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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane...

2

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMD 602School Bus/Vehicle Incentive

3

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMD 602School Bus/Vehicle

4

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMD 602School Bus/VehicleSchool

5

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt059tiday2012o...

6

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt059tiday2011...

7

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. tiarravt059day2010...

8

Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, colorless gas that is a byproduct of natural gas production and crude oil refining. Propane autogas What is Liquefied Petroleum Gas? Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly referred to as propane energy storage, propane is stored as a liquid in a pressurized tank onboard the vehicle, typically at 100

9

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid FuelsLiquid propane

10

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid Fuels

11

Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2 to:DieselEnergyHydrogenRegistration is OPEN!NPropane

12

Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping StudyEnergy South Valley Archived2 DOE

13

Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping StudyEnergy South Valley Archived2 DOE1 DOE

14

Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping StudyEnergy South Valley Archived2 DOE1

15

LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

PACE, M.E.

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

16

Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid FuelsLiquid

18

Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kirschner Multiple sites, IL and WI "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network (SUMMARY CX) This Summary CX is for 36 sites in project...

22

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Multiple sites: AZ, CO, OR, TX,& WA Clean Start - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network This Summary CX is for multiple sites in project selected...

23

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2013 Neil Kirschner Grand Prairie, TX "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network This CX form is for one location in this project selected...

24

CX-009277: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 09072012 Location(s):...

25

CX-009275: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 09072012 Location(s): Ohio...

26

CX-009274: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 09072012 Location(s):...

27

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbus, OH "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network This CX form is for one location in this project selected under Clean Cities FOA...

28

CX-000341: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CX-000341: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean School BusVehicle Incentive & Green Jobs Outreach...

29

CX-009276: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 09072012 Location(s): Texas...

30

CX-008976: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination Clean Start - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 08012012 Location(s):...

31

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kirschner 122009 to 122013 Various - see 451-1-1-3 Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean School BusVehicle Incentive & Green Jobs Outreach...

32

CX-011268: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clean Start Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 09/30/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

33

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ann Arbor, MI "Clean Start" - Development of a National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network This CX form is for one location in this project selected under Clean Cities FOA...

34

CX-009453: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Construction of a Liquid Propane Autogas Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 11/02/2012 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

35

Propane situation update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.9 MMbbls PADD 2 propane inventories million barrels Source: EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, data through April 11 April 11 8.9 MMbbls PADD 2 (Midwest) propane inventories...

36

Propane on Titan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first observations of propane (C$_3$H$_8$) on Titan that unambiguously resolve propane features from other numerous stratospheric emissions. This is accomplished using a $R=\\lambda/\\delta\\lambda\\approx10^5$ spectrometer (TEXES) to observe propane's $\

H. G. Roe; T. K. Greathouse; M. J. Richter; J. H. Lacy

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

37

Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

38

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Residential propane price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oilheating5, 201449,propane

40

Residential propane price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oilheating5,propane price

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Residential propane price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oilheating5,propane

42

Residential propane price increases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014propane

43

Residential propane prices available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6,propane prices

44

Residential propane prices decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6,propane prices5,

45

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6,propane

46

Propane cold neutron source: creation and operation experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In most cold neutron sources, utilized until recently, liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium and their mixtures were used as a moderating medium. The sources with the liquid hydrogen moderator offer the most specific effectiveness of cold neutron generation. But they are complicated in design, require special safety measures in the course of operation and are very expensive. In this connection, it is of undoubted interest to create a source which, although it yields the specific generation of cold neutrons comparable to the liquid hydrogen one, is safer in operation and simple in design. We assume such a source may be one which uses as a moderator liquid propane cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Zemlyanov, M. G.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbus, OH 43207 Ohio Advanced Transportation Partnership (OATP) Installation of propane vehicle fueling station: 2 - 1000 gal. propane storage tanks on skids, 1 AutoGas...

48

Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

1, 2341, 2001 OH + propane and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions #12;ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Analysis of tank deformation from fire induced ruptures and BLEVEs of 400 l propane tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400 liter ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. the resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. this paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step by step description of how the correlation was determined.

Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Analysis of fire-induced ruptures of 400-L propane tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400-L ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. The resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVEs). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. This paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step-by-step description of how the correlation was determined.

Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

State heating oil and propane program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a report of New Hampshire's participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

Not Available

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Residential propane price decreases slightly  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014propane price

59

Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3 of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (9000

Arnold, Frances H.

60

29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal was discovered in a dense interstellar is the ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in propanal? Problem 4 - If the mass of a hydrogen atom of a propanal molecule in AMUs? Problem 5 - What is the complete chemical formula for propanal? C3 H __ O

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

Green, Michael A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

No. 2 heating oil/propane program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

McBrien, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

for last year (2013-2014 season) for the U.S., PADD 1, PADD 1C, and PADD 2 averages. Wholesale propane graphs Wholesale Propane (dollars per gallon)more price data change from...

65

Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported Pt and Rh Catalysts William Propane conversion over alumina supported Pt and Rh (1 wt% metals loading) was examined under fuel rich conversion and almost complete propane conversion) so long as the metal particle size was sufficiently low

67

Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic

Arnold, Frances H.

68

Portland Public School Children Move with Propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

Not Available

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Titan's Prolific Propane: The Cassini CIRS Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we select large spectral averages of data from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained in limb-viewing mode at low latitudes (30S--30N), greatly increasing the path length and hence signal-to-noise ratio for optically thin trace species such as propane. By modeling and subtracting the emissions of other gas species, we demonstrate that at least six infrared bands of propane are detected by CIRS, including two not previously identified in Titan spectra. Using a new line list for the range 1300-1400cm -1, along with an existing GEISA list, we retrieve propane abundances from two bands at 748 and 1376 cm-1. At 748 cm-1 we retrieve 4.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-7) (1-sigma error) at 2 mbar, in good agreement with previous studies, although lack of hotbands in the present spectral atlas remains a problem. We also determine 5.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-7) at 2 mbar from the 1376 cm-1 band - a value that is probably affected by systematic errors including continuum gradients due to haze and also an imperf...

Nixon, C A; Flaud, J -M; Bezard, B; Teanby, N A; Irwin, P G J; Ansty, T M; Coustenis, A; Vinatier, S; Flasar, F M; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Propane Market Outlook Assessment of Key Market Trends, Threats...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

markets have become more pronounced. 2 2010 Propane Market Outlook Update 1 Introduction Energy markets are changing at an unprecedented pace. These changes have had dramatic...

71

Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

72

Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

73

Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

74

Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

75

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

Iglesia, Enrique

77

This Week In Petroleum Propane Section  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScienceThe43068 -Vanadium andResidential propane

78

Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014propane price7,

79

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch Highlights MediaFuelAboutCaseEthanolNatural GasAboutPropane

80

National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

Prowler, S.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

Ferrell, P.C.

1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

83

VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

84

VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

85

North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu | 7/29/13 Advancing Clean Energy for a Sustainable Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.cleantransportation.org PROPANE A clean choice for your vehicle Propane, or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), is a simple hydrocarbon grade of propane for automotive use is known as HD-5 in North America and is also called Autogas cleaner than gasoline. Reduced Costs- Engines running on HD- 5 propane often require less engine

86

Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1798 E. 55th St., Cleveland, OH 44103 Ohio Advanced Transportation Project- Ace Taxi Propane AutoGas Fueling Station Installation of 2 - 1000 gal. storage tanks on skids, plus 1...

88

CX-003764: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination Ohio Advanced Transportation Project- Ace Taxi Propane AutoGas Fueling Station CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09172010 Location(s): Cleveland,...

89

Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140205_nn.pptx  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

add to 100%) Propane share of space heating demand by key regions and states U.S. Energy Information Administration 5 Source: Census Bureau, 2011 State Propane-Heated Homes...

90

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

Kushner, Mark

91

Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

Hendroyono, Arief

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and David H. Olson,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and Propene Kunhao Li, David H the first examples of MMOFs that are capable of kinetic separation of propane and propene (propylene), which

Li, Jing

93

Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

Gülder, ?mer L.

