National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid water content

  1. 7, 40654083, 2007 Liquid water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 4065­4083, 2007 Liquid water content and effective number density Y. Hu et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density: Y. Hu (yongxiang.hu-1@nasa.gov) 4065 #12;ACPD 7, 4065­4083, 2007 Liquid water content and effective

  2. Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Liquid Water Content using the Forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Liquid Water Content using the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe Water Content? Basic Cloud Parameter (MPACE) Icing Studies (WISP04, Sikorsky) Comparison with Remote Sensing Measurements (THORpex, IOP1) #12;Liquid Water Content Calculation The amount of liquid water

  3. DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has- ter content, ql , and cloud fraction, C. This provides in- formation about partial cloudiness. Tiedtke

  4. Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar ROBIN J. HOGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar ROBIN J. HOGAN , NICOLAS GAUSSIAT ABSTRACT A technique is described to retrieve stratocumulus liquid water content (LWC) using the integrated water content of the column, which is then partitioned with height according to the radar

  5. Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual Wavelength Radar Robin J. Hogan # , Anthony J. Illingworth, John W. F. Goddard + , Suzanne C. H. M. Jongen # and Henri Sauvageot ++

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual Wavelength Radar Robin J. Hogan # , Anthony J­ quid water content (LWC) of such clouds, but active measure­ ments are required in order to obtain information on the vertical distribution of liquid water in the cloud. One of the main prob­ lems

  6. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

  7. Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

  8. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water MicrojetsElectrokinetic power generation using liquid water microjetscalculations of power generation and conversion efficiency.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Data Discovery Browse Data

  10. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  11. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  12. Proton Electrodynamics in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Volkov; V. G. Artemov; A. V. Pronin

    2013-02-20

    The dielectric spectrum of liquid water, $10^{4} - 10^{11}$ Hz, is interpreted in terms of diffusion of charges, formed as a result of self-ionization of H$_{2}$O molecules. This approach explains the Debye relaxation and the dc conductivity as two manifestations of this diffusion. The Debye relaxation is due to the charge diffusion with a fast recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{2}$, while the dc conductivity is a manifestation of the diffusion with a much slower recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{1}$. Applying a simple model based on Brownian-like diffusion, we find $\\tau_{2} \\simeq 10^{-11}$ s and $\\tau_{1} \\simeq 10^{-6}$ s, and the concentrations of the charge carriers, involved in each of the two processes, $N_{2} \\simeq 5 \\times 10^{26}$ m$^{-3}$ and $N_{1} \\simeq 10^{14}$ m$^{-3}$. Further, we relate $N_{2}$ and $N_{1}$ to the total concentration of H$_{3}$O$^{+}$--OH$^{-}$ pairs and to the pH index, respectively, and find the lifetime of a single water molecule, $\\tau_{0} \\simeq 10^{-9}$ s. Finally, we show that the high permittivity of water results mostly from flickering of separated charges, rather than from reorientations of intact molecular dipoles.

  13. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  14. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The...

  15. Determination of cloud liquid water distribution using 3D cloud tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Determination of cloud liquid water distribution using 3D cloud tomography Dong Huang,1 Yangang Liu; published 2 July 2008. [1] The cloud microwave tomography method for remotely retrieving 3D distributions of cloud Liquid Water Content (LWC) was originally proposed by Warner et al. in the 1980s but has lain

  16. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  18. Vegetation water content mapping using Landsat data derived normalized difference water index for corn and soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Vegetation water content mapping using Landsat data derived normalized difference water index Information about vegetation water content (VWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, forestry. D 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Vegetation water content; Landsat; NDWI 1

  19. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Morawetz

    2012-05-29

    The phenomena of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A new solution for the charged catenary is presented which allows to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length as well as the shape of the bridge is calculated showing an asymmetric profile in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges.

  20. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00...

  1. PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo of T richodesmium floating on the surface over water of very low phosphorus content. #12;CONTENTS Page Methods

  2. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative water model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 Determining T g for water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv Contents 6 Frustrating water at ordered surfaces 6.1

  3. VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ^402: VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA by William J Introduction 1 Sampling intragravel water for dissolved oxygen content 2 Obtaining water samples from

  4. Original article Estimation of leaf water content and specific leaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Estimation of leaf water content and specific leaf weight from reflectance and transmittance spectra measured over the 1 300-2 400-nm domain and the corresponding water content (g.cm-2) for pure water. We then investigated the possibility of estimating leaf water content and specific weight

  5. Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

  6. NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN CALIFORNIA VINEYARDS S (sshubbard@lbl.gov) Detailed estimates of water content are necessary for variety of hydrogeological inves to obtain sufficient information about the spatial variation of water content within the root zone using

  7. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content Matthias Strahser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content Matthias Strahser Institut de Physique of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content Matthias Strahser, Institut f¨ur Geowissenschaften, Abteilung of electrical properties to water content and permeability and the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys

  8. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grote, K.

    2010-01-01

    wave method for soil water content measurement: Hydrologicalfor estimating soil water content during irrigation andvariations of the soil water content in an agro-ecosystem

  9. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    of a Permanent Magnet for Water Content Measurements of Wooda device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulpsystem. The results of water content measurements in wood

  10. Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geissler, Phillip

    Hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken only fleetingly J. D. Eaves* , J. J. Loparo* , C. J that the local structure of liquid water has tetrahedral arrangements of molecules ordered by hydrogen bonds, the mechanism by which water molecules switch hydrogen-bonded partners remains unclear. In this mechanism

  11. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    as well as the water content and water retention propertiesvariations in soil-water content, Water Resources Research,eld soil. Subsequent to water content water measurement, the

  12. Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate of free-living stages- ent faecal water contents (FWC) simulating a submersion (7 or 16 h) or an alternance of spraying, T vitrinus in summer, but higher rates were observed in autumn. The action of water had more effect

  13. Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Structure Effects in Liquid Water studied by Photoelectronphotoelectron emission spectra of liquid water in comparisonwith gas-phase water, ice close to the melting point, low

  14. Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate Montpellier, France Abstract The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective

  15. Interactions between liquid-water and gas-diffusion layers in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Prodip K.; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2015-06-11

    Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has been conducted to improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of fuel cell systems. However, the cost associated with the platinum (Pt) catalyst remains a barrier to their commercialization and PEFC durability standards have yet to be established. An effective path toward reducing PEFC cost is making the catalyst layers (CLs) thinner thus reducing expensive Pt content. The limit of thin CLs is high gas-transport resistance and the performance of these CLs is sensitive to the operating temperature due to their inherent lowmore »water uptake capacity, which results in higher sensitivity to liquid-water flooding and reduced durability. Therefore, reducing PEFC's cost by decreasing Pt content and improving PEFC's performance and durability by managing liquid-water are still challenging and open topics of research. An overlooked aspect nowadays of PEFC water management is the gas-diffusion layer (GDL). While it is known that GDL's properties can impact performance, typically it is not seen as a critical component. In this work, we present data showing the importance of GDLs in terms of water removal and management while also exploring the interactions between liquid-water and GDL surfaces. The critical interface of GDL and gas-flow-channel in the presence of liquid-water was examined through systematic studies of adhesion forces as a function of water-injection rate for various GDLs of varying thickness. GDL properties (breakthrough pressure and adhesion force) were measured experimentally under a host of test conditions. Specifically, the effects of GDL hydrophobic (PTFE) content, thickness, and water-injection rate were examined to identify trends that may be beneficial to the design of liquid-water management strategies and next-generation GDL materials for PEFCs.« less

  16. Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    October 2005. [1] We examine liquid water paths (LWPs) derived from ship-based microwave radiometer to microwave absorption model differences are 10­25 g mÀ2 , increasing with LWP. The most recent models produce cycle, through the longwave cloud top radiative cooling and liquid water's ability to absorb solar

  17. Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Graham

    Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters M.B. Santos*P , G, Stratherrick Road, Inverness, IV24JZ. P E-mail: m.b.santos@abdn.ac.uk Data on stomach contents of ten information exists on the feeding habits of the species in Scottish waters. Cod (Gadus morhua), saithe

  18. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Radiological Physics Center, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 7515 South Main Street, Suite 300, Houston, Texas 77030-4519 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  19. Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

  20. Ionic content dependence of viscoelasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal sunset yellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang Zhou; Adam J. Cervenka; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2014-10-10

    A lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) is an orientationally ordered system made by self-assembled aggregates of charged organic molecules in water, bound by weak non-covalent attractive forces and stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. We determine how the ionic content of the LCLC, namely the presence of mono- and divalent salts and pH enhancing agent, alter the viscoelastic properties of the LCLC. Aqueous solutions of the dye Sunset Yellow with a uniaxial nematic order are used as an example. By applying a magnetic field to impose orientational deformations, we measure the splay $K_1$, twist $K_2$ and bend $K_3$ elastic constants and rotation viscosity $\\gamma_1$ as a function of concentration of additives. The data indicate that the viscoelastic parameters are influenced by ionic content in dramatic and versatile ways. For example, the monovalent salt NaCl decreases $K_3$ and $K_2$ and increases $\\gamma_1$, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals formed by covalently bound units of fixed length.

  1. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  2. NOTE / NOTE New observations on urine contents in water-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatnick, Itzick

    NOTE / NOTE New observations on urine contents in water- deprived Negev Desert rodents Carmi Korine of the murid subfamilies Gerbillinae and Cricetomyinae from the Namib Desert, when deprived of water, excreted much water. This phenomenon has not been reported in other rodents, and whether it is a trait

  3. Spectroscopic investigations of hydrogen bond dynamics in liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fecko, Christopher J., 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Many of the remarkable physical and chemical properties of liquid water are due to the strong influence hydrogen bonds have on its microscopic dynamics. However, because of the fast timescales involved, there are relatively ...

  4. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  5. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Laura

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

  7. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  8. Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

    2008-07-18

    The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

  9. Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajit Santra; Robert A. DiStasio Jr.; Fausto Martelli; Roberto Car

    2015-02-27

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of the experimentally observed low- (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous phases of ice are present in the IPES of ambient liquid water. Analysis of the LSI autocorrelation function uncovered a persistence time of $\\sim$ 4 ps---a finding consistent with the fact that natural thermal fluctuations are responsible for transitions between these distinct yet transient local aqueous environments in ambient liquid water.

  10. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC a stronger control on seasonal LFMC dynamics than actual changes in water content, and they challenge

  11. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappa, Chris D.

    2008-01-01

    the “free” –OH bond. The water molecule of interest is shownAbsorption Spectra of Liquid Water Microjets Christopher D.spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. [J. Phys.

  12. Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties. Most database. Results showed that use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity as a predictor led

  13. Equation of State for Supercooled Water Near the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Anisimov; D. A. Fuentevilla

    2006-09-19

    We have developed a scaled parametric equation of state to describe and predict thermodynamic properties of supercooled water. The equation of state, built on the growing evidence that the critical point of supercooled liquid-liquid water separation exists, is universal in terms of theoretical scaling fields and is shown to belong to the Ising-model class of universality. The theoretical scaling fields are postulated to be analytical combinations of the physical fields, pressure and temperature. The equation of state enables us to accurately locate the "Widom line" (the locus of stability minima) and determine that the critical pressure is considerably lower than predicted by computer simulations.

  14. Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Biswajit; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of th...

  15. REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 30:43-54 (1989) Detection of Changes in Leaf Water Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    1989-01-01

    REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 30:43-54 (1989) Detection of Changes in Leaf Water Content Using Near the ability of the Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) to determine leaf Relative Water content (RWC) of different with little adjustment (Jackson, 1982; Hunt et al., 1987). One such method is the Leaf Water Content Index

  16. Near Surface Water Content Estimation using GPR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    waves can be used to estimate soil water content · Short pulses of High frequency EM energy · Variations) Improved irrigation management; 3) Improved understanding of ecosystem responses and terroir; 4) May assist, evapotranspiration, and groundwater storage From Or and Rubin, 1990 ** Accurate Spatial and Temporal Variations

  17. Long range optical phonons in liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elton, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show that on subpicosecond time scales optical phonon modes can propagate through the H-bond network of water over relatively long distances (2-4 nm). Using molecular dynamics simulation we find propagating optical phonons in the librational and OH stretching bands. The OH stretching phonon only appears when a polarizable model (TTM3-F) is employed. Both of these phonon modes exhibit LO-TO splitting at $k = 0$, indicating long range dipole-dipole interactions in the system. We study the LO-TO splitting as a function of temperature, finding that the splitting increases for the librational mode at higher temperatures but decreases for the stretching mode. Since LO-TO splitting is intimately connected to structure, this analysis opens the door for new insights into how the local structure of water changes with temperature. Our results also explain a previously unnoticed discrepancy one encounters when comparing the librational peaks found in Raman and IR/dielectric spectra. Previously the three R...

  18. Effects of Water Content and Molecular Weight on Spin Probe and Water Mobility in Malto-oligomer Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    Effects of Water Content and Molecular Weight on Spin Probe and Water Mobility in Malto content from 10 to 30 wt % leads to a decrease in spin probe mobility at Tg while the water mobility increasing water content. From proton density measurements we conclude that the concomitant increase

  19. Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content was used to assess the role of root water uptake on the spatial variability of moisture content the spa- tial variability in moisture content due to root water uptake from variability in soil hydraulic

  20. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ? 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  1. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore »1.31 ± 0.59 % after ? 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  2. Measurement of Radiation Damage of Water-based Liquid Scintillator and Liquid Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignell, Lindsey J; Hans, Sunej; Jaffe, David E; Rosero, Richard; Vigdor, Steven; Viren, Brett; Worcester, Elizabeth; Yeh, Minfang; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of $5\\%$ scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of $1.74 \\pm 0.55 \\%$ and $1.31 \\pm 0.59 \\%$ after $\\approx$ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Whilst some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical conte...

  3. Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements Nigel WATT1 continental crust, although water contents are still extremely high for rocks melted at atmospheric pressure H2O and Zn or Pb contents. Combined with water contents of other tektites in the Australasian strewn

  4. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES· JJ. By M. C. Marsh United at Washington. U. S. A.· September 22 to 26. 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Natural impurities in water u n u _ _ u gas content- u u u u u 898 Dissolved air content of water from a driven weILuuu u______________ 898

  5. Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

  6. Liquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    , liquid bulk water begins to ex- pand when its temperature drops below 4°C. Indeed, a simple kitchen layers of 0°C water "float" on top (cf, Fig. 1 of Ref [2]). The mysterious properties of liquidLiquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological

  7. Coupled cluster benchmarks of water monomers and dimers extracted from density-functional theory liquid water: The importance of monomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    Coupled cluster benchmarks of water monomers and dimers extracted from density-functional theory functionals in simulations of liquid water, water monomers and dimers were extracted from a PBE simulation liquid water: The importance of monomer deformations Biswajit Santra,1 Angelos Michaelides,1,2,a

  8. Spatially Inhomogeneous Bimodal Inherent Structure in Simulated Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. T. Wikfeldt; A. Nilsson; L. G. M. Pettersson

    2011-06-24

    In the supercooled regime at elevated pressure two forms of liquid water, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL), have been proposed to be separated by a coexistence line ending at a critical point, but a connection to ambient conditions has been lacking. Here we perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and demonstrate that the underlying potential energy surface gives a strictly bimodal characterization of the molecules at all temperatures as spatially inhomogeneous either LDL- or HDL-like with a 3:1 predominance for HDL at ambient conditions. The Widom line, indicating maximum fluctuations, coincides with a 1:1 distribution. Our results indicate a unified description of liquid water covering supercooled to ambient conditions in agreement with recent x-ray spectroscopy and scattering data.

  9. Characterization and Modeling of a Water-based Liquid Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey J. Bignell; Dmitriy Beznosko; Milind V. Diwan; Sunej Hans; David E. Jaffe; Steven Kettell; Richard Rosero; Harry W. Themann; Brett Viren; Elizabeth Worcester; Minfang Yeh; Chao Zhang

    2015-08-27

    We have characterised Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) using low energy protons, UV-VIS absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have also developed and validated a simulation model that describes the behaviour of WbLS in our detector configurations for proton beam energies of 2 GeV, 475 MeV, and 210 MeV and for two WbLS compositions. Our results have enabled us to estimate the light yield and ionisation quenching of WbLS, as well as to understand the influence of the wavelength shifting of Cerenkov light on our measurements. These results are relevant to the suitability of water-based liquid scintillator materials for next generation intensity frontier experiments.

  10. Characterization and Modeling of a Water-based Liquid Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignell, Lindsey J; Diwan, Milind V; Hans, Sunej; Jaffe, David E; Kettell, Steven; Rosero, Richard; Themann, Harry W; Viren, Brett; Worcester, Elizabeth; Yeh, Minfang; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We have characterised Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) using low energy protons, UV-VIS absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have also developed and validated a simulation model that describes the behaviour of WbLS in our detector configurations for proton beam energies of 2 GeV, 475 MeV, and 210 MeV and for two WbLS compositions. Our results have enabled us to estimate the light yield and ionisation quenching of WbLS, as well as to understand the influence of the wavelength shifting of Cerenkov light on our measurements. These results are relevant to the suitability of water-based liquid scintillator materials for next generation intensity frontier experiments.

