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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Brining studies at Pepper Products Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Department) A. B. Childers (Member) V. E. Sweat (Member) December 1988 Abstract Optimum brining conditions, causes of secondary fermentation, and salt fluctuation were investigated. Jalapeno peppers held in brine solution undergo lactic acid... fermentation, controlled by level of acidification and concentration of salt. Only brining at 7. 5% NaCl, with no added acetic acid, resulted in loss of all fermentable sugars. However, salt concentration fluctuated widely in this sample. Brining in 25...

Okoro, John Daniel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

2

Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfate is one of the most problematic ions present in reject brine in desalination systems due to its high potential of scale formation and membrane fouling; making it an obstacle in the application of zero liquid discharge. The ultra-high lime...

Almasri, Dema A

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

3

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reducing Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine Kerry Klein 1 , Linda Gaines 2 1 New West Technologies LLC, Washington, DC, USA 2 Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA KEYWORDS Mineral extraction, zinc, silica, strategic metals, Imperial Valley, lithium ion batteries, electric- drive vehicles, battery recycling ABSTRACT Following a 2009 investment of $32.9 billion in renewable energy and energy efficiency research through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, President Obama in his January 2011 State of the Union address promised deployment of one million electric vehicles by 2015 and 80% clean energy by 2035. The United States seems poised to usher in its bright energy future,

8

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

10

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

11

Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million...

12

Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

13

California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade...

14

Sampling procedure for atmospheric geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic and chemical changes can alter the characteristics of geothermal brine samples significantly. A procedure which minimizes these changes has been developed for sampling atmospheric geothermal brines. The method is fast with minimal cooling and yields representative samples which have been stabilized to preserve their integrity. The procedure provides reliable suspended solids data and both the solid and liquid samples are suitable for elemental analysis. The procedure is also a valuable tool to aid in monitoring a geothermal brine conditioning system. Data are included from a flow test at an MCR Geothermal well in the Imperial Valley area of California to illustrate the utility of the sampling procedure.

Kochelek, J.T.; Zienty, D.F.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Liquids Production Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2007 Liquids Production Projections Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G2 World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G2. World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

16

Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production (Million Barrels) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 View History U.S. 629 650 667 714 745 784 1979-2011 Alabama 3 2 7 5 6 6 1979-2011 Alaska 14 13 13 13 11 11 1979-2011 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 California 11 11 11 11 10 10 1979-2011 Coastal Region Onshore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1979-2011 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 10 10 10 10 9 9 1979-2011 State Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Colorado 26 27 38 48 58 63 1979-2011 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Kansas 18 18 18 16 16 16 1979-2011 Kentucky 3 3 3 4 5 4 1979-2011 Louisiana

17

Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

18

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

19

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013 Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas...

20

OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource.

Burr, R.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

Brandt, H. [AQUATECH Services, Inc., Fair Oaks, CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing New Process Produces Ethylene More Efficiently and Reduces Coke...

24

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

25

Gas well operation with liquid production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

138 Industrial Productivity Spinoff 2009 Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

138 Industrial Productivity Spinoff 2009 Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids originating propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 °F) is crucial for space) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support

27

Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

28

California Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's NA -...

29

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's NA - No Data...

30

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

31

The development of appropriate brine electrolysers for disinfection of rural water supplies .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A comparative study of electrolysers using different anodic materials for the electrolysis of brine (sodium chloride) for the production of sodium hypochlorite as a source… (more)

Siguba, Maxhobandile

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

1 - Gasification and synthetic liquid fuel production: an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter discusses general considerations on gasification processes and synthetic liquid fuel production. It provides an overview of state-of-the-art gasification technologies, feedstocks and applications in power generation, and synthetic fuels production, together with some recent future trends in the field.

R. Luque; J.G. Speight

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 121 116 93 1970's 79 55 70 71 75 68 61 45 64 49 1980's 41 29 40 55 61 145 234 318 272 254 1990's 300 395 604 513 513 582 603 734 732 879 2000's 586 691 566 647 634 700 794 859 1,008 1,295 2010's 4,578 8,931 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

34

Emplacement and release of brines from subsurface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Groundwater contamination by dense brines is addressed fromgroundwater contamination where dense brines might have beenbrines can become long-term sources of groundwater contamination

Hunt, James R; Flowers, Tracey C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director–Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute

38

Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,127 971 1,334 1970's 1,270 1,217 1,058 878 679 567 520 367 485 1,146 1980's 553 830 831 633 618 458 463 437 811 380 1990's 445 511 416 395 425 377 340 300 495 5,462 2000's 11,377 15,454 16,477 11,430 13,697 14,308 14,662 13,097 10,846 18,354 2010's 18,405 11,221 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

39

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,499 3,667 3,475 1970's 3,235 2,563 1,197 1,118 952 899 823 674 883 1,308 1980's 1,351 1,327 1,287 1,258 1,200 1,141 1,318 1,275 1,061 849 1990's 800 290 413 507 553 488 479 554 451 431 2000's 377 408 395 320 254 231 212 162 139 168 2010's 213 268 424 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

40

Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 115,177 140,290 179,117 1970's 193,209 195,072 197,967 206,833 194,329 189,541 172,584 166,392 161,511 165,515 1980's 142,171 142,423 128,858 124,193 132,501 117,736 115,604 124,890 120,092 121,425 1990's 119,405 129,154 132,656 130,336 128,583 146,048 139,841 150,008 144,609 164,794 2000's 164,908 152,862 152,724 124,955 133,434 103,381 105,236 110,745 94,785 95,359 2010's 102,448 95,630 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,351 3,244 2,705 1970's 2,330 2,013 1,912 1,581 1,921 2,879 6,665 11,494 14,641 15,686 1980's 15,933 14,540 14,182 13,537 12,829 11,129 11,644 10,876 10,483 9,886 1990's 8,317 8,103 8,093 7,012 6,371 6,328 6,399 6,147 5,938 5,945 2000's 5,322 4,502 4,230 3,838 4,199 3,708 3,277 3,094 3,921 2,334 2010's 2,943 2,465 2,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

42

California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,803 32,639 30,334 1970's 29,901 27,585 24,156 17,498 17,201 15,221 14,125 13,567 13,288 10,720 1980's 8,583 7,278 14,113 14,943 15,442 16,973 16,203 15,002 14,892 13,376 1990's 12,424 11,786 12,385 12,053 11,250 11,509 12,169 11,600 10,242 10,762 2000's 11,063 11,060 12,982 13,971 14,061 13,748 14,056 13,521 13,972 13,722 2010's 13,244 12,095 12,755 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

43

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,500 8,573 8,579 1970's 6,574 6,133 6,063 5,441 5,557 5,454 5,231 4,764 6,192 3,923 1980's 6,845 5,638 6,854 6,213 6,516 6,334 4,466 2,003 2,142 1,444 1990's 1,899 2,181 2,342 2,252 2,024 2,303 2,385 2,404 2,263 2,287 2000's 1,416 1,558 1,836 1,463 2,413 1,716 2,252 1,957 2,401 3,270 2010's 4,576 4,684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

44

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 46,149 48,635 50,484 1970's 52,647 53,810 54,157 55,782 54,986 56,109 61,778 72,484 77,653 62,107 1980's 59,457 60,544 56,857 56,304 58,580 53,953 51,295 65,156 63,355 61,594 1990's 66,626 70,463 75,520 83,193 86,607 85,668 108,341 109,046 106,665 107,850 2000's 110,411 108,958 110,036 111,292 105,412 101,064 99,971 96,250 92,579 94,840 2010's 91,963 90,291 84,562 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

45

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 4,126 4,546 4,058 1970's 3,405 4,152 4,114 4,674 6,210 9,620 11,944 13,507 13,094 12,606 1980's 12,651 13,427 12,962 11,314 10,771 11,913 10,441 10,195 11,589 13,340 1990's 13,178 15,822 18,149 18,658 19,612 25,225 23,362 28,851 24,365 26,423 2000's 29,105 29,195 31,952 33,650 35,821 34,782 36,317 38,180 53,590 67,607 2010's 82,637 90,801 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

46

Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 236 1970's 225 281 243 199 501 694 661 933 1,967 4,845 1980's 4,371 4,484 4,727 4,709 5,123 5,236 4,836 4,887 4,774 5,022 1990's 4,939 4,997 5,490 5,589 5,647 5,273 5,361 4,637 4,263 18,079 2000's 24,086 13,754 14,826 11,293 15,133 13,759 21,065 19,831 17,222 17,232 2010's 19,059 17,271 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

47

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,150 5,428 4,707 1970's 4,490 3,592 3,199 2,969 2,571 2,404 2,421 2,257 2,394 2,986 1980's 3,677 5,008 5,602 7,171 7,860 8,420 6,956 7,859 6,945 6,133 1990's 6,444 6,342 6,055 5,924 5,671 5,327 4,937 5,076 5,481 5,804 2000's 6,021 6,168 5,996 5,818 6,233 6,858 7,254 7,438 7,878 10,140 2010's 11,381 14,182 26,156 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014

48

Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 433,684 457,117 447,325 1970's 466,016 448,288 470,105 466,143 448,993 435,571 428,635 421,110 393,819 352,650 1980's 350,312 345,262 356,406 375,849 393,873 383,719 384,693 364,477 357,756 343,233 1990's 342,186 353,737 374,126 385,063 381,020 381,712 398,442 391,174 388,011 372,566 2000's 380,535 355,860 360,535 332,405 360,110 355,589 373,350 387,349 401,503 424,042 2010's 433,622 481,308 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

49

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION The storage of heat producing radioactive waste in rock salt, will produce of the brine migration under influence of the decreasing heat production in the waste. A general expressionRISÃ?-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment

50

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (2006-2035) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (2006-2035) International Energy Outlook 2010 Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Productions in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 15 complete) Appendix G. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Appendix G. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

51

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2009 Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Productions in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 15 complete) Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

52

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2008 Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Five Cases Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

53

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 PADD 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1981-2013 East Coast 1993-2008 Appalachian No. 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1993-2013 PADD 2 12,892 13,208 13,331 13,524 15,204 15,230 1981-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1,975 1,690 2,171 1,877 2,630 2,746 1993-2013

54

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

Maimoni, A.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BrineConstituents BrineConstituents Jump to: navigation, search Property Name BrineConstituents Property Type String Description Describes major elements, compounds in geothermal brine This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: V Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area Pages using the property "BrineConstituents" Showing 2 pages using this property. N North Brawley Geothermal Area + Chlorine, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Silica concentrations are 527 mg/l and total dissolved solids measure 82,900 mg/l. + S Salt Wells Geothermal Area + Cl, Na, SO4, SiO2, HCO3, and minor Ca, K + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:BrineConstituents&oldid=598832#SMWResults" Category: Properties

57

Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Abstract N/A Authors Whitescarver and Olin D. Published U.S. Department of Energy, 1984 Report Number N/A DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Citation Whitescarver, Olin D.. 1984. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California. (!) : U.S. Department of Energy. Report No.: N/A. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_Operations_Hypersaline_Geothermal_Brine_Utilization_Imperial_County,_California&oldid=682648

58

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie, Pisa (Italy)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

One-flow feed divided electrochemical reactor for indirect electrolytic production of hypochlorite from brine for swimming pool treatment-experimental and theoretical optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A ‘two-compartment’ asymmetric electrochemical reactor, operating without electrodes polarity inversion, was designed and optimized for the chlorination of swimming pools. Gaseous chlorine, produced at the anode and absorbed in the alkalinized catholyte, provides the hypochlorite solution. Empiric equations providing the chloride concentration dependence on the initial current density magnitude were established. Experimental optimization of the effect of the various operating parameters allows a chloride conversion close to 50% with faradic yields higher than 80%, and a chlorine production of 1 kmol/day/m2 to be achieved. Macroscopic mass balance, was performed and the obtained theoretical results correlate with the experimental ones ( X theor . Cl - - X exper . Cl -  < 10%).

T. Tzedakis; Y. Assouan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing

63

,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smt_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smt_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

64

,"Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sks_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sks_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

65

,"Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sal_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sal_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

66

,"California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sca_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sca_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

67

,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sok_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sok_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

68

,"Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_soh_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_soh_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

69

,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sut_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sut_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

70

,"Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sak_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sak_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

71

,"Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sin_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sin_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

72

,"Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sla_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sla_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

73

,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids ",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_gp_a_epl0_fpf_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_gp_a_epl0_fpf_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

74

,"Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sne_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sne_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

75

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_spa_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_spa_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

76

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_ssd_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_ssd_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

77

,"Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_swy_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_swy_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

78

,"Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smi_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smi_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

79

,"Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sfl_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sfl_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

80

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sms_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sms_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_stx_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_stx_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

82

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Preparation of liquid motor fuel components from oil shale gasification products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of shale from two domestic deposits (Kashpirskoe and Leningradskoe) and the subsequent transformation of the products of this process into the components of liquid motor fuels were studied.

B. I. Katorgin; A. L. Lapidus

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ...

Theodor C. Sauer

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Next Release Date: 10312014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

88

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2014 Next Release Date: 10312014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants California State Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

89

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

91

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

92

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

availability, feedstock logistics, product usage * For biofuels, can this be done at small scale? * Focus R&D on: - Process Intensification - Reducing CAPEX and OPEX -...