94

Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations Using propane monooxygenase prepared by directed evolu- tion [P450PMOR2; Fasan et al. (2007); Angew Chem Int Ed of the energy source (glucose) in the propane biotransformation com- pared to the native E. coli strain. Using

Arnold, Frances H.

95

Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed for outdoor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed-burner propane stove has a high-pressure regulator that ensures a constant flame regardless of weather propane stove has a removable nickel-chrome-plated grate that makes for easy cleaning. The aluminized

Walker, Lawrence R.

96

Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model NiAu Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model Ni­Au Catalysts Zhen Yan · Yunxi Yao 2012 ? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation of propane. For the conversionofpropane in the presence of hydrogen, the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed onthe Ni

Goodman, Wayne

97

Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing Running Title: Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria Section incubating sediment with 13 C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we5 confirmed the incorporation of 13 C

Sessions, Alex L.

98

High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

99

PROPANE -C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPANE - C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: PROPANE - C3H8 Document Number: 001045 PRODUCT IN AIR ACGIH OSHA TLV STEL PEL STEL IDLH OTHER ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Propane 74-98-6 > 96.0 Simple

Choi, Kyu Yong

100

Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a , Georges and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane

Iglesia, Enrique

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by Two: Propane-induced cometabolic degradation of n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by two propanotrophs is characterized through kinetic, gene presence, and expression studies. After growth on propane, resting cells

Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

102

Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

Hudlicky, Tomas

103

Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

Jones, William D.

104

Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of propane{ Christian, Michael Mitchell and Paul J. A. Kenis* Received 31st May 2006, Accepted 10th August of propane into hydrogen at temperatures between 800 and 1000 uC. We characterized these microreactors. Kinetic analysis using a power law model showed reaction orders of 0.50 and 20.23 with respect to propane

Kenis, Paul J. A.

105

Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metalorganic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal in the energy costs associated with the cryogenic separation of ethylene­ethane and propylene­propane mixtures adsorption data for ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane at 45, 60, and 80 C for the entire series

106

Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane Kaidong The effects of MoOx structure on propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rates and selectivity were examined with those obtained on MoOx/ZrO2. On MoOx/Al2O3 catalysts, propane turnover rate increased with increasing Mo

Iglesia, Enrique

107

Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef* and J. M Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

Iglesia, Enrique

109

Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

Kim, Sang Kyu

110

CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACTYLNE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTRIBUTION A L'?TUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET AC?TYL?NE Par MM. JEAN VAN DER POLL du propane et de l'acétylène qui ont montré que, dans certains cas, les flammes oxy-propane et oxy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers in comparison to cases without the spiral. Tests through a range of cycle frequencies up to 20 Hz in oxygen-propane spiral in a pulsed detonation engine operating with propane and oxygen. A high-energy igniter is used

Texas at Arlington, University of

112

Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study 2002; accepted 30 July 2002 We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of propane and experiments show that propane adsorbs in a layer-by-layer fashion and exhibits continuous growth beyond

Borguet, Eric

113

[Cu(I)(bpp)]BF4: the first extended coordination network prepared solvothermally in an ionic liquid solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the two-dimensional net- work [Cu(bpp)]BF4 [bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], pro- duced via and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) ligand. [bmim][BF4], as a room temperature ionic liquid, is air

Li, Jing

114

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

115

Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

Nesse, Thomas

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense of propane under OCV and under electrical bias. The propane conversion remained constantly equal to 12 by partial oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, respectively. An anodic polarisation led

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique unlabeled products from mixtures of propene and propane-2-13C reactants. Aromatic products of propane-2-13C-Parmer) that allowed differential reactor operation (propane reactions were

Iglesia, Enrique

118

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank Overfill Safety

119

Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

Li, J.; Lai, W.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China); Chung, K. [National Cheng Kung University, Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, Tainan (China); Lu, F.K. [University of Texas at Arlington, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Aerodynamics Research Center, TX 76019 (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a report of New Hampshire`s participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimtres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimètres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression A. Battaglia des pertes diélectriques (03B5") présentées par le propane gazeux aux fréquences de 24 et 36 GHz, à la Birnbaum. Abstract. 2014 Experimental study of dielectric losses (03B5") presented by gaseous propane

Boyer, Edmond

122

Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

Green, Jade [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tyrrell, Zachary [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140131_summary_v2_nn...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

of space heating demand by key regions and states Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration 5 Source: Census Bureau, 2011 State Propane-Heated Homes...

124

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

125

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

126

Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

127

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production (more)

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state distribution of propane between gas and mesopore phaseWavenumber (cm ) B Gas Phase Propane 2968 cm k 1 = 3.1 0.4slices showing the gas phase propane component at 216, 648,

Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

RECS Propane Usage Form_v1 (Draft).xps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115, 2001 Media Contact: Rick30propane

130

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels inGoIndianaPennsylvania SchoolPropane Buses

131

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels inGoIndianaPennsylvania SchoolPropane

132

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels inGoIndianaPennsylvania SchoolPropaneStation

133

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels inGoIndianaPennsylvaniaOrleans Propane

134

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory to someone by

135

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank OverfillSan

136

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels inGo Map_thumbnail WorkplacePropane inReducing

137

Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

McClanahan, Janice

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water-hydrophobe system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure has all four heavy atoms coplanar, with the water center of mass lying on or near the C, axisFourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water) The Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex (C3H,-H,O) has been observed

Cohen, Ronald C.

139

Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

Tinss, Judicael Christopher

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

Ferguson,Mark Anthony

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1 , A. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized in a combustion apparatus which can easily be modeled, a laminar premixed flame of propane at atmospheric pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

Goodman, Wayne

146

Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

Cohen, Ronald C.

147

Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane) and R407C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane with propane as refrigerant are analyzed in terms of the compressor model developed by [E. Navarro, E. Granryd. In addition, a comparison study between propane and R407C was carried out for one compressor and the observed

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

148

Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia* Department rates during propane conversion at 773 K on Zn/Na-ZSM5 are about ten times higher than on Zn/H-ZSM5 catalysts with similar Zn content. The total rate of propane conversion is also higher on Zn/Na-ZSM5

Iglesia, Enrique

149

Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H-ZSM5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H Co/H-ZSM5 catalyzes propane dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions. Initial product selectivities, product site-yields, and the 13C content and distribution in the products of 2-13C-propane show

Iglesia, Enrique

150

An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jlich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jlich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

153

State heating oil and propane program: Final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level, October 1997 through March 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Efficiency Division of the Vermont Department of Public Service (DPS) monitored the price and inventory of residential heating oil and propane during the 1997--98 heating season under a grant from the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration (EIA). DPS staff collected data biweekly between October 5, 1997 and March 16, 1998 on the retail price of {number_sign}2 home heating oil and propane by telephone survey. Propane price quoted was based on the rate for a residential home heating customer using 1,000+ per year. The survey included a sample of fuel dealers selected by the EIA, plus additional dealers and fuels selected by the DPS. The EIA weighted, analyzed, and reported the data collected from their sample.

NONE

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, (more)

Tinss, Judicael Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

156

Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Etude cin\\'etique de CVD de pyrocarbone obtenu par pyrolyse de propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High temeperature (900-1000\\degree C) low pressure (propane yields a pyrocarbon deposit, but also mainly hydrogen and hydrocarbons from methane to polyaromatics. 30 reaction products were exeperimentally quantified at different operating conditions. A detailed kinetic pyrolysis model (600 reactions) has been developed and validated based on the totality of experiments. This model includes a homogeneous model (describing the gas phase pyrolysis of propane) coupled with a heterogeneous model describing the pyrocarbon deposit.

