions (Na+ and K+) revealed that smaller ionic radius of the ions is a key factor in disrupting the formation of PEO cages by allowing spaces for water molecules to come in between the ion and PEO.

  16. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for Food and Beverage Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ruijie

    2013-12-30

    Food and beverage plants inherently consume a large quantity of water and generate a high volume of wastewater rich in organic content. On one hand, water discharge regulations are getting more stringent over the time, necessitating the use of different technologies to reduce the amount of wastewater and improve the effluent water quality. On the other hand, growing energy and water costs are driving the plants to extract and reuse valuable energy and water from the wastewater stream. An integrated waste-tovalue system uses a combination of anaerobic digester (AD), reciprocating gas engine/boiler, membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO) to recover valuable energy as heat and/or electricity as well as purify the water for reuse. While individual anaerobic digestion and membrane bioreactors are being used in increasing numbers, there is a growing need to integrate them together in a waste-to-value system for enhanced energy and water recovery. However, currently operation of these systems relies heavily on the plant operator to perform periodic sampling and off-line lab analysis to monitor the system performance, detect any abnormal condition due to variations in the wastewater and decide on appropriate remedial action needed. This leads to a conservative design and operation of these systems to avoid any potential upsets that can destabilize the system.

  17. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste-to-value is a promising and comprehensive wastewater processing solution being pursued by GE that recovers valuable energy and purified water from the abundant wastewater generated and...

  18. Vapor-liquid Equilibria and Polarization Behavior of the GCP Water Model: Gaussian Charge-on-spring versus Dipole Self-consistent Field approaches to induced polarization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Moucka, Filip; Vlcek, Lukas; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We implemented the Gaussian charge-on-spring (GCOS) version of the original self-consistent field implementation of the Gaussian Charge Polarizable water model and test its accuracy to represent the polarization behavior of the original model involving smeared charges and induced dipole moments. For that purpose we adapted the recently developed multiple-particle-move (MPM) within the Gibbs and isochoric-isothermal ensembles Monte Carlo methods for the efficient simulation of polarizable fluids. We assessed the accuracy of the GCOS representation by a direct comparison of the resulting vapor-liquid phase envelope, microstructure, and relevant microscopic descriptors of water polarization along the orthobaric curve against the corresponding quantitiesmore » from the actual GCP water model.« less

  19. Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium and Polarization Behavior of the GCP Water Model: Gaussian Charge-on-Spring versus Dipole Self-Consistent Field Approaches to Induced Polarization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Moucka, Filip; Vlcek, Lukas; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-03-24

    Here we implemented the Gaussian charge-on-spring (GCOS) version of the original self-consistent field implementation of the Gaussian Charge Polarizable water model and test its accuracy to represent the polarization behavior of the original model involving smeared charges and induced dipole moments. Moreover, for that purpose we adapted the recently developed multiple-particle-move (MPM) within the Gibbs and isochoric-isothermal ensembles Monte Carlo methods for the efficient simulation of polarizable fluids. We also assessed the accuracy of the GCOS representation by a direct comparison of the resulting vapor-liquid phase envelope, microstructure, and relevant microscopic descriptors of water polarization along the orthobaric curve againstmore » the corresponding quantities from the actual GCP water model.« less

  20. Porosity distribution in Wolfcamp strata, Palo Duro basin, Texas panhandle: implications for deep-basin ground-water flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, R.D.; Wirojanagud, P.

    1984-04-01

    Average-porosity distributions in the Wolfcamp deep-basin aquifer are critical to discernment of the geographic trends in effective-porosity in the Palo Duro basin. Precise data are used to improved resolution of porosity values for computer-simulated areal ground-water modeling. Assessing vertical distributions of lithology and porosity in each well studied involves analysis of crossplotted neutron- and density-porosity log responses. This method more accurately identifies lithology and porosity than does the commonly employed crossplotted neutron-porosity and sonic (interval travel time) responses. Log-derived average-porosity distributions yield information about effective pore volume (i.e., movable water) in the Wolfcamp aquifer and enhance the accuracy of estimated of travel times and velocities of brines in basinwide traverses. Mathematical analysis of average travel time and total effective pore volume yield estimates of the rates of annual discharge from the Wolfcamp aquifer in the Palo Duro basin. Based on average flush rates between 2.2 and 1.5 m.y., annual discharge rates from the Wolfcamp aquifer across the northern and eastern basin boundaries, are about 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ year/sup -1/ to 5.3 x 10/sup 5/m/sup 3/ year/sup -1/.

