National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid product brine

  1. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the

  2. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  3. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  4. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  5. REE Sorption Study for Media #1 and Media #2 in Brine #1 and #2 at different Liquid to Solid Ratio's at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-03-27

    This data set shows the different loading capacities of Media #1 and Media #2 in a high and low salt content brine matrix at different liquid to solid ratio's. These data sets are shaker bath tests on media #1 and media #2 in brine's #1 and #2 at 500mL-.5g(1000-1 ratio), 150mL-.75g(200-1 ratio), and 150mL-2.5g(60-1 ratio) at ambient temperature.

  6. Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Utah Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL Production, ...

  7. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL Production, ...

  8. Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples including impact of variation in thermal regime on water content of evaporites and other mineral species, behavior of brine inclusions in salt, and evolution of the gas/liquid brine/salt system.

  9. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL ...

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent New Mexico Natural Gas Plant ...

  11. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent North Dakota Natural Gas Plant ...

  12. Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade...

  13. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  14. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  15. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  16. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  17. ,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  18. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  19. ,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  20. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  1. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  3. CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT AND FULL-SCALE TESTING CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: ...

  4. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  5. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ... to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  7. Viscous heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1984-07-10

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose and a sequestrant are added to a heavy brine containing one or more salts selected from calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide to increase the viscosity of the brine. Preferably the brine contains zinc bromide, has a density in the range from about 14.2-19.2 pounds per gallon, and the sequestrant is a polyphosphonic acid or water soluble salt thereof.

  8. Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  9. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  10. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  11. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  12. Thickened heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1983-12-13

    A thickened brine solution useful as a well servicing fluid is prepared, said solution consisting essentially of water, at least 20% by weight zinc bromide, calcium bromide, and a viscosifying amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  13. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today Keynote Success Story Robert Graham, Chairman and CEO, Ensyn Corporation b13_graham_ensyn.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Cellulosic Biofuels Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Integrated Biorefineries

  14. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director-Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute gangwal_biomass_2014.pdf (1.36

  15. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  16. ,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  17. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via ...

  18. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  19. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

  20. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  1. Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, H. |; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J.

    1994-03-01

    A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

  2. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Photo of cylindrical reactor vessel and associated piping and equipment in the Thermochemical Process Development Unit at NREL Liquids derived from biomass resources-including ethanol and bio-oils-can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming. Biomass-derived liquids can be transported more easily than their biomass feedstocks, allowing for semi-central

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  5. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  6. Brine stability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  7. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  8. Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production,...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  9. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in New Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file...

  11. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  13. Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 56 54 116 2010's 132 196 181 169 206 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved

  14. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 822 887 1,010 2010's 1,001 1,122 1,064 894 881 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Liquids

  15. Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 72 1980's 74 19 12 0 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

  16. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 233 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Florida-Florida

  17. South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 86 4 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 30 25 21 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous

  18. Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 506 516 501 488 382 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL

  19. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

  20. Progress on radiometric dating of Wolfcamp brines using /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, A.; Kosanke, B.J.; Hubbard, N.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water samples (brines) from deep wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas are being analyzed for noble gases in an attempt to obtain radiometric ages for these brines. The brines contain radiogenic /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar produced from the radioactive decay of U, Th, and K. Consideration of hydrochemical data for the brines, various isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical data for the aquifer rocks and noble gas production rates allow estimating the age of the brines to be about 130 million years at two wells. At a third well interaquifer mixing has occurred and the age is presently indeterminate. 9 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 54 1980's 59 63 59 50 38 47 39 33 39 40 1990's 38 38 41 38 48 55 61 50 34 36 2000's 35 35 30 48 53 57 60 69 68 98 2010's 79 54 35 52 83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  2. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 102 1980's 102 93 91 99 77 62 77 90 82 79 1990's 66 54 52 44 43 38 48 45 43 42 2000's 32 41 42 44 44 36 36 50 58 43 2010's 48 38 26 27 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  3. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 21 2 1 2 2 3 3 1990's 2 3 6 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 2000's 7 6 8 8 8 9 11 14 14 0 2010's 9 10 12 32 350 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  4. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 1980's 16 11 18 19 18 21 16 16 11 16 1990's 15 14 12 8 8 8 7 5 5 8 2000's 3 5 6 7 6 9 10 11 11 12 2010's 11 10 10 11 14 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  5. Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,170 794 598 1970's 555 599 539 474 460 313 259 226 168 139 1980's 126 153 133 137 132 115 77 81 59 29 1990's 0 13 3 8 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 20 23 29 41 67 68 50 44 46 1990's 58 49 72 95 104 94 85 83 78 78 2000's 78 86 72 68 58 29 5 9 0 0 2010's 0 0 155 2,116 33,332 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  7. Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 16 1980's 15 15 12 9 10 9 15 15 11 8 1990's 7 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2000's 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2010's 2 3 3 4 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  8. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 170 1980's 183 195 174 173 142 155 127 142 162 191 1990's 152 181 193 190 210 243 254 244 235 277 2000's 288 298 329 325 362 386 382 452 612 722 2010's 879 925 705 762 813 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  9. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 21 1980's 27 17 11 17 17 14 9 16 10 1990's 8 7 8 9 18 17 22 17 18 16 2000's 11 12 14 17 12 7 3 2 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  10. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 400 1980's 387 407 300 441 422 370 437 459 342 327 1990's 311 426 442 378 396 367 336 263 331 355 2000's 303 300 261 245 267 218 204 194 175 162 2010's 195 192 174 138 186 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 26 1980's 25 25 35 31 24 27 29 23 24 15 1990's 24 24 32 25 39 42 45 47 53 69 2000's 56 72 65 65 71 69 104 88 96 101 2010's 124 88 81 95 108 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  12. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 511 1980's 537 565 667 740 683 731 768 702 686 586 1990's 592 567 566 575 592 605 615 610 613 667 2000's 639 605 601 582 666 697 732 797 870 985 2010's 1,270 1,445 1,452 1,408 1,752 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  13. Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet)