  11. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  12. Assessment of shock effects on amphibole water contents and hydrogen isotope compositions: 2. Kaersutitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    Assessment of shock effects on amphibole water contents and hydrogen isotope compositions: 2 in kaersutite water contents (H2O=0.25­0.89 wt. %), decreases in Fe3+ /Fe (4­20%), and enrichments in hydrogen atmosphere led to increased water contents and reduced Fe. Fe reduction and water addition via the reaction

  13. PARAMETRIC STUDY ON THE WATER CONTENT PROFILES AND OXIDATION RATES IN NEARLY SATURATED TAILINGS ABOVE THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    PARAMETRIC STUDY ON THE WATER CONTENT PROFILES AND OXIDATION RATES IN NEARLY SATURATED TAILINGS of various factors on the water content profiles in reactive tailings. The results presented here show that the position of the water table has a large influence on the water content profiles and on the oxygen flux

  14. Effects of liquid pore water on acoustic wave propagation in snow as a Biot-type porous material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidler, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    A method to estimate phase velocity and attenuation of acoustic waves in the presence of liquid water in a snowpack is presented. The method is based on Biot's theory of wave propagation in porous materials. Empirical relations and a priori information is used to characterize snow as a porous material as a function of porosity. Plane wave theory and an equivalent pore fluid are used to solve Biot's differential equations and to asses the impact of the air and water in the pore space. The liquid water in the pore space of a snow pack reduces the velocity of the first compressional wave by roughly 300 m/s for every 0.1 increase in liquid water saturation. Also the attenuation of the compressional waves is increased with increasing liquid water content. Two end member models for compaction are evaluated to asses the importance of an independent density measurement for an estimate of liquid pore water saturation in snow with acoustic waves. The two end members correspond to no compaction at all and to a melting s...

  15. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalidi, T; Hovenier, J W

    2012-01-01

    Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calculate the rainbow feature for a realistic cloud coverage of Earth. We calculate flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by horizontally and vertically inhomogeneous Earth--like exoplanets, covered by patchy clouds consisting of liquid water droplets or water ice crystals. The planetary surfaces are black. On a planet with a significant coverage of liquid water clouds only, the total flux signal shows a weak rainbow feature. Any coverage of the liquid water clouds by ice clouds, however, dampens the rainbow fea...

  16. Computational studies of liquid water and diluted water in carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2008-02-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study solvent effects on the energetic and dynamical properties of water molecules in liquid water and in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In these studies, the free energy profiles or potentials of mean force (PMF) for water dimers in both solvents were computed. The computed PMF results showed a stable minimum near 3 Å for the O-O separation, with a minimum free energy of about -2.8 kcal/mol in CCl4, as compared to a value of -0.5 kcal/mol in liquid water. The difference in free energy in water as compared to CCl4 was expected, and is the result of competition from surrounding water molecules, that are capable of forming hydrogen bonds) in the liquid water. This capability is absent in the diluted water found in CCl4. We found that the rotational motions were non-isotropic, with the out-of plane vector correlation times in water/D2O varying from 5.6/5.8 ps at 250 K to 0.57/0.56 ps at 350 K and the corresponding OH/OD bond vectors varying from 6.5/7.7 ps to 0.75/0.75 ps. The results compare reasonably well to the available NMR experimental and computer simulation data on the same system (Farrar and Skinner et al. JACS 2001, 123, 8047). For diluted water in CCl4, we found the computed rotational correlation times also were non-isotropic and much longer than the corresponding NMR experimental values at the same concentration (Farrar et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 6146). Upon analyzing the water hydrogen bonding patterns as a function of water concentrations, we conclude that the differences in the rotational correlation times mainly result from the formation of water hydrogen-bonding networks as the water concentration is increased in liquid CCl4. In addition, we found the rotational correlation times to be substantially faster in liquid CCl4 than in liquid water. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  17. Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2003-03-27

    to the slower oxygen reduction kinetics and mass transport limitations imposed by the liquid water generated by the electrochemical reaction and electro-osmotic drag. The liquid water can hinder transport of the reactant species by blocking the pores... generated by the electrochemical reaction is removed from the catalyst layer by two mechanisms namely, evaporation and diffusion of water vapor and liquid water transport. The water vapor transport process is similar to the oxygen species, i.e. diffusion...

  18. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, D.

    2009-01-01

    nm 2 STM image of isolated water molecules (bright spots) onLow-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System forSpectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water D. Nordlund 1 , H.

  19. Gas-Liquid Coexistence in the Primitive Model for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Romano; P. Tartaglia; F. Sciortino

    2007-05-08

    We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda [J. Kolafa and I. Nezbeda, Mol. Phys. 61, 161 (1987)]. Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favored, as in the case of articles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. Differently from spherical potentials, we do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in an homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing.

  20. 1 INTRODUCTION The volumetric water content, V, is a key variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    1 INTRODUCTION The volumetric water content, V, is a key variable in unsaturated soil mechanics of the dielectric permittivity of the soil, Ka, which is in turn related to the volumetric water content through

  1. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  2. Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    , Maryland 20899, USA The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure of a polymer and cathode water flooding. The rate of accumulation of liquid water, and its impact on the rate of cell, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells PEMFCs operate below the boil- ing point of water, causing excess

  3. Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network Jayson Maldonado-Meteorological stations. Research Objectives · Develop the hardware necessary for the collection atmospheric water content gives the real Water Vapor Content (WVC) in 3D instead of the Zenith Delay. Future Work · Testing

  4. REMEDIATION OF HIGH WATER CONTENT GEOMATERIALS: A REVIEW OF GEOTEXTILE FILTER PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    REMEDIATION OF HIGH WATER CONTENT GEOMATERIALS: A REVIEW OF GEOTEXTILE FILTER PERFORMANCE Ahmet H-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA ABSTRACT Remediation of contaminated high water content geomaterials for selection of geotextile filters; however, they are not directly applicable to high water content

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone transcript induction CO2. A mild reduction in soil water content had no effect on leaf sugars but stimulated the induction and reduced soil water content suppressed the expression of transcripts related to JA and ET gene tran

  6. Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques@ce.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially

  7. TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning Walter A to retrieve ice water content. Citation: Petersen, W. A., H. J. Christian, and S. A. Rutledge (2005), TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  8. Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content using ground-penetrating radar ground wave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content using ground- penetrating radar ground wave] Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) ground wave techniques were applied to estimate soil water content travel time measurements using 900 and 450 MHz antennas and analyzed these data to estimate water content

  9. Simulating the water content and temperature changes in an experimental embankment using meteorological data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Simulating the water content and temperature changes in an experimental embankment using on the soil response such as changes in water content and temperature as well as the induced vertical from the base of embankment. In this study, the changes in temperature, volumetric water content

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone transcript induction the abundance of SA compared with plants grown in ambient CO2. A mild reduction in soil water content had herbivory. When applied in combination, elevated CO2 and reduced soil water content suppressed

  11. The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated loess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated relationship between the water content and the electrical resistivity of soils. In this work, a new electrical resistivity probe was developed to monitor the change in local water content in the triaxial apparatus

  12. submitted to Geophys. J. Int. Streaming potential dependence on water-content in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    submitted to Geophys. J. Int. Streaming potential dependence on water-content in Fontainebleau sand saturation, un- saturated flow, water content SUMMARY The electrokinetic potential results from the coupling of the electrokinetic coefficient as a function of water content. Two drainage experiments have been performed within

  13. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity-related variability in faecal water content for two wild ungulate species, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). We then assessed whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions

  14. Effects of Soil pH and Soil Water Content on Prosulfuron Dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Effects of Soil pH and Soil Water Content on Prosulfuron Dissipation RYAN P. HULTGREN,*, ROBERT J% dissipation of the herbicide (DT50) was determined for each soil and water content treatment. At equivalent water contents, prosulfuron DT50 values were positively correlated with soil pH (P

  15. The effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media Ingrid Y. Padilla, T, Tucson Abstract. The effect of water content on NaCl transport in unsaturated porous media was investigated under steady state flow conditions for water contents ranging between full saturation and 15

  16. Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomie Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss JF variations in total dry matter content (MSt) as a function of growth in dry weight and loss of water by plant, as ripening proceeds. Beyond 25% dry matter content the major part of MSt increase was due to loss of water

  17. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Montana Grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    1 Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from NMRI as a metric for estimating vegetation water content (VWC) and evaluate the normalization procedure Reflection Index (NMRI). It is a measure of vegetation water content (VWC) estimated from data archived

  18. Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting of nonspherical ice particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting investigates the relationship between ice water content (IWC) and equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) at 94 GHz. Baum, and A. J. Heymsfield (2008), Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar

  19. Influence of composition and thermal history of volcanic glasses on water content as determined by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of composition and thermal history of volcanic glasses on water content as determined for quantification of water content in natural glasses requires the assessment of the dependence of the technique content (H2OT) and of water speciation (H2Om/OH) requires the development of micro-analytical techniques

  20. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity. Here we evaluated the seasonal, age- and sex-related variability in faecal water content for two wild whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions regarding differences in strongyle infection rates

  1. High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    1 High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 1. Introduction Information about near surface soil water content the applicability of a surface geophysical method, ground penetrating radar (GPR), for use as a water content

  2. Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe R. P. H. Berton O and water content (IWC), horizontal and vertical sizes (L and H), and top temperatures (T) of clouds above and water contents) controlling radiation transfer in the cloud, and geo- metrical sizes used

  3. Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans, CNRS-UO, Orléans, France Abstract The determination of total water content dissolved water content and height or area of the H2OT Raman band. Accuracy of deconvolution procedure

  4. Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content using ground-penetrating radar ground wave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content using ground- penetrating radar ground wave that the GPR estimates had a root mean square error of volumetric water content of the order of 0 agriculture Citation: Grote, K., S. Hubbard, and Y. Rubin, Field-scale estimation of volumetric water content

  5. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2008-01-01

    for metal-ion extraction from water. All ionic liquids (useful for extraction of cations from water. 9-15 Previoussingle extraction of mercury in water with either [3MOPYR

  6. Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Prodip K.

    2013-01-01

    droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusioncontact to the subsurface water. REFERENCES A. Z. Weber andUniversity of California. Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in

  7. Spin states of para-water and ortho-water molecule in gas and liquid phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. K. Konyukhov

    2009-09-23

    Spin degrees of freedom of water molecule in gas and liquid state were investigated in order to provide a reasonable answer about the unsolved problem of a long-term behavior of water spin isomers. The approach used involves an assumption that molecules change their spin state from a pure state to a mixed one when they interact with some sorts of adsorbent surface. Some models and conceptions of the quantum information processing were used.

  8. Liquid Water the Key to Arctic Cloud Radiative Closure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChina (MillionLiquid Fuels andWater

  9. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  10. Liquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    decreases, liquid bulk water begins to ex- pand when its temperature drops below 4C. Indeed, a simple while colder layers of 0C water "float" on top (cf., Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious propertiesLiquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological

  11. TECHNICAL NOTES Long-Term Behavior of Water Content and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Champaign, Ill. in 1987. A pond of water 0.31 m deep was maintained on top of the 7.3 m X 14.6 m X 0.9 mTECHNICAL NOTES Long-Term Behavior of Water Content and Density in an Earthen Liner Timothy E of a compacted earthen liner by monitoring the long-term changes in water content and density. The water content

  12. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  13. Influence of gravity on the collective molecular dynamics of liquid water: the case of the floating water bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emilio Del Giudice; Giuseppe Vitiello

    2010-09-29

    Quantum electrodynamics (QED) produces a picture of liquid water as a mixture of a low density coherent phase and an high density non-coherent phase. Consequently, the Archimedes principle prescribes that, within a gravitational field, liquid water should be made up, at surface, mainly of the coherent fraction, which becomes a cage where the gas-like non-coherent fraction is trapped, acquiring a non-vanishing pressure (vapor tension). Therefore, it is possible to probe the QED picture by observing the behavior of liquid water under reduced gravity conditions. The floating water bridge could be a useful test model.

  14. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  15. TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Site Location;TABLE 1 (cont'd): TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Site Laundry Room B3 - Sink 42 - 23 - NOTES: value - exceeds MAC 1 Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water

  16. Polyaluminum chloride with high Al30 content as removal agent for arsenic-contaminated well water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Polyaluminum chloride with high Al30 content as removal agent for arsenic-contaminated well water-established coagulant in water treatment with high removal efficiency for arsenic. A high content of Al30 nanoclusters¨ berlandstrasse 133, 8600 Du¨bendorf, Switzerland c Water Research Institute (IRSA), National Research Council

  17. Capillary geochemistry in non-saturated zone of soils. Water content and geochemical signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Capillary geochemistry in non-saturated zone of soils. Water content and geochemical signatures change. The volumetric capillary water content of the soil at high suction can be calculated corresponds to a decreasing internal pressure of the water, which modifies its thermodynamic properties

  18. Assessing spatial variability of soil water content through Thermal Inertia and NDVI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggi, Davide

    Assessing spatial variability of soil water content through Thermal Inertia and NDVI Pierluigi of the soil/canopy water content at the short time-scale. This is obtained by means of an indirect approach monitoring (McVicar and Jupp, 1998)3 or for the management of water resources in wide irrigation schemes

  19. Stable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils effect of antecedent soil moisture content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    contents during the experiment, which caused the soil to be wettable instead of water repellent. The waterStable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils ± effect of antecedent soil moisture content Coen J. Ritsemaa,* , John L. Nieberb , Louis W. Dekkera , T.S. Steenhuisc a DLO Winand Staring

  20. CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Determining the atmospheric precipitable water vapour content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liske, Jochen

    CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Determining the atmospheric precipitable water vapour content the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content over Paranal by determining the equivalent widths of 7 carefully. Scientific Case: Atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) is one of the crucial parameters in infrared (IR

  1. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

    2014-03-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  2. Water contents in mantle xenoliths from the Colorado Plateau and vicinity: Implications for the mantle rheology and hydration-induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Water contents in mantle xenoliths from the Colorado Plateau and vicinity: Implications infrared spectroscopy for water contents. Measured water contents range from 2 to 45 ppm for olivine, from the highest water contents (up to 45 ppm H2O in olivine, 402 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene, and 957 ppm H2O

  3. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content

  4. Influence of Water Content and Temperature on Molecular Mobility and Intracellular Glasses in Seeds and Pollen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    Influence of Water Content and Temperature on Molecular Mobility and Intracellular Glasses in Seeds heating. This temperature increased with decreasing water content of the samples. Differential scanning water content, the molecular mobility reached a minimum, and increased again at very low water content

  5. Soil water content dependent wetting front characteristics in sands T.W.J. Bautersa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Soil water content dependent wetting front characteristics in sands T.W.J. Bautersa , D.A. Di 94305, USA Received 2 April 1999; accepted 13 August 1999 Abstract The initial soil water content into a 20/30 sand with initial volumetric water contents of 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0

  6. MEASURE-EENT OF WATER CONTENT I N POROUS MEDIA UNDER GEOTHERMAL FLUID FLOW CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    MEASURE-EENT OF WATER CONTENT I N POROUS MEDIA UNDER GEOTHERMAL FLUID FLOW CONDITIONS for t h e i n - s i t u measurement of water content i n porous media, expressed as a volume f r a c t i o n of t h e pore space; ( 2 ) t o measure water content i n t h e two-phase geothermal f l u i d flow

  7. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures

  8. Dielectric signatures of adsorbed and salty liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    Dielectric signatures of adsorbed and salty liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, Mars David E was measured by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on the Phoenix lander. We interpret liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 116, E09005, doi:10.1029/2011JE003838

  9. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey December 2013 A method for separating the three components of the marine stratocumulus (MSC) aerosol cloud interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey

  10. Network analysis of proton transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevchuk, Roman; Rao, Francesco; Agmon, Noam

    2014-06-28

    Proton transfer in macromolecular systems is a fascinating yet elusive process. In the last ten years, molecular simulations have shown to be a useful tool to unveil the atomistic mechanism. Notwithstanding, the large number of degrees of freedom involved make the accurate description of the process very hard even for the case of proton diffusion in bulk water. Here, multi-state empirical valence bond molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with complex network analysis are applied to study proton transfer in liquid water. Making use of a transition network formalism, this approach takes into account the time evolution of several coordinates simultaneously. Our results provide evidence for a strong dependence of proton transfer on the length of the hydrogen bond solvating the Zundel complex, with proton transfer enhancement as shorter bonds are formed at the acceptor site. We identify six major states (nodes) on the network leading from the “special pair” to a more symmetric Zundel complex required for transferring the proton. Moreover, the second solvation shell specifically rearranges to promote the transfer, reiterating the idea that solvation beyond the first shell of the Zundel complex plays a crucial role in the process.

  11. Pressurized oceans and the eruption of liquid water on Europa and Enceladus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    expansion of water as it freezes from the top increases pressure in the water confined below the ice. We the pressure in water trapped below the ice, we present in Figure 1 the results of a straightforward demonPressurized oceans and the eruption of liquid water on Europa and Enceladus M. Manga1 and C

  12. Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

    2012-01-30

    We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

  13. Drop Simulation of 6M Drum with Locking-Ring Closure and Liquid Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, T

    2006-04-17

    This paper presents the dynamic simulation of the 6M drum with a locking-ring type closure subjected to a 4.9-foot drop. The drum is filled with water to 98 percent of overflow capacity. A three dimensional finite-element model consisting of metallic, liquid and rubber gasket components is used in the simulation. The water is represented by a hydrodynamic material model in which the material's volume strength is determined by an equation of state. The explicit numerical method based on the theory of wave propagation is used to determine the combined structural response to the torque load for tightening the locking-ring closure and to the impact load due to the drop.