  1. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen ...

  2. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    comparison with light water reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor Liquid Fluoride ...

  3. A dual-reservoir remote loading water target system for {sup 18}F and {sup 13}N production with direct in-target liquid level sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes our universal water target loading system that serves both [{sup 18}F] and [{sup 13}N] production targets, and a radionuclide delivery system that is specific for [{sup 18}F] fluoride. The system was designed and fabricated around the operation of a single pneumatic syringe dispenser that accesses one of two reservoirs filled with [{sup 18}O] enriched water for [{sup 18}F] fluoride production from the {sup 18}O(p,n){sup 18}F reaction and natural abundance water for [{sup 13}N] nitrate/nitrite production from the {sup 16}O(p,{alpha}){sup 13}N reaction and loads one of two targets depending on the radionuclide desired. The system offers several novel features for reliable radionuclide production. First, there exists an in-target probe for direct liquid level sensing using the conductivity response of water. In addition, transfer of [{sup 18}F] fluoride to the Hot Lab is completely decoupled from the irradiated water through the actions of a resin/recovery system which is located in the cyclotron vault, thus maintaining transfer line integrity. This feature also provides a mechanism for vault-containment of long-lived contaminants generated through target activation and leaching into the water.

  4. A dual-reservoir remote loading water target system for sup 18 F and sup 13 N production with direct in-target liquid level sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes our universal water target loading system that serves both ({sup 18}F) and ({sup 13}N) production targets, and a radionuclide delivery system that is specific for ({sup 18}F) fluoride. The system was designed and fabricated around the operation of a single pneumatic syringe dispenser that accesses one of two reservoirs filled with ({sup 18}O) enriched water for ({sup 18}F) fluoride production from the {sup 18}O(p,n){sup 18}F reaction and natural abundance water for ({sup 13}N) nitrate/nitrite production from the {sup 16}O(p,{alpha}){sup 13}N reaction and loads one of two targets depending on the radionuclide desired. The system offers several novel features for reliable radionuclide production. First, there exists an in-target probe for direct liquid level sensing using the conductivity response of water. In addition, transfer of ({sup 18}F) fluoride to the Hot Lab is completely decoupled from the irradiated water through the actions of a resin/recovery system which is located in the cyclotron vault, thus maintaining transfer line integrity. This feature also provides a mechanism for vault-containment of long-lived contaminants generated through target activation and leaching into the water.

  5. Technical Note: Improvements in GEANT4 energy-loss model and the effect on low-energy electron transport in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyriakou, I.; Incerti, S.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The GEANT4-DNA physics models are upgraded by a more accurate set of electron cross sections for ionization and excitation in liquid water. The impact of the new developments on low-energy electron transport simulations by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit is examined for improving its performance in dosimetry applications at the subcellular and nanometer level. Methods: The authors provide an algorithm for an improved implementation of the Emfietzoglou model dielectric response function of liquid water used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model. The algorithm redistributes the imaginary part of the dielectric function to ensure a physically motivated behavior at the binding energies, while retaining all the advantages of the original formulation, e.g., the analytic properties and the fulfillment of the f-sum-rule. In addition, refinements in the exchange and perturbation corrections to the Born approximation used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model are also made. Results: The new ionization and excitation cross sections are significantly different from those of the GEANT4-DNA existing model. In particular, excitations are strongly enhanced relative to ionizations, resulting in higher W-values and less diffusive dose-point-kernels at sub-keV electron energies. Conclusions: An improved energy-loss model for the excitation and ionization of liquid water by low-energy electrons has been implemented in GEANT4-DNA. The suspiciously low W-values and the unphysical long tail in the dose-point-kernel have been corrected owing to a different partitioning of the dielectric function.