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 3,978 3,721 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL

  14. California Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    47,281 46,755 41,742 32,313 32,924 34,206 1977 California (Million Cubic Feet)

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next

  15. Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet)

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 5,100 3,585 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  16. Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 469 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Utah-Wyoming

  17. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Colorado-Kansas

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Utah (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Utah (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Utah (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Colorado-Utah

  19. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 7 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Kansas-Oklahoma

  20. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 12 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Kansas-Texas

  1. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Montana-Wyoming

  2. Liquid products from the continuous flash pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.; Radlein, D.

    1985-01-01

    A bench-scale continuous flash pyrolysis unit using a fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure has been employed to investigate conditions for maximum organic liquid yields from various biomass materials. Liquid yields for poplar-aspen were reported previously, and this work describes results for the flash pyrolysis of maple, poplar bark, bagasse, peat, wheat straw, corn stover, and a crude commercial cellulose. Organic liquid yields of 60-70% mf can be obtained from hardwoods and bagasse, and 40-50% from agricultural residues. Peat and bark with lower cellulose content give lower yields. The effects of the addition of lime and of a nickel catalyst to the fluid bed are reported also. A rough correlation exists between has content and maximum organic liquid yield, but the liquid yield correlates better with the alpha-cellulose content of the biomass. General relationships valid over all reaction conditions appear to exist among the ratios of final decomposition products also, and this correlation is demonstrated for the yields of methane and carbon monoxide.

  3. Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,191 1980's 5,187 5,478 5,611 6,280 6,121 6,109 6,348 6,327 6,448 6,000 1990's 5,944 5,860 5,878 5,709 5,722 5,896 6,179 6,001 5,868 6,112 2000's 6,596 6,190 6,243 5,857 6,338 6,551 6,795 7,323 7,530 8,258 2010's 9,521 10,537 10,489 11,655

  4. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 115,177 140,290 179,117 1970's 193,209 195,072 197,967 206,833 194,329 189,541 172,584 166,392 161,511 165,515 1980's 142,171 142,423 128,858 124,193 132,501 117,736 115,604 124,890 120,092 121,425 1990's 119,405 129,154 132,656 130,336 128,583 146,048 139,841 150,008 144,609 164,794 2000's 164,908

  5. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,127 971 1,334 1970's 1,270 1,217 1,058 878 679 567 520 367 485 1,146 1980's 553 830 831 633 618 458 463 437 811 380 1990's 445 511 416 395 425 377 340 300 495 5,462 2000's 11,377 15,454 16,477 11,430 13,697 14,308 14,662 13,097 10,846 18,354 2010's 18,405 11,221 486 466 495 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  6. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 744 744 705 1970's 3,032 750 839 918 857 831 761 630 503 776 1980's 890 818 940 1,049 1,069 1,189 1,086 1,058 1,072 1,095 1990's 1,091 1,055 907 741 631 597 576 409 410 435 2000's 272 470 575 615 634 1,149 1,422 1,576 1,622 1,853 2010's 1,367 1,252 1,491 1,645 1,670 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 50,952 55,724 57,270 1970's 58,926 55,914 56,376 61,647 62,860 60,008 52,087 55,238 61,868 71,559 1980's 74,434 80,401 85,934 90,772 98,307 99,933 100,305 99,170 103,302 94,889 1990's 96,698 101,851 104,609 101,962 101,564 94,930 100,379 96,830 92,785 93,308 2000's 96,787 88,885 81,287 74,745 84,355 87,404

  8. Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 188 1970's 264 99 749 986 1,097 1,244 1,229 1,321 954 701 1980's 483 529 468 440 2,849 6,703 4,206 19,590 23,240 19,932 1990's 21,476 28,440 32,004 32,257 30,945 35,052 38,453 41,535 40,120 38,412 2000's 39,324 36,149 34,706 33,316 33,044 27,956 24,638 26,332 24,337 22,925 2010's 20,835 21,554 21,470 20,679

  9. Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,499 3,667 3,475 1970's 3,235 2,563 1,197 1,118 952 899 823 674 883 1,308 1980's 1,351 1,327 1,287 1,258 1,200 1,141 1,318 1,275 1,061 849 1990's 800 290 413 507 553 488 479 554 451 431 2000's 377 408 395 320 254 231 212 162 139 168 2010's 213 268 424 486 582 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  10. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,010 1,723 1970's 1,829 180 2,144 2,886 3,369 9,170 13,865 13,534 17,436 15,954 1980's 15,740 12,478 10,453 8,269 6,631 5,471 4,802 3,884 3,584 3,551 1990's 2,831 1,893 2,563 2,557 1,789 1,630 1,649 1,563 1,523 1,557 2000's 1,354 1,159 855 771 618 495 485 132 22 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 233 - = No Data