  14. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content Course #: 474 Title: Water and Landscape Engineering Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content Course #: 474 Title: Water and Landscape Proposed Action 1. Learn fundamental concepts of water storage and movement through soil, the basic processes affecting water movement, how to evaluate components of the soil-water budget, and techniques

  15. Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014) 7583 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014) 75­83 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Agricultural Water Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat Interactive effects of water January 2014 Accepted 13 July 2014 Available online 13 August 2014 Keywords: Water-table Maize Sowing date

  16. ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER .:I- By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY Wisconsin Geological and Natural HistolY Sun'ey .:I- CONTENTS Page Introductlon; ~ - - _________ 185 I.-Data__u u n _ 186 Dissolved carbon; 194 n.-Discussion o(the data-Contd. Total organic content u _ Total organic matter, including

  17. The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3=m3] satisfying the conservation equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3 compared to the water ow, such that a quasi- stationary approach is feasible, describing the reaction. Due to the injection of water at @ " the normal mass ux is given as a convective ux

  18. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are...

  19. Effect of water washing on oxalic acid content of various fodders and its determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of water washing on oxalic acid content of various fodders and its determination A Kumar CS that high oxalic acid content, producing oxalate toxicity and interfering with the calcium metabolism, reduces milk yield. If these fodders are washed with water, soluble oxalates are released up to a safe

  20. Comparison of the palatability of some compound feeds with different water content by tests on goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of the palatability of some compound feeds with different water content by tests and 20% soya oilmeal. To constitute humid feed, dehydrated beet pulp was rehydrated by adding 875 g water matter than DM but that will have to be confirmed with larger scale humidity contents. The presence

  1. Infiltration Estimates from Borehole Water Content Data using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    measurements of water content and chemical concentrations have been made. This theoretical development Neumann boundary segments N, n(x)=(n1,..., nd)T is an outward unit vector normal to the boundary, C[]= d/d is the specific moisture capacity, is the volumetric water content, and K[] is the unsaturated hydraulic

  2. On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch Paquita Zuidema Chris Fairall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    that calculations of the implied cloud-top entrainment were sensitive to the liquid water flux term of the radar reflectivity is shown graphically below. We estimate an error in the liquid water fluxOn the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch

  3. Long time fluctuation of liquid water: l/f spectrum of energy fluctuation in hydrogen bond network rearrangement dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaswamy, Ram

    Long time fluctuation of liquid water: l/f spectrum of energy fluctuation in hydrogen bond network of the potential energy fluctuation of liquid water is examined and found to yield so-called l/f frequency of hydrogen bond network relaxations in liquid water. A simple model of cellular dynamics is proposed

  4. Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K. Bowles, Ivan Saika-Voivod, and Francesco Sciortino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 034505 (2013) Free energy surface of ST2 water near umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the free energy surface of the ST2 model of water

  5. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  6. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in...

  7. Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications on pre-eruptive conduit conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications of the eruptive products. We used quantitative analysis of water content in residual glasses (matrix glass. To better link water content to structural level, we performed new water solubility experiments at low

  8. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    the weighted sum of the water content in the membrane in theposition of the maximum water content and the water-contentgradient in the water content and capillary pressure,

  9. Electronic structure of liquid water from polarization-dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elles, Christopher G.; Rivera, Christopher A.; Zhang, Yuyuan; Pieniazek, Piotr A.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2009-02-26

    and connects the 2PA spectrum with previous one-photon absorption, photoelectron, and x-ray absorptionspectroscopy measurements of liquid water. Previously unresolved, overlapping transitions are assigned for the first time. Finally, the electronic character...

  10. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa; Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa; Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  11. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  12. Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-21

    This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

  13. Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. McCartney* and Jorge G. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. Mc content measured using WCR (water content reflectometer) probes are susceptible to lightning. Several lightning strikes at the site caused unrealistic shifts in the inferred moisture content (from 0

  14. A BIOMECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF LARGE STEM VOLUME AND HIGH WATER CONTENT IN BAOBAB TREES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    A BIOMECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF LARGE STEM VOLUME AND HIGH WATER CONTENT IN BAOBAB TREES storage capacity in the six Madagascar baobab species. Baobab wood has a high water content (up to 79 to that in temperate deciduous trees. Furthermore, the elastic modulus of the wood decreases with water content

  15. Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator S-3120, United States 1. Introduction Knowledge of soil water content is critical to agricultural, hydrological-rays from H will be a function of the soils' water-content. To the best of our knowledge

  16. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast soils and materials is hampered by the difficulty of accurately mea- suring both the water content

  17. Flow at Low Water Contents: A Simple Approach for Inverse Estimation of van Genuchten-Mualem Soil Hydraulic Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Flow at Low Water Contents: A Simple Approach for Inverse Estimation of van Genuchten-Mualem Soil and civil engineering. Because of the strong dependency of these properties on water content. For gravimetric water contents greater than 0.04, numeral results agreed well with experimental data, while some

  18. Does Variation in Soil Water Content Induce Variation in the Size of Hatchling Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkler, Michael S.

    Does Variation in Soil Water Content Induce Variation in the Size of Hatchling Snapping Turtles in substrate water content during incubation on the size of hatchling Snapping Turtles from southeastern, 11, and 13% gravimetric water content). Eggs in the driest soil (3%) had a slight net loss of mass

  19. Influence of the water content on X-ray fluorescence core-scanning measurements in soft marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjallingii, Rik

    Influence of the water content on X-ray fluorescence core- scanning measurements in soft marine properties such as density and water content on XRF core scanner data. Comparison of XRF scanner measurements for the radiation absorption of the water content in sediment core GeoB7920 off Cape Blanc, NW Africa. Components

  20. FDR for non destructive evaluation: inspection of external post-tensioned ducts and measurement of water content in concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of water content in concrete F. Visco-Comandini(1) , T. Bore(2) , G. Six(1) , F. Sagnard(1) , S. Delepine water content assessment technologies [18]. Another example concerns the bridges which include "external of post tensioned ducts or to measure the water content in concrete, we propose a structural health

  1. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  2. The effect of soil water content on the phytotoxicity of diuron, fluridone, metribuzin and trifluralin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Paul A

    1979-01-01

    'HIE ~ OF SOIL WATER CONTENT ON 'IBE ~XICITY OF DIURON, FLURIDONE, NETMBUZIN AND TRIFLURALIN by Sutmitted to the Graduate College of Tom A&M University in partial fulfillnant of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979... of Soil Water Content on the Phytotoxicity of Diuron, Fluridone, Netribuzin and Trifluralin (August 1979) Paul Alan Baumann, B. S. Southwest Missouri State (kuversity, Springfield Chairman of Advisory Ccnrnittee: Qr. Norris G. Nerkle 'The effect...

  3. A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

    2003-02-25

    Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

  4. Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 11951203 Quantification of liquid water accumulation and distribution in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    water content. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flooding; Polymer electrolyte fuel and distribution in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell using neutron imaging A. Turhan, K. Heller, J.S. Brenizer, M cell; Solid polymer electrolyte; Neutron imaging; Water storage; Residual water 1. Introduction

  5. Investigating the Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of Water Nanofilms Using the Generalized Replica Exchange Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Farrell, James D.; Wales, David J.; Straub, John E.

    2014-10-09

    The Generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) was applied to simulate a solid-liquid phase transition in a nanoconfined bilayer water system using the monatomic water (mW) model. Merging an optimally designed non-Boltzmann sampling weight...

  6. Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

  7. Mesoscopic modeling of liquid water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Chao Yang [PENNSTATE UNIV.

    2008-01-01

    A key performance limitation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. Liquid water leads to the coverage of the electrochemically active sites in the catalyst layer (CL) rendering reduced catalytic activity and blockage of the available pore space in the porous CL and fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) resulting in hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites. The cathode CL and the GDL therefore playa major role in the mass transport loss and hence in the water management of a PEFC. In this article, we present the development of a mesoscopic modeling formalism coupled with realistic microstructural delineation to study the profound influence of the pore structure and surface wettability on liquid water transport and interfacial dynamics in the PEFC catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer.

  8. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    is the weighted sum of the water content in the membrane inResolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in aPark, PA 16802, USA. b Water-content profiles across the

  9. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  10. Analysing chromatographic data using data mining to monitor petroleum content in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Eibe

    Analysing chromatographic data using data mining to monitor petroleum content in water Geoffrey if they contain petroleum. These tests are mandated in many countries to enable environmental agencies the concentrations of petroleum compounds in water samples. Experiments demonstrate that the framework can be used

  11. Anomalous Density Properties and Ion Solvation in Liquid Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to a number of fields, ranging from biologybiochemistry to energy storage and electrochemistry. Several key properties of water, are crucial for understanding and predicting...

  12. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01

    strong confine- ment: neutron scattering investigations andand inelastic neutron scattering investigation of fragile-confined water with neutron scattering. Pro- ceedings of the

  13. The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated loess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive methods of measuring water content in soils have been extensively developed in the last decades, especially in soil science. Among these methods, the measurements based on the electrical resistivity are simple and reliable thanks to the clear relationship between the water content and the electrical resistivity of soils. In this work, a new electrical resistivity probe was developed to monitor the change in local water content in the triaxial apparatus. The probe is composed of two-pair of electrodes, and an electrical current is induced through the soil at the vicinity of the contact between the probe and the specimen. Some experimental data on the changes in resistivity with the degree of saturation were obtained in specimens of a natural unsaturated loess from Northern France. Two theoretical models of resistivity were also used to analyze the obtained data. Results are finally discussed with respect to the loess's water retention properties.

  14. Thermodynamic Evidence for Water as a Quantum Mechanical Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; S. Sivasubramanian; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

    2010-01-22

    We consider general theoretical models of water and in particular the nature of the motions of the hydrogen nuclei. If the motion of hydrogen nuclei is classical, then the thermodynamic pressure equation of state for heavy water wherein the hydrogen nuclei are deuterons is identical to the pressure equation of state for light water wherein the hydrogen nuclei are protons. Since the experimental thermodynamic phase diagram for light water is clearly measurably different from the experimental thermodynamic phase diagram for heavy water, one may deduce that the motions of hydrogen nuclei are quantum mechanical in nature. This conclusion is in physical agreement with a recent analysis of X-ray, neutron and deep inelastic neutron scattering data.

  15. Liquid Water: Obtaining the right answer for the right reasons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apra, Edoardo [ORNL; Harrison, Robert J [ORNL; de Jong, Wibe A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Rendell, Alistair P [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL; Xantheas, Sotiris [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2009-01-01

    Water is ubiquitous on our planet and plays an essential role in many chemical and biological processes. Accurate models for water are crucial in understanding, controlling and predicting the physical and chemical properties of complex aqueous systems. Over the last few years we have been developing a molecular-level based approach for a macroscopic model for water that is based on the explicit description of the underlying intermolecular interactions between molecules in water clusters. In the absence of detailed experimental data for small water clusters, highly-accurate theoretical results are required to validate and parameterize model potentials. As an example of the benchmarks needed for the development of accurate models for the interaction between water molecules, for the most stable structure of (H$_2$O)$_{20}$ we ran a coupled-cluster calculation on the ORNL's Jaguar petaflop computer that used over 100 TB of memory for a sustained performance of 487 TFLOP/s (double precision) on 96,000 processors, lasting for 2 hours. By this summer we will have studied multiple structures of both (H$_2$O)$_{20}$ and (H$_2$O)$_{30}$ and completed basis set and other convergence studies and anticipate the sustained performance rising close to 1 PFLOP/s.

  16. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  17. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Table of Contents 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Table of Contents 3 1 Regulations and Basic Information How to Use of Water ..................................................................... 1-26 Table 1.6 - Equivalent Quantities of Liquid Materials (Emulsifiable Concentrates, etc.) for Various Quantities of Water

  18. Accuracy of the Water Vapour Content Measurements in the Atmosphere Using Optical Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the accuracy and the errors of water vapour content measurements in the atmosphere using optical methods, especially starphotometer. After the general explanations of the used expressions for the star-magnitude observations of the water vapour absorption in section 3 the absorption model for the water vapour band will be discussed. Sections 4 and 5 give an overview on the technique to determine the model parameters both from spectroscopic laboratory and radiosonde observation data. Finally, the sections 6 and 7 are dealing with the details of the errors; that means errors of observable magnitude, of instrumental extraterrestrial magnitude, of atmospheric extinction determination and of water vapour content determination by radiosonde humidity measurements. The main conclusion is: Because of the high precision of the results the optical methods for water vapour observation are suited to validate and calibrate alternative methods (GPS, LIDAR, MICROWAVE) which are making constant progress wo...

  19. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  20. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upayan Baul; J. Maruthi Pradeep Kanth; Ramesh Anishetty; Satyavani Vemparala

    2015-12-07

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions (PDF). Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exists considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl$_2$) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which can not be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. The relative effects of cations on dipolar correlations are observed to be consistent with the well-known Hofmeister series. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions, and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH$_4$) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water,- contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  1. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  2. Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

    2005-02-17

    to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding...

  3. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING WATER CONTENT IN OYSTER TISSUE By THOMAS C. CARVER, JR., Pishery Biologist (Research) I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING WATER CONTENT IN OYSTER TISSUE By THOMAS C. CARVER, JR., Pishery waiting period. Korringa (1956) reported a method by which the water content of oyster meats could- tained at 100° C. for 1 hour. The volume of water collected was measured and converted to weight

  4. Evaluation of Ice Water Content Retrievals from Cloud Radar Reflectivity and Temperature Using a Large Airborne In Situ Microphysical Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    Evaluation of Ice Water Content Retrievals from Cloud Radar Reflectivity and Temperature Using the performances of the proposed ice water content (IWC)­radar reflectivity Z and IWC­Z­temperature T relationships produce a very different ice water path, spanning an order of magnitude (Stephens et al. 2002). Clouds

  5. Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 5769 A record of estuarine water contamination from the Cd content of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 57­69 A record of estuarine water contamination from the Cd content content of overlying water at the time of test formation. Pre-industrial foraminiferal CdrCa ratios-year dissolved Cd time series from San Francisco Bay and adjacent coastal water shows that the composition

  6. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Turner, David

    2015-12-14

    Two datasets, one a compilation of laboratory data and one a compilation from three field sites, are provided here. These datasets provide measurements of the real and imaginary refractive indices and absorption as a function of cloud temperature. These datasets were used in the development of the new liquid water absorption model that was published in Turner et al. 2015.

  7. Park City/ANS 1 ANALYSIS OF LIQUID CRYOGEN-WATER EXPERIMENTS WITH THE MELCOR CODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Park City/ANS 1 ANALYSIS OF LIQUID CRYOGEN-WATER EXPERIMENTS WITH THE MELCOR CODE R.C. Duckworth, J code, MELCOR. Experimental results showed that no large `shock' pressures were observed. Thus, one can to benchmark the code and show its usefulness in determining potential critical issues involving these fusion

  8. Evaluating specific error characteristics of microwave-derived cloud liquid water products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    of cloud LWP products globally using concurrent data from visible/ infrared satellite sensors. The approachEvaluating specific error characteristics of microwave-derived cloud liquid water products Thomas J microwave satellite measurements. Using coincident visible/infrared satellite data, errors are isolated

  9. Liquid Water Storage, Distribution, and Removal from Diffusion Media in PEFCS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    media DM of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs is a function of design geometry, surface geometry under the landings than cloth, resulting in a very high liquid saturation and eventual flooding. Available electronically August 28, 2006. The management of water within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

  10. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  11. Effects of hydrogen bonding on supercooled liquid dynamics and the implications for supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Mattsson; Rikard Bergman; Per Jacobsson; Lars Börjesson

    2009-02-09

    The supercooled state of bulk water is largely hidden by unavoidable crystallization, which creates an experimentally inaccessible temperature regime - a 'no man's land'. We address this and circumvent the crystallization problem by systematically studying the supercooled dynamics of hydrogen bonded oligomeric liquids (glycols), where water corresponds to the chain-ends alone. This novel approach permits a 'dilution of water' by altering the hydrogen bond concentration via variations in chain length. We observe a dynamic crossover in the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time for all glycols, consistent with the common behavior of most supercooled liquids. We find that the crossover becomes more pronounced for increasing hydrogen bond concentrations, which leads to the prediction of a marked dynamic transition for water within 'no man's land' at T~220 K. Interestingly, the predicted transition thus takes place at a temperature where a so called 'strong-fragile' transition has previously been suggested. Our results, however, imply that the dynamic transition of supercooled water is analogous to that commonly observed in supercooled liquids. Moreover, we find support also for the existence of a secondary relaxation of water with behavior analogous to that of the secondary relaxation observed for the glycols.

  12. Optical Kerr effect of liquid and supercooled water: the experimental and data analysis perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Taschin; P. Bartolini; R. Eramo; R. Righini; R. Torre

    2014-06-20

    The time-resolved optical Kerr effect spectroscopy (OKE) is a powerful experimental tool enabling accurate investigations of the dynamic phenomena in molecular liquids. We introduced innovative experimental and fitting procedures, that permit a safe deconvolution of sample response function from the instrumental function. This is a critical issue in order to measure the dynamics of sample presenting weak signal, e.g. liquid water. We report OKE data on water measuring intermolecular vibrations and the structural relaxation processes in an extended temperature range, inclusive of the supercooled states. The unpreceded data quality makes possible a solid comparison with few theoretical models; the multi-mode Brownian oscillator model, the Kubo's discrete random jump model and the schematic mode-coupling model. All these models produce reasonable good fits of the OKE data of stable liquid water, i.e. over the freezing point. The features of water dynamics in the OKE data becomes unambiguous only at lower temperatures, i.e. for water in the metastable supercooled phase. Hence this data enable a valid comparison between the model fits. We found that the schematic mode-coupling model provides the more rigorous and complete model for water dynamics, even if is intrinsic hydrodynamic approach hide the molecular information.