  6. Quantum calculations of the IR spectrum of liquid water using ab initio and model potential and dipole moment surfaces and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2015-05-21

    The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  8. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  9. Molecular Mechanism of the Adsorption Process of an Iodide Anion into Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Water-Methanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.

    2012-12-07

    To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ion adsorption to the interface of mixtures, we systematically carried out a free energy calculations study involving the transport of an iodide anion across the interface of a water-methanol mixture. Many body affects are taken into account to describe the interactions among the species. The surface propensities of I- at interfaces of pure water and methanol are well understood. In contrast, detailed knowledge of the molecular level adsorption process of I- at aqueous mixture interfaces has not been reported. In this paper, we explore how this phenomenon will be affected for mixed solvents with varying compositions of water and methanol. Our potential of mean force study as function of varying compositions indicated that I- adsorption free energies decrease from pure water to pure methanol but not linearly with the concentration of methanol. We analyze the computed density profiles and hydration numbers as a function of concentrations and ion positions with respect to the interface to further explain the observed phenomenon. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  10. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  11. Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid interfaces |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Molecular orbital representation of the electronic states in the first solvation shell in water. The inset shows different contributions (total, inter- and intra-molecular) to the IR stretching band of liquid water. Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid interfaces PI Name: Giulia Galli PI Email: gagalli@ucdavis.edu Institution: University of California, Davis Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 1 Million Year: 2010

  12. Characterization of Surface Water/Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport Using Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee D. Slater; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Fred Day-Lewis; Kisa Mwakanyamale; Roelof J Versteeg; Andy Ward; Christopher Strickland; Carole D. Johnson; John Lane

    2010-10-01

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the river corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted CWEI (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The FO- DTS data recorded along a 1.5 km of cable with a 1-m spatial resolution and 5-minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and, (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water/groundwater exchange. The FO-DTS datasets confirm the

  13. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

  14. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf (471.59 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  15. Hydration of DNA by tritiated water and isotope distribution: a study by /sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, and /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur-De Vre, R.; Grimee-Declerck, R.; Lejeune, P.; Bertinchamps, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    The hydration layer of DNA (0.75%) in tritiated water represents 3.5% of solvent /sup 3/HHO. The combined effects of temperature (-6 to -40/sup 0/C) and H/sub 2/O//sup 2/H/sub 2/O solvent composition on the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons and deuterons suggest selective distribution of isotopes in the hydration layer. The ''hydration isotope'' effect and the localization of tritiated water molecules in the hydration layer of DNA have important implications in describing the radiobiological effects of tritiated water because the initial molecular damage caused by /sup 3/HHO (internal radiation source) localizes close to /sup 3/H due to the short range and low energy of /sup 3/H ..beta.. rays.

  16. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  18. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometric analysis of liquid chromatography ... Accurate mass measurement and tandem mass spectrometry ... WATER Electrospray; System; Contaminants; Cell; ...

  19. QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastruct...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LF-1 Chapter VII Appendix A LIQUID FUELS LF-2 QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastructure | April 2015 Appendix A: LIQUID FUELS Introduction The...

  20. QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastruct...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastructure | April 2015 Appendix A: LIQUID FUELS Introduction The existing liquid fuel component of the energy ...

  1. LIQUID TARGET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  2. Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 09_pnnl_h2_from_bio-derived_liquids.pdf (326.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Renewable

  3. Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Calculator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-02-19

    Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid or "NPAL" is a term that most environmental professionals are familiar with because NAPL has been recognized in the literature as a significant source of groundwater contamination. There are two types of NAPL: DNAPL and LNAPL. DNAPL is a ‘dense’ non-aqueous phase liquid. In this context, dense means having a density greater than water (1.0 kg/L). Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachioroethylene (PCE) are examples of DNAPL compounds. A compound that is heaver thanmore » water means this type of NAPL will sink in an aquifer. Conversely, LNAPL is a ‘light’ non-aqueous phase liquid with a density less than water, and will float on top of the aquifer. Examples of LNAPL’s are benzene and toluene. LNAPL or DNAPL often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media. Complex multi-component mixtures distributed in soil pore-air, pore-water, soil particles and in free phase complicate residual saturation of single and multi component NAPL compounds in soil samples. The model output also includes estimates of the NAPL mass and volume and other physical and chemical properties that may be useful for characterization, modeling, and remedial system design and operation. The discovery of NAPL in the aquifer usually leads to a focused characterization for possible sources of NAPL in the vadose zone using a variety of innovative technologies and characterization methods. Often, the analytical data will indicated the presence of NAPL, yet, the NAPL will go unrecognized. Failure to recognize the NAPL can be attributed to the complicated processes of inter-media transfer or a general lack of knowledge about the physical characteristics of complex organic mixtures in environmental samples.« less

  4. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  5. Structure of water adsorbed on a mica surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sung-Ho; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-29

    Monte Carlo simulations of hydration water on the mica (001) surface under ambient conditions revealed water molecules bound closely to the ditrigonal cavities in the surface, with a lateral distribution of approximately one per cavity, and water molecules interposed between K{sup +} counter ions in a layer situated about 2.5 {angstrom} from a surface O along a direction normal to the (001) plane. The calculated water O density profile was in quantitative agreement with recent X-ray reflectivity measurements indicating strong lateral ordering of the hydration water but liquid-like disorder otherwise.

  6. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  7. Evolution of temperature distributions in a full-scale stratified chilled-water storage tank with radial diffusers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-10-01

    Temperature profiles in a full-scale, naturally stratified, chilled-water thermal storage tank are described. Tests were performed using a 1.4 million gallon (5,300 m{sup 3}), 44.5 ft (13.56 m) water depth cylindrical tank with radial diffusers. Nine charge and discharge cycle tests were performed for various flow rates, covering and extending beyond the normal operating range of the system. A method for obtaining thermocline thickness from field data was derived, and a relationship between inlet flow rate and initial thermocline thickness was established. Significant differences between profiles obtained for charge and discharge cycles at similar flow rates suggest that the free surface at the top of the tank allows more mixing to occur near the upper diffuser. A study of thermocline growth compares measured temperature profiles with those predicted by a numerical conduction model that uses temperature profiles measured early in the cycle as an initial condition. Comparison with the numerical study shows that, for high flow rate tests, large-scale mixing induced by the inlet diffuser can have significant effects on thermocline development, even after the thermocline has moved away from the inlet diffuser.

  8. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  9. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  10. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Liquid Mixtures and Solid/Liquid Interfaces |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Simulations were carried out with the Qbox code Square modulus ( blue surface) of the highest occupied orbital (HOMO) of a chloride anion (green sphere) in liquid water (oxygen and hydrogen atoms are represented by red and white spheres, respectively), as obtained with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using hybrid functionals. The relative positions of the anion HOMO and the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) of liquid

  11. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 m) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 m), known as the small mode. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud

  12. Hybrid Rotor Compression for Multiphase and Liquids-Rich Wellhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but also allows for compression of wet gas, or gas that contains liquid content. At many natural gas wellheads, liquids-typically heavier hydrocarbons and water-are present in the...

  13. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  14. Analysis of methyl neodecanamide in lake water by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, H.T.; Friedman, S.K.; Mustilli, A.J.; McDonough, R.; McPherson, B.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Methyl Neodecanamide (MNDA) has been quantified in lake water at levels of 0.1 to 1,000 ppm. Total recoveries from spiked placebos were 99.8 [+-] 2.3% at the 1,000 ppm level and 98.3 [+-] 4.3% at the 0.1 ppm level (based on 54 determinations at each level). Plots of actual concentrations vs. determined concentrations were linear from 0.07--0.13 and 700--1,300 ppm (r > 0.999). Stability of MNDA in lake water was verified by determining the composition by GC/MS immediately after dissolution and after 3 days.

  15. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  16. Phase equilibria of the ternary system water + propionic acid + 2-butanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radwan, G.M.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A.