  11. Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 433,684 457,117 447,325 1970's 466,016 448,288 470,105 466,143 448,993 435,571 428,635 421,110 393,819 352,650 1980's 350,312 345,262 356,406 375,849 393,873 383,719 384,693 364,477 357,756 343,233 1990's 342,186 353,737 374,126 385,063 381,020 381,712 398,442 391,174 388,011 372,566 2000's 380,535 355,860

  12. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 13,725 13,657 13,425 1970's 14,165 13,520 13,346 13,534 13,821 12,785 12,477 13,310 13,173 13,484 1980's 13,340 13,264 11,741 12,843 11,687 11,436 9,259 6,662 61 81 1990's 81 100 100 86 80 77 64 200 70 55 2000's 42 35 47 48 49 46 47 48 42 31 2010's 345 1,043 0 0 47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  13. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 166,776 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Oklahoma-Oklahoma

  14. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 2,434 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Oklahoma-Texas

  15. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 14,335 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

  16. Texas Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 (Million Cubic Feet)

    Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Offshore Natural Gas Plant Processing

  17. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 8,718 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Onshore-Oklahoma

  18. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 790,721 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Onshore-Texas

  19. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 60,873 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Wyoming-Wyoming

  20. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 1980's 10 11 10 9 8 9 8 8 9 10 1990's 10 12 13 14 15 18 17 21 18 19 2000's 21 22 23 24 26 26 26 27 38 48 2010's 58 63 57 52 61 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  1. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 29 1980's 26 24 14 17 20 20 19 19 18 18 1990's 17 26 27 27 29 29 31 24 28 30 2000's 28 26 25 22 22 19 18 18 18 16 2010's 16 16 15 11 12 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  2. Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 54 1980's 59 63 59 50 38 47 39 33 39 40 1990's 38 38 41 38 48 55 61 50 34 36 2000's 35 35 30 48 53 57 60 69 68 98 2010's 79 54 35 52 83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  3. Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 579 1980's 572 580 564 568 597 580 566 569 572 549 1990's 556 577 599 608 608 616 655 655 631 649 2000's 688 655 657 593 627 597 615 637 654 701 2010's 734 773 854 920 1,107 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  4. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 11 1980's 12 12 11 10 10 8 9 8 8 8 1990's 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2000's 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2010's 3 2 2 2 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  5. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2010's 0 0 0 1 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  6. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 4 4 5 6 6 5 6 5 5 1990's 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 2000's 5 5 5 4 5 5 6 6 6 8 2010's 9 11 19 26 36 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 59 1980's 62 65 67 70 75 77 76 76 79 73 1990's 75 76 77 77 76 70 74 71 69 70 2000's 69 66 61 59 64 65 67 69 74 77 2010's 82 88 96 99 117 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  8. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Ohio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Extracted in Ohio (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Ohio (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 346 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania-Ohio

  9. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 102,401 96,538 108,784 105,106 111,388 108,530 1981-2016 PADD 1

  10. Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 280 1980's 294 363 381 483 577 681 700 701 932 704 1990's 641 580 497 458 440 503 639 680 600 531 2000's 858 782 806 756 765 710 686 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  11. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6 1980's 6 6 5 5 6 7 6 6 7 7 1990's 7 7 7 7 6 4 4 4 4 4 2000's 6 6 6 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 2010's 5 5 8 10 41 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  12. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 9,793 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Gulf of

  13. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 1,465 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Kentucky-West Virginia

  14. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 325 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Louisiana Onshore-Texas

  15. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 303 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Montana-North Dakota

  16. Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids Presentation by Yong Wang and David King at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_wang_pnnl.pdf (841.57 KB) More Documents & Publications Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production

  17. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  18. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  19. Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1990's 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  20. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 1980's 10 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1990's 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2000's 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  1. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3 1980's 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1990's 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2000's 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2010's 5 4 5 5 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  2. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1990's 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2010's 1 1 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  3. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 30,480 29,042 35,813 1970's 38,843 39,741 40,738 43,909 43,416 42,763 40,975 41,971 45,582 45,640 1980's 39,130 36,653 23,023 28,561 29,707 28,964 27,050 28,397 29,800 30,273 1990's 29,642 41,848 42,733 44,014 46,936 47,442 47,996 38,224 45,801 48,107 2000's 44,200 38,517 39,196 34,724 34,573 31,521 30,726

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,500 8,573 8,579 1970's 6,574 6,133 6,063 5,441 5,557 5,454 5,231 4,764 6,192 3,923 1980's 6,845 5,638 6,854 6,213 6,516 6,334 4,466 2,003 2,142 1,444 1990's 1,899 2,181 2,342 2,252 2,024 2,303 2,385 2,404 2,263 2,287 2000's 1,416 1,558 1,836 1,463 2,413 1,716 2,252 1,957 2,401 3,270 2010's 4,576 4,684

  5. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,351 3,244 2,705 1970's 2,330 2,013 1,912 1,581 1,921 2,879 6,665 11,494 14,641 15,686 1980's 15,933 14,540 14,182 13,537 12,829 11,129 11,644 10,876 10,483 9,886 1990's 8,317 8,103 8,093 7,012 6,371 6,328 6,399 6,147 5,938 5,945 2000's 5,322 4,502 4,230 3,838 4,199 3,708 3,277 3,094 3,921 2,334 2010's