  13. Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 2 3 Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria models, taking into account the effects of temperature, water24 phase salt content, phenolic content

  14. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  15. Effects of Water Content and Alumino-Silicate Sources on the Structure and Properties of Geopolymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lizcano, Maricela

    2012-10-19

    for 21 days at ambient conditions. In addition, the effects of the initial water content, SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, and alkaline activator (Na or K) on the thermal and mechanical properties of GPs, indicate that the dominant factor controlling thermal...

  16. Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment Matthew D a 35-GHz cloud radar and the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program operated a suite Clouds Experiment took place during April­July 1998, with the primary goal of investigating cloud

  17. Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

  18. Spatial variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas fir forest stand Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 363374 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2002-01-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas fir forest stand K variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content within a Douglas fir

  19. Linking Europa's plume activity to tides, tectonics, and liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoden, Alyssa R; Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Much of the geologic activity preserved on Europa's icy surface has been attributed to tidal deformation, mainly due to Europa's eccentric orbit. Although the surface is geologically young (30 - 80 Myr), there is little information as to whether tidally-driven surface processes are ongoing. However, a recent detection of water vapor near Europa's south pole suggests that it may be geologically active. Initial observations indicated that Europa's plume eruptions are time-variable and may be linked to its tidal cycle. Saturn's moon, Enceladus, which shares many similar traits with Europa, displays tidally-modulated plume eruptions, which bolstered this interpretation. However, additional observations of Europa at the same time in its orbit failed to yield a plume detection, casting doubt on the tidal control hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the timing of plume eruptions within the context of Europa's tidal cycle to determine whether such a link exists and examine the inferred similarities and...

  20. Excited state dynamics of liquid water: Insight from the dissociation reaction following two-photon excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elles, Christopher G.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Crowell, Robert A.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2007-04-25

    of liquid water.30,31 The energy for verti- cal ionization of the liquid is about 11 eV, and the discrep- ancy implies that nuclear motion must play a role in the ionization mechanism at low energies.26 The precise relation- ship of dissociation... and probe pulses come from fre- quency conversion of the 800 nm light from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser consisting of an oscillator #1;Spectra Physics, Tsunami#2; and two consecutive multipass amplifiers. The la- ser system produces 1.6 mJ pulses with a 1...

  1. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  2. Water/Icy Super-Earths: Giant Impacts and Maximum Water Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Robert A; Stewart, Sarah T; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Water-rich super-Earth exoplanets are expected to be common. We explore the effect of late giant impacts on the final bulk abundance of water in such planets. We present the results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of impacts between differentiated water(ice)-rock planets with masses between 0.5 and 5 M_Earth and projectile to target mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4. We find that giant impacts between bodies of similar composition never decrease the bulk density of the target planet. If the commonly assumed maximum water fraction of 75wt% for bodies forming beyond the snow line is correct, giant impacts between similar composition bodies cannot serve as a mechanism for increasing the water fraction. Target planets either accrete materials in the same proportion, leaving the water fraction unchanged, or lose material from the water mantle, decreasing the water fraction. The criteria for catastrophic disruption of water-rock planets are similar to those found in previous work on super-Earths of terre...

  3. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  4. The molecular structure of the interface between water and a hydrophobic substrate is liquid-vapor like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam P. Willard; David Chandler

    2014-07-16

    With molecular simulation for water and a tunable hydrophobic substrate, we apply the instantaneous interface construction [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, J. Phys. Chem. B, 114, 1954 (2010)] to examine the similarity between a water-vapor interface and a water-hydrophobic surface interface. The intrinsic interface refers to molecular structure in terms of distances from the instantaneous interface. We show that attractive interactions between a hydrophobic surface and water affect capillary wave fluctuations of the instantaneous liquid interface, but these attractive interactions have essentially no effect on the intrinsic interface. Further, the intrinsic interface of liquid water and a hydrophobic substrate differs little from that of water and its vapor.The same is not true, we show, for an interface between water and a hydrophilic substrate. In that case, strong directional substrate-water interactions disrupt the liquid-vapor-like interfacial hydrogen bonding network.

  5. Radiometric Determination of Uranium in Natural Waters after Enrichment and Separation by Cation-Exchange and Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Pashalidis; H. Tsertos

    2003-04-28

    The alpha-radiometric determination of uranium after its pre-concentration from natural water samples using the cation-exchange resin Chelex-100, its selective extraction by tributylphosphate and electrodeposition on stainless steel discs is reported. The validity of the separation procedure and the chemical recoveries were checked by addition of uranium standard solution as well as by tracing with U-232. The average uranium yield was determined to be (97 +- 2) % for the cation-exchange, (95 +- 2) % for the liquid-liquid extraction, and more than 99% for the electrodeposition. Employing high-resolution alpha-spectroscopy, the measured activity of the U-238 and U-234 radioisotopes was found to be of similar magnitude; i.e. ~7 mBq/L and ~35 mBq/L for ground- and seawater samples, respectively. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the alpha-peaks was 22 keV, while the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was estimated to be 1 mBq/L (at the 95% confidence limit).

  6. Textures, water content and degassing of silicic andesites from recent plinian and dome-forming eruptions at Mount Pele volcano (Martinique,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Textures, water content and degassing of silicic andesites from recent plinian and dome contents (glass inclusions in phenocrysts and matrix glasses) and microtextures. Water contents of glass-eruptive melt water content (i.e., 5.3­ 6.3 wt.%), whereas they are much lower in the dominant pelean

  7. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by Quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Ye Luo; Guglielmo Mazzola; Leonardo Guidoni; Sandro Sorella

    2015-04-21

    Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous Density Functional Theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab-initio simulations of complex chemical systems.

  8. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  9. Ultrafast dynamics of liquid water: Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-07-28

    Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend in liquid water are reported from the third-order response function evaluated using the TTM3-F potential for water. The simulated two-dimensional infrared (IR) spectra of the OH stretch are similar to previously reported theoretical results. The present study suggests that the frequency fluctuation of the HOH bend is faster than that of the OH stretch. The ultrafast loss of the frequency correlation of the HOH bend is due to the strong couplings with the OH stretch as well as the intermolecular hydrogen bond bend.

  10. Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlund, Dennis; Odelius, Michael; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2008-04-29

    We present valence photoelectron emission spectra of liquid water in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the melting point, low temperature amorphous and crystalline ice. All aggregation states have major electronic structure changes relative to the free molecule, with rehybridization and development of bonding and anti-bonding states accompanying the hydrogen bond formation. Sensitivity to the local structural order, most prominent in the shape and splitting of the occupied 3a{sub 1} orbital, is understood from the electronic structure averaging over various geometrical structures, and reflects the local nature of the orbital interaction.

  11. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  12. The Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females with and without Patellofemoral , H. H. Hu2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    The Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females marrow water content changes in individuals with and without PFP. To accomplish this goal, we used the water content of the images measured. Equation 2 was used to estimate the water volume of local BME. Eq

  13. Estimating Entropy of Liquids from Atom-Atom Radial Distribution Functions: Silica, Beryllium Fluoride and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruchi Sharma; Manish Agarwal; Charusita Chakravarty

    2008-09-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water, liquid beryllium fluoride and silica melt are used to study the accuracy with which the entropy of ionic and molecular liquids can be estimated from atom-atom radial distribution function data. All three systems are known to display similar liquid-state thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies due to a region of anomalous excess entropy behaviour where entropy rises on isothermal compression. The pair correlation entropy is demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate that the density-temperature regime of anomalous behaviour as well as the strength of the entropy anomaly can be predicted reliably for both ionic melts as well as different rigid-body pair potentials for water. Errors in the total thermodynamic entropy for ionic melts due to the pair correlation approximation are of the order of 10% or less for most state points but can be significantly larger in the anomalous regime at very low temperatures. In the case of water, as expected given the rigid-body constraints for a molecular liquids, the pair correlation approximation causes significantly larger errors, between 20 and 30%, for most state points. Comparison of the excess entropy, Se, of ionic melts with the pair correlation entropy, S2, shows that the temperature dependence of Se is well described by T ??2=5 scaling across both the normal and anomalous regimes, unlike in the case of S2. As a function of density, the Se(rho) curves shows only a single maximum while the S2(rho) curves show both a maximum and a minimum. These differences in the behaviour of S2 and Se are due to the fact that the residual multiparticle entropy, delta(S) = Se - S2, shows a strong negative correlation with tetrahedral order in the anomalous regime.

  14. Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally expla...

  15. Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-02-07

    The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

  16. Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water and N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water to combat weeds, diseases and insects. Although considered drought tolerant, production is affected by water. This study was undertaken to quantify the effect of available water on safflower yield potential and oil

  17. Desch_Answers N12.pdf Student questions: Steve Desch colloquium on "Predicting the water content of Earth,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumway, John

    Desch_Answers N12.pdf 1 Student questions: Steve Desch colloquium on "Predicting the water content of water. The only way you could tell if there was an atmosphere is if you watch the planet in transit, but they will be. What defines solar mass to water mass fraction? We can observe absorption lines of O in the solar

  18. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  19. Temperature and Length Scale Dependence of Solvophobic Solvation in a Single-site Water-like Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Dowdle; Sergey V. Buldyrev; H. Eugene Stanley; Pablo G. Debenedetti; Peter J. Rossky

    2012-11-01

    The temperature and length scale dependence of solvation properties of spherical hard solvophobic solutes is investigated in the Jagla liquid, a simple liquid that consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential combining a hard core repulsion and a longer ranged soft core interaction, yet exhibits water-like anomalies. The results are compared with equivalent calculations for a model of a typical atomic liquid, the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, and with predictions for hydrophobic solvation in water using the cavity equation of state and the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model. We find that the Jagla liquid captures the qualitative thermodynamic behavior of hydrophobic hydration as a function of temperature for both small and large length scale solutes. In particular, for both the Jagla liquid and water, we observe temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropy of solvation for all solute sizes as well as a negative solvation entropy for sufficiently small solutes at low temperature. The results suggest that, compared to a simple liquid, it is the presence of a second thermally accessible repulsive energy scale, acting to increasingly favor larger separations for decreasing temperature, that is the essential characteristic of a liquid that favors low-density, open structures and models hydrophobic hydration, and that it is the presence of this second energy scale that leads to the similarity in the behavior of water and the Jagla liquid. The implications of the temperature and length scale dependence of solvation free energies in water-like liquids are explored with a simple model for the aggregation of solvophobic solutes. We show how aggregate stability depends upon the size of the aggregate and the size of its constituent solutes, and we relate this dependence to cold-induced destabilization phenomena such as the cold-induced denaturation of proteins.

  20. Water Determination Using Karl Fischer Titration Water content needs to be determined at all stages of the manufacturing process from raw materials to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    of the manufacturing process from raw materials to finished goods. The quality of the product depends on it and effectiveness. In the food industry, the water content of both raw materials and the finished foodstuff needs

  1. Water Content Determination of Rubber Stoppers Utilized for Sealing Lyophilized Pharmaceutical Products: Assessment of Two Karl Fischer Titration Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voth, Laura Marie

    2013-08-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the success of a new drug product is strongly impacted by the stability of the drug formulation. For many formulations, stability is governed by the drug product's water content, thus the ...

  2. Measuring Soil Water Content with Ground Penetrating Radar: A Review J. A. Huisman,* S. S. Hubbard, J. D. Redman, and A. P. Annan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Measuring Soil Water Content with Ground Penetrating Radar: A Review J. A. Huisman,* S. S. Hubbard: soil water content determined from reflected climate anomalies, such as continental droughts andwave velocity, soil water content determined from ground wave veloc- large-scale precipitation events (Entekhabi

  3. On the correlation between ice water content and ice crystal size and its application to radiative transfer and general circulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    On the correlation between ice water content and ice crystal size and its application to radiative analysis involving ice water content (IWC) and mean effective ice crystal size (De) intended, K. N., Y. Gu, Q. Yue, and G. McFarguhar (2008), On the correlation between ice water content and ice

  4. A method to predict the soil susceptibility to compaction of surface layers as a function of water content and bulk density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of water content and bulk density K. Saffih-Hdadi1 , P. Défossez2 , G. Richard3 , Y-J. Cui4 , A-M. Tang4 physical properties. Because the soil compaction depends on its water content, bulk density and texture between soil mechanical properties and easily measurable soil properties as well as water content and bulk

  5. Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

    2012-03-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

  6. Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189­195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Water transport; Mathematical modeling; Three

  7. Effect of the acrylic acid content on the permeability and water uptake of latex films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes-Mercado, Yuri; Duda, Yurko

    2007-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA) is a monomer commonly employed in emulsion polymerization to provide electrostatic colloidal stability and improve specific film performance. The addition of AA not only modifies the kinetics of the polymerization, but also it takes part in the interaction between colloidal particles, which has a strong influence on their packing and consequent latex film properties. In this contribution a theoretical modeling of the latex film formation is presented and compared to experimental results: water vapor permeability and latex film capacitance are studied as a function of AA content. It has been shown that water uptake is mainly affected by film morphology which in turn is defined by intercolloidal interaction and drying rate.

  8. Development of transferable interaction potentials for water: V. Extension of the flexible, polarizable, Thole-Type Model potential (TTM3-F, v. 3.0) to describe the vibrational spectra of water clusters and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2008-02-21

    We present a new parametrization of the flexible, polarizable Thole-type model for water [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 5115 (2002); J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4100 (2006)], with emphasis in describing the vibrational spectra of both water clusters and liquid water. The new model is able to produce results of similar quality with the previous versions for the structures and energetics of water clusters as well as structural and thermodynamic properties of liquid water evaluated with classical and converged quantum statistical mechanical atomistic simulations. At the same time it yields ­ for the first time for a classical interaction potential for water ­ accurate red shifts for the OH vibrational stretches of both water clusters and liquid water. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  9. Reverse Monte Carlo investigations concerning recent isotopic substitution neutron diffraction data on liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pethes, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Although liquid water has been studied for many decades by (X-ray and neutron) diffraction measurements, new experimental results keep appearing, virtually every year. The reason for this is that neither X-ray, nor neutron diffraction data are trivial to correct and interpret for this essential substance. Since X-rays are somewhat insensitive to hydrogen, neutron diffraction with (most frequently, H/D) isotopic substitution is vital for investigating the most important feature in water: hydrogen bonding. Here, the two very recent sets of neutron diffraction data are considered, both exploiting the contrast between light and heavy hydrogen, $^1$H and $^2$H, in different ways. Reverse Monte Carlo structural modeling is applied for constructing large structural models that are as consistent as possible with all experimental information, both in real and reciprocal space. The method has also proven to be useful for revealing where possible small inconsistencies appear during primary data processing: for one neutr...

  10. 16/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water management Page 1 of 4http://www.lakeconews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article...o-track-water-flow-help-water-management&catid=1:latest&Itemid=1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management Page 1 of 4http://www.lakeconews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article...o-track-water-flow-help-water=com_content&view=article...o-track-water-flow-help-water-management&catid=1:latest&Itemid=19716/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water

  11. Monitoring Phosphorus Content in a Tropical Estuary Lagoon using an Hyperspectral Sensor and its Application to Water Quality Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 Monitoring Phosphorus Content in a Tropical Estuary Lagoon using an Hyperspectral Sensor and its Application to Water Quality Modeling Project Number: 2005PR20B Start: 03/01/2004 End: 12 Quality Board (EQB), conducted water and sediments sampling survey on the SJBNE. While on certain sections

  12. Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar ROBIN J. HOGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    global cov- erage. By reflecting most of the incoming solar radiation back to space and yet emitting et al. 1984; Slingo 1990). The potential of cloud radar to measure stratocumu- lus has been

  13. The sweet spot of forward osmosis: Treatment of produced water, drilling wastewater, and other complex and difficult liquid streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for nearly 45% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. by 2035 [6,7]. As production in- creases and new complex and difficult liquid streams Bryan D. Coday a , Pei Xu b , Edward G. Beaudry c , Jack Herron c Oasys Water, Boston, MA, USA H I G H L I G H T S · Highly impaired liquid streams can be sustainably

  14. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-09-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the water + 1-propanol system are reported at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The results were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak methods. The system shows a minimum boiling azeotrope, and the azeotropic composition is scarcely shifted with pressure. Results were compared with literature values. The data were correlated with Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC liquid-phase activity coefficient models.

  15. The Hierarchic Theory of Liquids and Solids. Computerized applications for ice, water, and Biosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Kaivarainen

    2008-06-05

    This is a new book of quantum Hierarchic theory of condensed matter, general for liquids and solids, developed by this author during 20 years and its numerous applications. Computer program, based on new theory, was used for simulations of big number of physical properties of water and ice. Condensed matter is considered as a superposition of 3D standing waves (collective excitations) of different nature: thermal de Broglie waves, IR photons and thermal phonons. New theories of total internal energy, heat capacity, surface tension, vapor pressure, thermal conductivity, viscosity and self-diffusion are described. Hierarchic theory of osmotic pressure, based on new state equation, new theories of light refraction, Brillouin light scattering and Mossbauer effect are presented also and compared with available experimental data for water and ice. The agreement between theoretical and available experimental results for water and ice is very good. New approach to the turbulence, superfluidity and superconductivity is developed. A lot of applications of new theory to biophysics, including model of Quantum of Mind are described. New optoacoustic device: Comprehensive Analyzer of Matter Properties (CAMP) is proposed.