    1997-05-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system water + propionic acid + 2-butanol was measured over a temperature range of 298 to 318 K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds for the nonrandom, two liquid (NRTL) equilibrium model as a function of temperature. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the NRTL model. Based on this work, the distribution coefficients were also calculated and compared with the experimental values.

  17. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  18. Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Polyols in Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caratzoulas, Stavros; Courtney, Timothy; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2011-01-01

    We use the conversion of protonated glycerol to acrolein for a case study of the mechanism of acid-catalyzed dehydration of polyols in aqueous environments. We employ hybrid Quamtum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations with biased sampling and perform free energy calculations for the elementary steps of the reaction. We investigate the effects of solvent dynamics and in particular the role of quantum mechanical water in the dehydration mechanism. We present results supporting a mechanism that proceeds via water-mediated proton transfers and thus through an enol intermediate. We find that the first dehydration may take place by two, low-energy pathways requiring, respectively, 20.9 and 18.8 kcal/mol of activation free energy. The second dehydration requires 19.9 kcal/mol of activation free energy while for the overall reaction we compute a free energy change of -8 kcal/mol.

  19. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  20. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  1. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  2. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a...

  3. Development of a promising filtration method for liquid clarification in nuclear facilities. [For TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, ZnBr/sub 2/ shielding solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Byrd, L.A.; Ross, R.G.; Savage, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conclusions reached are that deep beds of diatomaceous earths are especially attractive for clarification of radioactive solutions, or slurries containing insoluble radioactive material, because the diatomaceous material provides a noncompressible medium that is retentive for a wide variety of particle sizes. Also, the diatomaceous material, because of its inorganic composition, is resistant to degradation by radiation from the retained particulate matter. Its silicious character is especially appropriate for conversion to vitrified or cement-type waste forms. This paper studied the use of diatomaceous earth to filter synthetic TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, and zinc bromide solutions (hot-cell shielding).

  4. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  5. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  6. Cesium-137 in K west basin canister water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1997-01-24

    Liquid and gas samples were taken from 50 K West Basin fuel storage canisters in 1996. The cesium-137 data from the liquid samples and an analysis of the data are presented. The analysis indicated that the cesium-137 data follow a lognormal distribution. Assuming that the total distribution of the K West canister water was predicted, the total K West Basin canister water was estimated to contain about 8,150 curies. The mean canister contains about 2.14 curies with as many as 5% or 190 of the canisters exceeding 19 curies. Opening ten canisters per shift could include a hot canister (cesium-137 > 25 curies) in one out of eight shifts.

  7. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  8. X-ray Studies of the Interface Between Two Polar Liquids: Neat and with Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G.; Malkova, S.; Pingali, S.V.; Schultz, D.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.; Graber, T.; Gebhardt, J.; Vanysek, P.; Schlossman, M.L.

    2010-11-30

    We demonstrate the use of X-ray reflectivity to probe the electron density profile normal to the interface between two polar liquids. Measurements of the interfacial width at the neat nitrobenzene/water and the neat water/2-heptanone interfaces are presented. These widths are consistent with predictions from capillary wave theory that describe thermal interfacial fluctuations determined by the tension and bending rigidity of the interface. Variation of the temperature of the water/nitrobenzene interface from 25 C to 55 C indicates that the role of the bending rigidity decreases with increasing temperature. X-ray reflectivity measurements of the electrified interface between an aqueous solution of BaCl{sub 2} and a nitrobenzene solution of TBATPB demonstrate the sensitivity of these measurements to the electrolyte distribution at the interface. A preliminary analysis of these data illustrates the inadequacy of the simplest, classical Gouy-Chapman theory of the electrolyte distribution.

  9. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  10. Sensor for detection of liquid spills on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Brent C.; Gayle, Tom M.

    1989-07-04

    A surface liquid detector is disclosed for detecting liquids spilled on surfaces such as floors. A temperature-sensitive thermistor probe is used in a bridge circuit to detect the change in resistance in the thermistor due to the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when a liquid contacts the probe. The device is characterized by the ability to detect either conductive or nonconductive liquids, such as water or oil spills.