  6. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,993 11,390 12,540 1970's 12,863 12,802 16,228 16,093 14,072 13,224 14,669 15,625 14,363 14,056 1980's 13,582 15,160 15,482 19,668 29,169 31,871 25,819 24,827 29,434 29,247 1990's 28,591 31,470 31,378 29,118 33,486 36,058 48,254 49,333 44,358 50,639 2000's 65,085 65,740 74,387 69,817 70,831 67,563 67,435

  7. California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,803 32,639 30,334 1970's 29,901 27,585 24,156 17,498 17,201 15,221 14,125 13,567 13,288 10,720 1980's 8,583 7,278 14,113 14,943 15,442 16,973 16,203 15,002 14,892 13,376 1990's 12,424 11,786 12,385 12,053 11,250 11,509 12,169 11,600 10,242 10,762 2000's 11,063 11,060 12,982 13,971 14,061 13,748 14,056

  8. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 4,126 4,546 4,058 1970's 3,405 4,152 4,114 4,674 6,210 9,620 11,944 13,507 13,094 12,606 1980's 12,651 13,427 12,962 11,314 10,771 11,913 10,441 10,195 11,589 13,340 1990's 13,178 15,822 18,149 18,658 19,612 25,225 23,362 28,851 24,365 26,423 2000's 29,105 29,195 31,952 33,650 35,821 34,782 36,317 38,180

  9. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  10. Viscous heavy brine completion fluids. [Oil wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darlington, R.K.; Hunter, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    An activated hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) has been developed which will viscosify brines of any density up to 19.2 lb/gal containing calcium chloride, calcium bromide and/or zinc bromide. The use of activated hydroxyethyl cellulose allows preparation of viscosified brines at ambient emperature and without undissolved polymer solids. The time required to prepare a viscosified brine is greatly reduced. In addition, the rheology of brines viscosified with activated HEC can be accurately predicted allowing brines with equivalent solution rheology properties to be prepared batch after batch. 29 refs.

  11. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 121 116 93 1970's 79 55 70 71 75 68 61 45 64 49 1980's 41 29 40 55 61 145 234 318 272 254 1990's 300 395 604 513 513 582 603 734 732 879 2000's 586 691 566 647 634 700 794 859 1,008 1,295 2010's 4,578 8,931 12,003 20,936 39,989 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  12. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  13. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming | Department of Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass-derived liquid reforming. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan.

  14. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... 8:54:02 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  15. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document ...

  16. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  17. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Huimin; Hussey, Charles L.

    2005-09-30

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  18. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Huimin; Rogers, Robin D.; Dai, Sheng, Dai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Buchanan, A. C. III; Hussey, Charles L.

    2003-06-16

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  19. U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  20. New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  1. New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  2. New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  3. New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  4. Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John M.

    1979-06-26

    Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

  5. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  6. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines This study ...

  7. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay ...

  8. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and ...

  9. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic ...

  10. Raft River Geothermal Field Well Head Brine Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Lanyk

    2015-12-18

    Raw data and data workup of assay for real-world brine sample. Brine sample was taken at the well head.

  11. California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 Next Release Date: 10312014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants California State Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

  12. Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next Release Date: 10312014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

  13. ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us...

  14. REMOVAL OF CERTAIN FISSION PRODUCT METALS FROM LIQUID BISMUTH COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.; Howe, H.E.; Avrutik, E.R.

    1959-11-24

    A method is described for purifying a solution of urarium in liquid bismuth containing at least one metal from the group consisting of selenium, tellurium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, niobium, and zirconium. The solution is contacted with zinc in an inert atmosphere to form a homogeneous melt, a solid zinc phase is formed, and the zinc phase containing the metal is separated from the melt.

  15. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar; Russek, Steven Lee; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  16. RARE-EARTH METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM LIQUID U-Bi

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    Fission product metals can be removed from solution in liquid bismuth without removal of an appreciable quantity of uranium by contacting the liquid metal solution with fused halides, as for example, the halides of sodium, potassium, and lithium and by adding to the contacted phases a quantity of a halide which is unstable relative to the halides of the fission products, a specific unstable halide being MgCl/sub 3/.

  17. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  18. Upgrading liquid products: Notes from the workshop at the international conference research in thermochemical biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1988-07-01

    A workshop was held at the International Energy Agency conference, Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, on the subject of upgrading liquid products. The workshop discussion focused on the two prominent methods of liquids upgrading, catalytic hydroprocessing and catalytic cracking. Catalytic hydroprocessing as applied to biomass liquids relies heavily on petroleum developed technology; similar catalysts and operating conditions are used, although lower space velocities are typical. The need for stabilization of the pyrolytic products prior to hydroprocessing was also discussed. Catalytic cracking of biomass liquids also relies heavily on petroleum processing technology. Zeolite catalyst development has focused on the ZSM-5 of Mobil and its application to pyrolysis products. Significant olefinic gas yields are obtained in the zeolitic processing of biomass pyrolyzates and the conversion of these to liquid fuels is a primary research goal. Aromatic gasoline is the primary product in both catalytic processes. A general conclusion of the workshop participants was that the cost of liquid fuels for internal combustion engines would be higher in the foreseeable future. Due to the high cost of initial biomass liquefaction plants (including upgrading) a more likely near-term product would be aromatic chemicals produced under constrained economic circumstances. 16 refs.

  19. How temperature and pressure affect clear brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, J.T.

    1984-04-01

    The correct application of the expansivity and compressibility of brine fluids under the influence of temperature and pressure is needed to calculate the actual hydrostatic pressure in a well. Well operations can benefit by reducing unintentional overbalance, lessening fluid losses, and lowering recommended fluid densities, hence reducing fluid costs. Since the early 1970s, the effects of temperature and pressure on the density of clear brine fluids have been questioned. As early as 1973, studies were started to define density loss with increased temperature in zinc bromide brines. This article describes a continuing study, begun in 1978, which has characterized the expansivity and compressibility of single salt brine solutions, such as are used in workover and completion fluids.

  20. Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride type brine, "The content of potassium and calcium are high, while that of lithium, boron and sulfate is very low", See table 1 of Izquierdo et al. (2006). + Chena...

  1. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  2. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; et al

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was speci#12;cally developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  3. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Proudfoot, M.

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  4. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to ...

  5. Separation of Fission Products Based on Ionic Liquids: Anion Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2004-03-28

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) as new separation media have been actively investigated recently. The most commonly studied class of ILs for such applications is based on dialkyl imidazolium cations. In comparison with conventional molecular solvents, ILs exhibit enhanced distribution coefficients for a number of complexing neutral ligands in extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of the alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the distribution coefficients of solvent extraction using crown ethers was the subject of a number of the previous investigations. The distribution coefficients have been found to decrease with the alkyl chain length of the IL cations. This observation implies that the extraction process also involves the exchange of the IL cations with metal ions. The longer the alkyl chain lengths of the IL cations are, the more hydrophobic the IL cations are and the more difficult to be transported into aqueous phases via ion exchange. Accordingly, the ion-exchange process is another unique property of IL-based extractions involving charged species. Here, we report the investigation about the effect of the variation of IL anions on the solvent extraction of metal ions using crown ethers as extractants. The elucidation of different solvation effects involved in ionic liquids could lead to optimized separation media for these novel solvents.

  6. 81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-09

    This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

  7. Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    produced as a by-product in the process and deposit on the internal surfaces of the coils. ... a novel catalytic coating on internal surfaces of the coils where ethane is converted ...

  8. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  9. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016"

  10. ,"California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  11. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016"

  12. ,"Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016"

  13. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids ",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel

  14. Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 16 1980's 18 20 24 35 33 33 30 22 23 15 1990's 20 23 24 23 23 23 44 46 32 161 2000's 49 35 34 24 31 31 32 43 44 87 2010's 163 158 197 233 343 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  15. Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 1980's 32 42 44 61 61 62 73 76 72 65 1990's 61 53 55 50 50 47 48 31 31 24 2000's 24 43 39 40 44 40 42 50 126 192 2010's 225 237 214 183 193 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  16. Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 228 1980's 268 259 232 280 253 247 224 213 210 212 1990's 195 195 205 202 218 223 242 221 235 182 2000's 182 215 213 195 233 264 279 324 318 330 2010's 369 360 269 376 387 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  17. Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 452 1980's 452 498 554 650 662 646 697 623 530 542 1990's 545 466 426 430 398 432 417 447 479 479 2000's 479 504 488 484 487 559 547 525 524 536 2010's 618 689 802 830 1,240 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  18. Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 75 1980's 81 81 111 115 113 106 112 107 102 90 1990's 100 96 89 88 94 90 116 96 91 156 2000's 156 182 229 228 228 276 372 347 348 419 2010's 488 552 542 578 662 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  19. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, J.

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  20. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  1. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  2. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  3. Alabama Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    46,751 139,215 134,305 128,312 120,666 110,226 1992-2014 From Gas Wells 33,294 29,961 32,602 27,009 27,182 24,726 1992-2014 From Oil Wells 5,758 6,195 5,975 10,978 8,794 7,937 1992-2014 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 2012-2014 From Coalbed Wells 107,699 103,060 95,727 90,325 84,690 77,563 2007-2014 Repressuring 783 736 531 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Vented and Flared 1,972 2,085 3,012 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 9,239 8,200 13,830 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Marketed Production 134,757 128,194

  4. California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    258,983 273,136 237,388 214,509 219,386 218,512 1992-2014 From Gas Wells 80,500 71,189 62,083 76,704 73,493 61,265 1992-2014 From Oil Wells 76,456 106,442 80,957 49,951 51,625 49,734 1992-2014 From Shale Gas Wells 55,344 107,513 2012-2014 Repressuring 14,566 15,767 13,702 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Vented and Flared 2,501 2,790 2,424 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 2,879 3,019 2,624 NA NA NA 1992-2014 Marketed Production 239,037 251,559 218,638 214,509 219,386 218,512 1992-2014 Dry

  5. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,482,252 2,148,447 2,969,297 2,882,193 2,289,193 1,925,968 1992-2014 From Gas Wells 1,027,728 848,745 819,264 707,705 710,608 682,684 1992-2014 From Oil Wells 53,930 57,024 61,727 43,936 44,213 43,477 1992-2014 From Shale Gas Wells 2,130,551 1,199,807 2012-2014 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 Repressuring 5,409 3,490 4,895 NA 2,829 3,199 1992-2014 Vented and Flared 4,121 4,432 6,153 NA 3,912 4,143 1992-2014 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 2003-2014 Marketed Production

  6. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (OR08SP24-16)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Huimin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rogers, Robin D.; Dai, Sheng; Buchanan, A. C. III; Hussey, Charles L.

    2002-06-15

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  7. Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

  8. Alaska Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alaska

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,954,896 2,826,952 2,798,220 2,857,485 2,882,956 2,803,429 1992-2014 From Gas Wells 96,685 85,383 76,066 74,998 64,537 81,565 1992-2014 From Oil Wells 2,858,211 2,741,569 2,722,154 2,782,486 2,818,418 2,721,864 1992-2014 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 Repressuring 2,600,167 2,502,371 2,494,216 2,532,559 2,597,184 2,492,589 1992-2014 Vented and Flared 5,271 8,034 9,276 9,244 5,670 5,779 1992-2014 Marketed Production 349,457 316,546 294,728 315,682 280,101 305,061 1992-2014 Dry

  9. Hydropyrolysis process for upgrading heavy oils and solids into light liquid products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Shabtai, J.

    1981-11-03

    A hydropyrolysis process is disclosed for upgrading heavy, high molecular weight feedstocks such as coal-derived liquids, petroleum crudes, tar sand bitumens, shale oils, bottom residues from process streams, and the like, to lighter, lower molecular weight liquid products. The process includes subjecting the feedstocks to pyrolysis in the presence of hydrogen under carefully controlled conditions of temperature and pressure. The process can be defined as hydrogen-modified, thermal cracking in the specific temperature range of 450* C. To 650* C. And in the hydrogen pressure range of about 120 psi to 2250 psi. The amount of hydrogen present can be varied according to the type of feedstock and the liquid product desired. Although the hydrogen is not consumed in large amounts, it does participate in and modifies the process, and thereby provides a means of controlling the process as to the molecular weight range and structural type distribution of the liquid products. The presence of hydrogen also inhibits coke formation. The process also eliminates the requirement for a catalyst so that the reaction will proceed in the presence of heavy metal contaminants in the feedstock which contaminants would otherwise poison any catalyst.

  10. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  11. Method of removing benzene from petroleum desalter brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, P.R.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described for removing benzene from petroleum refinery desalter effluent brine containing dispersed oil, solids, oily solids and benzene comprising contacting the brine with a sufficient amount for the purpose of flocculating oily solids of a combination of a aluminum chlorohydrate and a water soluble cationic polymer selected from the group consisting of polyamines and dialkyldiallylammonium polymers, in a ratio of from 1:10 to 100:1 at a temperature of about 250 F, separating the resulting floc from the brine; and thereafter contacting the brine with a sufficient amount for the purpose of reducing benzene levels in the brine of an oil solvent in combination with a demulsifier.

  12. Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 356 1980's 350 349 376 397 425 416 411 402 351 331 1990's 318 346 327 316 305 343 323 372 342 191 2000's 191 311 326 315 373 367 396 458 473 494 2010's 566 578 522 481 598 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  13. Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 1980's 82 99 99 129 103 101 106 90 95 71 1990's 74 81 67 73 61 69 64 57 48 34 2000's 34 28 24 31 42 89 131 200 269 326 2010's 359 416 295 332 312 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  14. Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 168 1980's 120 172 184 204 219 242 232 231 226 225 1990's 234 218 266 250 241 255 285 309 266 291 2000's 291 271 326 319 365 391 404 464 402 412 2010's 465 549 524 438 473 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  15. Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 350 1980's 289 335 296 262 282 282 331 307 325 332 1990's 353 333 257 297 267 284 262 290 226 222 2000's 222 250 180 163 197 248 231 260 194 201 2010's 230 239 242 239 245 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  16. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF LIGHT ISOTOPE PRODUCT FROM LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION UNITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, J.D.; Ballou, J.K.

    1957-11-19

    A method and apparatus are described for removing the lighter isotope of a gaseous-liquid product from a number of diffusion columns of a liquid thermal diffusion system in two stages by the use of freeze valves. The subject liquid flows from the diffusion columns into a heated sloping capsule where the liquid is vaporized by the action of steam in a heated jacket surrounding the capsule. When the capsule is filled the gas flows into a collector. Flow between the various stages is controlled by freeze valves which are opened and closed by the passage of gas and cool water respectively through coils surrounding portions of the pipes through which the process liquid is passed. The use of the dual stage remover-collector and the freeze valves is an improvement on the thermal diffusion separation process whereby the fraction containing the lighter isotope many be removed from the tops of the diffusion columns without intercolumn flow, or prior stage flow while the contents of the capsule is removed to the final receiver.

  18. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  19. An Ionic Liquid Reaction and Separation Process for Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Li, Joanne; Cooper, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been world-wide interest to making plastics out of renewable biomass feedstock for recent years. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is viewed as an attractive alternate to terephthalic acid (TPA) for production of polyesters (PET) and polyamides. Conversion of sugars into HMF has been studied in numerous publications. In this work, a complete ionic liquid reaction and separation process is presented for nearly stoichiometric conversion of fructose into HMF. Different adsorbent materials are evaluated and silicalite material is demonstrated effective for isolation of 99% pure HMF from actual ionic liquid reaction mixtures and for recovery of the un-converted sugars and reaction intermediate along with the ionic liquid. Membrane-coated silicalite particles are prepared and studied for a practical adsorption process operated at low pressure drops but with separation performances comparable or better than the powder material. Complete conversion of fresh fructose feed into HMF in the recycled ionic liquid is shown under suitable reaction conditions. Stability of HMF product is characterized. A simplified process flow diagram is proposed based on these research results, and the key equipment such as reactor and adsorbent bed is sized for a plant of 200,000 ton/year of fructose processing capacity. The proposed HMF production process is much simpler than the current paraxylene (PX) manufacturing process from petroleum oil, which suggests substantial reduction to the capital cost and energy consumption be possible. At the equivalent value to PX on the molar basis, there can be a large gross margin for HMF production from fructose and/or sugars.

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant This May 2012 study assesses the costs and potential for remote renewable energy to be transported via hydrogen to a demand center for transportation use. The study is based on a projected 40 tonne/day need in the Los Angeles, California, region to serve an average 80,000 fuel cell vehicles/day. The hydrogen would be delivered from

  1. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","09/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Based Production (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 147 1980's 159 161 157 157 179 168 169 162 162 165 1990's 158 153 147 153 157 145 162 174 178 199 2000's 208 215 207 191 182 174 182 181 173 178 2010's 224 231 274 311 326 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  3. Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 16 1980's 18 20 24 35 33 33 30 22 23 15 1990's 20 23 24 23 23 23 44 46 32 161 2000's 49 35 34 24 31 31 32 43 44 87 2010's 163 158 197 233 343 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  4. Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 1980's 32 42 44 61 61 62 73 76 72 65 1990's 61 53 55 50 50 47 48 31 31 24 2000's 24 43 39 40 44 40 42 50 126 192 2010's 225 237 214 183 193 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  5. Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 228 1980's 268 259 232 280 253 247 224 213 210 212 1990's 195 195 205 202 218 223 242 221 235 182 2000's 182 215 213 195 233 264 279 324 318 330 2010's 369 360 269 376 387 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  6. Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 452 1980's 452 498 554 650 662 646 697 623 530 542 1990's 545 466 426 430 398 432 417 447 479 479 2000's 479 504 488 484 487 559 547 525 524 536 2010's 618 689 802 830 1,240 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  7. Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 75 1980's 81 81 111 115 113 106 112 107 102 90 1990's 100 96 89 88 94 90 116 96 91 156 2000's 156 182 229 228 228 276 372 347 348 419 2010's 488 552 542 578 662 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Based Production (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 580 1980's 572 580 564 568 597 585 569 585 592 566 1990's 574 601 626 635 634 646 688 690 655 697 2000's 710 675 677 611 645 614 629 650 667 714 2010's 745 784 865 931 1,124 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  9. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 7,442 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Gulf of Mexico-Alabama

  10. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 51,010 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Gulf of Mexico-Louisia

  11. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 7,404 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Gulf of Mexico-Texas

  12. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 755 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent New Mexico-Texas

  13. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 48,504 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent North Dakota-North

  14. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  15. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon ...

  16. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide ...

  17. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests ...

  18. ,"California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  19. ,"California--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  20. ,"California--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  1. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  2. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnell, Leo W.; Perka, Alan T.; Roberts, George W.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  4. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  6. Reduce completion fluid costs with on-site brine tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.C.; Darlington, R.K.; Kinney, W.R.; Lowell, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    A newly developed field kit makes on-site brine completion fluid testing practical. Simple titration procedures are used to analyze brine for calcium, zinc, chloride and bromide with an accuracy and repeatability that compares favorably with expensive laboratory techniques. This article describes the field testing theory and details analytical procedures used.

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical analysis is given for calculating the composition of the aqueous vapor and the saline brine (hydrosaline liquid) present at run pressure and temperature in the experiment. The mixture of aqueous vapor and brine is homogenized upon quench. The method for calculating the concentration of HCl and NaCl in the coexisting aqueous vapor and brine is shown.

  8. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  9. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  10. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  11. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  12. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  13. Technique for thermodynamic crystallization temperature of brine fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.E.; Hubbard, J.T.

    1983-03-01

    The application of high density solids free brine fluids has proven to be technically and economically successful in hydrocarbon completion and workover operations. The use of inorganic salts such as calcium chloride, calcium bromide, zinc bromide, and sodium bromide has contributed to the development of complex salt systems. As the density and complexity of these systems becomes more detailed, the requirement for proper fluid design becomes increasingly important. When a brine solution is cooled sufficiently, a temperature is reached where the solution will be saturated. A further decrease in temperature will result in the precipitation of salt from the solution. The temperature at which this transpires, provided no super-cooling occurs, is the crystallization point of the solution. A correctly formulated solids free brine should have the optimum crystallization point for the temperature conditions it will encounter. A recently developed semiautomatic procedure constructs a cooling curve plot of each brine tested. This cooling curve plot allows the determination of the super-cooling potential, the Thermodynamic Crystallization Temperature, and the Last Crystal To Dissolve Temperature. The device provides a permanent record of the cooling curve with repeatable accuracy, which assists in the development of error free brine formulation tables, brine density, and/or crystallization point adjustments, and brine analysis.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  15. The effect of temperature on liquid product composition from the fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.; Grinshpun, A.; Graham, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    In recent years, a good deal of attention has been focused on the thermal conversion of biomass to gases and liquids, and in particular, on the products obtainable from short time, high temperature pyrolysis of wood and other lignocellulosics. This flash pyrolysis is usually carried out at or near atmospheric pressures, while hydropyrolysis commonly employs hydrogen pressures to 20 MPa. Residence times of only a few seconds or less with reaction at high temperatures requires a reactor configuration capable of very high heating rates. Two of the most appropriate designs are the entrained flow reactor, and the fluidized bed reactor. Many flash pyrolysis studies have employed one or the other of these reactor types. In general, two approaches to flash pyrolysis of biomass have been used by various workers. One approach has the objective of producing a maximum yield of a desirable gas, which in atmospheric pressure non-catalytic pyrolysis processes is usually ethylene, or other olefins.

  16. Formate brines -- New fluids for drilling and completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S.; Shipp, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The term ``formate brines`` refers broadly to three primary compounds dissolved in water -- sodium formate (NaCOOH), potassium formate (KCOOH) and cesium formate (CsCOOH). Each is chemically classified as an alkali-metal salt of formic acid. They offer properties that in many respects are superior to their predecessors, halide brines such as zinc bromide and calcium bromide, without the undesirable side effects of those more common halide brine systems. This article introduces the technology and provides an overview of published work to date regarding formates.

  17. ,"California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  18. ,"Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  19. ,"Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  1. Thin liquid/gas diffusion layers for high-efficiency hydrogen production from water splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mo, Jingke; Retterer, Scott T.; Cullen, David A.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr, Johney Boyd; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2016-06-13

    Liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs) play a crucial role in electrochemical energy technology and hydrogen production, and are expected to simultaneously transport electrons, heat, and reactants/products with minimum voltage, current, thermal, interfacial, and fluidic losses. In addition, carbon materials, which are typically used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are unsuitable for PEM electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). In this study, a novel titanium thin LGDL with well-tunable pore morphologies was developed by employing nano-manufacturing and was applied in a standard PEMEC. The LGDL tests show significant performance improvements. The operating voltages required at a current density of 2.0 A/cm2 were asmore » low as 1.69 V, and its efficiency reached a report high of up to 88%. The new thin and flat LGDL with well-tunable straight pores has been demonstrated to remarkably reduce the ohmic, interfacial and transport losses. In addition, well-tunable features, including pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and thus porosity and permeability, will be very valuable for developing PEMEC models and for validation of its simulations with optimal and repeatable performance. The LGDL thickness reduction from greater than 350 μm of conventional LGDLs to 25 μm will greatly decrease the weight and volume of PEMEC stacks, and represents a new direction for future developments of low-cost PEMECs with high performance.« less

  2. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  3. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  4. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S. James

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  5. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally

  6. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  7. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  8. Achieving a production goal of 1 million B/D of coal liquids by 1990. [Impediments and constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Charles; LaRosa, Dr., P. J.; Coles, E. T.; Fein, H. L.; Petros, J. J.; Iyer, R. S.; Merritt, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Under this contract, Bechtel analyzed the resource requirements and reviewed major obstacles to the daily production of several million barrels of synthetic coal liquids. Further, the study sought to identify the industry infrastructure needed to support the commercial readiness of the coal liquefaction process. A selected list of critical resource items and their domestic/international availability was developed and examined, and the impact of their supply on the various synthetic coal liquids programs was evaluated. The study approach was to develop representative, or generic, direct and indirect coal liquefaction conceptual designs from available technology and costs data. The generic processes were to employ technology that would be considered commercial by the mid- or late-1980s. The size of the generic construction mobilization was considered reasonable at the outset of the program. The product slate was directed toward unrefined liquid fuels rather than diesel oil or gasoline. The generic processes were to use a wide range of coals to permit siting in most coal-producing regions across the country. Because of the dearth of conceptual design data in the literature, Bechtel developed generic plant designs by using in-house design expertise. Bechtel assumed that because it is first generation technology, the indirect process will be used at the outset of the liquids program, and the direct process will be introduced two to four years later as a second generation technology. The products of either of these processes will be limited to boiler fuels and/or other liquid products which require further upgrading. Cost estimates were developed from equipment lists, as well as material and labor estimates, which enabled the determination of an order-of-magnitude cost estimate and target plant construction schedule for both processes.

  9. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil

  10. Exploitation of olive mill wastewater and liquid cow manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareioti, Margarita A.; Dokianakis, Spyros N.; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Zafiri, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste streams is an innovative technology for the reduction of methane/greenhouse gas emissions. Different organic substrates are combined to generate a homogeneous mixture as input to the anaerobic reactor in order to increase process performance, realize a more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. In this study, the potential of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of a mixture containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) and liquid cow manure (LCM) using a two-stage process has been evaluated by using two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) under mesophilic conditions (35 {sup o}C) in order to separately monitor and control the processes of acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The overall process was studied with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 days. The digester was continuously fed with an influent composed (v/v) of 20% OMW and 80% LCM. The average removal of dissolved and total COD was 63.2% and 50%, respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal was 34.2% for the examined mixture of feedstocks operating the system at an overall OLR of 3.63 g CODL{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Methane production rate at the steady state reached 0.91 L CH{sub 4}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1} or 250.9 L CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) per kg COD fed to the system.