Ziegler-Devin, Isabelle; Marquaire, Paul-Marie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Jaiswal, Namit

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

Geffen, C.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

Hunton, G.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

McBrien, J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

McBrien, J.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

McBrien, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane (LPG) in North Carolina at least $1,000 in yearly fuel costs by driving on natural gas or propane. · According to the U

165

The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

Hodges, Don

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

Dickson, Cecil Herman

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

State heating oil and propane program: 1995-96 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1995/96 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. EIA provides ECS with a list of oil and propane retailers that serve customers in New Hampshire. In turn ECS conduct phone surveys twice per month from October through March to determine the average retail price for each fuel. Data collected by ECS is entered into the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO) and transmitted via modem to EIA. The results of the state retail price surveys along with wholesale prices, supply, production and stock levels for oil, and propane are published by EIA in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Data is also published electronically via the internet or through the Electronic Publication System.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

Venturini, Gilberto Jose

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T. (UCB); (ORNL)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermophysical property predictions of propane, propylene and their mixtures by Benedict-Webb-Rubin type equations of state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis by PRAMOD KUMAR BENGANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis...

Bengani, Pramod Kumar

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

Moriarty, C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UV­Vis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted

Sklenak, Stepan

174

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode propane fueled SOFCs. CoeFe bimetallic phase was formed from Pr0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.7Nb0.1O3?d SOFC anode aromatic hydrocarbons were produced from SOFCs using propane as fuel. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history

Frenkel, Anatoly

175

SUR LA POSSIBILIT D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'TUDE DES RACTIONS NUCLAIRES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

175 A. SUR LA POSSIBILIT? D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'?TUDE DES R?ACTIONS. - Mise au point et étude des caractéristiques du fonctionnement d'une chambre à bulles à propane de 6 135 MeV. Abstract. 2014 Adjustment and studies of some characteristics of a 6 litre propane bubble

Boyer, Edmond

176

Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

Smith, B.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S.Propane

178

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane TankWashington Information

179

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center:BasicsPropane

180

Winter fuels report, week ending February 12, 1993. [Contains Glossary and feature article on Midwest Propane Markets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's 1, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD'S; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; selected cities; and a 6--10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

Not Available

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (???© pilot ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.6 and ???© overall ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ???© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ???© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ???© overall (at constant ???© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable is the use of the LHV? What is the dewpoint of the reaction products?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable temperature we can achieve with a propane-and-air blowtorch? We repeat this calculation for several different

183

The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ Ths writer is izntebteg to pr, P G~ ~och Tor his assistance azsi guidance in this work aC to Br~ J+ 9 Kinds Tor his aery. suggestions eel Succor~ a The oxidation cf propane~ propylene and prcya~cregyimm mbetccres ctver a ~ aiucdna ~st in a flew... formation of aldehyde fran pure grade propane The ~ce of Within the range of variables of this investigation and with propylene ~& aldehyde pr~cn was f'ennd to bs independent of" residence Qorrcgations relating aldehyde pressure to ~ and cncygsn pressure...

Looney, Franklin Sittig

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and butane over monoliths at short contact times  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The autothermal production of olefins from propane or n-butane by oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking in air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure over noble metal coated ceramic foam monoliths at contact times of {approximately}5 milliseconds has been studied. On Pt, synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) dominates near its stoichiometry, while olefin production dominates at higher fuel-to-oxygen ratios. No carbon buildup is observed, and catalysts exhibit no deactivation over at least several days. On Rh, primarily synthesis gas is produced under these conditions, while on Pd, carbon deposition rapidly deactivates the catalyst. The authors observed up to 65% selectivity to olefins at nearly 100% conversion of propane or n-butane with a catalyst contact time of 5 ms. Ethylene selectivity is maximized by increasing the reaction temperature, either by preheating the reactants or by using oxygen enriched air. Propylene selectivity is maximized by lower temperature and shorter catalyst contact time. Very small amounts alkanes and higher molecular weight species are obtained, suggesting that a homogeneous pyrolysis mechanism is not occurring. A very simple reaction mechanism appears to explain the observed product distribution. Reactions are initiated by oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane by adsorbed oxygen to form a surface alkyl. On Pt, {beta}-hydrogen and {beta}-alkyl elimination reactions of adsorbed alkyl dominate which lead to olefin production rather than cracking to C{sub s} and H{sub s}. 24 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

Not Available

1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

Not Available

1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Published in Journal de Physique IV, vol 11, pp. Pr3-101 ---Pr3-108 Kinetic modelling of gas-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas

Boyer, Edmond

190

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

191

Effect of propane-air on NGVs and vehicle fueling stations. Topical report, January 1-October 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Propane-air (P/A) peakshaving is an important element of peak-load management for some U.S. gas utilities. P/A is used as a supplemental energy medium with natural gas and has been shown to operate satisfactorily in most natural gas applications. The propane levels injected are compatible with the pressures (under 200 psig) and temperatures (over 40 F) found in utility distribution networks. However, P/A can create problems for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operating on compressed gas as well as NGV fueling stations. This report contains information on P/A peakshaving and its compatibility with NGVs by documenting condensation impacts at nine conditions--i.e., three propane levels and three temperatures. These data portray the depressurization of a vehicle tank, an area selected because it illustrates NGV operation and can discriminate between acceptable and potentially non-acceptable operating points. These analyses show, not surprisingly, a correlation exists between propane level, ambient temperature, and condensation.

Liss, W.E.; Moulton, D.S.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Studies of n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, and Propane Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phenomena of propagation and extinction of flames of saturated C{sub 3} alcohols and propane were studied experimentally and numerically in order to assess the effects of the presence and location of the hydroxyl radical in the fuel molecular structure. The experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure and for unreacted fuel-carrying stream temperature of 343 K. The simulations included detailed descriptions of molecular transport and chemical kinetics using a recently developed kinetic model for C{sub 3} alcohols. The experimental results revealed that the laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of n-propanol/air and propane/air flames are close to each other whereas those of iso-propanol/air flames are consistently lower. Similar behavior was observed also for the extinction strain rates of non-premixed n-propanol and iso-propanol flames. It was shown through sensitivity and reaction path analyses that there are two major differences between the intermediates of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames. In iso-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of propene whose consumption pathway results in the relatively unreactive allyl radicals, retarding thus the overall reactivity. In n-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of formaldehyde that reacts readily to form formyl radicals whose subsequent reactions enhance the overall reactivity. The kinetic model used in this study was found to overpredict the experimental results for rich n-propanol/air and propane/air flames. Analysis revealed that those discrepancies are most likely caused by deficiencies in the C{sub 3} alkane kinetics. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined also that the propagation and extinction of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 3} kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions. Finally, the relative sooting propensities of flames of these three fuels were assessed computationally.

Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88010-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 7784-3255 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

Pathak, Dushyant

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

200

Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Propane tank explosion (2 deaths, 7 injuries) at Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, Albert City, Iowa, April 9, 1998. Investigation report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explains the explosion/BLEVE that took place on April 9, 1998, at the Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, located in Albert City, Iowa. Two volunteer fire fighters were killed and seven other emergency response personnel were injured. Safety issues covered in the report include protection of propane storage tanks and piping, state regulatory oversight of such installations, and fire fighter response to propane storage tank fires.

NONE

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flammability Limits in Pure O 2 (%) Heat of combustion (kJg ) Liquid heat of combustion (MJ perliter) Gas heat of combustion (MJ m @ STP) Peak combustion

Green, Michael A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

Battin-Leclerc, Frdrique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada, Montreal (Canada)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural of stoichiometric reduction in H2, and the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. VOx domains on Al2O3 modified The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane provides an attractive route for the synthesis of propene.1

Bell, Alexis T.

212

Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

ED-XAS Data Reveal In-situ Time-Resolved Adsorbate Coverage on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts during Propane Dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (ED-XAS) data combined with UV/Vis, Raman, and mass spectrometry data on alumina- and silica-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts under propane dehydrogenation conditions have been previously reported. A novel {delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique was applied here to the time-resolved (0.1 min) Mo K-edge ED-XAS data by taking the difference of absorption, {mu}, at t>1 against the initial time, t=0. Further, full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF 8.0 code are performed to interpret the {delta}{mu} signatures. The resulting difference spectra and interpretation provide real time propane coverage and O depletion at the MoOn surface. The propane coverage is seen to correlate with the propene and/or coke production, with the maximum coke formation occurring when the propane coverage is the largest. Combined, these data give unprecedented insight into the complicated dynamics for propane dehydrogenation.