  16. Frequency dependence of specific heat in supercooled liquid water and emergence of correlated dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinji Saito; Iwao Ohmine; Biman Bagchi

    2013-03-30

    Molecular origin of the well-known specific heat anomaly in supercooled liquid water is investigated here by using extensive computer simulations and theoretical analyses. A rather sharp increase in the values of isobaric specific heat with lowering temperature and the weak temperature dependence of isochoric specific heat in the same range are reproduced in simulations. We calculated the spatiotemporal correlation among temperature fluctuations and examined the frequency dependent specific heat. The latter shows a rapid growth in the low frequency regime as temperature is cooled below 270 K. In order to understand the microscopic basis of this increase, we have performed a shell wise decomposition of contributions of distant molecules to the temperature fluctuations in a central molecule. This decomposition reveals the emergence, at low temperatures, of temporally slow, spatially long ranged large temperature fluctuations. The temperature fluctuation time correlation function (TFCF) can be fitted to a William-Watts stretched exponential form with the stretching parameter close to 0.6 at low temperatures, indicating highly non-exponential relaxation. Temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the correlation function can be fitted to Vogel-Fulcher-Tamermann expression which provides a quantitative measure of the fragility of the liquid. Interestingly, we find that the rapid growth in the relaxation time of TFCF with lowering temperature undergoes a sharp crossover from a markedly fragile state to a weakly fragile state around 220 K.

  17. A Passive Probe for Subsurface Oceans and Liquid Water in Jupiter's Icy Moons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Maiwald, Frank; Heggy, Essam; Ries, Paul; Liewer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    We describe an interferometric reflectometer method for passive detection of subsurface oceans and liquid water in Jovian icy moons using Jupiter's decametric radio emission (DAM). The DAM flux density exceeds 3,000 times the galactic background in the neighborhood of the Jovian icy moons, providing a signal that could be used for passive radio sounding. An instrument located between the icy moon and Jupiter could sample the DAM emission along with its echoes reflected in the ice layer of the target moon. Cross-correlating the direct emission with the echoes would provide a measurement of the ice shell thickness along with its dielectric properties. The interferometric reflectometer provides a simple solution to sub-Jovian radio sounding of ice shells that is complementary to ice penetrating radar measurements better suited to measurements in the anti-Jovian hemisphere that shadows Jupiter's strong decametric emission. The passive nature of this technique also serves as risk reduction in case of radar transmi...

  18. Dynamics of soft Nanomaterials captured by transmission electron microscopy in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proetto, Maria T.; Rush, Anthony M.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Patterson, Joseph P.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Olson, Norman H.; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Andolina, Christopher; Millstone, Jill; Howell, Stephen B.; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2014-01-14

    In this paper we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterization of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerization of an oxaliplatin analog, designed for an ongoing program in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point toward key design parameters that enable this new characterization approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic micellar nanoparticles to- gether with their characterization in liquid water.

  19. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  20. Binding Strength of Sodium Ions in Cellulose for Different Water Contents M. D. Deshpande,,| Ralph H. Scheicher,*,, Rajeev Ahuja,, and Ravindra Pandey*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    Binding Strength of Sodium Ions in Cellulose for Different Water Contents M. D. Deshpande,,| Ralph ions (Na+ ) with cellulose is investigated from first principles for varying degrees of water content OH groups in cellulose which we categorize as two different types. In the absence of water, Na+ forms

  1. Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at shutdown, may freeze under subzero tem- peratures and makes cold start of a PEM fuel cell difficultQuantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X understanding of the two-phase flow and flooding occurrence in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. We have

  2. Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet at Supercritical Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet in laminar jet flames of methane at elevated pressures in a high-pressure combustion chamber, we have MPa, after the laminar methane jet flame had been stabilized on a co-flow circular nozzle-type burner

  3. Solid - Liquid Phase Transition in a Gibbs Monolayer of Melissic Acid at the n-Hexane - Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksey M. Tikhonov

    2015-12-02

    A sharp phase transition from a crystalline state with the area per molecule A = (17 +/- 1) Angstrom^2 to a liquid state with A = (23 +/- 1) Angstrom^2 at the n-hexane - water interface in a Gibbs monolayer of melissic acid has been revealed in data of X-ray reflectometry with the use of synchrotron radiation.

  4. J. Phys. Chem. 1993,97, 13841-13851 13841 Effective Potentials for Liquid Water Using Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    , Columbia University, New York,New York I0027 Received:July 30, 1993" Two three-site potentials for use for structure, energy, and pressure. The models presented correspond to a reduced effective representation a viable alternative to other simple pairwise and polarizable three-center liquid water potentials. 1

  5. Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt investigations of radiation induced chemical events. Electron pulses generated by focussing terawatt laser pulses by the ionizing electron pulses is monitored with 0.3 s time resolution. Hydrated electron concentrations as high

  6. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  7. Reverse Monte Carlo investigations concerning recent isotopic substitution neutron diffraction data on liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ildikó Pethes; László Pusztai

    2015-08-25

    Although liquid water has been studied for many decades by (X-ray and neutron) diffraction measurements, new experimental results keep appearing, virtually every year. The reason for this is that neither X-ray, nor neutron diffraction data are trivial to correct and interpret for this essential substance. Since X-rays are somewhat insensitive to hydrogen, neutron diffraction with (most frequently, H/D) isotopic substitution is vital for investigating the most important feature in water: hydrogen bonding. Here, the two very recent sets of neutron diffraction data are considered, both exploiting the contrast between light and heavy hydrogen, $^1$H and $^2$H, in different ways. Reverse Monte Carlo structural modeling is applied for constructing large structural models that are as consistent as possible with all experimental information, both in real and reciprocal space. The method has also proven to be useful for revealing where possible small inconsistencies appear during primary data processing: for one neutron data set, it is the molecular geometry that may not be maintained within reasonable limits, whereas for the other set, it is one of the (composite) radial distribution functions that cannot be modeled at the same (high) level as the other three functions. Nevertheless, details of the local structure around the hydrogen bonds appear very much the same for both data sets: the most probable hydrogen bond angle is straight, and the nearest oxygen neighbours of a central oxygen atom occupy approximately tetrahedral positions.

  8. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

  9. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grote, K.

    2010-01-01

    of soil moisture: Adv. Water Resourc. , 17, Fageria, N.K. ,SGP97) Hydrology Experiment: Water Resources Research, 35(6)variability across scales: Water Resources Research, 44,

  10. Liquid water quantification in the cathode side gas channels of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell through two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    t s Liquid water in the cathode side channels of PEM fuel cell is quantified. Algorithm developed in MATLABÒ electrolyte membrane fuel cell Two-phase flow visualization Gas channels Area coverage ratio Water quantification a b s t r a c t Water management is crucial to the performance of PEM fuel cells. Water

  11. Studies of liquid-liquid phase transition and critical phenomena in supercooled confined water by neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Dazhi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to measure the density of water contained in 1-D cylindrical pores of a mesoporous silica material MCM-41-S. By being able to suppress the homogenous nucleation process inside ...

  12. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  13. Rapid Simultaneous Mapping of Total and Myelin Water Content, T1 and T2* in Multiple Sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhelger, Volker; Gliedstein, Detlef; Lafontaine, Marie-Sofie; Tonkova, Vyara; Holz, Dietrich; Böer, Andreas; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; (,; Koblenz, University of Applied Sciences; Koblenz, Radiologisches Institut Hohenzollernstrasse; Engineering, Institute for Medical; Koblenz, Information Processing; Boeer, Neurologie Dr; Koblenz,

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging might provide a more specific insight into disease process, progression and therapeutic response of multiple sclerosis. We present an extension of a previously published approach for the simultaneous mapping of brain T1, T2* and total water content. In addition to those three parameters, the method presented in the current work allows for the measurement of myelin bound water content, a surrogate marker of tissue myelination. Myelin water was measured based on its distinct relaxation with reduced T2*, resulting in a multiexponential decay signal. However, only 10 points could be acquired on the relaxation curve within a maximum echo time of <40ms as the quantitative protocol has been adapted previously for fast acquisitions with whole brain coverage. The sparse sampling required an adaption of the optimisation approach with additional constraints necessary in order to obtain reliable results. Therefore, the corresponding pool fractions were determined using linear op...

  14. TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Version 5.1 iii September 2012 Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1;TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Version 5.1 iv September 2012 3 PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES 3-1 3 Noise 3-25 3.3.15 Optimise Light 3-25 3.3.16 Save Water 3-25 3.3.17 Minimise Waste 3-25 3.4 Green Star

  15. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-05-01

    Distillation is perhaps the separation process most widely used in the chemical processing industry. The correct design of distillation columns requires the availability of accurate and, if possible, thermodynamically consistent vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. The present work is part of a project studying the effect of pressure on the behavior of the azeotropic point in mixtures in which at least one component is an alcohol. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent by the methods of Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC).

  16. VOLUME 82, NUMBER 11 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 15 MARCH 1999 Fast and Slow Dynamics of Hydrogen Bonds in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of Hydrogen Bonds in Liquid Water Francis W. Starr,1 Johannes K. Nielsen,1,2 and H. Eugene Stanley1 1 Center, Denmark (Received 23 September 1998) We study hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water at low temperatures functions between the liquid and glassy states of water. We find that average bond lifetime 1 ps has

  17. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  18. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Spectral snow-reflectance models for grain-size and liquid-water fraction in melting snow for the solar-reflected spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Spectral snow-reflectance models for grain-size and liquid- water fraction in melting snow.S.A. ABSTRACT. Two spectral snow-reflectance models that account for the effects of grain-size and liquid calculations are used to specify the essential optical properties of snow in the models.Two approaches

  20. FEATURE ARTICLE Investigations of the Structure and Hydrogen Bonding of Water Molecules at Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    at these two interfaces. In both cases field-induced alignment of water molecules in the double layer region, and intermolecular coupling of surface water mol- Current address: Department of Chemistry, Harvey Mudd College, 301 this laboratory that provide a wealth of information about water at the air/water and oil/water interface

  1. FURTHER MODELING OF LIQUID WATER ON CM PARENT BODIES. B. A. Cohen , Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., The University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    FURTHER MODELING OF LIQUID WATER ON CM PARENT BODIES. B. A. Cohen 1 and R. F. Coker 2 , Department in a warmer neb- ula, the time of accretion can be delayed even further to ~5 Ma. Peak temperatures. In every

  2. Towards Macroscopic Water Integration for Zero Liquid Discharge in Industrial Complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Zakarya

    2015-03-02

    associated with high capital and operating cost and pose a significant economic burden to implementing industries. ZLD solutions are explored as End-of-Pipe treatment options to eliminate liquid discharges. Instead, ZLD options should be explored...

  3. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Carl D. (Olympia, WA)

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  4. Bulletin de la Socit Royale des Sciences de Lige, Vol. XX, X, 200X, pp. YY-ZZ Influence of the water content in the synthesis of fructose laurate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the water content in the synthesis of fructose laurate by immobilized lipase B of Candida antarctica of these reactions can be modeled as a function of the initial water content by a three-parameter power law for the esterification and by an exponential law for the transesterification. The influence of the water content

  5. Stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the2 determination of pesticides in water samples: method validation and measurement uncertainty3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    carry-over between consecutive extractions with the same stir21 bar. Pesticide quantification in water1 Title :1 Stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the2 determination of pesticides in water samples: method validation and measurement uncertainty3

  6. The Hydrated Proton at the Water Liquid/Vapor Interface Matt K. Petersen, Srinivasan S. Iyengar, Tyler J. F. Day, and Gregory A. Voth*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    The Hydrated Proton at the Water Liquid/Vapor Interface Matt K. Petersen, Srinivasan S. Iyengar ReceiVed: July 23, 2004; In Final Form: August 22, 2004 The hydrated proton was studied at the water the migration of the excess proton to and about the interface through the fluctuating bond topology described

  7. Effect of differing mineral contents in process water on the quantity and nitrogen concentration of protein isolates from defatted soy and cottonseed flours 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Heikyung

    1976-01-01

    EFFECT OF DIFFERING MINERAL CONTENTS IN PROCESS WATER ON THE QUANTITY AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM DEFATTED SOY AND COTTONSEED FLOURS A Thesis by HEIKYUNG KIM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December l976 Major Sub)ect: Food Technology EFFECT OF DIFFERING MINERAL CONTENTS IN PROCESS WATER ON THE QUANTITY AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM DEFATTED...

  8. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01

    the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... minimum winter temperatures of their different northern boundaries. Cooling rate affected the EIT of T. recurvata and T. d* b t t T. b~l' T. o tll . L f t of the former 2 species froze at colder temperatures when cooled at a rate of 25oC per hour than...

  9. Application of TDR technology to water content monitoring of capillary barriers made of pulp and paper residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, A.R.; Burnotte, F.; Lefebvre, G.

    1999-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) can be curbed by covering tailings with capillary barriers. The purposes of these barriers is to prevent O{sub 2} from interacting with mine residues. This control can be made by keeping a high degree of moisture inside the cover material. Saturation is thus a key parameter to be monitored. The purpose of this paper is to present how the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique can be used in order to monitor the volumetric water content for pulp and paper residues that have been used as capillary barriers. Calibration curves for deinking residues are presented and compared to literature data relating to mineral and organic soils.

  10. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Grandjean, A. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257 CEA-CNRS-UM2-ENSCM, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F. [AREVA NC, Paris La Defense (France); Shilova, E.; Viel, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

  11. 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

  12. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2008-01-01

    P. R. V. Extraction of fission palladium by Aliquat 336 andnitrate salt and potassium palladium chloride were used. [Copper, Mercury, Silver and Palladium Ions from Water Using

  13. A computationally efficacious free-energy functional for studies of inhomogeneous liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravishankar Sundararaman; Kendra Letchworth-Weaver; T. A. Arias

    2012-07-26

    We present an accurate equation of state for water based on a simple microscopic Hamiltonian, with only four parameters that are well-constrained by bulk experimental data. With one additional parameter for the range of interaction, this model yields a computationally efficient free-energy functional for inhomogeneous water which captures short-ranged correlations, cavitation energies and, with suitable long-range corrections, the non-linear dielectric response of water, making it an excellent candidate for studies of mesoscale water and for use in ab initio solvation methods.

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Water: An Application of a Nonparametric Approach to Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    of Chemistry, Columbia UniVersity, New York, New York 10027 Received February 13, 2009 Abstract: Because of its entropy, and we suggest an alternative factorization of the water-water correlation function that appears interaction energy terms, and the solvation entropy is computed from an expansion of the entropy in terms

  15. Journal of Power Sources 196 (2011) 63566361 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    2011-01-01

    - ers [10]. To prevent these issues, the GDL is commonly treated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE to design modified GDLs for a more efficient water management. Effects of PTFE content, GDL thickness on the overall cell performance. Dai et al. [16] investigated the effects of PTFE content on the liquid and vapor

  16. Performances of the Electrical Spectroscopy employing a RESPER Probe for measuring the Salinity and Water Content of Concretes and Terrestrial Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settimi, A; Zirizzotti, A; Marchetti, M; Sapia, V

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to discuss the performances of the electrical spectroscopy employing a RESPER probe to measure the salinity s and volumetric content {\\theta}W of water in concretes and terrestrial soils. The RESPER probe is an induction device for spectroscopy which performs simultaneous and non invasive measurements on the electrical RESistivity 1/{\\sigma} and relative dielectric PERmittivity {\\epsilon}r of a subjacent medium. The RESPER measures {\\sigma} and {\\epsilon} with inaccuracies below a prefixed limit (10%) in the band of middle and high frequencies (MF-HF). The conductivity is related to salinity and the dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content by suitable refined theoretical models which are consistent with the predictions of two empirical laws, respectively Archie's and Topp's. The better agreement, the lower the hygroscopic water content and the higher s; so a better agreement occurs for concretes, containing almost no bound water molecules, provided that are characterized by an h...

  17. Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Prodip K.

    2013-01-01

    the DOE EERE Funding, Office of Fuel Cell Technologies underUptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components Prodip K. DasWater management in PEM fuel cells is critical for optimum

  18. A singular thermodynamically consistent temperature at the origin of the anomalous behavior of liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallamace, Francesco

    The density maximum of water dominates the thermodynamics of the system under ambient conditions, is strongly P-dependent, and disappears at a crossover pressure P[subscript cross] ~ 1.8 kbar. We study this variable across ...

  19. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  20. Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Alonso; N. Barros; M. Bergevin; A. Bernstein; L. Bignell; E. Blucher; F. Calaprice; J. M. Conrad; F. B. Descamps; M. V. Diwan; D. A. Dwyer; S. T. Dye; A. Elagin; P. Feng; C. Grant; S. Grullon; S. Hans; D. E. Jaffe; S. H. Kettell; J. R. Klein; K. Lande; J. G. Learned; K. B. Luk; J. Maricic; P. Marleau; A. Mastbaum; W. F. McDonough; L. Oberauer; G. D. Orebi Gann; R. Rosero; S. D. Rountree; M. C. Sanchez; M. H. Shaevitz; T. M. Shokair; M. B. Smy; A. Stahl; M. Strait; R. Svoboda; N. Tolich; M. R. Vagins; K. A. van Bibber; B. Viren; R. B. Vogelaar; M. J. Wetstein; L. Winslow; B. Wonsak; E. T. Worcester; M. Wurm; M. Yeh; C. Zhang

    2014-10-24

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diffuse supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon tracking detector proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The goal is the deployment of a 30-100 kiloton-scale detector, the basic elements of which are being developed now in experiments such as WATCHMAN, ANNIE, SNO+, and EGADS.

  1. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  2. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  3. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Nelson, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  4. The influence of irrigation water salinity on optimal nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium liquid fertilizer rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos Nu?n?ez, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    of nitrogen fertilizer to compensate for leaching losses (Miyamoto, 1984). The effect of salt stress on mineral status of plants has been studied extensively for many agronomic and horticultural crops (Al-Saidi and Alawi, 1984; Al-Saidi et al. , 1985... cultivars (Al-Saidi and Alawi, 1984; Al- Saidi et al. , 1985). Ten flowering annuals were grown in saline water with electrical conductivities of 0. 8, 1. 5, 3. 0, or 4. 5 dS m from a 2:1 equivalent weight basis of CaCI2 and NaCI in tap water (Devitt...