94

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic  Geology Billion  Gallons  per  Year Brine  Use  Sequence Carbon  dioxide  Capture  and  Storage Carbon  Dioxide Coal-­?

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Author's personal copy Fossil brines preserved in the St-Lawrence Lowlands,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

halite disso- lution. 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios and Ca excess indicate prolonged interactions with silicate degassing, are identical to their production ratios in rocks. The source of salinity (halite dissolution during Devonian­Silurian time. Brines might result from infiltration of Devonian water leaching halite

Long, Bernard

99

Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Brine tolerant polymer for oil recovery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a beta-alanine-type branched partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, which is added to an aqueous injection fluid to increase the viscosity of the fluid. The polymer resists plugging of the wellbore face and/or matrix pores and is brine tolerant when injected into a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

Tackett, J.E.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, Oleh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hydrogeologic aspects of brine disposal in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The East Poplar Oil Field encompasses about 70 square miles in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Oil production began in 1952 from the Mississippian Madison Group. Production depths range from about 5,500 to 6,000 feet below land surface. Large quantities of brine (water having a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter) have been produced with the oil. The brine has a dissolved-solids concentration of as much as 160,000 milligrams per liter. Most of the brine has been disposed of by injection into shallower subsurface formations (mainly the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone at depths of about 3,300 feet and the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation at depths of about 1,000 feet). Smaller quantities of brine have been directed to storage and evaporation pits. Handling, transport, and disposal of the brine have resulted in its movement into and migration through shallow Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River valley. Locally, domestic water supplies are obtained from these deposits. The major point, sources of shallow ground-water contamination probably is leakage of brine from corroded disposal-well casing and pipelines. Using electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling, three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plum in glacial deposits have been delineated. Dominant constituents in plume areas are sodium and chloride, whereas those in nonplume areas are sodium and bicarbonate.

Craigg, S.D.; Thamke, J.N. (Geological Survey, Helena, MT (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Experience with minerals recovery from geothermal and other brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial extraction of minerals from geothermal fluids is not a novelty, although there appear to be no current commercial activities. Products which have been commercially recovered from geothermal fluids include NaC1, CaC1/sub 2/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, and NH/sub 3/. Sites of significant commercial activity include Larderello, Italy and the Imperial Valley in California. Furthermore, a few pilot-plant systems have been tested for this purpose. Commercial recovery from natural non-geothermal brines has a long history, which may have implications for geothermal energy applications. The technical feasibility and economic benefits of large-scale minerals production in conjunction with geothermal energy exploitation remain speculative. In any case, the uncertainties can be resolved only on a site- and product-specific basis.

Crane, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

106

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

2002-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

The elimination of liquid loading problems in low productivity gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigated. The Beggs and Brill multiphase pressure drop correlation was programmed and used as a basis to generate tubing performance curves and to study the effects of various parameters on long term gas production. Turner's method for predicting... the known methods of analyzing liquid loading problems in gas wells. A computer program will be developed to aid in generating tubing performance curves along with calculated gas velocity profiles. The calculated gas velocity profile...

Neves, Toby Roy

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Liquid biofuels in Greece—Current status in production and research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the state of liquid biofuels in Greece and presents the current situation in production and research. The first part presents the production potential in terms of cultivated crops along with the industrial activity on biofuels and their distribution in the country. In the second part the research activities are discussed. It is shown that the Greek biofuel potential is significant although some problems in the allocation of the fuel resulted in severe constraints to efficiency. Research on the optimization of biodiesel properties and on the development of 2nd generation biofuels as well on the assessment of their impacts on engine performance and emissions is remarkable and promising.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Polyacrylamide polymer viscosity as a function of brine composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed which predicts the viscosity of polymer and oil field brine mixtures. The polymers used were Amoco- Sweepaid 103 and Dow- Pusher 500 polyacrylamide polymers. All of the experiments were conducted at 1200 ppM polymer concentration. The computer input consists of the ionic strength of the brine in the mixture and the fraction of that ionic strength due to sodium ions. The computer program makes predictions of viscosity by referencing a family of viscosity curves for various mixtures of sodium chloride and calcium chloride in 1200 ppM polymer solutions. The model has been tested using 59 mixtures of brines and polymers. The ionic strength of the brine in the mixtures varied from 0.0018 to 0.025. The fraction of the brines' total ionic strength due to sodium ions varied from 0.22 to 0.49. The brines consisted predominantly of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

French, T.R.; Stacy, N.; Collins, A.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Boron isotope geochemistry as a tracer for the evolution of brines and associated hot springs from the Dead Sea, Israel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A boron isotope study combined with analyses of elemental boron, lithium, and chlorine is used to suggest that brines from the Dead Sea and on-shore hypersaline thermal springs (Hamme Yesha, Hamme Zohar, and Hamme Mazor) are the products of interaction of evaporated seawater with detrital sediments. The high {delta}{sup 11}B values of the Dead Sea brines (55.7 to 57.4{per thousand} versus NBS-951) and the hot springs (52.2 to 55.7{per thousand}), and low B/Li ratios (2.0 to 2.3 and 2.5 to 2.7, respectively), relative to seawater, indicate preferential removal of {sup 10}B from the brines and hence boron adsorption onto clay minerals. The brackish 'En Feshcha springs and the freshwater 'En Dawid and Nahal Arugot springs yield lower B contents and {delta}{sup 11}B values (37.7 to 40.6{per thousand} and 33.8 to 36.9{per thousand}, respectively). The {delta}{sup 11}B values and B contents of diluted Dead Sea brines lie on calculated mixing lines between the composition of the brackish and freshwater springs with the composition of the Dead Sea. The {delta}{sup 11}B values of the hot springs, however, given their boron content, are significantly lower than those of the mixing lines. Thus, waters from the hot springs cannot be a mixing product of the Dead Sea brine with freshwater. Instead, the Dead Sea brine has evolved from the brines of the hot springs through further isotopic fractionation and boron adsorption onto detrital sediments.

Vengosh, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia) Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Starinsky, A.; Kolodny, Y. ( Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Chivas, A.R. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brine  management  or   extracted  water  management  infrastructure  or  where  nearby  fresh  water  resources  need  to  be   carefully  monitored  for  later  contamination.  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coal–to–liquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coal–to–liquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This… (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Muon-induced neutron and pion production in an organic liquid scintillator at a shallow depth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of fast neutrons and pions by inelastic interactions of cosmic-ray muons in an organic liquid scintillator has been investigated. A detector filled with 190 liters of a 0.09% gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator was installed in the Stanford Underground Facility, at an underground depth of approximately 20 meters water equivalent. The detector served as the target material for hadron production. Our measurements find a single-neutron production yield of (4.3{plus_minus}0.3{plus_minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2} and a double-neutron production yield of (1.6{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}5} double neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}. We measured a {pi}{sup +} production yield of (3.5{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.7){times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}. Nearly all the {pi}{sup +} produced were accompanied by neutrons. These yields were dependent on the energy threshold of the muon trigger, revealing an enhancement associated with hadronic showers initiated by muons. The production yield due to nonshowering muons was lower: 2{times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with a single-to-double neutron multiplicity ratio of roughly 4:1. The nonshowering muon {pi}{sup +} production probability was 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with about half of these nonshowering {pi}{sup +} events accompanied by neutrons.

Hertenberger, R.; Chen, M. [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Dougherty, B.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Efficiency of Gas-to-Liquids Technology with Different Synthesis Gas Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design and optimization of a gas-to-liquids technology (GTL) is considered, mostly from the view of an optimal choice of a synthesis gas (syngas) production method. ... If the tail gas is not enough, an additional portion of the natural gas is burned. ... The temperature of the flue gases passing from the radiation chamber of the tubular furnace to the convection chamber is taken as equal to 1150 °C, which allows proper calculation of required amount of gas supplied to the burner. ...

Ilya S. Ermolaev; Vadim S. Ermolaev; Vladimir Z. Mordkovich

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

119

Evaporite diagenesis driven by synsedimentary evolution of brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Back-reaction of brines has modified cyclic shallow water carbonate-sulfate-halite sequences (Permian) in the Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle. Successive parts of regressive evaporite cycles were deposited from progressively more highly evaporated seawater. The reaction of the brine with sediments deposited during earlier parts of each cycle was the major force criving diagenetic reactions and determining the final mineralogy. Normal marine limestones at the base of cycles were dolomitized in the shallow subsurface environments by brines that precipitated brine-pool evaporites in the upper parts of cycles. Gypsum dehydrated to anhydrite at burial depths of 1-2m beneath the brine-pool floor as brine salinity increased toward halite saturation. Diagenetic limpid dolomite and anhydrite replacing halite were probably derived from mixed meteoric and evaporated-marine brines squeezed from mudstone beds during compaction in the shallow subsurface. Anhydrite and halite pervasively cemented and partly replaced carbonates and gypsum. The resulting low permeability limited later diagenetic alteration, so that the early diagenetic textures and mineralogy were preserved in the burial environment. Reduction in permeability occurred before the transgression initiating the next cycle; the only major result of the introduction of seawater into the evaporite environment was dissolution of the last-deposited few meters of halite.

Hovorka, S.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

Wilson, T.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezing point temperature of water. With the help of realistic parameters the distribution of brine inclusions is calculated and found in agreement with the measured samples. The size of the ice domains separating regions of concentrated seawater depends on salinity and temperature and corresponds to the size of sea ice platelets obtained from a morphological stability analysis for the solidification of salt water.

Silke Thoms; Bernd Kutschan; Klaus Morawetz

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Integrated process for coalbed brine and methane disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a technology and project to demonstrate and commercialize a brine disposal process for converting the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process also utilizes coalbed methane (CBM) released from coal mining for the combustion process thereby substantially reducing the potential for methane emissions to the atmosphere. The technology is ideally suited for the treatment and disposal of produced brines generated from the development of coal mines and coalbed methane resources worldwide. Over the next 10 to 15 years, market potential for brine elimination equipment and services is estimated to be in the range of $1 billion.

Byam, J.W. Jr.; Tait, J.H.; Brandt, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezin...

Thoms, Silke; Morawetz, Klaus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Brine clarity maintenance in salinity-gradient solar ponds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine transparency is an important part of the maintenance of a salinity-gradient solar pond as it affects the amount of solar radiation reaching the storage zone and hence has an influence on the thermal performance. There is a wide range of factors that can hinder the transmission of light in a solar pond. Algal and microbial growths are the most common problems encountered in working solar ponds and control of their densities is essential to maintain transparency. Two different chemical treatment methods for algae growth prevention are described in this paper: chlorine and a novel chemical product – copper ethylamine complex. The latter method has never been implemented previously in a working pond. This paper discusses the theory of the algae control methods used and presents the experimental results of the chemical treatments. The results showed that Cupricide is more effective than chlorine and is therefore the recommended chemical for algae control in solar ponds; it improves the water transparency especially in the upper convective zone and lower convective zone with all measurement values less than 1 NTU. Chlorine was found to be more corrosive than Cupricide due to the acidic effect it has on the pH. The preliminary cost analysis showed that granular chlorine is the cheapest chemical. A more detailed financial analysis is nevertheless required to refine these costs.

Neus Gasulla; Yusli Yaakob; Jimmy Leblanc; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh; Jose Luis Cortina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Effects of NaCl, sucrose, and storage on rheological parameters of heat induced gels of liquid egg products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF NaCl, SUCROSE, AND STORAGE ON RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT INDUCED GELS OF LIQUID EGG PRODUCTS A Thesis by Joan Brough Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and content by: C. W. Dill (Chair of Committee) F. A. Gardner (Member) R. L. Edwards (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT Effects of NaC1, Sucrose, and Storage on Rheological Parameters of Heat Induced Gels of Liquid Egg...

Brough, Joan

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Strontium isotopic study of subsurface brines from Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abundance of the radiogenic isotope /sup 87/Sr in a subsurface brine can be used as a tracer of brine origin, evolution, and diagenetic effects. The authors have determined the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of over 60 oil-field waters from the Illinois basin, where brine origin is perplexing because of the absence of any significant evaporite strata. Initially, they analyzed brines from 15 petroleum-producing sandstone and carbonate units; waters from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata have /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.7079-0.7108. All but those from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) are more radiogenic in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr than seawater values for this interval of geologic time. The detrital source of the more radiogenic /sup 87/Sr may be the New Albany Shale group, considered to be a major petroleum source rock in the basin. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Ste. Genevieve brines apparently evolved without a contribution from fluid-shale interaction.

hetherington, E.A.; Stueber, A.M.; Pushkar, P.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

128

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

129

Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential January 3, 2014 - 9:05am Addthis John Fox, CEO of Electratherm,...