Ramaker, David; Gatewood, Daniel [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington D.C. 20052 (United States); Beale, Andrew M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Dept. of Chem., Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

A Sequential Fluid-mechanic Chemical-kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers. The success of this procedure is in large part a consequence of the fact that for much of the compression stroke the chemistry is inactive and thus has little influence on fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Then, when chemistry is active, combustion is rather sudden, leaving little time for interaction between chemistry and fluid mixing and heat transfer. This sequential methodology has been capable of explaining the main characteristics of HCCI combustion that have been observed in experiments. In this paper, we use our model to explore an HCCI engine running on propane. The paper compares experimental and numerical pressure traces, heat release rates, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The results show an excellent agreement, even in parameters that are difficult to predict, such as chemical heat release rates. Carbon monoxide emissions are reasonably well predicted, even though it is intrinsically difficult to make good predictions of CO emissions in HCCI engines. The paper includes a sensitivity study on the effect of the heat transfer correlation on the results of the analysis. Importantly, the paper also shows a numerical study on how parameters such as swirl rate, crevices and ceramic walls could help in reducing HC and CO emissions from HCCI engines.

Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C; Pitz, W; Dibble, R; Wright, J F; Akinyemi, W C; Hessel, R P

2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

An In-Situ XAS Study of the Structural Changes in a CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 Catalyst during Total Oxidation of Propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CuOx-CeOx/Al2O3 catalyst was studied with in-situ transmission Cu K XAS for the total oxidation of propane as model reaction for the catalytic elimination of volatile organic compounds. The local Cu structure was determined for the catalyst as such, after pre-oxidation and after reduction with propane. The catalyst as such has a local CuO structure. No structural effect was observed upon heating in He up to 600 deg. C or after pre-oxidation at 150 deg. C. A full reduction of the Cu2+ towards metallic Cu0 occurred, when propane was fed to the catalyst. The change in local Cu structure during propane reduction was followed with a time resolution of 1 min. The {chi}(k) scans appeared as linear combinations of start and end spectra, CuO and Cu structure, respectively. However, careful examination of the XANES edge spectra indicates the presence of a small amount of additional Cu1+ species.

Silversmith, Geert; Poelman, Hilde; Poelman, Dirk; Gryse, Roger de [Ghent University, Department of Solid State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Olea, Maria; Balcaen, Veerle; Heynderickx, Philippe; Marin, Guy B. [Ghent University, Laboratorium voor Petrochemische Techniek, Krijgslaan 281 S5, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

219

Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 6950 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada V6T 1Z4)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The preliminary result from spectra of $K^0_s ?^-$ in reaction p+propane at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The experimental data from 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed to search for scalar meson $\\kappa(800)$ in a $K^0_s\\pi$ decay mode for the reaction p+$C_3H_8$ at 10 GeV/c. The $K^0_s\\pi^-$ invariant mass spectrum has shown resonant structures with $M_{K^0_s\\pi^-}$=730, 900 and $\\Gamma$=143, 48 MeV/$c^2$, respectively. The statistical significance are estimated to be of 14.2$\\sigma$ and 4.2$\\sigma$, respectively. The peak in M(900) is identified as reflection from the well known resonance with mass of 892 MeV/c$^2$.

P. Zh. Aslanyan

2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oiland 5 Advisory on

223

Compressible Solution Properties of Amorphous Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene, Crystalline Polystyrene-block-Poly(Hydrogenated Polybutadiene) and Their Corresponding Homopolymers: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Fluid-Micelle Phase Transitions in Propane and Propylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Polystyrene, polybutadiene, hydrogenated polybutadiene, and styrene diblock copolymers of these homopolymers can form homogenous solutions in compressible solvents, such as propane and propylene, which separate into two bulk phases upon reducing pressure. The cloud and micellization pressures for homopolymer and diblock copolymers are generally found to be higher in propane than in propylene, except for hydrogenated polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-(hydrogenated polybutadiene). Hydrogenated polybutadiene homopolymers and copolymers exhibit relatively pressure-independent crystallization and melting observed in both propane and propylene solutions.

Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

225

Deuteration Can Impact Micellization Pressure and Cloud Pressure of Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in Compressible Propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deuterated homopolymers and their corresponding polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers require lower cloud pressures than their hydrogenous analogues to dissolve in a compressible alkane solvent, such as propane. For symmetric diblocks, deuteration reduces the micellization pressure. By contrast, for asymmetric diblocks with a long diene block relative to the styrene block, deuteration can increase the micellization pressure. All in all, however, the deuteration effects, while measurable, do not qualitatively change the principal diblock properties in compressible propane solutions, such as pressure-induced micelle decomposition, micelle formation and micelle size, and their temperature dependence. Therefore, isotope labeling should be a useful approach to neutron-scattering characterization for styrene-diene block copolymers in compressible alkane systems.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Shen, Youqin [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

227

TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

DOUGLAS, J.G.

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (King Saud Univ.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over vanadia-based catalysts supported on high-surface-area mesoporous MgAl2O4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene was investigated over a series of novel vanadia-based catalysts supported on high-surface-area magnesium spinel. A mesoporous MgAl2O4 support was synthesized via a low-temperature sol gel process involving the heterobimetallic alkoxide precursor, Mg[Al(O iPr)4]2. A high-purity catalyst support was obtained after calcination at 1173 K under O2 atmosphere and active vanadia catalysts were prepared from the thermolysis of OV(O tBu)3 after grafting onto the spinel support. MgAl2O4-supported catalysts prepared in this manner have BET surface areas of 234 245 m2/g. All of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman, solid-state NMR, and diffuse-reflectance UV vis spectroscopy. At all vanadium loadings the vanadia supported on MgAl2O4 exist as a combination of isolated monovanadate and tetrahedral polyvanadate species. As the vanadium surface density increases for these catalysts the ratio of polyvanadate species to isolated monovanadate species increases. In addition, as the vanadium surface density increases for these catalysts, the initial rate of propane ODH per V atom increases and reaches a maximum value at 6 VOx/nm2. Increasing the vanadium surface density past this point results in a decrease in the rate of propane ODH owing to the formation of multilayer species in which subsurface vanadium atoms are essentially rendered catalytically inactive. The initial propene selectivity increases with increasing vanadium surface density and reaches a plateau of {approx}95 percent for the V/MgAl catalysts. Rate coefficients for propane ODH (k1), propane combustion (k2), and propene combustion (k3) were calculated for these catalysts. The value of k1 increases with increasing VOx surface density, reaching a maximum at about 5.5 VOx/nm2. On the other hand, the ratio (k2/k1) for V/MgAl decreases with increasing VOx surface density. The ratio (k3/k1) for both sets of catalysts shows no dependence on the vanadia surface density. The observed trends in k1, (k2/k1), and (k3/k1) are discussed in terms of the surface structure of the catalyst.

Evans, Owen R.; Bell, Alexis T.; Tilley, T. Don

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase: Reactivity of surface cations in hydrogen abstraction steps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory calculations (GGA-PBE) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of C3 (propane, isopropyl, propene, and allyl) and H species on the proposed active center present in the surface ab planes of the bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase in order to better understand the roles of the different surface cations in propane ammoxidation. Modified cluster models were employed to isolate the closely spaced V=O and Te=O from each other and to vary the oxidation state of the V cation. While propane and propene adsorb with nearly zero adsorption energy, the isopropyl and allyl radicals bind strongly to V=O and Te=O with adsorption energies, {Delta}E, being {le} -1.75 eV, but appreciably more weakly on other sites, such as Mo=O, bridging oxygen (Mo-O-V and Mo-O-Mo), and empty metal apical sites ({Delta}E > -1 eV). Atomic H binds more strongly to Te = O ({Delta}E {le} -3 eV) than to all the other sites, including V = O ({Delta}E = -2.59 eV). The reduction of surface oxo groups by dissociated H and their removal as water are thermodynamically favorable except when both H atoms are bonded to the same Te=O. Consistent with the strong binding of H, Te=O is markedly more active at abstracting the methylene H from propane (E{sub a} {le} 1.01 eV) than V = O (E{sub a} = 1.70 eV on V{sup 5+} = O and 2.13 eV on V{sup 4+} = O). The higher-than-observed activity and the loose binding of Te = O moieties to the mixed metal oxide lattice of M1 raise the question of whether active Te = O groups are in fact present in the surface ab planes of the M1 phase under propane ammoxidation conditions.

Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

237

Shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of propane : evidence for a roaming radical channel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Primary sector Ethane 1.558 Ethylene for plastics production, petrochemical feedstock Plastic bags, plastics, antifreeze, detergent Industrial Propane 1.499 Propylene for...

239

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A practical grinding-assisted dry synthesis of nanocrystalline NiMoO{sub 4} polymorphs for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A practical two-stage reactive grinding-assisted pathway waste-free and cost-effective for the synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} has been successfully developed. It was demonstrated that proper design in synthetic strategy for grinding plays a crucial role in determining the ultimate polymorph of NiMoO{sub 4}. Specifically, direct grinding (DG) of MoO{sub 3} and NiO rendered {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} after annealing, whereas sequential grinding (SG) of the two independently pre-ground oxides followed by annealing generated {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} solid solution. Characterizations in terms of Raman and X-ray diffraction suggest the creation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} precursor in the latter alternative is the key aspect for the formation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}. The DG-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} tested by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane exhibited superior activity in contrast to its analog synthesized via conventional coprecipitation. It is suggested that the favorable chemical composition facilely obtained via grinding in contrast to that by coprecipitation was essential for achieving a more selective production of propylene. - Graphical Abstract: Grinding-assisted synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} offers higher and more reproducible activities in contrast to coprecipitation for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, and both {alpha}- and {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} can be synthesized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiMoO{sub 4} was prepared through grinding-assisted pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct/sequential grinding rendered {alpha}-, {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grinding-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} showed high and reproducible activity for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

Chen Miao, E-mail: chenmiao@sinochem.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Wu Jialing; Liu Yongmei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao Yong, E-mail: yongcao@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo Li [Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute, Hangzhou 310023 (China); He Heyong; Fan Kangnian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with air. Liquid carbon monoxide is extremely toxic and extremely flammable. #12;Cryogenic liquids connecting cylinder to lower pressure piping or systems. 6. Use a check valve or trap in the discharge line

244

SaltRx HT -Scoring Sheet A1. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SaltRx HT - Scoring Sheet A1. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0 A2. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 2.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0 A3. 0.1 M Sodium Acetate pH 4.6, 1.5 M Ammonium Chloride A4. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.5 M Ammonium Chloride A5. 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5, 1.5 M Ammonium

Hill, Chris

245

Equation for liquid density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Liquid detection circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Residential propane price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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249

Residential propane price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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250

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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251

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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252

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane price

253

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane pricepropane price

254

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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255

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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256

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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257

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane

258

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014 Residential

259

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014 Residential05,

260

Residential propane price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Residential propane price increases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6, 2014propanepropane

262

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6,propanepropane

263

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A

264

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The average

265

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The

266

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase Thepropane

267

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase

268

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increasepropane prices

269

Residential propane prices increase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increasepropane

270

Residential propane prices stable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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271

Residential propane prices stable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices

272

Residential propane prices surges  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane pricespropane prices surges

273

Residential propane prices surges  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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274

Residential propane prices surges  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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275

Residential propane prices surges  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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276

Residential propane prices surges  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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277

2013 Propane Market Outlook  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H. I.Plasma Camp View larger image View3

278

Propane/Propylene Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170Thousand2.442 3.028 3.803 3.971Feet)06 1.88057

279

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

280

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

(Ionization in liquids)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

STEM HAADF Image Simulation of the Orthorhombic M1 Phase in the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O Propane Oxidation Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full frozen phonon multislice simulation of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images from the M1 phase of the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O propane oxidation catalyst has been performed by using the latest structural model obtained using the Rietveld method. Simulated contrast results are compared with experimental HAADF images. Good agreement is observed at ring sites, however significant thickness dependence is noticed at the linking sites. The remaining discrepancies between the model based on Rietveld refinement and image simulations indicate that the sampling of a small volume element in HAADF STEM and averaging elemental contributions of a disordered site in a crystal slab by using the virtual crystal approximation might be problematic, especially if there is preferential Mo/V ordering near the (001) surface.

D Blom; X Li; S Mitra; T Vogt; D Buttrey

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

The preliminary result from spectra of $K^0_s \\pi^-$ in reaction p+propane at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The experimental data from 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed to search for scalar meson $\\kappa(800)$ in a $K^0_s\\pi$ decay mode for the reaction p+$C_3H_8$ at 10 GeV/c. The $K^0_s\\pi^-$ invariant mass spectrum has shown resonant structures with $M_{K^0_s\\pi^-}$=730, 900 and $\\Gamma$=143, 48 MeV/$c^2$, respectively. The statistical significance are estimated to be of 14.2$\\sigma$ and 4.2$\\sigma$, respectively. The peak in M(900) is identified as reflection from the well known resonance with mass of 892 MeV/c$^2$.

Aslanyan, P Z

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Exotic narrow resonance searches in the system Lambda K0s in p+propane collisions at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental data from the 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed to search for an exotic baryon states, in the $\\Lambda K^0_s$ decay mode for the reaction p+$C_3H_8$ at 10 GeV/c. The invariant mass spectrum $\\Lambda K^0_s$ observe a narrow peaks at 1750$\\pm$18, 1795$\\pm$18,1850$\\pm19$ MeV/$c^2$ and full widths of $\\Gamma_{exp.}$= 32$\\pm$6, 44$\\pm$15, 29.0$\\pm$8 MeV/$c^2$. The statistical significance of these peaks has been estimated as 5.6, 3.3 and 3.0 S.D., respectively. There are the small enhancements in mass regions of (1650-1675) and (1925-1950) ???/?$^2$. These would be candidates for the $N^0$ or the $\\Xi^0$ pentaquark states. The investigation has been performed at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies, JINR.

Aslanyan, P Z; Rikhkvitzkaya, G G

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Exotic narrow resonance searches in the system Lambda K0s in p+propane collisions at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental data from the 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed to search for an exotic baryon states, in the $\\Lambda K^0_s$ decay mode for the reaction p+$C_3H_8$ at 10 GeV/c. The invariant mass spectrum $\\Lambda K^0_s$ observe a narrow peaks at 1750$\\pm$18, 1795$\\pm$18,1850$\\pm19$ MeV/$c^2$ and full widths of $\\Gamma_{exp.}$= 32$\\pm$6, 44$\\pm$15, 29.0$\\pm$8 MeV/$c^2$. The statistical significance of these peaks has been estimated as 5.6, 3.3 and 3.0 S.D., respectively. There are the small enhancements in mass regions of (1650-1675) and (1925-1950) ???/?$^2$. These would be candidates for the $N^0$ or the $\\Xi^0$ pentaquark states. The investigation has been performed at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies, JINR.

P. Zh. Aslanyan; V. N. Emelyanenko; G. G. Rikhkvitzkaya

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Chemical class fractionation and thermophysical property measurements of solvent refined coal liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal liquids are a potpourri of organic molecules and inorganic particles; they cannot be considered as a single entity because of variations in coals and processing conditions during conversion to liquids. A method of solubility class fractionation originally developed for petroleum asphalts was adapted to coal liquids. The component classes - asphaltols, asphaltenes, resins, and oils - were separated according to their solubilities in benzene, pentane, and propane. Important physical and thermodynamic properties (viscosity, density, dielectric constant, and conductivity) of these fractions were determined as a function of temperature. In many cases these are the only values currently available to other investigators and are much in demand. We observed that density was most affected by the solids, as expected; however, the dielectric constant was most affected by the asphaltols, the viscosity by the resins (closely followed by the asphaltenes), and the conductivity by the resins. This led to the conclusion that the asphaltols contain the most polarizable material and the resins the most ionizable material. The conductivity remaining after all these materials were removed (10/sup -9/ mho/cm) and the dielectric constant (4.5) are still significantly higher than the corresponding values for most pure hydrocarbons and are important characteristics of these materials.

Hewitt, J.D.; Rodgers, B.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Absorption of sound in liquids and liquid mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSORPTION OF SOUND IN LIQUIDS AND LIQUID MIXTURES A Thesis Raiq S. causa Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) January 1955 L1BRARY A 4 M COLLEOE OF IEXAS ADSORPTION OF SOfP@ LIQUIDS AND LIQUID NIXTURES A Thesis... Introduction to the Problem Experimental Methods and Procedures Results Discussion of Results Acknowledgements Bib 1 io graphy 22 4I 42 Introduction to the Problem The study of sound absorption in liquids and liquid mixtures is of considerable...

Musa, Raiq S

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

291

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

WHAT'S ALREADY IN YOUR ROOM Twin-sized bed or captain's bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, propane canisters, flammable liquids Space heaters Milk crates, plastic storage cases Sub-woofers Any

Brownstone, Rob

296

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

297

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

300

Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicols

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko, David J.

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

307

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

Elmatad, Yael Sarah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

Stadtherr, Mark A.

310

Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

CALIFORNIA INVESTMENT PLAN FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................................................... 29 Propane

312

Selectivity Control in Synergistic Liquid-Liquid Anion Exchange of Univalent Anions via Structure-Specific Cooperativity between Quaternary Ammonium Cations and Anion Receptors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence upon the structure of the alkylammonium cation. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). C4P has the unique ability in its cone anion-binding conformation to accept an appropriately sized electropositive species in the resulting cup formed by its four electron-rich pyrrole groups, while BTU is not expected to be predisposed for a specific host-guest interaction with the quaternary ammonium cations. It was therefore hypothesized that synergism between C4P and methyltri(C8,10)alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) would be uniquely pronounced owing to insertion of the methyl group of the Aliquat cation into the C4P cup, and we present herein data supporting this expectation. While synergism is comparatively weak for both exchangers with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is indeed so strong that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, unraveling the observed selectivity behavior and resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336+ with Cl , Br , OAcF3 , NO3 , and I . The uniquely strong positive cooperativity between A336 and C4P underscores the advantage of a supramolecular approach in the design of synergistic anion exchange systems.

Borman, Christopher J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch,IntroducingIonic Liquid Pretreatment EERE

314

Residential Propane Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October - March)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010Feet) Year53 2.370 2.359 2.342 2.323

315

Wholesale Propane Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October - March)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember1. Foreign salesWestern Hemisphere4 Paul0.751

316

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

Process for preparing liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

L. Bartoszek

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Inclusive production of $\\Lambda$, $K^0_s$ and exotic narrow resonances for systems $K_s^0 p$, $K_s^0 \\Lambda$, $\\Lambda p$ from p+propane interactions at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental data from the 2m propane bubble chamber for production of $\\Lambda$, $K^0_s$ have been used to search of exotic baryon states, in the $K_s^0 p$, $K_s^0 \\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda p$ decay mode for the reaction p+propane at 10 GeV/c. The estimation of experimental inclusive cross sections for $\\Lambda$ and $K^0_s$ production in the p$^{12}C$ collision is equal to $\\sigma_{\\Lambda}$= 13.3$\\pm$1.7 mb and $\\sigma_{K^0_s}$= 3.8$\\pm$0.6 mb, respectively. The measured $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio from pC reaction is equal to (5.3$\\pm0.8)*10^{-2}$. The experimental $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio from the pC reaction is approximately two times larger than the $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio simulated by FRITIOF model from the pC reaction. The invariant mass spectrum $\\Lambda K^0_s$ registered narrow peaks in regions of 1750 and 1795 MeV/$c^2$. The statistical significance of these peaks has been estimated as 5.6 and 3.3 S.D., respectively. These would be candidates for the $N^0$ or the $\\Xi^0$ pentaquark states. The $pK^0_s$ invaria...

Aslanyan, P Z

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILL SecretaryHazmat workFAQs for Respondents Q1:

322

Residential propane price is unchanged  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheatingpropane6,

323

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch Highlights MediaFuelAboutCaseEthanolNatural GasAbout

324

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000 HighlightsHas DrivingData

325

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000 HighlightsHas

326

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000 HighlightsHasSHOPP

327

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000 HighlightsHasSHOPPMaps of

328

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000 HighlightsHasSHOPPMaps

329

Imports of Propane/Propylene  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000Implications ofU.S.270

330

Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Industrial  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End Users55,453.906 1.880 - -

331

Stocks of Propane/Propylene  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Weekly55,003

332

Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Freezing of a Liquid Marble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The liquid crystal phase is a phase of matter between the solid and liquid phase whose flow is characterized by a velocity field and a director field which describes locally the orientation of the liquid crystal. In this ...

Dorn, Timothy

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

339

Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

340

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

344

Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

345

Inclusive production of $?$, $K^0_s$ and exotic narrow resonances for systems $K_s^0 p$, $K_s^0 ?$, $?p$ from p+propane interactions at 10 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental data from the 2m propane bubble chamber for production of $\\Lambda$, $K^0_s$ have been used to search of exotic baryon states, in the $K_s^0 p$, $K_s^0 \\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda p$ decay mode for the reaction p+propane at 10 GeV/c. The estimation of experimental inclusive cross sections for $\\Lambda$ and $K^0_s$ production in the p$^{12}C$ collision is equal to $\\sigma_{\\Lambda}$= 13.3$\\pm$1.7 mb and $\\sigma_{K^0_s}$= 3.8$\\pm$0.6 mb, respectively. The measured $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio from pC reaction is equal to (5.3$\\pm0.8)*10^{-2}$. The experimental $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio from the pC reaction is approximately two times larger than the $\\Lambda /\\pi^+$ ratio simulated by FRITIOF model from the pC reaction. The invariant mass spectrum $\\Lambda K^0_s$ registered narrow peaks in regions of 1750 and 1795 MeV/$c^2$. The statistical significance of these peaks has been estimated as 5.6 and 3.3 S.D., respectively. These would be candidates for the $N^0$ or the $\\Xi^0$ pentaquark states. The $pK^0_s$ invariant mass spectrum shows resonant structures with $M_{K_s^0 p}$=1540, 1613, 1821 MeV/$c^2$. The statistical significance of these peaks have been estimated as 5.5,4.8 and 5.0 s.d., respectively. The invariant mass spectrum S=-1 $\\Lambda p$ observed a narrow peaks at 2100, 2175,2285 and 2353 MeV/$c^2$. Their excess above background by the second method is 6.9, 4.9, 3.8 and 2.9 S.D., respectively.

P. Zh. Aslanyan

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

346

Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft 1ft prototype panels for the worlds first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicrons patented e-Tint technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMIs roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

PHASE CHANGE LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

California at Santa Cruz, University of

350

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Water is characterized by well-known thermodynamic and kinetic liquid-state anomalies; for examplePREPRINT Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points Evy simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anoma- lies and the liquid-liquid critical

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

352

Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

354

Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

Blink, J.A.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Liquid soap film generates electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

356

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

357

THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

Anderson, T.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

359

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

360

Nanopatterned anchoring layers for liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the theory and fabrication of inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal anchoring layers. While chemical anchoring techniques have proved useful for many applications, especially Liquid Crystal Displays, they have ...

Gear, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanwood)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Can hedge funds time market liquidity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

Cao, Charles

362

Mixing in a liquid metal electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

Kelley, Douglas H.