  5. A 1-D modelling of streaming potential dependence on water content during drainage experiment in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allègre, Vincent; Ackerer, Philippe; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05371.x

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of electrokinetics for unsaturated conditions is crucial for numerous of geophysical data interpretation. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the streaming potential coefficient C as a function of the water saturation Sw is still discussed. We propose here to model both the Richards' equation for hydrodynamics and the Poisson's equation for electrical potential for unsaturated conditions using 1-D finite element method. The equations are first presented and the numerical scheme is then detailed for the Poisson's equation. Then, computed streaming potentials (SPs) are compared to recently published SP measurements carried out during drainage experiment in a sand column. We show that the apparent measurement of DV / DP for the dipoles can provide the SP coefficient in these conditions. Two tests have been performed using existing models for the SP coefficient and a third one using a new relation. The results show that existing models of unsaturated SP coefficients C(Sw) provide poor results in term...

  6. HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2012 Table of Contents 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2012 Table of Contents 1 1 Regulations and Basic Information SafeQuantitiesofLiquidMaterials(EmulsifiableConcentrates,Etc.)for .......... 1-29 Various Quantities of Water Table 1.8 - Pounds of Active Ingredients per Gallon, Pounds per

  7. HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2011 Table of Contents 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2011 Table of Contents 1 1 Regulations and Basic Information SafeQuantitiesofLiquidMaterials(EmulsifiableConcentrates,Etc.)for .......... 1-30 Various Quantities of Water Table 1.8 - Pounds of Active Ingredients per Gallon, Pounds per

  8. In Situ Imaging of Liquid Water and Ice Formation in an Operating PEFC during Cold Start

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Cold-start capability and survivability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs in a subzero is insufficient to contain all of the accumulated water before the cell operating temperature rises above freezing to freeze/ thaw cycling between -40 and 80°C. St-Pierre et al.5 found that if a cell was purged with dry gas

  9. Phase Transitions Induced by Nanoconfinement in Liquid Water Nicolas Giovambattista,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and geometrically complex sur- faces [1], fuel cell technology, where rates of proton trans- port are controlled-like layers next to the walls. The BL-THF transition involves freezing of the two surface layers in contact, structureless walls [11­20]. The freezing of water in carbon nanotubes has been studied by Zeng

  10. (1) AGGELIDES, S., YOUNGS, E.G., 1978 -The dependance of the parameters in the Green and Ampt infiltration equation on the initial water content in draining and wetting states.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    infiltration equation on the initial water content in draining and wetting states. Water Resources Research, 14 analysis. Water Resources Research, vol. 2, n°4, p.729-738. (17) BOUWER, H., 1969 ­ Infiltration of water.L., 1977 ­ Estimating the effective capillary pressure in the Green and Ampt infiltration equation. Water

  11. The Laboratory Complex for the Calibration of Photometers Using the Optical Method for Determination of the Water Vapor Content in the Earth Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Nikanorova, I N; Leiterer, U; Niebert, T; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Ilyin, G N; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the laboratory complex for the calibration of photometers that are used in weather service to measure the water vapor content in the Earth atmosphere. The complex was built up in Pulkovo Observatory and developed within the framework of collaboration between Pulkovo Observatory and Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory (Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg - Richard-A{\\ss}mann-Observatorium, Lindenberg, Germany). It is used to obtain calibration dependences for individual devices, and also to develop and compare various methods of construction of calibration dependences. These techniques are based on direct calibration of the photometers, on the use of spectral laboratory transmission functions for water vapor, on calculation methods using spectroscopical databases for individual lines. We hope that when the parameters of the equipment are taken into account in detail and new results for the absorptive power of water vapor are used, the accuracy of determination of the water vapor content in ...

  12. Analysis of the Application of the Optical Method to the Measurements of the Water Vapor Content in the Atmosphere. I. Basic Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Berger, F -H; Leiterer, U; Naebert, T; Nikanorova, I N; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P; Sal'nikov, I B

    2010-01-01

    We retrieved the total content of the atmospheric water vapor from extensive sets of photometric data obtained since 1995 at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory with star and sun photometers. Different methods of determination of the empirical parameters that are necessary for the retrieval are discussed. The instruments were independently calibrated using laboratory measurements made at Pulkovo Observatory with the VKM-100 multi-pass vacuum cell. The empirical parameters were also calculated by the simulation of the atmospheric absorption by water vapor, using the MODRAN-4 program package for different model atmospheres. The results are compared to those presented in the literature, obtained with different instruments and methods of the retrieval. The accuracy of the empirical parameters used for the power approximation that links the water vapor content with the observed absorption is analyzed. Currently, the calibration and measurement errors yield the uncertainty of about 10% in the total column water v...

  13. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor DirectSciTech Connect Wall-touchingPotentialWater-saving

  14. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems composed of water, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol at 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-11-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria data were obtained for the 2-propanol + 1-propanol binary system and the water + 1-propanol + 2-propanol ternary system at 100 kPa. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs method for the binary system and according to the McDermott-Ellis method for the ternary one. The binary system is well represented by assuming ideal behavior. The binary interaction parameters obtained from this and previous work are used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system using the UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wilson models. The ternary system is well predicted from binary data.

  15. Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

    2008-01-01

    of predicted water contents and water management in ani.e . , temperature and water content), and thus many modelsfor the water uptake and water content using macroscopic

  16. Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-04

    It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable for incorporation of a radionuclides.

  17. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Weber, A.Z.; Hickner, M.A.

    2008-03-06

    Water-content profiles across the membrane electrode assembly of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell were measured using high-resolution neutron imaging and compared to mathematical-modeling predictions. It was found that the membrane held considerably more water than the other membrane-electrode constituents (catalyst layers, microporous layers, and macroporous gas-diffusion layers) at low temperatures, 40 and 60 C. The water content in the membrane and the assembly decreased drastically at 80 C where vapor transport and a heat-pipe effect began to dominate the water removal from the membrane-electrode assembly. In the regimes where vapor transport was significant, the through-plane water-content profile skewed towards the cathode. Similar trends were observed as the relative humidity of the inlet gases was lowered. This combined experimental and modeling approach has been beneficial in rationalizing the results of each and given insight into future directions for new experimental work and refinements to currently available models.

  18. Analytical and experimental study of a liquid desiccant heat and mass exchanger operating near water freezing temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pineda Vargas, Sergio Manuel

    2009-01-01

    exchanger operating near water freezing temperature A Thesisoperating near water freezing temperature Copyright © 2009operating near water freezing temperature Sergio M. Pineda

  19. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    soil bulk density and the water retention curve, Vadose ZoneA. Bruand, A conceptual model of the soil water retentioncurve, Water Resources Research, 34 (2), 223–231, 1998.

  20. SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 330 Overview Environmental Science 403 Interdisciplinary Science 407 Multidisciplinary Science 409 The Darrin Fresh Water

  1. An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Summary Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal by extracting it from liquid manure and potentially using the recovered NH3 as fertilizer. For this purpose, lab

  2. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

  3. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  4. Characterization of water-based liquid scintillator response to gammas and neutrons at varying scintillator-surfactant concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, Lauren (Lauren M.)

    2012-01-01

    Large scale solar neutron and neutrino flux experiments require many tons of bulk liquid organic scintillator to take spectroscopic data of these energetic particles. However, material and chemical concerns make such ...

  5. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    ion effects at the air/water interface. Chem. Rev. 106:1259-at the nitrobenzene-water interface electrified by a commonnature of ions at the liquid water surface. Annu. Rev. Phys.

  6. Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents Safe and Effective Use.) for Various Quantities of Water

  7. Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

    2012-01-01

    The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

  8. Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 67486757 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    ]), and are useful to understand the competing phenomena of water removal in PEFC DM. The ultimate goal of this work is known to impede cold start operation and decrease durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC of the overall stored liquid content in a PEFC is known to reside in the dif- fusion media, very few studies have

  9. On the insights into phases of liquid water from study of its unusual glass-forming properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Mallamace; Elpidio Tombari; Giuseppe Salvetti; Gyan P. Johari

    2008-06-29

    We investigate whether an interpretation of water's thermodynamics [Science, 319, 582 (2008)] by using analogy with the binary metal alloys lambda-type ordering transition or buckminsterfullerene's orientational-ordering transition has merit. On examining the heat capacity data used for the nanoconfined water, the construction of the heat capacity peak, and the number of water molecules in nanoconfinement, we find that (i) the peak had been obtained by joining the data for emulsified water with that of the nanoconfined water and (ii) only three water molecules can be fitted across the 1.1 nm diameter pores used in the study, two of which form a cylindrical shell that is hydrogen bonded to silica. The remaining connectedness of one water molecule would not produce a metal alloy-like lambda-transition, or cooperative motions. Therefore, there is no basis for considering such an ordering in supercooled water.

  10. Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane]. In the anode channel of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) operating with a Dead-Ended Anode (DEA with coupled PDEs describing liquid and gas transport through the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) of a PEMFC, which

  11. Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

    2009-09-16

    Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

  12. The Determination of the Water Vapor Content in the Pulkovo VKM-100 Multipass Vacuum Cell Using Polymer Sensors of Humidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Nikanorova, I N; Sal'nikov, I B; Leiterer, U; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Dauß, D

    2010-01-01

    In spectral studies of water vapor under laboratory conditions (determination of molecular constants, measurement for spectral transmission functions), the amount of water vapor in the time of the measurements is one of the most essential parameters, which should be determined accurately. We discuss the application for this purpose of polymer sensors of humidity manufactured by Praktik-NC (Moscow) and used in the Pulkovo VKM-100 multipass vacuum cell. These sensors were examined in the laboratory of Lindenberg Meteorological observatory (Germany) by comparison between their readings and those of standard measuring devices for various values of relative humidity, pressure, and temperature. We also carried out measurements of relative humidity in boxes with saline solution, in which the relative humidity that corresponds to a given solution is guaranteed with the accuracy of several tenths of percent. The analysis of the results of the laboratory examination of the sensors and extended sets of measurements made...

  13. Modifications of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water in a cylindrical SiO_2 pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Hartnig; W. Witschel; E. Spohr; P. Gallo; M. A. Ricci; M. Rovere

    2000-02-29

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of water confined in a silica pore. A cylindrical cavity is created inside a vitreous silica cell with geometry and size similar to the pores of real Vycor glass. The simulations are performed at different hydration levels. At all hydration levels water adsorbs strongly on the Vycor surface; a double layer structure is evident at higher hydrations. At almost full hydration the modifications of the confinement-induced site-site pair distribution functions are in qualitative agreement with neutron diffraction experiment. A decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds between water molecules is observed along the pore radius, due to the tendency of the molecules close to the substrate to form hydrogen-bonds with the hydrophilic pore surface. As a consequence we observe a substrate induced distortion of the H-bond tetrahedral network of water molecules in the regions close to the surface.

  14. SEASONAL SNOWMELT VERSUS IMPACT-TRIGGERED RUNOFF IN MARS' GEOLOGIC RECORD OF SURFACE LIQUID WATER. E. S. Kite1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on Early Mars is retreat of water ice to planetary cold traps. (Melt- ing is also suppressed at low, forcing seasonal melting (Fig. 1b). Strong sensitivity to orbital forcing, plus the knowledge

  15. SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 324 Overview The Darrin Fresh Water Institute 401 New York Center for Studies on the Origins of Life 402 New York State

  16. Molecular Mechanism of the Adsorption Process of an Iodide Anion into Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Water-Methanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.

    2012-12-07

    To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ion adsorption to the interface of mixtures, we systematically carried out a free energy calculations study involving the transport of an iodide anion across the interface of a water-methanol mixture. Many body affects are taken into account to describe the interactions among the species. The surface propensities of I- at interfaces of pure water and methanol are well understood. In contrast, detailed knowledge of the molecular level adsorption process of I- at aqueous mixture interfaces has not been reported. In this paper, we explore how this phenomenon will be affected for mixed solvents with varying compositions of water and methanol. Our potential of mean force study as function of varying compositions indicated that I- adsorption free energies decrease from pure water to pure methanol but not linearly with the concentration of methanol. We analyze the computed density profiles and hydration numbers as a function of concentrations and ion positions with respect to the interface to further explain the observed phenomenon. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  17. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharnagl, B.; Vrugt, J. A; Vereecken, H.; Herbst, M.

    2011-01-01

    monitor- ing soil water contents, Water Resour. Res. , 26,spatial variation of soil water content at the field scaledetermination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial

  18. Table Of Contents Section: Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 2 SANITATION Table Of Contents Section: Page 02.A General Water......................................................... 2-1 02.D Non-Potable Water and openings. 02.C DRINKING WATER #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 2-2 02.C.01 An adequate supply of potable water

  19. Water content and wind acceleration in the envelope around the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tau as seen by Herschel/HIFI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decin, L; De Beck, E; Lombaert, R; de Koter, A; Waters, L B F M

    2010-01-01

    During their asymptotic giant branch, evolution low-mass stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through an intense wind, enriching the interstellar medium with products of nucleosynthesis. We observed the nearby oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch star IK Tau using the high-resolution HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel. We report on the first detection of H_2^{16}O and the rarer isotopologues H_2^{17}O and H_2^{18}O in both the ortho and para states. We deduce a total water content (relative to molecular hydrogen) of 6.6x10^{-5}, and an ortho-to-para ratio of 3:1. These results are consistent with the formation of H_2O in thermodynamical chemical equilibrium at photospheric temperatures, and does not require pulsationally induced non-equilibrium chemistry, vaporization of icy bodies or grain surface reactions. High-excitation lines of 12CO, 13CO, 28SiO, 29SiO, 30SiO, HCN, and SO have also been detected. From the observed line widths, the acceleration region in the inner wind zone can be characterized...

  20. Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Systems Neima Brauner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brauner, Neima

    prediction of oil-water flow charac- teristics, such as flow pattern, water holdup and pressure gradient in the petroleum industry, where mixtures of oil and water are transported in pipes over long distances. Accurate particular extreme of two-fluid systems characterized by low-density ratio and low viscosity ratio. In liquid

  1. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Liquid Polyamorphism and the Anomalous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    as temperature decreases, liquid bulk water begins to expand when its temperature drops below 4 C. Indeed at 4 C while colder layers of 0 C water "float" on top (cf., Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious properties of liquid bulk water be- come more pronounced in the supercooled region below 0 C [3­5]. For ex

  2. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARMGeometrytypes

  3. Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents 4.1 Existing Legal Protections Protections Level Name Clean Water Act Endangered Species Act Migratory Bird Treaty Act National Environmental State Instream Water Rights ­ Oregon Water Resources Department Morrow County Zoning Ordinance ­ Morrow

  4. Methods to Study Intervention Sustainability Using Pre-existing, Community Interventions: Examples from the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Benjamin Ford

    2009-01-01

    water treatment and ii Contents 3.4A.2 Water qualityfor using household water treatment . . . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Numerical simulation of the water bubble rising in a liquid column using the combination of level set and moving mesh methods in the collocated grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Water boils inside the BWRs. Although water in the nuclear industry, more than 90% power generated by nuclear is from water-cooled nuclear reactors either is in subcooled condition in the PWRs, the subcooled boiling occurs inside the reactor which makes the Departure

  6. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Data Discovery Browse Datapath

  7. Table of Contents Deschutes Subbasin Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Table of Contents Deschutes Subbasin Plan Table of Contents Executive Summary 1. Purpose and Scope.1. Physical, Natural and Human Landscape ................................................2.1 2.2. Water, Table of Contents Page 1 #12;Table of Contents 7. Limiting Factors and Conditions .........

  8. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

    2012-07-03

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

  9. Table of Contents Page i 2013 Residential Compliance Manual January 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Table of Contents Page i 2013 Residential Compliance Manual January 2014 Table of Contents 5. Water Heating Requirements ................................................................................................................................1 5.1.1 Water Heating Energy

  10. On the thermal neutron transport processes in liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnsal, R.M.; Tewari, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    Using the recently developed thermal neutron scattering kernels for water and heavy water, which incorporate both the collective and the molecular modes present in water and heavy water, the thermal neutron transport studies of asymptotic decay constants lambda/sub 0/, diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, diffusion cooling coefficient C, and the transport mean-free-path lambda /SUB tr/ are studied for liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures with varying molecular contents and for various assembly sizes at 21 and 5/sup 0/C. The calculated values of the physical constants, lambda/sub 0/, D/sub 0/, C, and lambda /SUB tr/ are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Both the collective motion and the molecular modes present in the liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures play significant roles in the thermal neutron transport processes.

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:05 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:06 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2122015 2:09:18 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use...

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6252015 11:11:13 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS2","MCRFPP12","MCRFPFL2","MCRFPNY2","MCRFPPA2","MCRFPV...

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:10:39 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (Summary) "...

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:10:38 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Summary) "...

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:11:20 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary) "...