131

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for Tuesday, November 6, 2007 Location: BCS Incorporated, 8929 Stephens Road, Laurel, MD. 20723 410-997-7778 8:30 - 9:00 Continental Breakfast 9:00 DOE Targets, Tools and Technology o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets DOE, Arlene Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Cost Analysis DTI, Brian James 10:00 Research Review o Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production Systems, H2Gen, Sandy Thomas o Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, GE Global Research, Wei Wei o Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ANL, Romesh Kumar

132

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.) [eds.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Environmentally Benign Production of Ionic Liquids in CO2-Expanded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to reduce air pollution in chemical manufacturing processes continues to drive the search for alternative solvents. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have emerged in recent years as a promising solution. In contrast to traditional ...

Nwosu, Sylvia Ogechi

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Catalytic Reforming of Biomass Raw Fuel Gas to Syngas for FT Liquid Fuels Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of biomass to obtain a syngas provides a competitive means for clean FT (Fischer-Tropsch) liquid fuels from renewable resources. The feasibility of the process depends on the upgrading of raw ...

Tiejun Wang; Chenguang Wang; Qi Zhang…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Production of Liquid Cluster Ions by Nozzle Beam Source with and without He Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a new type of cluster ion source which could produce various kinds of liquid clusters such as water, methanol, ethanol and octane clusters. When the vapor pressure was larger than one atm, the water and ethanol clusters could be produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon without adding He gas. The peak size of the cluster ions increased with the increase of the vapor pressures. When the source temperature was at room temperature, the water and ethanol clusters were also produced by adding He gas. In another case of producing liquid clusters such as methanol and octane clusters, He gas was added to mix up with vapors of liquid materials. When the He gas pressure was larger than a few atms, the methanol and octane clusters were produced at a vapor pressure of two atm. The peak size increased with increase of the vapor pressure as well as the He gas pressure.

Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Okada, T.; Sugiyama, K. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

139

Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

Rutledge, G.P. [Central Environmental, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

Karri, Vamsi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

Hollar, W.E. Jr. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Mills, W.H. [BP America, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERACTION AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS 2.1.1 Introduction In the previous section, the fluid/rock interactions in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine, brine displacement and rock wettability using low permeability Spraberry cores. A schematic

Schechter, David S.

143

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

145

Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Nanofiltration separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions in desalination brines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work, as part of a global membrane process for the recovery of alkali and acids from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination brines, focuses on the nanofiltration (NF) separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions, more specifically sulfate and chloride. This pretreatment stage plays a key role in the whole recovery process. Working with model brines simulating the concentration of RO concentrates, 0.2–1.2 M chloride concentration and 0.1 M sulfate concentration, the experimental performance and modeling of the NF separation is reported. The study has been carried out with the NF270 (Dow Filmtec) membrane. The effect of operating pressure (500–2000 kPa), ionic strength (0.4–1.3 M) and chloride initial concentration (0.2–1.2 M) on the membrane separation capacity has been investigated. Finally, the Donnan Steric Pore Model (DSPM) together with experimentally determined parameters, effective pore radius (rp), thickness of the membrane effective layer (?) and effective membrane charge density (Xd), was proved accurate enough to satisfactorily describe the experimental results. In this work we provide for the first time the analysis of partitioning effects and transport mechanism in the NF separation of sulfate and chloride anions in concentrations that simulate those found in RO desalination brines.

A. Pérez-González; R. Ibáñez; P. Gómez; A.M. Urtiaga; I. Ortiz; J.A. Irabien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Abstract A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns.

148

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient,2,10­14 , the composition of the brine is unlike any other body of water in the world, as ,90% of the salt is CaCl2 1

Marchant, David R.

149

A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Production of Versatile Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Growing concerns on global warming and the depletion of traditional resources have driven us to look for green and sustainable energy sources. As a biomass-derived platform chemical, the production of 5-HMF has b...

Xinhua Qi; Richard L. Smith Jr.; Zhen Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

Deal, D.E. [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bills, R.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

Product: Corrosive liquids, flammable, n.o.s. [Tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: November 2005 Copyright © 2002, 2004-2005, Praxair Technology, Inc. Page 1 of 8 All rights reserved. A vertical line in the left margin indicates revised or new material. Praxair Experimental Product Material(ethylmethylamino)hafnium] (MSDS No. P-6283-C) Trade Names: Praxair® TEMAH Chemical Name: Tetrakis

Rubloff, Gary W.

156

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of Liquid Composition on the Slurry Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. 2. Product Selectivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With a reduced, fused magnetite catalyst, secondary reactions, consisting of olefin hydrogenation, olefin isomerization, and incorporation of ethylene and/or ethyl alcohol into product, were slightly greater in octacosane than in phenanthrene at 232/sup 0/C but essentially the same at 263/sup 0/C. This is attributed to competitiv adsorption effects with phenanthrene which adsorbs significantly onto the catalyst at 232/sup 0/C, but not at 263/sup 0/C. All secondary reactions are enhanced by conditions minimizing CO adsorption. Oxygenates were greatly diminished at high conversions. C/sub 2/ incorporation into product stops chain growth by a scavenging effect. In the presence of a perfluoropolyether (Fomblin), in which hydrocarbons are immiscible, catalyst is preferentially wetted by hydrocarbons and secondary reactions are greatly enhanced by mass transfer resistances.

Stenger, H.G.; Satterfield, C.N.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems Fabrice J. Fontaine1 substantially different from seawater as a result of phase separation and segregation of the resulting vapor below seawater for over a decade, which raises important questions concerning the fate of brines

Wilcock, William

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

NEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and waters influenced by brine and hydrocarbon seeps continue to yield species new to science. Such enNEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE AUSTIN B. WILLIAMS} ABSTRACT Five species of decapod crustaceans new to science

162

A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brine in the wellbore up to the base of the freshwater aquifer and would thereby lead to contamination.

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Origin of the oil-field brines in the Paris basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From Br{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios coupled with stable-isotope compositions, the components of deep sedimentary brines - namely, primary and secondary brines (from dissolving evaporites) and diluting waters of meteoric origin - can be identified, and in favorable cases, their respective proportions can be quantified. Dilution of primary marine brines (mother liquors of halite) by meteoric waters has occurred in the Dogger and the Keuper aquifers. The presence of highly saline brines (molality of Cl{sup {minus}} = 3.9) in the Rhaetian aquifer may be due to dissolution of primary marine halite by sea water with minor contributions of primary brines. The resulting mixture is diluted by meteoric circulation.

Matray, J.M. (Service Geochimie Minerale, Pau (France)); Fontes, J.C. (Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 10. Jet fuels production by-products, utility, and sulfur-emissions control integration study. Interim report, 1 May 1988-1 April 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to evaluate the impact of integrating Jet Fuel and/or Chemical Production Facilities with the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

Rossi, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

2 - Types of gasifier for synthetic liquid fuel production: design and technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There are many successful commercial coal gasifiers. The basic form and concept details, the design of the gasifier internals, and the operation of commercial coal gasifiers are closely guarded as proprietary information. In fact, the production of gas from carbonaceous feedstocks has been an expanding area of technology. This chapter will present the different categories of gasification reactors as they apply to various types of feedstocks. Within each category there are several commonly known processes, some of which are in current use and some of which are in lesser use.

J.G. Speight

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites.

Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

In cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#12;Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the East Poplar Oil Field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation citation: Thamke, J.N., and Smith, B.D., 2014, Delineation of brine contamination in and near the EastIn cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine

Torgersen, Christian

169

Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

Klosky, M.K. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

The brine underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA: Characterization, genesis, and environmental implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Atomic Reservation contains brine. Its origin was assessed using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model which best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Potential sources for this brine are in the Appalachian Mountains in the east, where bedded halite is documented, and where the hydraulic gradient needed to move the residual brine exists. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated. In places, contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds have reached the deep system. The chemical and isotopic features of the brine were examined with respect to its potential discharge, contaminated in places, into shallow, freshwater systems. The observations suggest that whereas the origin of the salts in the brine may be very old, influx of recent water takes place. Consequently, the brine is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-bearing units. 78 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)] [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

Horita, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sulphur. They have no aromatics due to the isomerisation of the highly paraffinic Fischer-Tropsch liquids into GTL fuels and are practically100%iso-paraffinic,thustheyhaveveryhighcetaneratings. The... and sulphur. They have no aromatics due to the isomerisation of the highly paraffinic Fischer-Tropsch liquids into GTL fuels and are practically100%iso-paraffinic,thustheyhaveveryhighcetaneratings. The...

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 4. GPGP jet-fuels production program-feed analyses compilation and review. Interim report, October 1987-January 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to compile and review physical and chemical characterization data for the GPGP by-product liquids. This report describes the relative reliability of the various characterization data and indicates where specific limitations exist.

Rossi, R.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Efficacy of Ultraviolet Light and Antimicrobials to Reduce Listeria monocytogenes in Chill Brines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chill brines used in ready-to-eat meat processing may be an important source of post-processing contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. The purpose of this study was to… (more)

Parikh, Priti P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - acartia tonsa brine Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: acartia tonsa brine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Vol. 114: 203-208,1994 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Summary: . divergens attacking it. Ingestion rates of P, cf....

184

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1988 OC o Z m Z IJ III s Z Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

The effects of an ambient salinity gradient on the dilution of dense brine jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE MCCULLOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY NAYNE MCCULLOUGH Approved as to style and content by: Robert E. Randall (Chair of Committee...

McCullough, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin... dioxide to clean oilfield brines. The new treatment method, described in this work, is actually an enhancement of existing gas flotation technology. The enhancement results from the use of carbon dioxide as the sweeping gas combined with its ability...

Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

187

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Chemical analyses of geothermal waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve brines for metals of economic importance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waters from seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for 12 metals of economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of approx. 50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr and Mn. Higher concentrations (approx. 900 ppm) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane reductive resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. 26 references, 7 tables.

Harrar, J.E.; Raber, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Gas Exploration and Production Waste: Availability, Options, and Costs.gases, carcinogenic production contaminants, and unpredictable production rates greatly increase the cost and

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Direct observation of muon-pair production by high-energy muons in the liquid-argon calorimeter BARS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data accumulated over a long-term exposure of the big liquid-argon spectrometer BARS at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, Protvino) in a horizontal ... the aim of selecting events that cor...

V. B. Anikeev; S. N. Gurzhiev; S. P. Denisov; O. S. Zolina…

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupledprocesses involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and...

197

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

198

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

199

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

200

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

202

New Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Finally, as a personal pipetting system, Liquidator 96 fits any benchtop or laminar-flow cabinet making it suitable for cleanroom conditions. Mettler Toledo For info: 800-472-4646 www.mt.com/liquidator Electronically submit your new product...

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

Technology transfer report: feasibility study for the use of geothermal brine in the Ashdod area, Israel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrothermal potential of the Ashdod area, Israel, was evaluated to determine its suitability as the low grade energy source required to operate the Ashdod desalination plant. An estimated 1250 cubic meters per hour of 120/sup 0/C brine would be adequate to supply the hot water necessary for operating the desalination plant. Considerable interest in oil exploration in the Ashdod area resulted in the drilling of six wells into the Jurassic formations by Oil Exploration (Investments) Ltd. (OEL) in 1976-1980. A small amount of oil was found in two wells, Ashdod 2 and 5. The remaining wells were abandoned as ''dry holes''. Evaluation of the drill cuttings, cores, and the electric logs defined two lithologic units of potential interest for hydrothermal exploitation, the Zohar and Shderot Dolomites. Investigation of the hydrothermal potential of the Jurassic formations underlying the Ashdod area has revealed that the aquifer temperatures range between 85 and 92/sup 0/C. The hydrologic parameters are not well defined; however the matrix permeability of the dolomites and limestones is probably between 1 and 10 md. This is insufficient permeability for a large scale pumping operation such as the one required to operate the desalination plant. Therefore, successful utilization of the resource requires the presence of significant fractures and/or connected vugs in the formation. The very low well productivity and formation plugging may indicate that permeability of the fracture zones may easily be impaired, suggesting that the fracture zones are not suitable production intervals. Until a test is conducted on a properly completed well, it is not possible to evaluate the deliverability of wells tapping these aquifers. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Benson, S.M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost.

208

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle  analysis  of  algae  biodiesel."   International  aquaculture,   algae  biodiesel  production,  road  de-­?Algae  Biodiesel  ..  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields M. Ferer, (mferer@wvu.edu) Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, Grant S. Bromhal, (bromhal@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; and Duane H. Smith, (dsmith@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 & Department of Physics, West Virginia University. Underground injection of gas is a common practice in the oil and gas industry. Injection into deep, brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO 2 . However, it has long been known that displacement of a connate fluid by a less viscous fluid produces unstable displacement fronts with significant fingering. This fingering allows only a

210

Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Freezing processes. Hydrate processes. Liquid-liquid extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ice which separates from brine is almost pure. A salt concentration builds up at the interface of the brine and the ice. In freezing processes, as applied in desalting, many small ice crystals are formed w...

Anthony A. Delyannis; Eurydike A. Delyannis

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S.M. Hassanizadeh b a School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data

Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

215

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a , N October 2009 Available online 23 October 2009 Keywords: Pb­Sr­Nd isotopes REE Metal-rich sediments-rich sediments covered by brine pools. It is generally agreed that these metal-rich deposits precipitated from

Demouchy, Sylvie

217

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algae  biodiesel  competitive  against  plant  biodiesels  or  fossil  fuels  Algae  Production  for  Biodiesel   In  2007,  the  US  Renewable  Fuel  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not currently scheduled. There, are however, water quality standards that control the quantity and quality of wastewaters discharged into surface waters. These standards are established by the states in concert with EPA, and frequently result in NPDES conditions more restrictive than those based on effluent guidelines.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following major areas of investigation: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum and synthetic crude, thermodynamics; process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Highlights for this period in research studies are listed as those in extraction research and processing and thermodynamics research. Searches for microorganisms that will be useful in enhanced oil recovery have produced two promising leads. At Oklahoma State University, bacteria of the genus Clostridia have been found which can live in a brine solution as found in most petroleum reservoirs. These bacteria produce carbon dioxide, acetic acid, alcohols, and ketones as metabolic products. At the University of Georgia, a culture of bacteria has been found which will reduce the viscosity of a 10/sup 0/ API gravity oil by 95 percent. The analysis of heavy oils requires differentiation of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing compounds from hydrocarbons. The most effective way to do this is with a high-resolution mass spectrometer that can distinguish between compounds having molecular weights only a fractional unit apart. These molecular weights are calculated from the computer acquired time-moments of the various ions in a mass spectrum. Thus, the accuracy of results reflects, in part, the numerical methods used in data processing. Consequently, the effect of the mathematical functions on the accuracy of mass measurement is being determined.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research for the balance of thermal energy, we can investigate numerically the effects of temperature variations during

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

222

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines Zhenhao, 2007 A thermodynamic model calculating the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pure water phase. With this specific interaction approach, this model is able to predict H2S solubility in other

Zhu, Chen

223

Brine Assemblages of Ultrasmall Microbial Cells within the Ice Cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Antarctica, is one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo...the abundance of the larger cells, consists of...vol) (30). After drilling, brine infiltrated the borehole until it reached a...107 cells ml1, while larger cells (0.2 to 1...

Emanuele Kuhn; Andrew S. Ichimura; Vivian Peng; Christian H. Fritsen; Gareth Trubl; Peter T. Doran; Alison E. Murray

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods...

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sh aquaculture, and algae biodiesel production; (2) developscould improve joint feasibility: 2.2.4. Algae biodieselproduction Algae biodiesel is an emerging technology, and

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct utilization of geothermal energy. Energies, 1443–EOR) systems; and geothermal energy production. Variousthis paper are: (1) geothermal energy, (2) desalination, (3)

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Continuous production of liquid reclaimed rubber from ground tire rubber and its application as reactive polymeric plasticizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Liquid reclaimed rubber (LRR) was produced from ground tire rubber (GTR) in a continuous operation by using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of reclaiming recipe, screw configuration combination, barrel temperature, and screw speed on the degree of reclamation were investigated. Through the adjustment of these conditions, an LRR with a sol fraction of 73.5% was obtained. Characterizations of the LRR by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and re-vulcanized ability tests showed that the LRR had unique properties – low viscosity, good compatibility with natural rubber (NR), and re-vulcanized ability. Because of these properties of LRR, it was used as reactive polymeric plasticizer in NR to replace the conventional oils such as the environmental aromatic oil (EAO) used in this study. The plasticizing effect, acetone extraction, mechanical properties, and thermostability of the LRR/NR compounds were investigated and compared with those of EAO/NR compounds. The results show that the plasticizing efficiency of LRR is somehow lower than that of EAO. In addition, the LRR-plasticized NR has higher tensile strength, modulus at 100% and 300% elongation, hardness, extraction resistance, and thermostability than EAO-plasticized NR.

Jinwei Shi; Hua Zou; Linlin Ding; Xiaolin Li; Kuan Jiang; Tung Chen; Xiaodan Zhang; Liqun Zhang; Dongyun Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Assessment of fission product content of high-level liquid waste supernate on E-Area vault package criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the tank farm`s high level waste supernate to determine any potential impacts on waste certification for the E-Area vaults (EAV). The Waste Acceptance Criteria procedure (i.e., WAC 3.10 of the 1S manual) imposes administrative controls on radioactive material in waste packages sent to the EAV, specifically on six fission products. Waste tank supernates contain various fission products, so any waste package containing material contaminated with supernate will contain these radioactive isotopes. This report develops the process knowledge basis for characterizing the supernate composition for these isotopes, so that appropriate controls can be implemented to ensure that the EAV WAC is met. Six fission products are listed in the SRS 1S Manual WAC 3.10: Se-79, which decays to bromine; Sr-90, which decays to niobium; Tc-99, which decays to ruthenium; Sn-126, which decays to tellurium; I-129, which decays to xenon; and Cs-137, which decays to barium.

Brown, D.F.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

Operation of a mineral-recovery unit on brine from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines operated a mineral recovery unit to recover metal values from post-flash geothermal brines from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area as part of its research into the use of plentiful resources. The brine was available for metals recovery after its heat content had been used to generate electricity. The brine source was treated with lime to precipitate the contained iron, manganese, lead, and zinc before injection of the heat-depleted brine into the underground reservoir. Data are presented on the effects of process variables, such as rate and method of lime addition and air oxidation versus air exclusion. Variations in precipitation of metal values, composition of precipitates, effectiveness of slurry thickeners, and methods of treating the precipitates to recover metal values are discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO{sub 2}-Acidified Brine Flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel ternary segmentation method was devised to handle the degraded zones, allowing for a bounding analysis of the effects on hydraulic properties. We found that the degraded zones account for less than 15% of the fracture volume, but cover 70% to 80% of the fracture surface. When the degraded zones are treated as part of the fracture, the fracture transmissivities are two to four times larger because the fracture surfaces after reaction are not as rough as they would be if one considers the degraded zone as part of the rock. Therefore, while degraded zones created during geochemical reactions may not significantly increase mechanical aperture, this type of feature cannot be ignored and should be treated with prudence when predicting fracture hydrodynamic properties.

Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Corrosion of selected metals and a high-temperature thermoplastic in hypersaline geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines conducted corrosion research to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. Weight loss, pitting and crevice corrosion, U-bend stress corrosion, and electrochemical polarization measurements were made on selected metals in brine and steam process environments produced from high-enthalpy hypersaline brine from geothermal well Magmamax No. 1 at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area, Imperial Valley, Calif.

Conrad, R.K.; Carter, J.P.; Cramer, S.D.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production is obtained from proved reserves but the determinants of the scale of production in the industry and country components of the world total are many and complex with some unique to the individual com...

D. C. Ion

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Sorption of lithium from a geothermal brine by pelletized mixed aluminum-lithium hydrous oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inorganic ion exchanger was evaluated by the Bureau of Mines for recovering lithium from geothermal brines. The ion exchanger or sorbent was mixed hydrous oxide of aluminum and lithium that had been dried at 100 C. The dried precipitate was pelletized with a sodium silicate binder to improve flow rates in sorption tests. The sorbent was loaded to 2 mg Li/g of pellets and sorption from the solution was independent of the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Manganese and zinc were sorbed by the pellets but did not suppress lithium sorption. Lithium was desorbed with water, but none of the washing solutions investigated removed entrained brine without stripping lithium. The complex nature of the sorption mechanisms is discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Re-assessing the impact of desalination plants brine discharges on eroding beaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea outfall discharge is a practical way to dispose of brine waste stream from a coastal desalination plant. However, sandy beaches are changing as a result of coastal erosion. Coastline urban developments are the manmade permanent changing of beaches, where the coastlines are being dredged and reclaimed as artificial land. Therefore, if a plant is built and operated with an outfall to satisfy the imposed site's environmental regulation compliance but the beach is subsequently being eroded, what action needs to be done to make sure the imposed criteria that minimize the impact on the marine environment can still be met? A mathematical model is presented that accounts the effect of beach erosion for estimating the brine's outfall adverse impact on the environment.

H.H. Al-Barwani; Anton Purnama

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Scientific Considerations Related to Regulation Development for CO2 Sequestration in Brine Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CO 2 SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE FORMATIONS Chin-Fu Tsang (cftsang@lbl.gov; (510) 486-5782) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; (510) 486-7071) Earth Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 Bruce Kobelski (kobelski.bruce@epa.gov) Robert Smith (smith.robert-eu@epamail.epa.gov) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Drinking Water and Ground Water, Washington D.C. Introduction Reduction of atmospheric emissions of CO 2 (DOE, 1999a) through injection of CO 2 into in deep brine formations is being actively studied both in the U.S. and internationally. If this technology is to be employed broadly enough to make a significant impact on global

238

A model for the evolution of brines in salt from the lower Salado Formation, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluid inclusions were collected from a bedded salt horizon in the lower Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. The sampling horizon, at a depth of approximately 645 meters, consists primarily of recrystallized halite, with thin layers of anhydrite. Other trace minerals, dispersed throughout the salt, include quartz, polyhalite, gypsum, K-feldspar, magnesite, and clays. The chemistry of the inclusion fluids and the associated mineralogy suggest that these brines represent Permian seawater that has undergone evaporation and subsequent modification by diagenetic reactions, dominated by the alteration of calcium sulfate to polyhalite and magnesite formation. The range of fluid inclusion compositions suggests a significant departure from a simple seawater evaporation model. Other brines from the same horizon in the Salado Formation were sampled and analyzed for the same elements as the fluid inclusions, and differed significantly from them primarily by the depletion of Mg relative to K. The association of these brines with argillaceous and/or anhydritic halite containing a suite of authigenic minerals (quartz, magnesite, and Mg-rich clays) suggests that these are intergranular brines with compositions determined over a much longer time scale than that required by the fluid inclusions. The principal reactions affecting intergranular brine chemistry are dehydration of gypsum, dewatering of detrital clays, and uptake of Mg during clay diagenesis. Overall, the observed variation in brine compositions implies that, if large-scale hydrologic circulation is occurring in the Salado halite, the time scale is limited by the rate required for low-temperature silicate diagenesis.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with continuous pressure and flow-rate monitoring in both wells, and continuous surface fluid sampling and periodic down-hole fluid sampling from the monitor well. Pre-injection site-characterization includes pump tests with pressure-transient analysis to estimate single-phase flow properties, establish hydraulic connectivity between the wells, determine appropriate boundary conditions, and analyze ambient phase conditions within the formation. Additionally, a pre-injection tracer test furnishes estimates of kinematic porosity and the geometry of flow paths between injection and monitor wells under single-phase conditions. Pre-injection geochemical sampling provides a baseline for subsequent geochemical monitoring and helps determine the optimal tracers to accompany CO2 injection. During CO2 injection, hydrological monitoring enables estimation of two-phase flow properties and helps track the movement of the injected CO2 plume, while geochemical sampling provides direct evidence of the arrival of CO2 and tracers at the monitor well. Furthermore, CO2-charged water acts as a weak acid, and reacts to some extent with the minerals in the aquifer, producing a distinct chemical signature in the water collected at the monitor well. Comparison of breakthrough curves for the single-phase tracer test and the CO2 (and its accompanying tracers) illuminates two-phase flow processes between the supercritical CO2 and native brine, an area of current uncertainty that must be better understood to effectively sequester CO2 in saline aquifers.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

240

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger 135% 90% 115% Thawrox Gold Treated MgCl2 150% 120% 115% Ice Slicer CaCl2 130% 95% 70% Ice Bite @ 3 gal to Salt Brine Material Base @ 12 F @20 F @ 28 F Calcium Chloride CaCl2 160% 185% 135% RGP-8 CaCl2 170% 80

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

242

Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evidence for ground-water circulation in the brine-filled aquitard, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical methods were used to assess active ground-water circulation in a brine-filled, deep (> 50 m below land surface) aquitard underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. In places, the brine which was presumed to be stagnant in the past, contains various contaminants. If ground-water circulation is viable in the brine-containing formations, then remediation or containment of the deep-seated contaminants should be considered a high priority. Data used to determine this included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the aquitard, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) vertical temperature gradients, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline ground water. Conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-(< 500 mg/l) bearing units. Consequently, influx of young water (and contamination) from land surface does occur. Potential discharge into the shallow aquifers was assumed where the hydraulic head of the saline water was higher than that in the shallow aquifers, accounting for temperature and salinity anomalies observed close to land surface. The confined water (and dissolved solutes) move along open conduits at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Recovering lithium chloride from a geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines has devised techniques to recover lithium from geothermal brines as the chloride. More than 99 pct of the lithium was precipitated from a brine containing 170 mg/L Li by adding a solution of A1C13 and increasing the pH to 7.5 with lime slurry. The Li-Al precipitate was dissolved in HCl and sparged with gaseous HC1 to recover the A1C13; this resulted in a solution containing LiCl and CaC12. The solution was evaporated at 100C to obtain a mixture of the chlorides from which 97 pct of the lithium was recovered and 90 pct of the calcium was rejected by leaching with tetrahydrofuran. The LiC1 recovered by evaporation of the tetrahydrofuran was purified by dissolution in water and treatment with oxalic acid. The final LiC1 solution contained 89 pct of the lithium originally present in the brine and had a purity of 99.9 pct.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A new technology for producing synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from gaseous hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional technologies of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF) production from gaseous hydrocarbons by producing synthesis ... liquid hydrocarbons are examined. A high-efficiency SLF production technology that allows ...

D. L. Astanovskii; L. Z. Astanovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Preliminary study of discharge characteristics of slim holes compared to production wells in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is current interest in using slim holes for geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. A major question that must be addressed is whether results from flow or injection testing of slim holes can be scaled to predict large diameter production well performance. This brief report describes a preliminary examination of this question from a purely theoretical point of view. The WELBOR computer program was used to perform a series of calculations of the steady flow of fluid up geothermal boreholes of various diameters at various discharge rates. Starting with prescribed bottomhole conditions (pressure, enthalpy), the WELBOR code integrates the equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum and energy (together with fluid constitutive properties obtained from the steam tables) upwards towards the wellhead using numerical techniques. This results in computed profiles of conditions (pressure, temperature, steam volume fraction, etc.) as functions of depth within the flowing well, and also in a forecast of wellhead conditions (pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.). From these results, scaling rules are developed and discussed.

Pritchett, J.W. [S-Cubed, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Evaporative evolution of Martian brines based on halogens in nakhlites and MER samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comparison of Cl and Br from Nakhla viens to MER samples suggests two kinds of brine solutions existed on Mars, one early and one late in the evaporation sequence. These solutions precipitated the secondary salts at the Meridiani and Gusev sites. We have recently reported the Cl and Br abundances determined by APS X-ray Microprobe and EMPA analyses of secondary aqueous minerals in Nakhla veins and discussed the significance of Cl-Br correlations with respect to the evolution of brine solutions on Mars. In that study, we suggested that the low Br concentration ({approx}10 ppm) in Lafayette Iddingsite is indicative of early stage of evaporation during progressive evolution of Martian brine solutions, which is, in turn, consistent with the petrographic evidence of early deposition of salt sequence of carbonate-sulfate- and no halite in Lafayette. We showed that the high Br concentrations of {approx}240 ppm in secondary salts in Nakhla veins similarly indicate late stages of evaporation in evolving Martian brine solutions which is again consistent with petrographic evidence of late stage deposition of salt sequence i.e. carbonate-sulfate-halite in Nakhla. When sea water evaporates under equilibrium conditions, the most insoluble carbonates (siderite and calcite) deposit first, followed by sulfates (gypsum and anhydrite) and finally the water-soluble halides are precipitated when the water content is sufficiently low. In the present study, we make a detailed comparison of Cl/Br ratios in secondary minerals in nakhlites with those in MER soils and rocks at Gusev and Meridiani and show that the compositions of solutions that inundated Lafayette iddingsite (early stage) and Nakhla veins (late stage) include the range of solution-compositions that gave rise to a variety of secondary salts at Gusev and Meridiani sites. Further, the results obtained here suggest that two kinds of brine solutions (one, late and the other, early or intermediate stage) seem to have inundated most of the rocks and soils to varying degrees and precipitated the secondary salts at Meridiani and Gusev sites.

Rao, M.N.; Sutton, S.R.; McKay, D.S. (Lockheed); (UC); (NASA)

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

249

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

250

PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

Burnett, David

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface

Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal.

Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Integrated modeling and experimental programs to predict brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters.

Beauheim, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.; Vaughn, P.; Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device ... The effects of operational conditions on the mixing behavior of rotary energy recovery device have been systematically investigated through the combined methods of computational fluid dynamics and validating experiments in this paper. ... The obtained formulas between mixing and dimensionless flow length provide a simple way to calculate and predict the mixing of device, which will be beneficial to design and operate the rotary energy recovery device in a lower mixing level. ...

Enle Xu; Yue Wang; Liming Wu; Shichang Xu; Yuxin Wang; Shichang Wang

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

EMSL - liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

256

Natural Gas Liquids Estimated Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

802 827 788 811 831 840 1979-2008 802 827 788 811 831 840 1979-2008 Federal Offshore U.S. 148 155 123 125 127 94 1981-2008 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Louisiana & Alabama 120 127 98 102 108 80 1981-2008 Texas 28 28 25 23 19 14 1981-2008 Alaska 18 18 17 14 13 13 1979-2008 Lower 48 States 784 809 771 797 818 827 1979-2008 Alabama 5 4 5 5 4 9 1979-2008 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 California 10 10 11 11 11 11 1979-2008 Coastal Region Onshore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1979-2008 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 9 9 10 10 10 10 1979-2008 State Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Colorado 29 32 31 32 33 45 1979-2008 Florida 1 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Kansas 23 22 20 19 19 19 1979-2008

257

Natural Gas Liquids Estimated Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

802 827 788 811 831 840 1979-2008 802 827 788 811 831 840 1979-2008 Federal Offshore U.S. 148 155 123 125 127 94 1981-2008 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Louisiana & Alabama 120 127 98 102 108 80 1981-2008 Texas 28 28 25 23 19 14 1981-2008 Alaska 18 18 17 14 13 13 1979-2008 Lower 48 States 784 809 771 797 818 827 1979-2008 Alabama 5 4 5 5 4 9 1979-2008 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 California 10 10 11 11 11 11 1979-2008 Coastal Region Onshore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1979-2008 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 9 9 10 10 10 10 1979-2008 State Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Colorado 29 32 31 32 33 45 1979-2008 Florida 1 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2008 Kansas 23 22 20 19 19 19 1979-2008

258

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 Christine Doughty (cadoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453) Karsten Pruess (k_pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; 510-486-5875) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 Susan D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Paul R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313) Bureau of Economic Geology P.O. Box X, The University of Texas Austin, TX 78713 Christopher T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 530-752-1372) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences 1 Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616 Abstract The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO 2 is investigated using numerical simulations of CO

259

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

260

Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions into Neutral to Oil-Wet Carbonate Cores:? Effects of Brine Salinity and Composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowing that the brine salinity of carbonate reservoirs can vary in the range of salinity range than what was done in the previous experiments (salinities of 1?5 g/L). ... Thus, the increase in temperature seemed to make the effect of the salinity gradient observed at 40 °C vanish. ... Even though the increase in temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C make the effect of the salinity gradient of 1.0?10 wt % vanish, the final oil recovery was significantly lower (?45%, from Figure 3), compared to brine that contains sulfate at similar salinities (?70%, from Figure 6). ...

Skule Strand; Dag C. Standnes; Tor Austad

2003-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A XANES study of Cu speciation in high-temperature brines using synthetic fluid inclusions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from individual synthetic brine fluid inclusions as a function of temperature up to 500 C. The inclusions serve as sample cells for high-temperature spectroscopic studies of aqueous Cu-Cl speciation. Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} can both be identified from characteristic pre-edge features. Mixed oxidation states can be deconvoluted using linear combinations of Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} spectra. This work illustrates how complex Cu XANES spectra can be interpreted successfully. Cu{sup 2+} is the stable oxidation state in solution at room temperature and Cu{sup +} at high temperatures. The change in oxidation state with temperature was completely reversible. Cu{sup +} was found to occur exclusively as the linear species [CuCl{sub 2}]{sup -} in solutions containing KCl with Cu:Cl ratios up to 1:6. In the absence of K{sup +}, there is evidence for higher order coordination of Cu{sup +}, in particular the tetrahedral complex [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. The importance of such complexes in natural ore-forming fluids is yet to be determined, but may explain the vapor-phase partitioning of Cu as a Cl complex from a Cl-rich brine.

Berry, Andrew J.; Hack, Alistair C.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Newville, Matthew; Sutton, Stephen R. (UC); (ANU)

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

263

Report on design, construction, and testing of CO/sub 2/ breakout system for geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A skid mounted test facility has been built for determining conditions at which CO/sub 2/ flashes from geothermal brines. The system has been checked and operated at one geothermal plant. It performed as designed. The equipment is designed to operate at temperatures and pressures typical of wells near Heber, California. (Nominally 180/sup 0/C and 300 to 500 psig). It has heat exchangers which can cool the brine to less than 70/sup 0/C. (The cooling water is recirculated after being cooled by a forced air heat exchanger). Breakout pressures can be determined for any temperature between 70/sup 0/C and wellhead temperature. An adjustable orifice provides final control on pressure required to initiate flashing. The orifice is at the bottom of a sight glass. A light beam shines through the sight glass and focuses on a photoelectric cell. The presence of bubbles scatters light and decreases the output of the cell. Results using the cell were more reproducible than those using the naked eye. Results from one test show a smooth curve over the temperature range 75/sup 0/C to 165/sup 0/C. Agreement between the experimental values and calculated ones is discussed.

Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

266

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

267

Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

268

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

269

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

270

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

271

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

272

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

273

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

274

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

275

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

276

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

277

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

278

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

279

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

280

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

282

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

283

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

284

Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

285

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

286

Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

287

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

288

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

289

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

290

Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a significant source of brine to the repository, which is consumed in the corrosion of iron and thus contributes to increased repository pressures. Fourth, the DRZ itself lowers repository pressures by providing storage for gas and access to additional gas storage in areas of the repository. Fifth, given the pathway that the DRZ provides for gas and brine to flow around the panel closures, isolation of the waste panels by the panel closures was not essential to compliance with the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's regulations in the 1996 WIPP PA.

ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Neptunium(V) and neptunium(VI) solubilities in synthetic brines of interest to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of Np(V) and Np(VI) has been measured in three synthetic Na-K-Mg-Cl brines in the presence of CO{sub 2}(g). Experiments were prepared from oversaturation by adding an excess of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} or NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to the brines and allowing the neptunium solids to precipitate. Vessels were maintained in contact with fixed CO{sub 2}(g) partial pressures at constant pH and 24 {+-} 1 C. Dissolved Np(V) concentrations decreased several orders of magnitude within the first 100 days of the experiment, while dissolved Np(VI) concentrations decreased initially but then remained relatively constant for more than 400 days. The solid phases formed in all experiments were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as KNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(s). Steady state concentrations for Np(V) are similar to those observed for Pu(V) in the same brines under the same conditions, where Pu occurs predominantly as Pu(V). Similarly, steady state concentrations for Np(VI), which was not reduced over a two year period, compare well with measured Pu(VI) concentrations in the same brines before the Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(V).

Novak, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Silber, H.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

294

Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Light hydrocarbon geochemistry of brines and sediments of the red sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1LGTIT II'YDROC/', REIGN GEOCIII'IITS'IRY GI' BTITNES IIND SRuZSIRNIS O? YIIR RZD SRR . T'. 1'. Sl S RO(cRR rII, DQN !' iT RRR AI!pcoverl s. s 'o style and cootent hyr 'o-Cheittreri ol Corrrrci tt. ee) r, rrr rl!I! e: ) j Deccr, het 1'rI79... The Ai 7 antis II Deep has i. &o ? tin& ! ay) . = !if i!& s-:I:, oif icar . 7y rii '. ferenL lig!it hydrocarbon con&sr:i ar. i&n . The l, a c. , in tbe iso layers a7so aprirertly come fro. d'I'&c:&nt sources. Tli. . up!&cr. brine (Ti50'0, Cl s /3...

Burke, Roger Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

298

The effects of viscosity and subsurface heterogeneity on a brine barrier approach to DNAPL remediation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a long-term source of groundwater contamination. Difficulties of current remediation methods have led to the study of a novel… (more)

Murphy, Lauren L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of benzene/benzene plus phenol from the Great Pplains Gasification Plant crude phenol stream. Interim report, September 1987-February 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential for production of jet fuels from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant located in Buelah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This report details the program with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., a subcontractor to Burns and Roe Services Corporation, who, as a subcontractor to DOE, investigated the potential of producing benzene or benzene plus phenol from the crude phenol stream.

Harris, E.C.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Liquid Fossil Fuel Technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research activities at BETC are summarized under the headings liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment, production, enhanced recovery), processing (of liquids such as coal liquids, and crudes, thermodynamics), utilization (energy conversion, combustion), and project integration and technology transfer. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Experimental and Computational Studies of Fluid Flow Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine and Oil Fields  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA IN CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE AND OIL FIELDS Chuang Ji ( chuang.ji@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Goodarz Ahmadi ( ahmadi@clarkson.edu ) BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Duane H. Smith ( duane.smith@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 2 INTRODUCTION Sequestration of CO 2 by injection into deep geological formations is a method to reduce CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, when CO 2 is injected underground, it forms fingers extending into the rock pores saturated with brine or petroleum. This flow

303

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO 2 S. D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. Doughty (CADoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453 ) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 P. R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313), Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 510-495-2461) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 K. Pruess(K_Pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116,

304

Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

Alicia M. Wilson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Identification of Novel Third-Generation Synthetic Cannabinoids in Products by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Kite A796,260, URB597 Purple Diesel MAM-2201 Sunshine Daydream...products available on the Japanese market. There have been no other published...in products on the Japanese market. There have been no other published...highs: snapshot of the German market in summer 2011. Analytical......

Kevin G. Shanks; George S. Behonick; Tim Dahn; Andrea Terrell

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the strategic petroleum reserve program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 10, 1980, the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging the resulting brine into the coastal waters off Freeport, Texas. During the months of March and April, a team of scientists and engineers from Texas A and M University conducted an intensive environmental study of the area surrounding the diffuser site. A pipeline has been laid from the Bryan Mound site to a location 12.5 statute miles (20 km) offshore. The last 3060 ft (933 m) of this pipeline is a 52-port diffuser through which brine can be discharged at a maximum rate of 680,000 barrels per day. Initially, 16 ports were open which permitted a maximum discharge rate of 350,000 barrels per day and a continuous brine discharge was achieved on March 13, 1980. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of the project team during the intensive postdisposal study period of March and April, 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

Case, Robert J.; Chittenden, Jr, Mark E.; Harper, Jr, Donald E.; Kelly, Jr, Francis J.; Loeblich, Laurel A.; McKinney, Larry D.; Minello, Thomas J.; Park, E. Taisoo; Randall, Robert E.; Slowey, J. Frank

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Session 21: Disposal of Flashed Brine Dosed with CaCO3 Scale Inhibitor: What Happens When the Inhibitor is Exhausted?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhibited, flashed brine is thermodynamically poised to deposit CaCO{sub 3}. Eventually the scale inhibitor will be overcome by dilution in native reservoir fluid, sorption on rocks, slow overgrowth of CaCO{sub 3}, decomposition, or some combination of processes. Consequences to the reservoir which receives the fluid apparently have not been previously explored. However, Huff-Puff tests (monitored backflow of injected tracers), carried out at East Mesa in the summer of 1983, have provided a starting point for addressing the questions. An effective lifetime of about 14 hours is indicated for one inhibitor. Additionally, reactions between injected fluid and native resource fluid have been observed in two contexts: (1) the native fluid around the disposal well is the unflashed counterpart of the injectate; (2) the native fluid around the disposal well is chemically distinct from the injectate and from its unflashed counterpart. In the two cases investigated, situation (1) yielded significant reaction (deposition of CaCO{sub 3}) whereas, situation (2) appeared unreactive. These outcomes have important implications regarding the mechanics of reservoir management for long-term electricity production.

Michels, D.E.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

309

Monthly Biodiesel Production Report - Energy Information Administratio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Importsexports & movements Stocks Consumptionsales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major...

310

Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

None

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

312

An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last year but will be this year It is a cap and trade system for Green House Gas (GHG) It is anticipated to affect prices, production and more than just liquid fuels Carbon...

315

Testing efficiency of storage in the subsurface: frio brine pilot experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Can we demonstrate that subsurface storage is an effective method of reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere? The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment is designed to test storage performance of a typical subsurface environment in an area where large-volume sources and sinks are abundant, near Houston, Texas, USA. We employed extensive pre-experiment characterization and modeling to identify significant factors that increase or decrease risk of leakage from the injection zone. We then designed the experiment to focus on those factors, as well as to test for presence or absence of events that are not expected. A fully developed reservoir model of heterogeneous reworked fluvial sandstones of the Frio Formation documents three-dimensional compartmentalization of the injection horizon by faulting associated with salt-dome intrusion and growth. Modeling using the TOUGH2 simulator showed that a significant source of uncertainty for subsurface performance of injected CO2 is residual CO2 saturation during storage. If initial displacement of water during injection is efficient and capillary effects create the expected residual saturation of 30 percent CO2, the volume occupied by the plume will be limited, and long-term storage can be expected even in an open system. If, however, during injection, CO2 moves out from the injection well along high-permeability pathways, it may not contact most pores, and residual saturation will have a smaller effect on storage. Our experiment is therefore designed to monitor plume geometry and CO2 saturation near the injection well and closely spaced observation well. Leakage out of the injection zone as a result of well engineering or other flaws in the seal is also monitored in the sandstone immediately overlying the injection zone and at the surface using multiple techniques. Permitting strategies include cooperation among two State agencies, as well as Federal NEPA assessment, because of the innovative aspects of the experiment.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Doughty, Christine; Holtz, Mark

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

,"Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2...

317

,"Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

318

,"Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2...

319

,"Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

320

,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

,"Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million...

322

,"California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2...

323

,"Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

324

,"Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2...

325

,"Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million...

326

,"California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

327

,"Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",...

328

,"Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million...

329

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Available; W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production...

330

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

331

Thermal Energy Storage of Polyester Fabric Coated with Paraffin Liquid as Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research work involves the production of microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) in which paraffin liquid was...

A. B. M. Dom; A. F. Mohd; N. Tulos; E. Nasir…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effects of a sulfide system produced by a natural brine seep on sandy-bottom community structure at the East Flower Garden Bank, northwest Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF A SULFIDE SYSTEM PRODUCED BY A NATURAL BRINE SEEP ON SANDY-BOTTOM COI'1MUNITY STRUCTURE AT THE EAST FLOWER GARDEN BANK, NORTHWEST GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by EDWARD ANDREW WOODS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM... University in partia 1 fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography EFFECTS OF A SULFIDE SYSTEM PRODUCED BY A NATURAL BRINE SEEP ON SANDY-BOTTOM COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT THE EAST FLOWER...

Woods, Edward Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

334

Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

336

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

337

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

338

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

339

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

340

Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel Production in Developing Countries Biofuel Production in Developing Countries FINAL REPORT A GEF Targeted Research Project Organized by Bernd for Sustainable Liquid Biofuels. A GEF Targeted Research Project. Heidelberg/Paris/Utrecht/Darmstadt, 29 February

342

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Metamorphosed Plio-Pleistocene evaporites and the origins of hypersaline brines in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California: Fluid inclusion evidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) occurs in Plio-Pleistocene deltaic-lacustrine-evaporite sediments deposited in the Salton Trough, an active continental rift zone. Temperatures up to 365{degree}C and hypersaline brines with up to 26 wt.% TDS are encountered at 1-3 km depth in the sediments, which are undergoing active greenschist facies hydrothermal metamorphism. Previous models for the origins of the Na-Ca-K-Cl brines have assumed that the high salinities were derived mainly from the downward percolation of cold, dense brines formed by low-temperature dissolution of shallow non-marine evaporites. New drillcores from the central part of the geothermal field contain metamorphosed, bedded evaporites at 1 km depth consisting largely of hornfelsic anhydrite interbedded with anhydrite-cemented solution-collapse shale breccias. Fluid inclusions trapped within the bedded and breccia-cementing anhydrite homogenize at 300{degree}C and contain saline Na-Ca-K-Cl brines. Some of the inclusions contain up to 50 vol.% halite, sylvite and carbonate crystals at room temperature, and some halite crystals persist to above 300{degree}C upon laboratory heating. The data are consistent with the trapping of halite-saturated Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids during hydrothermal metamorphism of the evaporites and accompanying solution collapse of interbedded shales. The authors conclude that many of the slat crystals in inclusions are the residuum of bedded evaporitic salt that was dissolved during metamorphism by heated connate fluids.

McKibben, M.A.; Williams, A.E.; Okubo, Susumu (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Results of brine flow testing and disassembly of a crushed salt/bentonite block seal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series C, a set of in situ experiments conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, are designed to evaluate the performance of various seal materials emplaced in large (0.9-m-diameter) boreholes. This report documents the results of fluid (brine) flow testing and water and clay content analyses performed on one emplaced seal comprised of 100% salt blocks and 50%/50% crushed salt/bentonite blocks and disassembled after nearly three years of brine injection testing. Results from the water content analyses of 212 samples taken from within this seal show uniform water content throughout the 50%/50% salt/bentonite blocks with saturations about 100%. Clay content analyses from the 100% salt endcaps of the seal show a background clay content of about 1% by weight uniformly distributed, with the exception of samples taken at the base of the seal at the borehole wall interface. These samples show clay contents up to 3% by weight, which suggests some bentonite may have migrated under pressure to that interface. Results of the brine-flow testing show that the permeability to brine for this seal was about 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} darcy (2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2}).

Finley, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Potential for the localized corrosion of alloy 22 Waste Packages in Multiple-Salt Deliquescent Brines in the Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been postulated that the deliquescence of multiple-salt systems in dust deposits and the consequent localized corrosion in high-temperature brines could lead to premature failure of the Alloy 22 waste packages in the Yucca Mountain repository. EPRI has developed a decision tree approach to determine if the various stages leading to waste package failure are possible and whether the safety of the repository system could be compromised as a result. Through a series of arguments, EPRI has shown that it is highly unlikely that the multiple-salt deliquescent brines will form in the first place and, even if they did, that they would not be thermodynamically stable, that the postulated brines are not corrosive and would not lead to the initiation of localized corrosion of Alloy 22, that even if localized corrosion did initiate that the propagation would stifle and cease long before penetration of the waste package outer barrier, and that even if premature waste package failures did occur from this cause that the safety of the overall system would not be compromised. EPRI concludes, therefore, that the postulated localized corrosion of the waste packages due to high-temperature deliquescent brines is neither a technical nor a safety issue of concern for the Yucca Mountain repository. (authors)

King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J.H. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

348

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

349

Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Effect of Brine on Hydrate Antiagglomeration J. Dalton York and Abbas Firoozabadi*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production lines often favor formation of crystalline inclusion compounds known as gas hydrates. Water, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed March 19, 2009 Natural gas production poses a risk of flow-line hydrate blockage from coproduced water and hydrate- forming species. Our previous studies have focused

Firoozabadi, Abbas

351

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m3. These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices.

Majed M. Alhazmy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

Beauheim, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The effects of biomass pretreatments on the products of fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fast pyrolysis thermochemically degrades lignocellulosic material into solid char, organic liquids, and gaseous products. Using fast pyrolysis to produce renewable liquid bio-oil to replace crude… (more)

Kasparbauer, Randall Dennis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Reservoir-Wellbore Coupled Simulation of Liquid Loaded Gas Well Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid loading of gas wells causes production difficulty and reduces ultimate recovery from these wells. In 1969, Turner proposed that existence of annular two-phase flow at the wellhead is necessary for the well to avoid liquid loading...

Riza, Muhammad Feldy

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

359

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sliding Luttinger liquid phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T?0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; C. L. Kane; T. C. Lubensky

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels Graphic Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 Figure 26 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 Figure 27 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector, 2005-2030 Figure 28 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 29. World Liquids Consumption by Region and Country Group, 2005 and 2030 Figure 29 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 30. Nominal World Oil Prices in three Cases, 1980-2030 Figure 30 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

362

Coal and Biomass to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal to Liquids » Coal and Coal to Liquids » Coal and Biomass to Liquids Coal and Biomass to Liquids Over the last several decades, the Office of Fossil Energy performed RD&D activities that made significant advancements in the areas of coal conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. Technology improvements and cost reductions that were achieved led to the construction of demonstration-scale facilities. The program is now supporting work to reduce the carbon footprint of coal derived liquids by incorporating the co-feeding of biomass and carbon capture. In the area of direct coal liquefaction, which is the process of breaking down coal to maximize the correct size of molecules for liquid products, the U.S. DOE made significant investments and advancements in technology in the 1970s and 1980s. Research enabled direct coal liquefaction to produce

363

LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidMaize LLC LiquidMaize LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidMaize, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80237 Product LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants within existing cattle feed-yards and dairy operations. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

364

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate Arnaud Réveillère, Jérémy Rohmer, Frédéric Wertz / contact the leak, and of CO2,g as a first approach. Compared to the state of the art, it adds the possibility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

INTRAVAL Phase 2 WIPP 1 test case report: Modeling of brine flow through halite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the WIPP 1 test case studied as part of INTRAVAL, an international project to study validation of geosphere transport models. The WIPP 1 test case involved simulation of measured brine-inflow rates to boreholes drilled into the halite strata surrounding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. The goal of the test case was to evaluate the use of Darcy`s law to describe brine flow through halite. The general approach taken was to try to obtain values of permeability and specific capacitance that would be: (1) consistent with other available data and (2) able to provide reasonable simulations of all of the brine-inflow experiments performed in the Salado Formation. All of the teams concluded that the average permeability of the halite strata penetrated by the holes was between approximately 10{sup {minus}22} and 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. Specific capacitances greater than 10{sup {minus}10} Pa{sup {minus}1} are inconsistent with the known constitutive properties of halite and are attributed to deformation, possibly ongoing, of the halite around the WIPP excavations. All project teams found that Darcy-flow models could replicate the experimental data in a consistent and reasonable manner. Discrepancies between the data and simulations are attributed to inadequate representation in the models of processes modifying the pore-pressure field in addition to the experiments themselves, such as ongoing deformation of the rock around the excavations. Therefore, the conclusion from the test case is that Darcy-flow models can reliably be used to predict brine flow to WIPP excavations, provided that the flow modeling is coupled with measurement and realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field around the excavations. This realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field would probably require coupling to a geomechanical model of the stress evolution around the repository.

Beauheim, R.L. [ed.] [ed.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

368

Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crosswell CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring) data was acquired as part of the Frio-II brine pilot CO{sub 2} injection experiment. To gain insight into the CO{sub 2} plume evolution, we have integrated the 3D multiphase flow modeling code TOUGH2 with seismic simulation codes via a petrophysical model that predicts seismic velocity for a given CO{sub 2} saturation. Results of forward seismic modeling based on the CO{sub 2} saturation distribution produced by an initial TOUGH2 model compare poorly with the CASSM data, indicating that the initial flow model did not capture the actual CO{sub 2} plume dynamics. Updates to the TOUGH2 model required to better match the CASSM field data indicate vertical flow near the injection well, with increased horizontal plume growth occurring at the top of the reservoir sand. The CASSM continuous delay time data are ideal for constraining the modeled spatiotemporal evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume and allow improvement in reservoir model and estimation of CO{sub 2} plume properties.

Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Doughty, C.A.

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Effect of explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy on brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stratigraphic units of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room horizon includes various layers of halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, clay, and anhydrite. Current models, including those used in the WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, employ a ``composite stratigraphy`` approach in modeling. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact that an explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy around the repository may have on fluid flow compared to the simplified ``composite stratigraphy`` models currently employed. Sensitivity of model results to intrinsic permeability anisotropy, interbed fracturing, two-phase characteristic curves, and gas-generation rates were studied. The results of this study indicate that explicit representation of the stratigraphy maintains higher pressures and does not allow as much fluid to leave the disposal room as compared to the ``composite stratigraphy`` approach. However, the differences are relatively small. Gas migration distances are also different between the two approaches. However, for the two cases in which explicit layering results were considerably different than the composite model (anisotropic and vapor-limited), the gas-migration distances for both models were negligible. For the cases in which gas migration distances were considerable, van Genuchten/Parker and interbed fracture, the differences between the two models were fairly insignificant. Overall, this study suggests that explicit representation of the stratigraphy in the WIPP PA models is not required for the parameter variations modeled if ``global quantities`` (e.g., disposal room pressures, net brine and gas flux into and out of disposal rooms) are the only concern.

Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

372

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid liquid radioactive Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 Summary: radioactive wastes in liquid or solid forms. Oil and gas production, as an example, also results... a radioactive source, plus radioactive...

375

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

376

Mineral Nutrient Recovery from Pyrolysis Co-Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment to product liquid, gaseous, and solid co-products. The liquid co-product, known as bio-oil, can be used as a transportation fuel. The gaseous co-product, known...

Wise, Jatara Rob

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

379

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Dynamic simulation of nuclear hydrogen production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear hydrogen production processes have been proposed as a solution to rising CO 2 emissions and low fuel yields in the production of liquid transportation fuels. In these processes, the heat of a nuclear reactor is ...

Ramírez Muñoz, Patricio D. (Patricio Dario)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Resource Constraints in Petroleum Production Potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the assumption of 2% consumption growth and the low scenario, OPEC would achieve 50% ofworld production in 1998. OPEC's highest crude oil production was 32 mmbbl per day in 1973 and 1979. About 10% ofthe liquid petroleum produced outside...

C. D. MASTERS; D. H. ROOT; E. D. ATTANASI

1991-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

383

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

385

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

387

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

388

Homogeneous fast-flux isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing tritium in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Lithium target material is dissolved in the liquid metal coolant in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

389

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Liquid-level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

392

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

393

LiquidPiston Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidPiston Inc LiquidPiston Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidPiston Inc Address 21C Old Windsor Road Place Bloomfield, Connecticut Zip 06002 Sector Efficiency Product New combustion engine technology to drastically improve efficiency Website http://www.liquidpiston.com/ Coordinates 41.8572877°, -72.7032021° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8572877,"lon":-72.7032021,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

394

Oil/Liquids | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil/Liquids Oil/Liquids < Oil Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 93. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 11. Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Table 12. Petroleum Product Prices Table 14. Oil and Gas Supply Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South

395

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

396

Accident Investigation of the February 7, 2013, Scissor Lift Accident in the West Hackberry Brine Tank-14 Resulting in Injury, Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry, LA  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On February 15, 2013, an Accident Investigation Board (the Board) was appointed to investigate an accident that resulted in serious injuries caused when a scissor lift tipped over in Brine Tank-14 (WHT-14) at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry, Louisiana, site on February 7, 2013. The Board’s responsibilities have been completed with respect to this investigation. The analysis and the identification of the direct cause, root causes, contributing causes, and judgments of need resulting from this investigation were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 225.1B, Accident Investigations.

397

Composition of liquids from coals of different rank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight coal liquids prepared from six coals of widely differing rank were compared with respect to their suitability as potential feedstocks for production of refined fuels. The compositions of the liquids were determined by methods adapted from those developed for characterization of petroleum crudes. The coal liquids were prepared and upgraded by hydrogenation in a batch autoclave. The reaction conditions employed were selected to minimize hydrocarbon ring-opening reactions and, at the same time, to produce most of the hydrocarbon liquids potentially available from the coals. The degree of hydrogenation of the raw coal liquids was varied as required to decrease the nitrogen content to about the same level and to provide a predominantly hydrocarbon liquid for analysis. Distilled fractions of the upgraded coal liquids boiling up to 540/sup 0/C were characterized by a combination of separation and analytical techniques including adsorption chromatography; gel permeation chromatography; separations of acids, bases, and asphaltenes; and high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. In general, the results show that liquids of comparable suitability as feedstocks for production of refined fuels can be produced from coals of different rank.

Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Woodward, P.W.; Vogh, J.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Scattering of Slow Neutrons by a Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential cross section for coherent scattering of thermal neutrons by a liquid is given in general by the Fourier transform of a time-displaced radial density function. It is suggested here that, to an adequate degree of approximation, this time-displaced function can be expressed as a convolution of the ordinary radial density function with a self-diffusion function describing the wandering of an atom from an arbitrary initial position. The neutron scattering cross section then becomes the product of the Fourier transforms of these two functions. One of the transforms is the differential cross section for x-ray scattering and describes interference effects, the other governs the energy changes upon scattering. In this development the scatterer can be treated either quantum mechanically or classically. Recoil effects are not provided by the classical treatment, but this is a significant deficiency only in liquids of low atomic weight. Several models for calculating the self-diffusion function are considered, and from these it is suggested that a Gaussian function with a time-dependent width is a reasonable approximation for the case of a simple liquid. The principal features of the width are deduced. Quantization of the scatterer effects the width at small times. At large times the width depends only on the coefficient of self-diffusion of the liquid, and inelastic scattering is suggested as a means of determining this coefficient, as well as other features of atomic movement. The accuracy of the static approximation for determining liquid structures by neutron diffraction is assessed by considering the typical case of liquid lead near its melting point, and is found to be moderately good. The extension of the entire formalism to the case of polyatomic liquids is outlined.

George H. Vineyard

1958-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasifier Intermediate products Low Energy Gas Final product Power Steam Gas Synthetic Liquids Spark and diesel engines Process Heat & Power Medium &

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Air Liquide Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Group Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Air Liquide Group Place Paris, France Zip 75321 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Paris-based manufacturer of industrial and medical gases. The company is working on hydrogen production and gas-to-liquid technology. Coordinates 48.85693°, 2.3412° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.85693,"lon":2.3412,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

402

Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

\ UNCLASSIFIED ' ;c ,. ' UNCLASSIFIED AECU-29'79 Subject Category: PHYSICS UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TAYLOR INSTABILITY OF INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUIDS BY Enrico Fermi John von Neumann , _ November 1955 [ TIS Issuance D.a&?] Los Alamos Scientific Labqratqry Los Alamos, New Mexico Technical Information Service, Ooic Ridge, Tennessee DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available document. original I , The date for Part 1 is September 4, 1951. The date for Part 2 is August 19, 1953. Work performed under Contract PTo. W-7405-Eng-36. The Atomic Energy Commission makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy or usefulness of the lnformatlon or statements contained

403

Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

Hobart, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science, Livermore, CA (United States); Bruton, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.; Millero, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Chou, I.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Chemistry of fluid inclusions in halite from the Salina group of the Michigan basin: Implications for Late Silurian seawater and the origin of sedimentary brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluid was extracted from 18 fluid inclusions in halite of the Late Silurian Salina Group exposed in the Crystal Mine on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan. Compared with modern seawater evaporated to the same degree, the inclusion fluids are severely depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, somewhat depleted in Na{sup +} and Mg{sup +2}, and greatly enriched in Ca{sup +2}. The composition of the inclusion fluids can be derived from Silurian seawater with a composition close to that of modern seawater, if it is assumed that the composition of the Silurian seawater was modified by dolomitizing CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediments and by albitizing silicate minerals during its evolution into evaporite brines. Since the evolution of the brines involved a number of chemical reactions, it is impossible to recover the initial concentration of all of the major ions in the parent Silurian seawater from the composition of the inclusion fluids alone. It is likely, however, that the m{sub K+}/m{sub Br-} ratio and the functions in Late Silurian seawater had values close to those of modern seawater. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur and of Sr in anhydrite within and associated with the halite host of the fluid inclusions are consistent with previous measurements of {delta}{sup 34}S in Silurian marine anhydrites and with the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of Late Silurian marine carbonates.

Das, N.; Horita, J.; Holland, H.D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

EIAs Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 June 14, 2013 EIA's Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids Term Current Definition Proposed Definition Note Lease condensate Condensate (lease condensate): A natural gas liquid recovered from associated and non associated gas wells from lease separators or field facilities, reported in barrels of 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Lease condensate: Light liquid hydrocarbons recovered from lease separators or field facilities at associated and non-associated natural gas wells. Mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. Normally enters the crude oil stream after production. Includes lease condensate as part of the crude oil stream, not an NGL. Plant condensate Plant condensate: One of the

406

Batteries from Brine  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Low-temp geothermal technologies are meeting a growing demand for strategic materials in clean manufacturing.

407

Desalination: Freezing out Brine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... PLANS for a large experimental desalination plant to be built at Ipswich are being considered by the government, Lord Kennet, ... by repeated condensation. This method has been adopted by several countries which have embarked on desalination programmes, but its economic viability has often been questioned. The power consumed by the ...

1970-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

408

EIA - Natural Gas Production Data & Analysis  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Gross Withdrawals and Production Components of natural gas production for the U.S., States and the Gulf of Mexico (monthly, annual). Number of Producing Gas Wells U.S. and State level data (annual). Wellhead Value & Marketed Production U.S. and State level natural gas wellhead values and prices of marketed production (annual). Offshore Gross Withdrawals U.S., State, and Gulf of Mexico gross withdrawals from oil and gas wells(annual). Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Production Production of crude oil, natural gas wet after lease separation, natural gas liquids, dry natural gas, and lease condensate (annual). Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Production by U.S., region, and State (annual). Lease Condensate Production Production by U.S., region, and State (annual).

409

AEO2011: Imported Liquids by Source | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Imported Liquids by Source Imported Liquids by Source Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 146, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, light refined products and heavy refined products. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA imports liquids Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Imported Liquids by Source- Reference Case (xls, 85.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

410

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production.… (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid Scintillator Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The KamLAND collaboration has studied background requirements and purification methods needed to observe the 7Be neutrino from the sun. First we will discuss the present background situation in KamLAND where it is found that the main background components are 210Pb and 85Kr. It is then described how to purify the liquid scintillator. The present status and results on how to remove 210Pb from the liquid scintillator are discussed. Specifically, the detailed analysis of the effects of distillation and adsorption techniques are presented.

Kishimoto, Y. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

412

Solid–Liquid–Vapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solid–liquid, solid–vapor, and solid–liquid–vapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

413

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

414

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

6 November 1952 research-article Viscosity of Liquids E. N. da C. Andrade The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. www.jstor.org

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of momentum between them. In the case of a gas, Maxwell showed how the viscosity can be derived by considering this momentum as being communicated by molecules transferring themselves bodily ... fulfilment of the conditions postulated in Maxwell's treatment, and the fact that while gas viscosity goes up with temperature liquid ...

E. N. DA C. ANDRADE

1930-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the ... in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives—the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by ...

D. CRONEY

1948-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

419

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

420

An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and temporal flow variations in CO2/brine/rock systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Generate and characterize mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions in supercritical CO2/brine/rock systems under pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions resembling CO2injection into EGS. Characterize three-dimensional spatial and temporal distributions of rock structures subject to mineral dissolution/precipitation processes by X-ray tomography, SEM imaging, and Microprobe analysis.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

422

Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite sorption sites proving to be of secondary importance. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM was developed using nonlinear regression to fit the response surface with a quadratic polynomial. The goodness of fit was excellent for the CO2 flux to the atmosphere, and very good for predicting the volumes of groundwater exceeding the pH, TDS, As, Cd and Pb threshold values.

Bacon, Diana H.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

New Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The tube is completely vacuum insulated. The manufacturer guarantees...across the front and a urethane foam viewing port to exclude room...compressed-air-operated transducers to reduce foams to liquid. Constructed of stainless...deaerated liquid reduced from foam and/or aerated liquid in-put...

1963-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

426

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

429

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

430

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

431

DOE/EA-1482: Environmental Assessment for Pilot Experiment for Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Aquifer Brine Formations (October 2003)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

82 82 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT EXPERIMENT FOR GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN SALINE AQUIFER BRINE FORMATIONS FRIO FORMATION, LIBERTY COUNTY, TEXAS OCTOBER 2003 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY ii iii National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide funds for a field test of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin, under contract with DOE, has studied the potential for sequestration of CO 2 in geologic formations of the United States as part of a broader series of DOE-sponsored research projects to

432

A Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals and Austenitic Alloys in Synthetic Brines at Elevated Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several hard, corrosion-resistant and neutron-absorbing iron-based amorphous alloys have now been developed that can be applied as thermal spray coatings. These new alloys include relatively high concentrations of Cr, Mo, and W for enhanced corrosion resistance, and substantial B to enable both glass formation and neutron absorption. The corrosion resistances of these novel alloys have been compared to that of several austenitic alloys in a broad range of synthetic brines, with and without nitrate inhibitor, at elevated temperature. Linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used for in situ measurement of corrosion rates for prolonged periods of time, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been used for ex situ characterization of samples at the end of tests. The application of these new coatings for the protection of spent nuclear fuel storage systems, equipment in nuclear service, steel-reinforced concrete will be discussed.

Farmer, J C

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

433

Determinants of Hospital's Financial Liquidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the articles is to identify key factors that may affect the level of hospital's liquidity ratio. We’ve posed four research hypotheses, assuming that, the level of financial liquidity in hospitals depends on several factors (number of beds, annual income per bed, profitability ratios, debt ratio). We’ve found that: 1) there is a positive relationship between debt ratio and liquidity and profitability ratio and liquidity 2) the relationship between the size of the hospital and the financial liquidity is not statistically significant. In the study we’ve use statistical tools: Pearson's correlation coefficient, T-Student's test with Cohran-Cox's correction.

Agnieszka Bem; Katarzyna Pr?dkiewicz; Pawe? Pr?dkiewicz; Paulina Ucieklak-Je?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Quantal Ising Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An example is presented of a model of an amorphous quantum mechanical system, a liquid of quantal Ising spins, which can be solved exactly within certain many-body theories. Analytical solutions of the model in mean-field theory are shown to reveal a decrease in the extent of the ferromagnetic region (compared to an equivalent classical system) and the occurrence of some degree of quantum localization. Both phenomena are analyzed as a competition between quantum mechanics and the condensed phase.

Richard M. Stratt

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Theory of fermion liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a general theory of fermion liquids in spatial dimensions greater than 1. The principal method, bosonization, is applied to the cases of short- and long-range longitudinal interactions and to transverse gauge interactions. All the correlation funtions of the system may be obtained with the use of a generating functional. Short-range and Coulomb interactions do not destroy the Landau-Fermi fixed point. Non-Fermi liquid fixed points are found, however, in the cases of a super-long-range longitudinal interaction in two dimensions and transverse gauge interactions in two and three spatial dimensions. We consider in some detail the (2+1)-dimensional problem of a Chern-Simons gauge action combined with a longitudinal two-body interaction V(q)??q?y-1, which controls the density, and hence gauge, fluctuations. For y0 the interaction is relevant and the fixed point cannot be accessed by bosonization. Of special importance is the case y=0 (Coulomb interaction), which describes the Halperin-Lee-Read theory of the half-filled Landau level. We obtain the full quasiparticle propagator, which is of a marginal Fermi-liquid form. Using Ward identities, we show that neither the inclusion of nonlinear terms in the fermion dispersion nor vertex corrections alters our results: the fixed point is accessible by bosonization. As the two-point fermion Green’s function is not gauge invariant, we also invetigate the gauge-invariant density response function. Near momentum Q=2kF, in addition to the Kohn anomaly we find other nonanalytic behavior. In the appendies we present a numerical calculation of the spectral function for a Fermi liquid with Landau parameter f0?0. We also show how Kohn’s theorem is satisfied within the bosonization framework.

H.-J. Kwon; A. Houghton; J. B. Marston

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

What constitutes a simple liquid?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermolecular potential only because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, according to the new definition not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of structure and dynamics of 15 atomic and molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but it is shown to be consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids' phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the basis for standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.

Trond S. Ingebrigtsen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude Reserves and Production Refining and Processing Imports/Exports & Movements Stocks Consumption/Sales All Petroleum & Other Liquids Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption & Sales Crude Reserves & Production Imports/Exports & Movements Prices Projections Refining & Processing Stocks All Reports Proposed Natural Gas Liquids Realignment EIA has reviewed the approaches and terminology that have been used by EIA and others to categorize and organize natural gas liquids (NGL) data. The review uncovered definitional inconsistencies in the use of terms such as NGL, natural gas plant liquids (NGPL), and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) that are adversely affecting the quality and clarity of U.S. and

439

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a cost-minimization linear program (LP). For a given set of fuel demands, LFMM will find the least-cost means of satisfying those demands, subject to various constraints (such as the RFS). * LFMM is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which is a computer model of the U.S. energy economy. EIA uses

440

Integrated plant for treatment of liquid radwaste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the early 1980`s, AECL Research, at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre for managing low-level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes. At present, two industrial liquid waste streams are being routinely treated. One stream originates from the central Decontamination Centre (DC), where reactor components, protective plastic clothing, and respirators are cleaned. The other Active Drain (AD) stream is produced from a large and diverse number of research laboratories and radioisotope production facilities. The two waste streams, totalling about 2500 m per year (0.66 million US gallons), are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies; two thin-film evaporators (TFE) are employed for (i) the final volume reduction step, and (ii) the subsequent solidification of evaporator bottom with bitumen for containment of the radioactivity.

Sen Gupta, S.K. [Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude Reserves and Production Refining and Processing Imports/Exports & Movements Stocks Consumption/Sales All Petroleum & Other Liquids Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption & Sales Crude Reserves & Production Imports/Exports & Movements Prices Projections Refining & Processing Stocks All Reports Prices Change category... Most Requested Consumption & Sales Crude Reserves & Production Imports/Exports & Movements Prices Projections Refining & Processing Stocks All Reports Filter by: All Data Analysis Projections This Week in Petroleum Data and analysis of recent events affecting the petroleum industry and

442

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis ... An energy balance, in broad outline, is presented for the production of a high-quality liquid transportation fuel from residual crop biomass. ... That is, 40% of the initial energy in the biomass will be found in the final liquid fuel after subtracting out external energy supplied for complete processing, including transportation as well as material losses. ...

J. Manganaro; B. Chen; J. Adeosun; S. Lakhapatri; D. Favetta; A. Lawal; R. Farrauto; L. Dorazio; D. J. Rosse

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

444

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

445

T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Geopressured-geothermal well report, Volume II. Well workover and production testing, February 1982-October 1985. Final report. Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well was the fourth in a series of wells in the DOE Design Wells Program that were drilled into deep, large geopressured-geothermal brine aquifers in order to provide basic data with which to determine the technological and economic viability of producing energy from these unconventional resources. This brine production well was spudded on May 27, 1981 and drilling operations were completed on November 2, 1981 after using 160 days of rig time. The well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet. The target sands lie at a depth of 14,412 to 15,860 feet in the Fleming Formation of the lower Miocene. This report covers well production testing operations and necessary well workover operations during the February 1982 to October 1985 period. The primary goals of the well testing program were: (1) to determine reservoir size, shape, volume, drive mechanisms, and other reservoir parameters, (2) to determine and demonstrate the technological and economic viability of producing energy from a geopressured-geothermal brine aquifer through long-term production testing, and (3) to determine problem areas associated with such long-term production, and to develop solutions therefor.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Ethylenediamine at Air/Liquid and Air/Silica Interfaces: Protonation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surface and EDA protonated products at air/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectra of EDA adsorbedEthylenediamine at Air/Liquid and Air/Silica Interfaces: Protonation Versus Hydrogen BondingKa (HOSit)) is between the two pKa values of EDA (in the range of 7.56-10.71) at the air/silica interface

447

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

448

An example of using oil-production induced microseismicity in characterizing a naturally fractured reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microseismic monitoring was conducted using downhole geophone tools deployed in the Seventy-Six oil field, Clinton County, Kentucky. Over a 7-month monitoring period, 3237 microearthquakes were detected during primary oil production; no injection operations were conducted. Gross changes in production rate correlate with microearthquake event rate with event rate lagging production-rate changes by about 2 weeks. Hypocenters and first-motion data have revealed low-angle, thrust fracture zones above and below the currently drained depth interval. Production history, well logs and drill tests indicate the seismically-active fractures are previously drained intervals that have subsequently recovered to hydrostatic pressure via brine invasion. The microseismic data have revealed, for the first time, the importance of the low-angle fractures in the storage and production of oil in the study area. The seismic behavior is consistent with poroelastic models that predict slight increases in compressive stress above and below currently drained volumes.

Rutledge, J.T.; Phillips, W.S. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Schuessler, B.K.; Anderson, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Process for preparing liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

L. Bartoszek

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

451

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for CP amide analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the analysis of the 5-carboxamidotetrazolatopentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate contaminant of the explosive CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)-pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate). The analysis utilizes a Zn/Hg reduction of the cobalt (III) complexes to allow a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the reaction products; the product analysis is directly related to the weight percent of impurity present in the explosive. The technique is described and shortcomings pointed out.

Loyola, V. M.; Womelsduff, J. E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A Management Tool for Analyzing CHP Natural Gas Liquids Recovery System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research is to develop a management tool for analyzing combined heat and power (CHP) natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery systems. The methodology is developed around the central ideas of product recovery, possible recovery...

Olsen, C.; Kozman, T. A.; Lee, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

454

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

455

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

456

Continuous production of tritium in an isotope-production reactor with a separate circulation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium is allowed to flow through the reactor in separate loops in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

457

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

459

Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measured with an Ostwald Viscosimeter relative to tap water also, All of these physical measurements were made at 83c F, the average tempera- ture noted during the runs. The liquid upon which these measurements were made were samples of the liquids...

McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

Siegel, Martin M. (Broken Arrow, OK)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

463

Freezing of a Liquid Marble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

464

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum & Other Liquids Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude Reserves and Production Refining and Processing Imports/Exports & Movements Stocks Consumption/Sales All Petroleum & Other Liquids Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption & Sales Crude Reserves & Production Imports/Exports & Movements Prices Projections Refining & Processing Stocks All Reports EIA's latest Short-Term Energy Outlook for crude oil and liquid fuels › image chart of World Liquid Fuels Supply and Demand as described in linked Short-Term Energy Outlook Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, released monthly. EIA's latest weekly petroleum analysis › Featured chart from This Week in Petroleum using statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report

465

Rescheduling Bulk Gas Production and Distribution Wasu Glankwamdee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

customer demand at minimum cost? #12;Bulk Gas Wrinkles Production Most sites operate in two modes: RegularRescheduling Bulk Gas Production and Distribution Wasu Glankwamdee Jackie Griffin Jeff Linderoth March 15, 2006 #12;Liquid Bulk Gas Production-Distribution Sites S Products P = {LOX, LNI} Customers C

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

466

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Packaging and transportation of radioactive liquid at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beginning in the 1940`s, radioactive liquid waste has been generated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site as a result of defense material production. The liquid waste is currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks. As part of the tank remediation efforts, Type B quantity packagings for the transport of large volumes of radioactive liquids are required. There are very few Type B liquid packagings in existence because of the rarity of large-volume radioactive liquid payloads in the commercial nuclear industry. Development of aboveground transport systems for large volumes of radioactive liquids involves institutional, economic, and technical issues. Although liquid shipments have taken place under DOE-approved controlled conditions within the boundaries of the Hanford Site for many years, offsite shipment requires compliance with DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and US Department of Transportation (DOT) directives and regulations. At the present time, no domestic DOE nor NRC-certified Type B packagings with the appropriate level of shielding are available for DOT-compliant transport of radioactive liquids in bulk volumes. This paper will provide technical details regarding current methods used to transport such liquids on and off the Hanford Site, and will provide a status of packaging development programs for future liquid shipments.

Smith, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

470

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

471

High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

Tsotsis, T.T. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. (Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

473

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Development of a high-throughput fermentation assay using colorimetric measurement of gas production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Typical methods for determining ethanol production from biomass feedstocks involve the use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Gas Chromatography (GC). Such methods require… (more)

Bly, Steven

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

477

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C&CBTL C&CBTL Coal and Power Systems Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids program effort is focused on technologies to foster the commercial adoption of coal and coal/biomass gasification and the production of affordable liquid fuels and hydrogen with excellent environmental performance. U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits

478

Louisiana--South Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana--South Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 263 1980's 267 253 243 238 229 220 208 194 193 196 1990's 182 175 151 133 123 136 127 134 138 142 2000's 159 141 107 82 66 65 65 71 64 74 2010's 68 64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 LA, South Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

479

The Viscosity of Liquid Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 September 1935 research-article The Viscosity of Liquid Helium J. O. Wilhelm A. D. Misener A. R. Clark The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Liquid Oxygen and its Uses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the liquid. At present, however, there is no known method of rendering them flameless, and their use in the majority of coal-mines is therefore inadmissible. If this ...

HENRY BRIGGS

1924-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid product brine" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481