363

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

364

Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

A. S. Bakai

2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

365

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

366

Cooperative motions in supercooled liquids and glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. Heat capacity and entropy of an equilibrium liquid fromliquids should correlate inversely with the con?gurational heat capacity,

Stevenson, Jacob D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

370

Response functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speci¿c heat capacity CP and the isothermal compressibility KT . We use two different methods: (i) fromResponse functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water Erik Lascaris , T. A, and for four different system sizes, N = 63, 73, 83, and 93. We locate the liquid-liquid phase transition line

Stanley, H. Eugene

371

Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressibility KT and the isobaric heat capacity CP . In the LLCP hypothesis, the density anomalies of waterErasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral, Sapienza, Universit´a di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185, Roma, Italy. EFFECTS OF THE LIQUID-LIQUID

Loss, Daniel

372

Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular: December 5, 2005 Thin polymeric membranes have been formed by liquid/liquid interfacial copolymerization of controllable thickness to be obtained.7 The polymerization of 1 was accomplished by condensation of porphyrin

373

Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

4-114 The volume of chamber 1 of the two-piston cylinder shown in the figure is to be determined. Assumptions At specified conditions, helium behaves as an ideal gas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0769(1 3 1 1 P mRT V 4-115 A propane tank contains 5 L of liquid propane at the ambient temperature. Now a leak develops at the top of the tank and propane starts to leak out. The temperature of propane when the pressure drops to 1 atm and the amount of heat transferred to the tank by the time the entire propane

Bahrami, Majid

375

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) - Energy Information Administration...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports,...

377

EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

378

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

379

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS OF LIQUID MIXTURES Douglas R. Lloyd Separations Research Program Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas In recent years considerable attention has been given to the need... for reduced energy costs in the chemical processing industry. A major portion of the energy consumed in this industry is associated with the separation and recovery of chemicals. Membrane processes offer energy-efficient, cost effective methods...

Lloyd, D. R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Plasma-Surface Interactions on Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid plasma-facing surfaces have been suggested as an option for advanced fusion devices, particularly in regions where solid materials may not survive over long operating periods. Because liquid surfaces can be replenished, they offer the possibility of tolerating intense particle bombardment and of recovering from off-normal events. As a preliminary step in understanding the nature of plasma-surface interactions on liquids, the authors consider some of the surface processes occurring in liquids undergoing irradiation by energetic particles. These include (1) sputtering, (2) segregation of liquid component species and impurities, (3) evaporation, and (4) trapping and release of incident particles. Aspects of these processes are examined for several candidate liquids, which represent three types of low-Z liquids: pure metals (Li), metallic alloys (Sn-Li), and compound insulators (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}).

R. Bastasz; W. Eckstein

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

384

Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution (7). The present study of orif1ce mixing is a continuation of previous research on this project which yielded a relationship explaining the effect of operating conditions upon the format1on of 1nterfacial area for the system water-kerosene.... The experimental technique evolved by Helch (18), Vesselhoff (19), McNair (8), and Scott (IA) was changed only slightly. Their work on water-kerosene was repeated for the liquid pairs trichloroethylene-water, heptanol-water, 20 per oent aqueous sucrose-kerosene...

McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

NONE

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Flowing Liquid Crystal Simulating the Schwarzschild Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to simulate the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric through a flowing liquid crystal in its nematic phase. Inside a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, a traveling light ray feels an effective metric, whose properties are linked to perpendicular and parallel refractive indexes, $n_o$ e $n_e$ respectively, of the rod-like molecule of the liquid crystal. As these indexes depend on the scalar order parameter of the liquid crystal, the Beris-Edwards hydrodynamic theory is used to connect the order parameter with the velocity of a liquid crystal flow at each point. This way we calculate a radial velocity profile that simulates the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric, in the region outside of Schwarzschild's radius, in the nematic phase of the liquid crystal. In our model, the higher flow velocity can be of the order of some meters per second.

Erms R. Pereira; Fernando Moraes

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

387

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Gas well operation with liquid production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Adsorptive Drying of Organic Liquids- An Update  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reactions lowering yields and compro mising product quality. In these several situations where liquids are involved, any of the following means may be used to lower the water content: Inert Gas Purging Liquid Extraction Freeze Drying Pervaporation... Fractional Distillation Adsorption Although fractional distillation and adsorption are almost exclusively used, the others are included to complete the list. Inert Gas Purging This method can be used to dry high boiling liquids such as gear oils...

Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

390

Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

392

Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

Cutler, Raymond A. (Bountiful, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Hurford, Andrew C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

Xin Lingyun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Liu Guangzhen, E-mail: gzliu@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang Liya [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Pipe effect in viscous liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed experimental and theoretical study has been performed about a phenomenon, not previously reported in the literature, occurring in highly viscous liquids: the formation of a definite pipe structure induced by the passage of a heavy body, this structure lasting for quite a long time. A very rich phenomenology (including mechanical, optical and structural effects) associated with the formation of the pipe has been observed in different liquids. Actually, the peculiar dynamical evolution of that structure does not appear as a trivial manifestation of standard relaxation or spurious effects. In particular we have revealed different time scales during the evolution of the pipe and a non-monotonous decreasing of the persistence time with decreasing viscosity (with the appearance of at least two different maxima). A microscopic model consistent with the experimental data, where the pipe behaves as a cylindrical dielectric shell, has been proposed. The general time evolution of the structure has been described in terms of a simple thermodynamical model, predicting several peculiarities effectively observed.

V. Capano; S. Esposito; G. Salesi

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

399

Spiers Memorial Lecture Recent experimental advances in studies of liquid/liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complicated processes such as molecular transport across cell membranes. A variety of techniques have been on the interaction of a hydrophobic surface with water, and ion and solute transport across these and other liquid/hydrophilic properties of liquid/ liquid interfaces. In biological systems, protein folding and membrane formation rely

Richmond, Geraldine L.

400

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources) microchannel waveguides with liquid cores containing fluorescent dyes, excited by incident light from an external halogen bulb. Simultaneous use of multiple fluorophores in a common solution, in a single L2 light

Prentiss, Mara

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

A study of new mixture combining rules for prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometric mean of Eq. 63 for methane and n- o ))an butane. 29 b. Propane (1) and Carbon Dioxide (2) In this system, experimental data for B12 are used as taken from Dymond and Smith(1980). Figure 7 is the fitting diagram of Bin for this system. The y... Dioxide (2). c. Carbon Dioxide (I) and Methanol (2). . d. Ethanol (I) and Benzene (2). . e. Propane (I) and Methanol (2). . f. Methanol (1) and Benzene (2). . g. Ethanol (1) and Water (2)? 15 15 17 20 20 29 29 30 30 38 57 V. DISCUSSIONS...

Shyu, Guor-Shiarn

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fiber-optic liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

406

CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing for timing measurements. Leonid Epshtein Budker connected to constitute 264 «towers»; signal of each tower is processed by electronic channel. Liquid Xenon functional channel scheme and signal's shapes in the typical point. Digital Signal Processing ADCCSALXe

407

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou Professor Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering UCLA physicists and engineering scientists · Enhances synergism between IFE and MFE · Provides excellent disciplines. #12;Several "Ideas" Have Been Proposed for Liquid Walls Fluids 1) High-conductivity, low Pr

California at Los Angeles, University of

408

Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Liquid crystal device and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most nonpolar liquids have heat capacities that range from 8the maximum liquid state heat capacity[173]. ExperimentallyLIQUID AND SOLID WATER (a) Density (b) Compressibility (c) Heat Capacity

Limmer, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and long cycle life, and that remain liquid over the working temperature range. Air Products and Chemicals Inc (APCI) investigated many candidates for potential liquid...

413

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

414

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

415

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

416

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

417

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

418

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

419

antiferroelectric liquid crystals: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

420

antiferroelectric liquid crystal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

alcohol liquid diet: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biodiesel. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The most widely used process technology for biodiesel manufacture is the base-catalysed liquid-liquid...

422

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to...

423

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

424

Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

425

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

426

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

427

EECBG Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EECBG Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets (Text Version) EECBG Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets (Text Version)...

428

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Provides information on secondary markets in...

429

Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

430

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

431

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

432

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

433

DOE Selects Savannah River Remediation, LLC for Liquid Waste...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

objective of the Liquid Waste contract is to achieve closure of the SRS liquid waste tanks in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement, utilizing the Defense Waste...

434

Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

Boyd, Erin M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

436

Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope, we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined, weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior, we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip, while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

Khan, Shah H. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Kramkowski, Edward L.; Ochs, Peter J.; Wilson, David M.; Hoffmann, Peter M., E-mail: hoffmann@wayne.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fermi liquid theory for high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article the Fermi liquid theory of metals is discussed starting from Luttinger's theorem. The content of Luttinger's Theorem and its implications for microscopic theories of high temperature superconductors are discussed. A simple quasi-2d Fermi liquid theory is introduced and some of its properties are calculated. It is argued that a number of experiments on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6+x/, x > 0.5, strongly suggest the existence of a Fermi surface and thereby a Fermi liquid normal state. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Bedell, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-resolved one- and two-pulse laser dc photoconductivity has been used to observe two kinds of reducing species, anion-1 and anion-2, in liquid acetonitrile. At 25 C, the standard enthalpy of conversion from anion-1 to anion-2 is -44.3 {+-} 3.6 kJ/mol and the conversion time is 3 ns. The high-temperature form, anion-1, absorbs in the IR and migrates >3.3 times faster than any other ion in acetonitrile. This rapid migration has a low activation energy of 3.2 kJ/mol (vs 7.6 kJ/mol for other ions). Anion-1 rapidly transfers the electron to acceptors with high electron affinity, with rate constant up to 10{sup 11} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The low-temperature form, anion-2, absorbs in the visible and exhibits normal mobility and electron-transfer rates, ca. 1.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. It reacts, by proton transfer, with two hydrogen-bonded molecules of water and/or aliphatic alcohols. Laser photoexcitation of these two solvent anions in their respective absorption bands leads to the formation of CH{sub 3} and CN{sup -}. We present arguments indicating that anion-2 is a dimer radical anion of acetonitrile, whereas anion-1 is a multimer radical anion that may be regarded as a 'solvated electron'.

Shkrob, I. A.; Sauer, M. C.; Chemistry

2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Liquid and liquidgas flows at all speeds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquidgas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup ?3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.

LeMartelot, S., E-mail: sebastien.lemartelot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Nkonga, B., E-mail: boniface.nkonga@unice.fr [RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University of Nice, LJAD UMR CNRS 7351, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex (France); Saurel, R., E-mail: richard.saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University Institute of France, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-GovNatural Gas UsageCosmic

443

Residential propane price continues to decrease  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oilheating5,propanepropane0,

444

Residential propane price continues to decrease  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating

445

Case Study … Propane School Bus Fleets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites ProposedOccupational Health Services > Return

446

State Heating Oil and Propane Program  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubicin North Dakota (Million

447

Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket |21,-CommitteeItemsHiTekPROJECTS FUNDEDPhoto of a

448

Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Commercial/Institutional  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End Users55,453.9

449

Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End Users55,453.906 1.880 -

450

Propane Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and Launches the First ofDepartmentEnergyFuels »

451

Product Supplied for Propane/Propylene  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) Year JanProduct Guide435

452

Propane/Propylene Days of Supply  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) Year Weekly Download Series

453

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels

454

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center:Basics to someone

455

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center:Basics to

456

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center:Basics toFueling

457

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data

458

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels DataConversions to someone by

459

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels DataConversions to someone

460

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Experimental investigation on liquid behaviors in nanopores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an nd as an ex xternal pressu ure is applie ed, the liquid d190 mm/min. Wh hen the pressu ure reached ab bout 50 MPa, ,

Lu, Weiyi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Accelerated Animation of Liquid Splash Roman Durikovic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

step and viscosity. The final liquid surface is obtained from the velocity field by rough estimation small fluid objects such as splash and spray. Our final goal is to develop a real-time system

Durikovic, Roman

465

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Liquid--liquid equilibria by use of UNIFAC for gasohol extraction systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synthetic naphtha cut composed of a mixture of paraffinic, aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons has been studied as a solvent to directly produce gasohol. The equilibria in these highly nonideal liquid mixtures has been estimated by the UNIFAC group contribution method. The process would appear to be simple and direct to produce gasohol by liquid--liquid extraction with this naphtha and could compete with existing azeotropic distillation processes.

Furzer, I.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Equilibration of a spinless Luttinger liquid.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study how a Luttinger liquid of spinless particles in one dimension approaches thermal equilibrium. Full equilibration requires processes of backscattering of excitations, which occur at energies of the order of the bandwidth. Such processes are not accounted for by the Luttinger-liquid theory. We treat the high-energy excitations as mobile impurities and derive an expression for the equilibration rate in terms of their spectrum. Our results apply at any interaction strength.

Matveev, K. A.; Andreev, A. V. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Washington)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

The absorption of ultrasonic waves in liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vee ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ eee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ?easursasnt of ths Prop-:. ties of:asss and Liquids by Ultrasonicseae ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ dies Borne erscsnt Theories ConcsrrrinS the Oisorsparrcy 3e tween... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3Q VI, Plot of' Los A /A vs~ Sound Path Length Ital ZthoI' 1Mox' Ppoalul'oe ~ ~ a ~ y ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e s ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ a ~ ~ 3) xxeasuraaents oa the absorption of high frequency souad. waves ia liquids axe useful ia studying...

Hudson, Paul A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

471

Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

Anderson, David F. (Wheaton, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

473

Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

474

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

475

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Damping of liquid sloshing by foams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

Alban Sauret; Franois Boulogne; Jean Cappello; Emilie Dressaire; Howard A. Stone

2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Boiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and the critical temperature of 1 #12;Boiling of nuclear liquid in the microBoiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract New calculus of the liquid-gas phase transition is developed for the boiling of nuclear liquid

479

ccsd00001732, Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental waveccsd­00001732, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light

480

Solvent-Resistant Photocurable "Liquid Teflon" for Microfluidic Device Fabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). PFPEs are a unique class of fluoropolymers that are liquids at room

Quake, Stephen R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid propane autogas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

483

Collection of liquid from below-ground location  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA); Alexander, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

485

Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

1987-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

486

Liquid-Liquid Partitioning Methods for Bioseparations," Chapter 7 in the Handbook of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigated in a book edited by Sekine and ~asegawa" entitled "Solvent Extraction Chemistry: Fundamentals The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recom- mends the use of liquid-liquid distribution pipette. The organic phase (solvent ~hase)is usually the top phase and the aqueous phase bottom phase

Gu, Tingyue

487

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

488

Quaternary liquid-liquid equilibrium of n-heptane-toluene-o-xylene-propylene carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the system n-heptane/toluene/o-xylene/propylene carbonate were obtained at 25 OC. Experimental tie line data were measured by gas chromatographic analysis. The UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to predict the quaternary data from the corresponding ternary data. Agreement between the predictions and the experimental data was satisfactory.

Salem, A.B.S.H.; Hamad, E.Z.; Al-Naafa, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary systems containing hydrocarbons and propylene carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of liquid-liquid equillibrium at 20/sup 0/C are reported for six ternary systems containing propylene carbonate with n-hexane-benzene, n-hexane-ethylbenzene, n-heptane-toluene, n-heptane-ethylbenzene, n-octane-o-xylene, and n-octane-ethylbenzene. The data are correlated by means of NRTL and UNIQUAC models and relative parameters are given.

Annesini, M.C.; Gironi, F.; Marrelli, L.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Self-Assembly of Microscale Objects at a Liquid/Liquid Interface through Lateral Capillary Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-Assembly of Microscale Objects at a Liquid/Liquid Interface through Lateral Capillary Forces allowed to self-assemble at the perfluorodecalin/water interface. These plates were fabricated from, the designs of hydrophobic edges necessary to generate menisci useful in self-assembly were different for 100

Prentiss, Mara

491

Continuous transitions between composite Fermi liquid and Landau Fermi liquid: A route to fractionalized Mott insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most successful theories of a non-Fermi-liquid metallic state is the composite Fermi-liquid (CFL) theory of the half-filled Landau level. In this paper, we study continuous quantum phase transitions out of the ...

Barkeshli, Maissam

492

Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow.

Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

Fish, R.H.

1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

494

Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

495

Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

499

DOE studies on coal-to-liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z