  18. Catalog of Studies Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    2014-15 GRADUATE Catalog of Studies TM #12;Table of Contents Welcome to the University of Arkansas ............................. 26 Arkansas Water Resources Center ................................................ 26 Bessie Boehm

  19. Catalog of Studies Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    2015-16 GRADUATE Catalog of Studies TM #12;Table of Contents Welcome to the University of Arkansas ............................. 26 Arkansas Water Resources Center ................................................ 26 Bessie Boehm

  20. Table Contents Page i 2013 Nonresidential Compliance Manual January 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Table Contents Page i 2013 Nonresidential Compliance Manual January 2014 Table of Contents........................................................................5 Table F-1 Small Water Heater Test Methods ..................................................................................6 Table F-2 Large Water Heater Test Methods

  1. IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL-2008), Poitiers, June 30-July 4, 2008 Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by a High Field Pulse P. Atten, A. Ouiguini, J. Raisin of a small drop electrically neutral. The experimental results of water drops extraction in oil are presented, France Abstract- As a part of a study of electrocoalescence of water droplets in oil, the controlled

  2. Volume III, Chapter 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 4 Eulachon #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.0 EULACHON (Thaleichthys pacificus..................................................................................................................... 4-4 4.1.5 Movements in Fresh Water ........................................................... 4-8 4.4.1 Water Development

  3. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  4. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  5. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  6. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  7. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  8. Watershed and Receiving Water Modeling Introduction ....................................................................................................................................843

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    APPENDIX H Watershed and Receiving Water Modeling CONTENTS Introduction ..................................................................................................................852 Receiving Water Models ......................................................................................................................................866 INTRODUCTION Models are important tools for watershed and receiving water analyses because

  9. Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 38583869 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) can be compromised if residual liquid water is not removed from

  10. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 2: Water cycle, stocks and flows () July 28, 2013 1 / 30 #12;The basic movement of water source: USGS. () July 28, 2013 2 / 30 #12, humidity and air flow. Formation of liquid-water in the Atmosphere-Cloud-Formation Coming Down Rain

  11. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    dielectric semiconductor-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. 2. Relationships and

  12. An ecological study examining the correlation of end-stage renal disease and ground water heavy metal content in Texas counties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Scott Alan

    1999-01-01

    An ecological study was conducted to examine the correlation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the ground water heavy metal level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and the cumulative level of all four metals in Texas counties. The heavy meal...

  13. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  14. An Unprecedented Constraint on Water Content in the Sunlit Lunar Exosphere Seen by Lunar-Based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang'e-3 Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J; Qiu, Y L; Meng, X M; Cai, H B; Cao, L; Deng, J S; Han, X H; Wei, J Y

    2015-01-01

    The content of $\\mathrm{OH/H_2O}$ molecules in the tenuous exosphere of the Moon is still an open issue at present. We here report an unprecedented upper limit of the content of the OH radicals, which is obtained from the in-situ measurements carried out \\rm by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope, a payload of Chinese Chang'e-3 mission. By analyzing the diffuse background in the images taken by the telescope, the column density and surface concentration of the OH radicals are inferred to be $<10^{11}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ and $<10^{4}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$ (by assuming a hydrostatic equilibrium with a scale height of 100km), respectively, by assuming that the recorded background is fully contributed by their resonance fluorescence emission. The resulted concentration is lower than the previously reported value by about two orders of magnitude, and is close to the prediction of the sputtering model. In addition, the same measurements and method allow us to derive a surface concentration of $<10^{2}\\ \\math...

  15. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  16. High-precision gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy of aqueous salt solutions as a probe of the femtosecond-to-picosecond dynamics of liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinh, N Q; Allen, S James; George, D K; Rahmani, A J; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Because it is sensitive to fluctuations occurring over femtoseconds to picoseconds, gigahertz-to-terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy can provide a valuable window into water's most rapid intermolecular motions. In response, we have built a vector network analyzer dielectric spectrometer capable of measuring absorbance and index of refraction in this frequency regime with unprecedented precision. Using this to determine the complex dielectric response of water and aqueous salt solutions from 5.9 GHz to 1.12 THz (which we provide in the SI), we have obtained strong new constraints on theories of water's collective dynamics. For example, while the salt-dependencies we observe for water's two slower relaxations (8 and 1 ps) are easily reconciled with suggestions that they arise due to rotations of fully and partially hydrogen bonded molecules, respectively, the salt-dependence of the fastest relaxation (180 fs) appears difficult to reconcile with its prior assignment to liberations of single hydrogen bon...

  17. Nuclear quantum effects in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car

    2008-03-25

    In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  19. Surface Speciation at Solid/Liquid Interfaces: A Vibrational Sum-Frequency Study of Acetate Adsorption at the Fluorite/Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    recorded in frequency regions corresponding to vibrational modes of the adsorbate and water. Quantitative concentration of surface defects making the interpretation of the results in terms of an intact crystallineH), which generates a strong electric field (ranging up to 107 V,cm-1 4) at the interface. Except

  20. What's your water footprint? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info What's your water footprint.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6622 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name What's your water footprint.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower...

  1. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  2. Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Polyols in Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caratzoulas, Stavros; Courtney, Timothy; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2011-01-01

    We use the conversion of protonated glycerol to acrolein for a case study of the mechanism of acid-catalyzed dehydration of polyols in aqueous environments. We employ hybrid Quamtum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations with biased sampling and perform free energy calculations for the elementary steps of the reaction. We investigate the effects of solvent dynamics and in particular the role of quantum mechanical water in the dehydration mechanism. We present results supporting a mechanism that proceeds via water-mediated proton transfers and thus through an enol intermediate. We find that the first dehydration may take place by two, low-energy pathways requiring, respectively, 20.9 and 18.8 kcal/mol of activation free energy. The second dehydration requires 19.9 kcal/mol of activation free energy while for the overall reaction we compute a free energy change of -8 kcal/mol.

  3. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994, 28, 1331-1340 Semlempirical Thermodynamic Modeling of Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    of the coal tar pseudocomponent, and the calibrated liquid-phase activity coefficient equations can be usedEnviron. Sci. Technol. 1994, 28, 1331-1340 Semlempirical Thermodynamic Modeling of Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: Coal Tar Dissolutionin Water-Miscible Solvents Catherine A. Peters'it and Richard 0

  4. Water Quality Criteria Introduction ....................................................................................................................................798

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    APPENDIX G Water Quality Criteria CONTENTS Introduction ....................................................................................................................................798 EPA's Water Quality Criteria and Standards Plan -- Priorities for the Future............................798 Compilation of Recommended Water Quality Criteria and EPA's Process for Deriving New

  5. FUNDAMENTALSTUDY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ESTIMATION ACCURACY CHLORIDE CONTENT USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    by the electromagnetic wave radar that chloride contents and water contents, and temperature affected the electricalFUNDAMENTALSTUDY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ESTIMATION ACCURACY CHLORIDE CONTENT USING ELECTROMAGNETIC, Tokyo, Japan mami.uchida.4k@stu.hosei.ac.jp ABSTRACT Chloride contents estimation using electromagnetic

  6. EERE Website Content Checklist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This checklist is a tool to guide EERE content developers and editors in creating and reviewing content for websites.

  7. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C-S-H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J., E-mail: jthomas39@slb.com [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Allen, Andrew J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Jennings, Hamlin M. [CSHub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 Degree-Sign C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C-S-H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO){sub 0.99}-SiO{sub 2}-(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.06}-(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.97}, d = (2.73 {+-} 0.02) g/cm{sup 3}) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 {+-} 1.5) cm{sup 3} of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  8. Computer Physics Communications 180 (2009) 497502 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    2009-01-01

    analysis for the water liquid­liquid phase transition Marco G. Mazza a,, Kevin Stokely a , Elena G, we study the low temperature phase diagram of water, adopting a cell model that reproduces the known properties of water in its fluid phases. Both methods allow us to study the thermodynamic behavior of water

  9. Development of a promising filtration method for liquid clarification in nuclear facilities. [For TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, ZnBr/sub 2/ shielding solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Byrd, L.A.; Ross, R.G.; Savage, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conclusions reached are that deep beds of diatomaceous earths are especially attractive for clarification of radioactive solutions, or slurries containing insoluble radioactive material, because the diatomaceous material provides a noncompressible medium that is retentive for a wide variety of particle sizes. Also, the diatomaceous material, because of its inorganic composition, is resistant to degradation by radiation from the retained particulate matter. Its silicious character is especially appropriate for conversion to vitrified or cement-type waste forms. This paper studied the use of diatomaceous earth to filter synthetic TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, and zinc bromide solutions (hot-cell shielding).

  10. Sensor for detection of liquid spills on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Brent C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gayle, Tom M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A surface liquid detector is disclosed for detecting liquids spilled on surfaces such as floors. A temperature-sensitive thermistor probe is used in a bridge circuit to detect the change in resistance in the thermistor due to the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when a liquid contacts the probe. The device is characterized by the ability to detect either conductive or nonconductive liquids, such as water or oil spills.

  11. Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tagliasacchi, Marco

    Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection Roman Fedorov Politecnico di Milano.g. snow water availability maps based on mountain peaks states extracted from photographs hosting services). User Generated Content(UGC); collective intelligence; passive crowdsourcing; environmental models

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Waste Water Treatment by Solvent Extraction," Canadian J.A.F. Preuss, "Extraction of Phenol from Water with a Liquid1980 SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER LP,WRENCE BERv

  13. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  14. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  15. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  16. BSc (Hons) Building Surveying Course content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    BSc (Hons) Building Surveying Course content Year One Year One modules Professional, Academic and openings o Upper floor construction o Internal walls and partitions o Roofs, roof coverings and rain water

  17. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  18. Neutron diffraction of hydrogenous materials: measuring incoherent and coherent intensities separately from liquid water - a 40-year-old puzzle solved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    László Temleitner; Anne Stunault; Gabriel Cuello; László Pusztai

    2014-10-01

    (short version) Accurate determination of the coherent static structure factor of disordered materials containing proton nuclei is prohibitively difficult by neutron diffraction, due to the large incoherent cross section of $^1$H. This notorious problem has set severe obstacles to the structure determination of hydrogenous materials up to now, via introducing large uncertainties into neutron diffraction data processing. Here we present the first accurate separate measurements, using polarized neutron diffraction, of the coherent and incoherent contributions to the total static structure factor of 5 mixtures of light and heavy water, over an unprecedentedly wide momentum transfer range. The structure factors of H$_2$O and D$_2$O mixtures derived in this work may signify the beginning of a new era in the structure determination of hydrogenous materials, using neutron diffraction.

  19. Neutron diffraction of hydrogenous materials: measuring incoherent and coherent intensities separately from liquid water - a 40-year-old puzzle solved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temleitner, László; Cuello, Gabriel; Pusztai, László

    2014-01-01

    (short version) Accurate determination of the coherent static structure factor of disordered materials containing proton nuclei is prohibitively difficult by neutron diffraction, due to the large incoherent cross section of $^1$H. This notorious problem has set severe obstacles to the structure determination of hydrogenous materials up to now, via introducing large uncertainties into neutron diffraction data processing. Here we present the first accurate separate measurements, using polarized neutron diffraction, of the coherent and incoherent contributions to the total static structure factor of 5 mixtures of light and heavy water, over an unprecedentedly wide momentum transfer range. The structure factors of H$_2$O and D$_2$O mixtures derived in this work may signify the beginning of a new era in the structure determination of hydrogenous materials, using neutron diffraction.

  20. The Sodium Content of Your Food. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01

    ............................ ............................. Pear nectar Pineapple juice .......................... Prune juice .............................. ................ Mineral Water. imported Tea ............................. Hot brewed .............................. Hot instant... .................................... Condiments, fats and oils 2t ........ Sodium Content of Selected Non-prescription Drugs 2t The Sodium Content of Your Food Extension food and nutrition specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Introduction Sodium is a mineral element necessary...

  1. Lateral Mobility of Amphiphiles Adsorbed at the Air/Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Eric David

    2009-01-01

    Liquid/Vapor Interface of Water. J. Phys. Chem. 1996 , 100,Pratt, L. R. Molecular Dynamics of the Water Liquid/VaporInterface of Water. J. Phys. Chem. 1987 , 91, 4873–4878 21.

  2. Physically-based Models for Liquid Sounds Kees van den Doel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Doel, Kees

    of complex liquid sounds such as produced by streams, pouring water, rivers, rain, and breaking waves: Water 1. INTRODUCTION The sounds made by liquids, especially those of water, are prevalent in our such as dripping water are more deterministic in their time domain structure. A "brute force" approach

  3. Three Models for Water ooding in a Naturally Fractured Petroleum ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The water ooding problem will be assumed to consist of a two-phase, immiseible. Page 3. 3. displacement of one incompressible liquid (oil) by another (water).

  4. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  5. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  6. HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2013 Table of Contents 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2013 Table of Contents 1 1 Regulations and Basic Information Safe Quantities of Water ............................................................................ 1-29 Table 1

  7. CONTENT ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING BASED ON A STOCHASTIC MULTIRESOLUTION IMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    CONTENT ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING BASED ON A STOCHASTIC MULTIRESOLUTION IMAGE MODELING Sviatoslav to provide wa­ termark invisibility. Thirdly, a new principle of water­ mark spatial allocation, based

  8. Environmental Health and Safety -Safety Manual Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    1 Environmental Health and Safety - Safety Manual Table of Contents I. Assignment of Responsibility Management Program..................................81 XIX. Water Vessel Safety Program

  9. HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2014 Table of Contents 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2014 Table of Contents 1 1 Regulations and Basic Information Safe Quantities of Water ............................................................................ 1-29 Table 1

  10. Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

  11. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  12. Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    ) in these mixtures shows a non-monotonic behavior with water content which is consistent with experimental than 38 Æ 4% w/w [5] while the diffusion of water and sucrose decouples for water contents below $50% w/w [6]. Water diffusion in- creases with water content and decreases with temperature

  13. Comparison of the TIP4P-2005, SWM4-DP and BK3 interaction potentials of liquid water with respect to their consistency with neutron and X-ray diffraction data of pure water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Steinczinger; L. Pusztai

    2013-12-16

    Following a fairly comprehensive study on popular interaction potentials of water (Pusztai et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 184103), here two more recent polarizable potential sets, SWM4-DP (Lamoureux et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 2006, 418, 245) and BK3 (Kiss et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 204507) are compared to the TIP4P-2005 water potential (Abascal et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 234505) that had previously appeared to be most favoravble. The basis of comparison was the compatibility with the results of neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments on pure water, using the scheme applied by Pusztai et al. (2008). The scheme combines the experimental total scattering structure factors (TSSF) and partial radial distribution functions (PRDF) from molecular dynamics simulations in a single structural model. Goodness-of-fit values to the O-O, O-H and H-H simulated PRDF-s and to the experimental neutron and X-ray TSSF provided a measure that can characterize the level of consistency between interaction potentials and diffraction experiments. Among the sets of partial RDF-s investigated here, the ones corresponding to the SWM4-DP potential parameters have proven to be the most consistent with the particular diffraction results taken for the present study, by a hardly significant margin ahead of BK3. Perhaps more importantly, it is shown that the three sets of potential parameters produce nearly equivalent PRDF-s that may all be made consistent with diffraction data at a very high level. The largest differences can be detected in terms of the O-O partial radial distribution function.

  14. J-aggregation of ionic liquid solutions of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Maroof; Kumar, Vinod; Baker, Sheila N; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    The title porphyrin was dissolved in the hydrophilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and triggered to assemble into J-aggregates by the addition of incremental volumes of water containing various amounts of acid (0.1, 0.2, or 1.0 M HCl). In contrast to recent studies, the current investigation is unique in that it centers on media that contain a predominant ionic liquid component (2.9 5.4 M [bmim][BF4]), as opposed to an aqueous electrolyte containing a small fraction of ionic liquid as dissociated solute. Complex aggregation and underlying photophysical behavior are revealed from absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, and resonance light scattering studies. Upon addition of aqueous HCl, the efficient formation of H4TPPS2 J-aggregates from the diprotonated form of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (H2TPPS4) occurs in [bmim][BF4]-rich media in a manner highly dependent upon the acidity, TPPS concentration, and solvent composition. The unique features of TPPS aggregation in this ionic liquid were elucidated, including the surprising disassembly of J-aggregates at higher aqueous contents, and our results are described qualitatively in terms of the molecular exciton theory. Finally, the potential of this system for the optical sensing of water at a sensitivity below 0.5 wt% is demonstrated. Overall, our findings accentuate how little is known about functional self-assembly within ionic liquids and suggest a number of avenues for exploring this completely untouched research landscape.

  15. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  16. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane or liquefied natural gas could form an extremely flammable mixtureGuidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature

  17. Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Wolfgang

    Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;Contents Our Breaking News 35 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse University of South Australia Mawson Lakes Campus Mawson Lakes SA 5095 Telephone: +61 (08) 8302 3338 Fax: +61 (08) 8302 3386 Web: unisa.edu.au/water

  18. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  19. Field Devices for Monitoring Soil Water Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ADR): Impedance 2.1.2.4. Phase Transmission 2.1.2.5. Time Domain Transmission (TDT) 2.1.3. Other.2.2.1. Gypsum (Bouyoucos) Block 2.2.2.2. Granular Matrix Sensors (GMS) 2.2.3. Heat Dissipation 2.2.4. Soil

  20. Supplementary content for Evaluating Air Blown Gasification for Energy Recovery from Wastewater Solids: Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , drying the solids to 10% (wt) water content. Dried solids are briquetted and fed to the gasifier where

  1. Volume III, Chapter 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 7 Walleye #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 7.0 Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum................................................................................................... 7-7 7.4.3 Water Development only in fresh water, as illustrated by the map in Figure 7-1 (Scott and Crossman 1998).Walleye also

  2. Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index A (1) City & State Atlas A (2) Astronomy Atlas A (3) U.S. Atlas A (4) Water Atlas A (5) South America & Central America A (6) Africa, Asia, &, Antarctica A (7) Mexico) SAN ANTONIO QUICK FINDER MAPS F 1373 .B46 F4 1990 33. A (1) SURFACE WATER RESOURCES OF TEXAS MAPS G

  3. University of California, San Diego Water Action Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    University of California, San Diego Water Action Plan December 20, 2013 #12;i Table of Contents of the Water Action Plan Water Action Plan Committee Regional Scope of the Water Action Plan HISTORICAL PROGRESS IN WATER REDUCTION.......................................................... 5 Campus Irrigation

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Charge-Transfer Reactions at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Katherine Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Study S N 2 Reaction at the Water–Chloroform Interface 2.1En- 6 Electronic Absorption Line Shapes at Interface 6.1at the liquid/liquid interface. The red ×s denote the

  5. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earth’s atmosphere and influence the Earth’s energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  6. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  7. Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion{reg_sign} and both random and multi-block co-polymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. No significant change in the drag coefficient behavior for Nafion from that reported above 0 C is found. However BPSH is found to have a drag coefficient of 0.4. The implication of a drag coefficient less than unity in the interpretation of conduction mechanisms is discussed. Measurements of water sorption isotherms below 0 C are also presented. A significant reduction in the capacity of polymer electrolytes to store water below 0 C is found. This reduced water content is a result of the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid.

  8. Partition Coefficients of Some Antibiotics, Peptides and Amino Acids in Liquid-Liquid Partitioning of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    temperature for the acetonitrile- water binary system. When the equilibrium temperature is below its LLE critical tem- perature of À1.32 C, the top phase is acetonitrile-rich and the bottom phase water liquid phases at equi- librium when the temperature is below À1.32 C. The top phase is ACN

  9. Privacy in encrypted content distribution using private broadcast encryption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waters, Brent

    @cs.stanford.edu Dan Boneh dabo@cs.stanford.edu Brent Waters bwaters@cs.stanford.edu Abstract In many contentPrivacy in encrypted content distribution using private broadcast encryption Adam Barth abarth distribution systems it is important to both restrict access of content to au- thorized users and to protect

  10. Near-Optimal Content Replication for Interactive Multiview Video Streaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shueng-Han Gary

    Near-Optimal Content Replication for Interactive Multiview Video Streaming Huan Huang S.-H. Gary Chan Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Eng. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay services, a content provider often deploys distributed content servers with heterogeneous storage

  11. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  12. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  13. Shallow-water sloshing in rotating vessels undergoing prescribed rigid-body motion in two dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Tom

    : the shipping of liquid natural gas, sloshing of trapped water on the deck of a ship, liquid transport along (Wiesche [65]), and transport of liquids by robots in industrial applications (Tzamtzi & Kouvakas [63

  14. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  15. Preliminary results of a comparison between 4 pig breeds in chemical composition of fatty tissue and intramuscular fat content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and relatively slow growth rate, gave a fatty tissue with higher water content, and the lipids of this tissue water content did not exceed 12 p. 100 in the other breeds. Backfat with so much water was not suitable hand, carcass fatness and growth rate on the other hand. Water content and degree of unsaturation

  16. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  17. Table Contents Page i 2013 Nonresidential Compliance Manual June 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Table Contents Page i 2013 Nonresidential Compliance Manual June 2014 Table of Contents 13.........................................................7 13.8 NRCA-MCH-09-A: Supply Water Temperature Reset Controls Acceptance ....................7 13: Condenser Water Supply Temperature Reset Controls Acceptance 8 13.17 NRCA-MCH-18-A: Energy Management

  18. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  19. ContentsContents3399the normal distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents3399the normal distribution 1. The normal distribution 2. The normal approximation to the binomial distribution 3. Sums and differences of random variables Learning outcomes In a previous Workbook of a continuous random variables: the normal distribution. The probabilities of the normal distribution have

  20. ContentsContents4343Regression and correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents4343Regression and correlation 1. Regression 2. Correlation Learning outcomes You. 1 #12;Regression 43.1 Introduction Problems in engineering often involve the exploration of the relationship(s) between two or more variables. The technique of regression analysis is very useful and well

  1. ContentsContents1133integration integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents1133integration integration 1. Basic concepts of integration 2. Definite integrals 3. The area bounded by a curve 4. Integration by parts 5. Integration by substitution and using partial fractions 6. Integration of trigonometric functions Learning outcomes In this workbook you

  2. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  3. Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

    2009-01-01

    Water uptake and electro-osmosis are investigated to improve the understanding and aid the modeling of water transport in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) below 0 C. Measurements of water sorption isotherms show a significant reduction in the water capacity of polymer electrolytes below 0 C. This reduced water content is attributed to the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid water. At -25 C, 1100 equivalent weight Nafion in equilibrium with vapor over ice has 8 moles of water per sulfonic acid group. Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion and both random and multiblock copolymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of BPSH chemistries is found to be {approx}0.4, and that of Nafion is {approx}1. No significant temperature effect on the drag coefficient is found. The implication of an electro-osmotic drag coefficient less than unity is discussed in terms of proton conduction mechanisms. Simulations of the ohmically limited current below 0 C show that a reduced water uptake below 0 C results in a significant decrease in PEMFC performance.

  4. Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department theories and mole- cular theories separately. In addition, a theory for liquid crystalline materials has, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada INTRODUCTION Liquid crystallinity refers to an intermediate state

  5. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    changing the volumetric flow rate at the pump (velocity (m/pressure and volumetric flow rate from the pump are also

  6. Water: A Complex Liquid Marcia C. Barbosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, I-Shih

    Compressibility ­ More land Density ­ Rivers freeze on top Diffusion anomaly ­ Transport of nutrients #12;What

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE INTRODUCTION Even thoughHPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  8. CONTENT MODEL HOW-TO

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003241MLTPL00 Content Model Guidelines  https://github.com/usgin/usginspecs/wiki/Content-Model-Guidelines 

  9. FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply HENRY FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW- 18I1976 #12;CONTENTS Page Introduction ................................ 6 Water Inputs .........................................6 Precipitation Measurement

  10. The Western Water Assessment Annual RISA Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    ;Western Water Assessment 2007 Annual Report 2 Table of Contents I. Areas of FocusThe Western Water Assessment Annual RISA Report Reporting Period: January 2007-December 2007 #12-30 #12;Western Water Assessment 2007 Annual Report 3

  11. OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC SURFACES flow friction for water and oil. Charge stability of electret in liquid is much improved with new hysteresis of SLS for oil droplets are experimentally demonstrated, indicating low motion resistance

  12. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  13. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RESERVOIR COMPACTION IN LIQUID DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    13. modeling of liquid geothermal systems: Ph.D. thesis,of water dominated geothermal fields with large temper~of land subsidence in geothermal areas: Proc. 2nd Int. Symp.

  15. Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Cohen Avram

    1971-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure, with water and Freon- 113 as the working fluids, is described. The operating characteristics of a boiling system, ...

  16. Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

    2013-01-01

    Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

  17. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a superthin coating of water-no deeper than a few molecules-to the surface of a barium fluoride crystal....

  18. Evidence that ice forms primarily in supercooled liquid clouds at temperatures > -27C2 C. D. Westbrook and A. J. Illingworth3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    layer of supercooled liquid water droplets at the25 top of ice-phase clouds has been observed in several cases (Rauber and Tokay 1991), but the26 fraction of ice clouds which have liquid water at the top has case where the air35 was supersaturated with respect to ice but below liquid water saturation: ice

  19. WATER INFLOW INTO BOREHOLES DURING THE STRIPA HEATER EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    is plotted against water extraction rate with temper­ aturei^ H 2 _ -i I Liquid water extraction rate (liters/day) XBLholi? s due to water extraction was negligible because the

  20. Assessing the Quality of a Water Right

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, John C.

    2001-05-01

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Assessing_the_quality_of_a_water_right.pdf.txt stream_source_info Assessing_the_quality_of_a_water_right.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  1. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gostick, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers J. T.has a major impact on PEMFC performance. Liquid water

  2. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  3. Journal of Hazardous Materials 175 (2010) 872882 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Hazardous Materials 175 (2010) 872­882 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhazmat Model for a solid­liquid stirred tank

  4. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  5. No-tillage and high-residue practices reduce soil water evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    P, Brown L, Hirschi M. 2000. Water erosion. In: Conservationeffects on evaporation, soil water content, and yield offor Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and

  6. Fog Water and Ecosystem Function: Heterogeneity in a California Redwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    access at Springerlink.com Fog Water and Ecosystem Function:The contribution of fog to the water relations of Sequoiaelectrical conductivity, water content, and surface conduc-

  7. A Particle-Water Based Model for Water Retention Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yixiang Gan; Federico Maggi; Giuseppe Buscarnera; Itai Einav

    2013-12-04

    A particle-water discrete element based approach to describe water movement in partially saturated granular media is presented and tested. Water potential is governed by both capillary bridges, dominant at low saturations, and the pressure of entrapped air, dominant at high saturations. The approach captures the hysteresis of water retention during wetting and drainage by introducing the local evolution of liquid-solid contact angles at the level of pores and grains. Extensive comparisons against experimental data are presented. While these are made without the involvement of any fitting parameters, the method demonstrates relative high success by achieving a correlation coefficient of at least 82%, and mostly above 90%. For the tested materials with relatively mono-disperse grain size, the hysteresis of water retention during cycles of wetting and drainage has been shown to arise from the dynamics of solid-liquid contact angles as a function of local liquid volume changes.

  8. Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    -i- Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling In Urban Areas: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Committee in Charge 2008 #12;-ii- TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... 4 BENEFICIAL USES OF RECYCLED WATER

  9. Table of Contents Our Season Page 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    1 #12;2 Table of Contents 2011-2012 Our Season Page 3 People Page 8 Outreach Page 11 Curricular-Curtain 546 $3,631.16 Hell In High Water-Rand 1252 $7,102.47 Solstice-Curtain 506 $2,583.42 Urinetown - Rand-stage season this spring. Hell in High Water by Marcus Gardley The Rand Theater Nov. 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19

  10. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  11. Florida LAKEWATCH SOP April 2013 Florida LAKEWATCH Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Florida LAKEWATCH SOP April 2013 1 Florida LAKEWATCH Water Chemistry Field Sampling and Laboratory of Contents Introduction ..........................................................................................................4 Filling Water Bottles for Nutrients

  12. Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member Environmental Engineering for Water The main subjects in this research and educational field are as follows: hydrological cycle of river basin, characteristics of water environment with regard to water quantity and quality

  13. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-12-15

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  14. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  15. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  16. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  17. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  18. The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Overview...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities JUNE 2014 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK Table of Contents Foreword ......

  19. New results on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    contract as temperature decreases, liquid bulk water begins to expand when its temperature drops below 4°C remains at 4°C while colder layers of 0°C water "float" on top (cf.. Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious properties of liquid bulk water become more pronounced in the supercooled region below 0°C [3-5]. For example

  20. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  1. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  3. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  4. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  5. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  6. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  7. Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, QJ; Ge, SH; Wang, CY

    2013-12-01

    Water uptake, ionic conductivity and dimensional change of the anion-exchange membrane made by Tokuyama Corporation (A201 membrane) are investigated at different temperatures and water activities. Specifically, the amount of water taken up by membranes exposed to water vapor and membranes soaked in liquid water is determined. The water uptake of the A201 membrane increases with water content as well as temperature. In addition, water sorption data shows Schroeder's paradox for the AEMs investigated. The swelling properties of the A201 membrane exhibit improved dimensional stability compared with Nafion membrane. Water sorption of the A201 membrane occurs with a substantial negative excess volume of mixing. The threshold value of hydrophilic fraction in the A201 membrane for ionic conductivity is around 0.34, above which, the conductivity begins to rise quickly. This indicates that a change in the connectivity of the hydrophilic domains occurs when hydrophilic fraction approaches 0.34. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UC SANTA CRUZ WATER EFFICIENCY SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    UC SANTA CRUZ WATER EFFICIENCY SURVEY FINAL REPORT December 2007 Prepared By Maddaus Water Management and UC Santa Cruz ` #12;UC Santa Cruz 2 Maddaus Water Management Water Efficiency Survey WATER EFFICIENCY SURVEY OF UC SANTA CRUZ, SANTA CRUZ, CA TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  9. CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    THE APPLICATIONS AND VALIDITY OF BODE'S LAW CAN WE EXPLAIN BODE'S LAW USING GRAVITY? 8 Law of Gravitation 8 Centre#12;#12;CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION WHO, HOW AND WHEN IS THE BODE'S LAW DISCOVERED? 1 THE BODE'S LAW HOW THE BODE'S LAW SATISFIED URANUS 3 HOW THE BODE'S LAW LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF CERES

  10. Progress in Polymer Science 35 (2010) 332337 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Progress in Polymer Science 35 (2010) 332­337 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress properties since they consist predom- inantly of water held in place by a relatively fragile polymer network reserved. Contents 1. Introduction

  11. Water Resources Working Group Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Water Resources Working Group Report This report provided content for the Wisconsin Initiative in February 2011. #12;Water Resources Working Group Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts October 2010 #12;Water Resources Working Group Members ­ WICCI Tim Asplund (Co-Chair) - Wisconsin Department

  12. Water Resources Competitive Grants Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Engineers Water Resources #12;i WATER RESOURCES REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACTWater Resources Competitive Grants Program Fiscal Year 2014 Request for Proposals Pursuant to Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as Amended Closing Date 4:00 PM, Eastern Time

  13. UMIC NEWS 1/10 Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobbelt, Leif

    UMIC NEWS 1/10 Table of Contents www.umic.rwth-aachen.dewww.umic.rwth-aachen.de U M I Cltra High, along with energy, water and transportation, such that problems like address exhaustion, routing scaling

  14. Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 334

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 334 Overview of Undergraduate Programs Water Institute 409 Inverse Problems at RPI (IPRPI) 410 New York Center for Studies on the Origins

  15. Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 338

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 338 Overview of Undergraduate Programs Water Institute 414 Inverse Problems at RPI (IPRPI) 415 New York Center for Studies on the Origins

  16. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truesdell, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    water-dominated geothermal system: the Cerro Prieto field,liquid- dominated geothermal systems. Geothermal Resourcesof the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Geothermal Resources

  17. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  18. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar...

  19. Spinodal of supercooled polarizable water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gallo; M. Minozzi; M. Rovere

    2006-11-22

    We develop a series of molecular dynamics computer simulations of liquid water, performed with a polarizable potential model, to calculate the spinodal line and the curve of maximum density inside the metastable supercooled region. After analysing the structural properties,the liquid spinodal line is followed down to T=210 K. A monotonic decrease is found in the explored region. The curve of maximum density bends on approaching the spinodal line. These results, in agreement with similar studies on non polarizable models of water, are consistent with the existence of a second critical point for water.

  20. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  1. Proceedings of ICAD 04-Tenth Meeting of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, July 6-9, 2004 PHYSICALLY-BASED MODELS FOR LIQUID SOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Doel, Kees

    liquid sounds such as produced by streams, pouring water, rivers, rain, and breaking waves is based be synthesized in this manner. 1. INTRODUCTION Figure 1: A photograph of a water drop falling in water. Photo courtesy of Andrew Davidhazy. The sounds made by liquids, especially those of water, are prevalent in our

  2. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  3. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  4. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  5. Table of Contents Preparing for and Responding to Drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 Table of Contents Preparing for and Responding to Drought WHEN EVERY DROP COuNtsProtecting Public, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, and American Water Works Association. 2010. When every drop counts P r o f e s s i o n A l s #12;#12;Table of Contents Acknowledgments

  6. CONSTRUCTING SECURE CONTENT-DEPENDENT WATERMARKING SCHEME USING HOMOMORPHIC ENCRYPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qibin

    CONSTRUCTING SECURE CONTENT-DEPENDENT WATERMARKING SCHEME USING HOMOMORPHIC ENCRYPTION Zhi Li.a-star.edu.sg ABSTRACT Content-dependent watermarking (CDWM) has been pro- posed as a solution to overcome the potential and cryptography. 1. INTRODUCTION Consider a simplified model of Spread-Spectrum (SS) water- marking. Let x

  7. Chemical composition, mineral content and cholesterol levels of some regular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Chemical composition, mineral content and cholesterol levels of some regular and reduced from cow's milk, were analyzed for basic nutrients (water, protein, fat, ash and lactose), cholesterol and selected minerals (Na, Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn). The moisture contents of Labneh (78.6 g·100 g-1 ) and Double

  8. A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy y z and strength for the water­ mark embedding stage. We examine two such NVFs, based on either a non of the watermark estimation is equivalent to image denoising and derive content adaptive criteria. Re­ sults show

  9. A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    A Stochastic Approach to Content Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiyyz function, that allows us to determine the optimal watermark locations and strength for the water- mark to image denoising and derive content adaptive criteria. Re- sults show that watermark visibility

  10. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  11. Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigo, Damiano

    Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures GARP Seminar, London, Nov://www.capco.com/capco-insights -- Joint work with Claudio Nordio Prof. D. Brigo (Imperial College and Capco) Risk Management under Management under Liquidity Risk GARP Seminar London 2 / 60 #12;Introduction Liquidity in Risk Measurement

  12. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  13. Advanced Article Article Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Paul

    -reduction) WILEY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2008, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 #12;Membrane PotentialsAdvanced Article Article Contents · Biological Background · Physical Chemistry Background of Biological Roles and of Tech- nologies for Measurement Membrane Potentials in Living Systems, Tools

  14. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  15. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

  16. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  17. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  18. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudgeon, R. Greg

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

  19. Fractons and Luttinger liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-10-05

    We consider the concept of fractons as particles or quasiparticles which obey a specific fractal statistics in connection with a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid theory. We obtain a dual statistics parameter ${\\tilde{\

  20. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect