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1

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

3

Development and Use of Particle into Liquid Sampling Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PILS-ToF) for Characterization of Aerosol Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compounds (e.g. , 80% catechol formation from phenol, Olariuby PILS-TOFMS such as catechol. B.5 Reference Aiken, A. C. ,Johnson et al. , 2005). Catechol formation from phenol is

Clark, Christopher Holmes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Nanostructured, Rechargeable Solid-State Composite Batteries  

Research on all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries has increased considerably in recent years due to raised concerns relating to safety hazards such as solvent leakage and flammability of liquid electrolytes used for commercial lithium-ion ...

6

Recharge Elec. Upgrade Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery can be plugged in to an electric outlet to be recharged. Background: PHEVs 1. How many U" cost) · Variety of upgrade packages selected--some with zero upgrades · Most popular upgrade" Price Scenario ("home recharges" only) · "Base" PHEV=$3,000 premium · Added costs for upgrades (Full

California at Davis, University of

7

Rechargeable electric battery system  

SciTech Connect

A rechargable battery, system and method for controlling its operation and the recharging thereof in order to prolong the useful life of the battery and to optimize its operation is disclosed. In one form, an electronic microprocessor is provided within or attached to the battery for receiving and processing electrical signals generated by one or more sensors of battery operational variable and for generating output signals which may be employed to control the charge of the battery and to display one or more variables concerned with the battery operation.

Lemelson, J.H.

1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Universal connector for rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

In an electrical product having battery recharging means and a load adapted for energization from a battery, a battery connector is described which consists of: terminal means adapted to contact the output terminals of either a non-rechargeable battery having a first physical configuration or a rechargeable battery having a second physical configuration, the terminal means coupled to the load of the product such that the load may be energized from either the non-rechargeable battery or the rechargeable battery; circuit means coupling the terminal means and the battery recharging means, the circuit means including a switch having an open state preventing charging through the circuit means of a battery coupled to the terminal means and a closed state permitting charging through the circuit means of a battery coupled to the terminal means; and biased actuating means coupled to the switch for moving the switch between its closed and open sites, the actuating means adapted to coact with the first physical configuration of a non-rechargeable battery to move the switch against a bias to its open state and adapted to coact with the second physical configuration of a rechargeable battery to allow the switch to move with the bias to its closed state; whereby the physical configurations of a battery connected to the battery connector determines whether or not the battery will be charged.

Mundschenk, G.R.; Decker, R.C.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

9

Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...  

Rechargeable lithium batteries are superior to other rechargeable batteries due to their ability to store more energy per unit size and weight and to operate at ...

10

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Li-Li cell. 0.1 mA, 50 min -0.1 mA, 50 min E (volts)E (volts)E (Volts) E (Volts) Time (Sec) Time (Sec) Figure 16. First

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

Survey of rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

GC GUIDANCE ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE RECHARGING STATIONS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELECTRIC VEHICLE RECHARGING STATIONS Several National Laboratory contractors have asked us whether Department of Energy ("Department" or "DOE") appropriated funds may be used to...

15

Systems approach to rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

When selecting a rechargeable battery for an application, consideration must be given to the total system. Electrical load requirements, mechanical restrictions, environmental conditions, battery life, and charging must be considered to assure satisfactory battery performance. Meeting the electrical requirements involves selecting a battery that will deliver adequate voltage, run time and power. The mechanical aspects are largely a matter of resolving volume and weight. The charger must be capable of returning the battery to full charge in an allotted time. But of greater importance, the charge control method should be chosen carefully to maximize the operational life of the battery. 4 refs.

Mullersman, F.H.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

17

Active time scheduling for rechargeable sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent progress in energy harvesting technologies made it possible to build sensor networks with rechargeable nodes which target an indefinitely long operation. In these networks, the goal of energy management is to allocate the available energy such ... Keywords: Energy harvesting, Rechargeable, Sensor network

Volodymyr Pryyma; Damla Turgut; Ladislau Bölöni

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable...

19

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Title High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Publication Type...

20

Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

GC GUIDANCE ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE RECHARGING STATIONS | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ELECTRIC VEHICLE RECHARGING STATIONS GC GUIDANCE ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE RECHARGING STATIONS Several National Laboratory contractors have asked whether appropriated funds may be used...

22

Effects of Natural Recharge on Gas Composition in the Larderello - Castelnuovo Area  

SciTech Connect

A study of the temporal behaviour of gas compsition in the Larderello-Castelnuovo area shows that this behaviour varies, depending on whether the wells are affected or not by natural recharge. Where no natural recharge exists, gas composition seems to be governed by chemical equilibria. The recharge water, and the steam it produces, mix with the fluid already existing in the reservoir. At Larderello (far from absorption areas) the gas composition resulting from this mixing does not undergo further changes by chemical reaction. This is due either to a lack of reactivity where there is no liquid phase or to an ineffective fluid-rock interaction. At Castelnuovo (close to absorption areas) the H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 4} contents in the gas have gradually decreased with the increase in recharge effects. The decrease in H{sub 2}S can be attributed to dissolution in liquid water and oxidation. Various hypotheses have been forwarded for the methane. The correlation existing between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} concentrations, even when methane decreases in the areas affected by recharge, suggests that CH{sub 4} may be governed by more than just the Fisher-Tropsch reaction.

D'Amore, Franco; Celati, Romano; Calore, Claudio; Bertrami, Rino

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

ARM - Campaign Instrument - pils  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Download Data McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA, 2010.06.02 - 2010.06.28 Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study...

26

Design of an AUV recharging system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The utility of present Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is limited by their on-board energy storage capability. Research indicates that rechargeable batteries will continue to be the AUV power source of choice for at ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Battery driven vehicle and recharging system  

SciTech Connect

A battery-driven car which has an electrical system including a minimum number of electric storage batteries as the power source, a high-voltage converter with a high-voltage capacitor bank for driving a direct current impulse motor combined with a generator for supplying current to motor/generator sets respectively integrated with the wheels of the vehicle to drive the same or for recharging the batteries in accordance with a microprocessor control system, the wheel-actuated generators providing recharging current for the batteries whenever the motor component is not being energized and in addition, said electrical system also including an air-driven turbine generator component for recharging the batteries when the vehicle reaches a predetermined speed in accordance with the microprocessor controls.

Arbisi, D. S.

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Electrically and Hydraulically Rechargeable Zinc-air Battery  

A secondary zinc air battery, which can be either eletrically or hydraulically recharged, is provided with an inventive metal ...

29

Recharging Energy Storage Devices and/or Supplying Electric Power  

sources for emergency and other uses. Patent Gui-Jia Su. Electric Vehicle Recharging and or Supplying Electrical Power,

30

Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell  

SciTech Connect

A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Interfacial Studies to Practical Applications Speaker(s): Robert Kostecki Date: January 11, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney The constantly growing power requirements of portable electronic devices and the need for high-power batteries for electric vehicles have created a strong demand for new batteries or substantial improvements of existing ones. Fundamental problems associated with complex interfacial processes in batteries must be resolved to enhance battery performance and lifetime. An overview of the principles of electrode-electrolyte interfacial studies, experimental methods, recent results, and potential applications will be presented. Advanced instrumental techniques and

32

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

33

DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations September 6, 2011 - 4:28pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy recently issued guidance to its national laboratory management and operating (M&O) contractors on the installation and operation of electric vehicle recharging stations at lab facilities. The guidance explains that lab contractors wishing to install electric vehicle recharging stations or make such stations available to employees and visitors have several options. Lab contractors may install such stations and seek reimbursement from the Department for their use to the extent such installation or use is reasonably required to meet fleet vehicle or demonstration project needs. In addition, lab contractors may install electric vehicle recharging

34

Shale recharge and production behavior of geopressured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reservoir simulator MUSHRM was used to study the conditions under which significant shale recharge may be expected. The calculations presented herein show that shale recharge is a strong function of the vertical shale permeability but is not greatly influenced by the shale compressibility. Significant shale recharge will occur only if the vertical shale permeability is at least of the order of 0.01 ..mu..d.

Garg, S.K.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Polymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium/Sulfur Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the rapid development of portable electronics, hybrid-electric and electric cars, there is great interest in utilization of sulfur as cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.… (more)

Zhao, Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

How use nanostructured materials effectively in rechargeable lithium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, How use nanostructured materials effectively in rechargeable lithium/sulfur battery. Author(s), Sheng Shui Zhang. On-Site Speaker (Planned) ...

37

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium ...  

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic ...

38

Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

Behl, Wishvender K. (Ocean, NJ); Chin, Der-Tau (Winthrop, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Llithium-Ion Batteries  

Superior cost and safety features over state-of-the-art LiCoO ... Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries June 2012 cse-6677082 ...

40

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

1995-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

42

Design of Thermal Power Generation Device for Vehicle Recharging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With thermal power generation as the basis, vehicle heat sources (such as engine and exhaust pipe) as the carrier, and AT89C52 as the control center, this paper has designed a thermal power generation device for vehicle recharging. This device consists ... Keywords: thermal power generation, power supply for recharging, vehicle devices, design

Hong Fang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

Doughty, D.H.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with high efficiency if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. The two separate inventions can be made to work synergistically. Specifically, by operating the tokamak in a low-density recharge phase, the lower hybrid wave penetrates the plasma more effectively. High reactivity is obtained by operation in the hot ion mode through the alpha channeling technique. Then, by using a high temperature relaxation stage, not only is the plasma current sustained

45

DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations DOE Issues Guidance on Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations September 6, 2011 - 4:28pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy recently issued guidance to its national laboratory management and operating (M&O) contractors on the installation and operation of electric vehicle recharging stations at lab facilities. The guidance explains that lab contractors wishing to install electric vehicle recharging stations or make such stations available to employees and visitors have several options. Lab contractors may install such stations and seek reimbursement from the Department for their use to the extent such installation or use is reasonably required to meet fleet vehicle or demonstration project needs.

46

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Broadcasting with an energy harvesting rechargeable transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—In this paper, we investigate the transmission completion time minimization problem in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) broadcast channel, where the transmitter is able to harvest energy from the nature, using a rechargeable battery. The harvested energy is modeled to arrive at the transmitter during the course of transmissions. The transmitter has a fixed number of packets to be delivered to each receiver. The objective is to minimize the time by which all of the packets are delivered to their respective destinations. To this end, we optimize the transmit powers and transmission rates in a deterministic setting. We first analyze the structural properties of the optimal transmission policy in a two-user broadcast channel via the dual problem of maximizing the departure region by a fixed time

Jing Yang; Omur Ozel; Student Member; Sennur Ulukus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Flexographically Printed Rechargeable Zinc-based Battery for Grid Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rechargeable, Lithium-ion Molten Salt Battery for Highare room- temperature molten salts, which are typically

Wang, Zuoqian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrodes having composite xLi2M'O3(1-x)LiMO2 structures in which an...

54

Rechargeable lithium battery energy storage systems for vehicular applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batteries are used on-board vehicles for broadly two applications – starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) and vehicle traction. This thesis examines the suitability of the rechargeable lithium battery… (more)

HURIA, TARUN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Nanocatalytic Rechargeable Lithium Air...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase I objective is to fabricate a rechargeable LiAir battery cathode based on a graphene composite containing an electrocatalyst. A succinonitrile-based plastic crystal-type...

57

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

1993-11-00T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Broadcasting with an Energy Harvesting Rechargeable Transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the transmission completion time minimization problem in a two-user additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) broadcast channel, where the transmitter is able to harvest energy from the nature, using a rechargeable battery. The harvested energy is modeled to arrive at the transmitter randomly during the course of transmissions. The transmitter has a fixed number of packets to be delivered to each receiver. Our goal is to minimize the time by which all of the packets for both users are delivered to their respective destinations. To this end, we optimize the transmit powers and transmission rates intended for both users. We first analyze the structural properties of the optimal transmission policy. We prove that the optimal total transmit power has the same structure as the optimal single-user transmit power. We also prove that there exists a cut-off power level for the stronger user. If the optimal total transmit power is lower than this cut-off level, all transmit power is allocated t...

Yang, Jing; Ulukus, Sennur

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

Doyle, C.M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

New York's Energy Storage System Gets Recharged | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

York's Energy Storage System Gets Recharged York's Energy Storage System Gets Recharged New York's Energy Storage System Gets Recharged August 2, 2010 - 1:18pm Addthis Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Chu, explain why grid frequency regulation matters Jonathan Silver Jonathan Silver Executive Director of the Loan Programs Office What does this mean for me? AES Storage in New York got a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee to provide a more stable transmission grid. When thinking of clean technologies, energy storage might not be the first thing to come to mind, but with a $17.1 million conditional commitment for a loan guarantee from the Department of Energy AES Energy Storage will develop a battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission

64

Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rechargeable Heat Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry, Energy Technologies, Franklin Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A molecule of fulvalene diruthenium, seen in diagram, changes its configuration when it absorbs heat, and later releases heat when it snaps back to its original shape. Image: Jeffrey Grossman Broadly speaking, there have been two approaches to capturing the sun's energy: photovoltaics, which turn the sunlight into electricity, or solar-thermal systems, which concentrate the sun's heat and use it to boil water to turn a turbine, or use the heat directly for hot water or home

65

Rechargeable Zn-MnO sub 2 alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper progress in the development of rechargeable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells is described. The advantages and limitations of the system are evaluated. Laboratory tests run on commercial primary alkaline cells as well as model simulations of a bipolar MnO{sub 2} electrode show that the rechargeable alkaline battery may be able to compete with lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and secondary lithium cells for low- to moderate-rate applications. However, because of this poor performance at high rates and low temperatures, the alkaline MnO{sub 2} battery is not suitable for present automotive starting applications.

Wruck, W.J.; Reichman, B.; Bullock, K.R.; Kao, W.H. (Corporate Applied Research, Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (US))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

67

Evaluation of an Ecohydrologic-Process Model Approach to Estimating Annual Mountain-Block Recharge.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Magruder, Ian, M.S., December 2006 Geology Evaluation of an Ecohydrologic-Process Model Approach to Estimating Annual Mountain-Block Recharge Chairperson: Dr. William Woessner Regional subsurface mountain-block recharge… (more)

Magruder, Ian Auguste

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation Optimal Recharging Strategy for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while the Spanish government has committed to having 1 million electric or hybrid cars on Spanish roads price differentials in electricity tariffs are designed to dissuade car owners from recharging for Electric Vehicles in France Margaret Armstrong Charles El Hajj Moussa Jérôme Adnot Alain Galli Philippe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Optimal control of batteries with fully and partially available rechargeability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by the increasing dependence of many systems on battery energy, we study the problem of optimally controlling how to discharge and recharge a non-ideal battery so as to maximize the work it can perform over a given time period and still maintain ... Keywords: Energy-aware system, Kinetic battery model, Optimal control

Tao Wang; Christos G. Cassandras

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions Tuna Toksoz , Joshua Redding introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a buffer of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery

How, Jonathan P.

71

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Rechargeable battery with separate charging terminal contact ring  

SciTech Connect

A generally cylindrical rechargeable battery is provided leaving a pair of power terminals for delivering energy to an energy-using device. The battery further includes a charging terminal contact spaced apart from the power terminals and extending substantially around the circumference of the battery whereby charging contact on the battery may engage a corresponding charging contact in the energy-using device to charge the battery in all rotational positions of the battery.

Beachy, R. W.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

74

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

75

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2001-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

76

Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

Licht, Stuart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok-Jin [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjyoon@kist.re.kr

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

Flexible, Thin, and Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Based on Semi ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium. Presentation Title, Flexible, Thin, and Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Based on ...

80

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Lead: University of Southern California, Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute Sub-Awardee: Jet...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

New Materials for High-Energy, Long-Life Rechargeable Batteries...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

New Materials for High-Energy, Long-Life Rechargeable Batteries Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding...

82

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

83

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

84

High energy density, thin-lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine eld operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/discharge performance of a Li-ion battery. In their model, loss of cyclable lithium ions and increase in the anode film a one-dimensional schematic of a recharge- able Li-ion battery. During discharge, lithium ions deinter in the cycle life model of rechargeable Li-ion batteries Parameter Cathode (LixCoO2) Membrane separator

Sadoway, Donald Robert

85

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

91

Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

93

Institutional innovation in water management : the case of Mexico City's recharge wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the difference in adoption patterns of water recharge well technology in Mexico City both by local entities and the central city government. The research finds that this technology, originally designed ...

Correa Ibargüengoitia, José Antonio

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

95

Energy-aware sparse approximation technique (EAST) for rechargeable wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to non-homogeneous spread of sunlight, sensing nodes typically have non-uniform energy profiles in rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). An energy-aware work load distribution is therefore necessary for good data accuracy while ensuring an ...

Rajib Rana; Wen Hu; Chun Tung Chou

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Recharging U.S. Energy Policy: Advocating for a National Renewable Portfolio Standard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neff, Review of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Aug 2, 2005),Recharging U.S. Energy Policy: Advocating for a Nationalproposals, including the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress

Lunt, Robin J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode  

SciTech Connect

A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade ...

Pinson, Matthew Bede

99

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

Graham, R.W. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Recharge Data Package for Hanford Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., in its preparation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report. One of the PNNL tasks is to use existing information to estimate recharge rates for past and current conditions as well as future scenarios involving cleanup and closure of tank farms. The existing information includes recharge-relevant data collected during activities associated with a host of projects, including those of RCRA, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, and the PNNL Remediation and Closure Science Project. As new information is published, the report contents can be updated. The objective of this data package was to use published data to provide recharge estimates for the scenarios being considered in the RCRA Facility Investigation. Recharge rates were estimated for areas that remain natural and undisturbed, areas where the vegetation has been disturbed, areas where both the vegetation and the soil have been disturbed, and areas that are engineered (e.g., surface barrier). The recharge estimates supplement the estimates provided by PNNL researchers in 2006 for the Hanford Site using additional field measurements and model analysis using weather data through 2006.

Fayer, Michael J.; Keller, Jason M.

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Semi-Solid Rechargeable Power Sources - Taison Tan, 24M  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SEMI-SOLID RECHARGEABLE POWER SOURCES: FLEXIBLE, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SEMI-SOLID RECHARGEABLE POWER SOURCES: FLEXIBLE, HIGH-PERFORMANCE STORAGE FOR VEHICLES AND GRID AT ULTRALOW COST (<$0.10/Wh) 1. Technology Summary 3. Key Personnel * 24M: T. Tan, T. Wilder * MIT : Y.-M. Chiang, W. C. Carter, A. Belcher, P. Hammond * Rutgers: G. Amatucci This project is made possible in part through generous grants from the Department of Energy ARPA-e and the Defense Department DARPA agencies. * Revolutionary Electrical Energy Storage Concept * Combines best attributes of rechargeable batteries and flow cells * Decouples energy storage from power delivery * Semi-solid Electrodes Deliver High Energy Density, Low Cost 2. Technology Impact * Reduce Greenhouse Gases * Replaces inefficient, polluting gas peakers * Zero point-of-use emissions

102

Rechargeable battery charger system for charging testing, rejuvenation and preventative maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a method for automatically maintaining rechargeable batteries at maximum capacity and includes the steps of detecting the presence of a battery, deep discharging the battery to a predetermined level above cell reversal, recharging the battery to its rated capacity, discharging the battery at a controlled rate while measuring battery output voltage and determining whether its capacity is above or below a selected minimum, deep discharging and recharging if the battery is below the selected minimum until reversible memory effects are removed, providing a positive indication of battery failure, maintaining the full battery capacity by trickle charging, and periodically repeating the above steps to avoid onset of battery memory.

Yefsky, S.A.

1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Apparatus and method for recharging a string a avalanche transistors within a pulse generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for recharging a string of avalanche transistors within a pulse generator is disclosed. A plurality of amplification stages are connected in series. Each stage includes an avalanche transistor and a capacitor. A trigger signal, causes the apparatus to generate a very high voltage pulse of a very brief duration which discharges the capacitors. Charge resistors inject current into the string of avalanche transistors at various points, recharging the capacitors. The method of the present invention includes the steps of supplying current to charge resistors from a power supply; using the charge resistors to charge capacitors connected to a set of serially connected avalanche transistors; triggering the avalanche transistors; generating a high-voltage pulse from the charge stored in the capacitors; and recharging the capacitors through the charge resistors.

Fulkerson, E. Stephen (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Effect of shale-water recharge on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of shale-water recharge has often been discussed and preliminary assessments of its significance in the recovery of geopressured fluids have been given previously. The present study uses the Pleasant Bayou Reservoir data as a base case and varies the shale formation properties to investigate their impact on brine and gas recovery. The parametric calculations, based on semi-analytic solutions and finite-difference techniques, show that for vertical shale permeabilities which are at least of the order of 10/sup -5/ md, shale recharge will constitute an important reservoir drive mechanism and will result in much larger fluid recovery than that possible in the absence of shale dewatering.

Riney, T.D.; Garg, S.K.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and are promising

Cui, Yi

106

Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Influence of Catalysts on Discharge and Charge Voltages of Rechargeable Li–Oxygen Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study revealed the strong influence of carbon, Au/C, and Pt/C catalysts on the charge and discharge voltages of rechargeable Li–O[subscript 2] batteries. Li–O[subscript 2] single-cell measurements showed that Au/C had ...

Gasteiger, Hubert A.

108

Platinum-Gold Nanoparticles: A Highly Active Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PtAu nanoparticles (NPs) were shown to strongly enhance the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in rechargeable Li?O2 cells. Li?O2 cells with PtAu/C were found to exhibit the ...

Lu, Yi-Chun

109

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

114

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

115

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high

116

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Materials as a Key to Electro-Mobility with Rechargeable LI Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials as a Key to Electro-Mobility with Rechargeable LI Batteries Materials as a Key to Electro-Mobility with Rechargeable LI Batteries Speaker(s): Martin Winter Date: February 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Kostecki The lithium ion technology is playing a key role in the electrification of the propulsion system in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and in pure electric vehicles (EVs). The chemist and materials scientists faces this challenge, which derives from the demands for large-scale energy storage and conversion devices for electric propulsion purposes, by development and application of innovative battery components and concepts. The lithium ion battery has been introduced into the market by 1990/1991 and only by the mid 1990ies significant numbers of batteries have been produced. Within a

118

Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (Alburquerque, NM); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Ingersoll, David (Alburquerque, NM); Firsich, David W. (Dayton, OH)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project: GEO-98-001. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Geysers steamfields in northern Sonoma County have produced reliable ''green'' power for many years. An impediment to long-term continued production has been the ability to provide a reliable source of injection water to replace water extracted and lost in the form of steam. The steamfield operators have historcially used cooling towers to recycle a small portion of the steam and have collected water during the winter months using stream extraction. These two sources, however, could not by themselves sustain the steamfield in the long term. The Lake County Reclaimed Water Project (SEGEP) was inititated in 1997 and provides another source of steamfield replenishment water. The Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project provides another significant step in replenishing the steamfield. In addition, the Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project has been built with capacity to potentially meet virtually all injection water requirements, when combined with these other sources. Figure 2.1 graphically depicts the combination of injection sources.

Brauner, Edwin Jr.; Carlson, Daniel C.

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

Au, M.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Tennessee Valley Authority Smart Modal Area Recharge Terminal (SMART) Station Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) collaborated to design and build solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, referred to as a TVA Smart Modal Area Recharge Terminal, or TVA SMART Station. These stations—which combine photovoltaic generation, EV charging, and stationary battery storage—have been deployed across the State of Tennessee. In specific, the five deployed stations provide a total of 72 kW of solar generation capacity, 36 parking spaces equipped for ...

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

Cooper, Clay A [DRI] [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI] [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI] [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI] [DRI

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

125

Tennessee Valley Authority Smart Modal Area Recharge Terminal (SMART) Station Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the base design for a Smart Modal Area Recharge Terminal (SMART) station. The base design is for a 10-space public vehicle charging facility, incorporating a solar photo-voltaic array/canopy with battery storage. Many of the design recommendations are based on the system design experience of Eaton Corporation in related energy applications and cover safety compliance and field integration. The design effort was conducted not only to develop a base design that can be used by other en...

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

A new high energy stabilized nickel-zinc rechargeable battery system for SLI and EV applications  

SciTech Connect

The nickel oxide-zinc rechargeable battery system is a serious candidate for a high power economical EV battery. The introduction of a new chemistry has resulted in stabilization of the performance of the zinc anode without adversely affecting the nickel electrode. The result has been a major enhancement of the cycle life capability with retention of the remarkably high practical energy density (both gravimetric and volumetric) of the nickel-zinc system. Near term practical applications for both passenger car truck SLI batteries as well as long term deep cycle applications for electric vehicles are discussed.

Reisner, D.; Eisenberg, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

129

Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electroactive polymers are a new generation of 'green' cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We have developed nanocomposites combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide, to improve their high-rate performance. The polymer-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple in-situ polymerization in the presence of graphene sheets. The highly dispersed graphene sheets in the nanocomposite drastically enhanced the electronic conductivity and allowed the electrochemical activity of the polymer cathode to be efficiently utilized. This allows for ultrafast charging and discharging - the composite can deliver more than 100 mAh/g within just a few seconds.

Song, Zhiping; Xu, Terrence (Tianren); Gordin, Mikhail; Jiang, Yingbing; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Donghai

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

Adler, Thomas C. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Cairns, Elton J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Groundwater Heat Pump with Pumping and Recharging in the Same Well in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In China, a new-style groundwater heat pump emerged in 2000. In this system, the production well and the injection well is integrated into one well, which is divided into three parts by clapboards: a low pressure (production) space, a seals section, and a high pressure (injection) space. In contrast to a conventional groundwater heat pump, this new-style groundwater heat pump is named the Groundwater Heat Pump with Pumping and Recharging in the Same Well (GWHPPRSW). Up to now, over 180 projects have been established with a total construction area exceeding 2,500,000 m2. The well structure of GWHPPRSW is depicted. The advantages and disadvantages of the GWHPPRSW are analyzed. The differences between the Pumping & Recharging Well (PRW) and Standing Column Well (SCW) are compared in detail. Potential problems and applicability ranges are pointed out. The investigation on operational status of 11 different types of buildings equipped GWHPPRSW carried out by Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics shows that the mean operation cost per heating area of GWHPPRSW is lower than that of municipal central heating. GWHPPRSW has low initial investment, operates economically and is friendly to the environment. It is especially well suited to places with appropriate hydrogeological conditions and those with groundwater permission from the local government.

Ni, L.; Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

135

Electrochemical processes (i.e. inter-conversion between electric energy and chemical energy) are essential for rechargeable battery materials. Many  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) are essential for rechargeable battery materials. Many conversions between structural phases in the electrodes rechargeable battery cell. Both sensitivity and resolution are expected to be improved significantly with our in situ Li ion motion in a battery cell during the charge/discharge process, thus to understand ionic

Weston, Ken

136

Simulation of Net Infiltration and Potential Recharge Using a Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the development and application of the distributed-parameter watershed model, INFILv3, for estimating the temporal and spatial distribution of net infiltration and potential recharge in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California. The estimates of net infiltration quantify the downward drainage of water across the lower boundary of the root zone and are used to indicate potential recharge under variable climate conditions and drainage basin characteristics. Spatial variability in recharge in the Death Valley region likely is high owing to large differences in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, bedrock permeability, soil thickness, vegetation characteristics, and contributions to recharge along active stream channels. The quantity and spatial distribution of recharge representing the effects of variable climatic conditions and drainage basin characteristics on recharge are needed to reduce uncertainty in modeling ground-water flow. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, developed a regional saturated-zone ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system to help evaluate the current hydrogeologic system and the potential effects of natural or human-induced changes. Although previous estimates of recharge have been made for most areas of the Death Valley region, including the area defined by the boundary of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, the uncertainty of these estimates is high, and the spatial and temporal variability of the recharge in these basins has not been quantified.

J.A. Hevesi; A.L. Flint; L.E. Flint

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Depletion modeling of liquid dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Depletion models for liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs are derived and presented. The depletion models are divided into two categories: confined and unconfined. For both cases depletion models with no recharge (or influx), and depletion models including recharge, are used to match field data from the Svartsengi high temperature geothermal field in Iceland. The influx models included with the mass and energy balances are adopted from the petroleum engineering literature. The match to production data from Svartsengi is improved when influx was included. The Schilthuis steady-state influx gives a satisfactory match. The finite aquifer method of Fetkovitch, and the unsteady state method of Hurst gave reasonable answers, but not as good. The best match is obtained using Hurst simplified solution when lambda = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} m{sup -1}. From the match the cross-sectional area of the aquifer was calculated as 3.6 km{sup 2}. The drawdown was predicted using the Hurst simplified method, and compared with predicted drawdown from a boiling model and an empirical log-log model. A large difference between the models was obtained. The predicted drawdown using the Hurst simplified method falls between the other two. Injection has been considered by defining the net rate as being the production rate minus the injection rate. No thermal of transient effects were taken into account. Prediction using three different net rates shows that the pressure can be maintained using the Hurst simplified method if there is significant fluid reinjection. 32 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs.

Olsen, G.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cr-Ga-N materials for negative electrodes in Li rechargeable batteries : structure, synthesis and electrochemical performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical performances of two ternary compounds (Cr2GaN and Cr3GaN) in the Cr-Ga-N system as possible future anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries were studied. Motivation for this study was dealt in ...

Kim, Miso

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ionic modeling of lithium manganese spinel materials for use in rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand and evaluate materials for use in Li ion rechargeable battery electrodes, we have modeled the crystal structures of various Mn oxide and Li Mn oxide compounds. We have modeled the MnO{sub 2} polymorphs and several spinels with intermediate compositions based on the amount of Li inserted into the tetrahedral site. 3-D representations of the structures provide a basis for identifying site occupancies, coordinations, Mn valence, order-disorder, and potentially new dopants for enhanced cathode behavior. XRD simulations of the crystal structures provide good agreement with observed patterns for synthesized samples. Ionic modeling of these materials consists of an energy minimization approach using Coulombic, repulsive, and van der Waals interactions. Modeling using electronic polarizabilities (shell model) allows a systematic analysis of changes in lattice energy, cell volume, and the relative stability of doped structures using ions such as Al, Ti, Ni, and Co.

Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Doughty, D.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mechanism, we show that a simple single-particle model can accurately explain experimentally observed capacity fade in commercial cells with graphite anodes, and predict future fade based on limited accelerated aging data for short times and elevated temperatures. The theory is extended to porous electrodes, predicting that SEI growth is essentially homogeneous throughout the electrode, even at high rates. The lifetime distribution for a sample of batteries is found to be consistent with Gaussian statistics, as predicted by th...

Pinson, Matthew B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing one or more hydroxides having the formula M(OH), one or more fluorides having the formula MF, and one or more carbonates having the formula M.sub.2 CO.sub.3, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of alkali metals. The electrolyte inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

Adler, Thomas C. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Cairns, Elton J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

146

Develop safe, low-cost method of manufacturing rechargeable, high conductivity lithium batteries. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of much of this work is the rechargeable lithium battery, because of its high energy density, and the use of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE`s) for ease of fabrication and lightness of weight. The classical solid polymer electrolyte is based on the use of salts such as lithium triflate dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or poly(propylene oxide). This specific polymer electrolyte has severe limitations. Poly(ethylene oxide) is a microcrystalline polymer at 25 C, and ion migration occurs only in the 20--30% of the material that is amorphous. Useable conductivities (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm) can be achieved only when the material is heated above 80 C. Two approaches to generate higher electrolyte conductivities at ambient temperatures are being developed. In the first, organic solvents are added to the polymer to plasticize it and dissolve the microcrystallites. This increases the conductivity but raises the possibility of fires if the battery casing ruptures during high charge or discharge conditions or when the device is punctured by impact. The alternative is to design new polymers that are good solid electrolyte media but which are completely amorphous and have low glass transition temperatures. Such a polymer is MEEP (poly[bis(methoxyethoxy)phosphazene]), first synthesized in the author`s laboratories. The main objective was to develop crosslinking methods for MEEP which could be used on a mass production scale to produce thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. A further objective was to assemble working energy storage devices to investigate the feasibility that this system could be developed commercially.

Allcock, H.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

148

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

149

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

150

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

CO2/oxalate Cathodes as Safe and Efficient Alternatives in High Energy Density Metal-Air Type Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present theoretical analysis on why and how rechargeable metal-air type batteries can be made significantly safer and more practical by utilizing CO2/oxalate conversions instead of O2/peroxide or O2/hydroxide ones, in the positive electrode. Metal-air batteries, such as the Li-air one, may have very large energy densities, comparable to that of gasoline, theoretically allowing for long range all-electric vehicles. There are, however, still significant challenges, especially related to the safety of their underlying chemistries, the robustness of their recharging and the need of supplying high purity O2 from air to the battery. We point out that the CO2/oxalate reversible electrochemical conversion is a viable alternative of the O2-based ones, allowing for similarly high energy density and almost identical voltage, while being much safer through the elimination of aggressive oxidant peroxides and the use of thermally stable, non-oxidative and environmentally benign oxalates instead.

Nemeth, Karoly

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Toward commercializable microphase-separating copolymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microphase-separating copolymers have been shown to possess the electrical properties of a polymer liquid and the mechanical properties of a solid. In the past, these materials had to be produced via anionic methods that ...

Trapa, Patrick E. (Patrick Ervin), 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

156

Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for locations such as the Spring Mountains. Although this model is preliminary and uncalibrated, it provides a first approximation of the spatial distribution of net infiltration for the Death Valley region under current climatic conditions.

Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

157

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

158

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

162

RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

Batzer, T.H.

1962-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

164

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Aging of SRC liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of SRC?LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30?70 blend of SRC?I with SRC?LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper

T. Hara; L. Jones; K. C. Tewari; N. C. Li

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Radioactive Liquid Processing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents guidance for utility liquid radwaste processing program managers. The document is a summation of utility and vendor processing experience, and is intended for use as a tool to enhance liquid radwaste processing programs. Utilization of this information will result in optimized system performance, and a reduction in waste volumes and program costs.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

169

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

171

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

172

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

176

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a higher quality Final Report with completion of the final 2 phases of the project.

Morgan, David

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

Jackson, Jr., Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (Augusta, SC); Phifer, Mark A. (Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 2.1.2 Lithium ion Battery2.2 Schematic of lithium ion battery operating principles (be rechargeable. The lithium ion battery is often referred

Malati, Peter Moneir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicolás

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Liquid level controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Natural-gas liquids  

SciTech Connect

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a day from 30 billion cu ft of natural gas processed in more than 600 gasoline plants. Although casinghead gasoline first was used for automobile fuel, natural-gas liquids now are used for fuel, industrial solvents, aviation blending stock, synthetic rubber, and many other petrochemical uses. Production from the individual plants is shipped by tank car, tank truck, pipeline, and tankers all over the world. Most of the natural-gas liquids come from wet natural gas which contains a considerable quantity of vapor, ranging from 0.5 to 6 gal/Mcf, and some particularly rich gases contain even more which can be liquefied. Nonassociated gas is generally clean, with a comparatively small quantity of gasoline, 0.1 to 0.5 gas/Mcf. The natural-gas liquids branch of the industry is build around the condensation of vapors in natural gas. Natural-gas liquids are processed either by the compression method or by adsorption processes.

Blackstock, W.B.; McCullough, G.W.; McCutchan, R.C.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology SolidEnergy Systems developed cutting-edge battery technologies to meet the world's growing energy storage demand. The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) rechargeable lithium battery has four times the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery. Learn More NuMat Technologies, Inc. Northwestern University NuMat Technologies, Inc is a cleantech spin-out that computationally designs and synthesizes high-performing nanomaterials for gas storage and separation applications. NuMat has developed materials that will fundamentally change the economics of gas storage in natural gas vehicles - supporting the gradual displacement of foreign oil. Learn More Mesdi Systems University of Central Florida Mesdi Systems developed revolutionary equipment for manufacturing

186

NuMat Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology SolidEnergy Systems developed cutting-edge battery technologies to meet the world's growing energy storage demand. The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) rechargeable lithium battery has four times the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery. Learn More Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process, termed "CANDO", for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen. The CANDO technology improves the efficiency of nitrogen treatment by lowering energy inputs and enabling energy recovery from waste nitrogen. Learn More Mesdi Systems University of Central Florida Mesdi Systems developed revolutionary equipment for manufacturing

187

Mesdi Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology SolidEnergy Systems developed cutting-edge battery technologies to meet the world's growing energy storage demand. The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) rechargeable lithium battery has four times the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery. Learn More Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process, termed "CANDO", for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen. The CANDO technology improves the efficiency of nitrogen treatment by lowering energy inputs and enabling energy recovery from waste nitrogen. Learn More NuMat Technologies, Inc. Northwestern University NuMat Technologies, Inc is a cleantech spin-out that computationally

188

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology SolidEnergy Systems developed cutting-edge battery technologies to meet the world's growing energy storage demand. The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) rechargeable lithium battery has four times the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery. Learn More Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process, termed "CANDO", for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen. The CANDO technology improves the efficiency of nitrogen treatment by lowering energy inputs and enabling energy recovery from waste nitrogen. Learn More NuMat Technologies, Inc. Northwestern University NuMat Technologies, Inc is a cleantech spin-out that computationally

189

National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology SolidEnergy Systems developed cutting-edge battery technologies to meet the world's growing energy storage demand. The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) rechargeable lithium battery has four times the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery. Learn More Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process, termed "CANDO", for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen. The CANDO technology improves the efficiency of nitrogen treatment by lowering energy inputs and enabling energy recovery from waste nitrogen. Learn More NuMat Technologies, Inc. Northwestern University NuMat Technologies, Inc is a cleantech spin-out that computationally

190

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

191

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

192

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

193

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

In situ and ex situ spectroelectrochemical and X-ray absorption studies on rechargeable, chemically-modified and other MnO{sub 2} materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined series of in situ and ex situ UV spectroelectrochemical and X-ray absorption studies have been made on MnO{sub 2}, chemically-modified by small amounts of Bi(III), and comparatively on other MnO{sub 2} materials such as a blank (Bi-free) and {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}. These procedures are applied in order to follow the oxidation-states of Bi and of Mn during the course of discharge and recharge of MnO{sub 2} as a battery cathode material, and the extents of rechargeability that can be achieved with such materials. Presence of Bi appears to provide a preferred ``heterogeneous`` discharge/recharge pathway involving a soluble Mn(III) intermediate, over the alternative ``electron-proton`` hopping, solid-state mechanism. From XAS results, it is concluded that presence of Bi, although not affecting the O-coordination, does influence the Mn-Mn coordination, determining the way the MnO{sub 2} coordination octahedra are connected.

Conway, B.E.; Qu, D.; McBreen, J. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as they’re forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of a manganese dioxide electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn alkaline battery environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electronic and structural aspects of a MnO{sub 2} electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn battery environment have been investigated by in situ Mn K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The relative amplitudes of the three major Fourier transform shells of the EXAFS (extended XAFS) function of the rechargeable MnO{sub 2} electrode in the undischarged state were found to be similar to those found for ramsdellite, a MnO{sub 2} polymorph with substantial corner-sharing linkages among the basic MnO{sub 6} octahedral units. The analyses of the background-subtracted pre-edge peaks and absorption edge regions for the nominally 1-e{sup {minus}} discharged electrode were consistent with Mn{sup 3+} as being the predominant constituent species, rather than a mixture of Mn{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} sites. Furthermore, careful inspection of both the XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS indicated that the full recharge of MnO, which had been previously discharged either by a 1- or 2-equivalent corner-sharing linkages compared to the original undischarged MnO{sub 2}.

Mo, Y.; Hu, Y.; Bae, I.T.; Miller, B.; Scherson, D.A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Antonio, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Energy Basics: Solar Liquid Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Liquid Heating Solar liquid heating systems use a collector with a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene...

200

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

202

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

204

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

205

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

206

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic, Slag and Refractory Reactions with Liquid Metals - Refining, Evaporation and Gas/Metal Reactions - Fundamentals of Reactions involving Liquid ...

207

Available Technologies: Sugar Extraction and Ionic Liquid ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; Recovery of products using biphasic liquid-liquid extraction; Recovery and ...

208

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

210

Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in Taylor Flows with complex liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Universitá di Pisa Facoltá di Ingegneria Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali Relazione di tirocinio in Ingegneria Chimica Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in… (more)

ALBERINI, FEDERICO

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids and lithium batterymaterials  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion insertion into electrode materials is commonly used in rechargeable battery technology. The insertion implies changes in both the crystal structure and the electronic structure of the electrode material. Side-reactions may occur on the surface of the electrode which is exposed to the electrolyte and form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The understanding of these processes is of great importance for improving battery performance. The chemical and physical properties of water and alcohols are complicated by the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Various experimental techniques have been used to study geometrical structures and different models have been proposed to view the details of how these liquids are geometrically organized by hydrogen bonding. However, very little is known about the electronic structure of these liquids, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools. In this thesis examples of studies of lithium battery electrodes and liquid systems using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy will be presented. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been used to accomplish selective excitation, in terms of energy and polarization. The electronic structure of graphite electrodes has been studied, before and after lithium intercalation. Changes in the electronic structure upon lithiation due to transfer of electrons into the graphite {pi}-bands have been observed. Transfer of electrons in to the 3d states of transition metal oxides upon lithiation have been studied, through low energy excitations as dd- and charge transfer-excitations. A SEI was detected on cycled graphite electrodes. By the use of selective excitation different carbon sites were probed in the SEI. The local electronic structure of water, methanol and mixtures of the two have been examined using a special liquid cell, to separate the liquid from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Results from the study of liquid water showed a strong influence on the 3a1 molecular orbital and orbital mixing between water molecules upon hydrogen bonding. Apart from the four-hydrogen-bonding structure in water, a structure where one hydrogen bond is broken could be separated and identified. The soft x-ray emission study of methanol showed the existence of ring and chain formations in the liquid phase and the dominating structures are formed of 6 and 8 molecules. Upon mixing of the two liquids, a segregation at the molecular level was found and the formation of new structures, which could explain the unexpected low increase of the entropy.

Augustsson, Andreas

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

213

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

Teitel, R.J.

1959-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

215

Physical Properties of Liquid Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a carrier gas through the liquid held in ... of decomposition products, dissolved gases, and other ... measure thermal stability, a gas chromatograph/mass ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

216

Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for fineness and uniformity of graduation; for cleanliness of the liquid and the capillary bore; for freedom from moisture, gas bubbles, and cracks in ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

liquid fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date...

218

HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and is the cross correlation coefficient ... a NIST Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Calibration Facility ... FED2004-56790, 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering ...

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Beneficial effects of groundwater entry into liquid-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In all active liquid-dominated geothermal systems there is continuous circulation of mass and transfer of heat, otherwise they would slowly cool and fade away. In the natural state these systems are in dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding colder groundwater aquifers. The ascending geothermal fluids cool conductively, boil, or mix with groundwaters, and ultimately may discharge at the surface as fumaroles or hot springs. With the start of fluid production and the lowering of reservoir pressure, the natural equilibrium is disrupted and cooler groundwater tends to enter the reservoir. Improperly constructed or damaged wells, and wells located near the margins of the geothermal system, exhibit temperature reductions (and possibly scaling from mixing of chemically distinct fluids) as the cooler-water moves into the reservoir. These negative effects, especially in peripheral wells are, however, compensated by the maintenance of reservoir pressure and a reduction in reservoir boiling that might result in mineral precipitation in the formation pores and fractures. The positive effect of cold groundwater entry on the behavior of liquid-dominated system is illustrated by using simple reservoir models. The simulation results show that even though groundwater influx into the reservoir causes cooling of fluids produced from wells located near the cold-water recharge area, it also reduces pressure drawdown and boiling in the exploited zone, and sweeps the heat stored in the reservoir rocks toward production wells, thus increasing the productive life of the wells and field. 9 refs.

Lippmann, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Truesdell, A.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

222

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

223

Americas are an important market for liquid fuels and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natura ...

224

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Analysis & Projections - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

225

Liquid convective diodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid convective diodes are analyzed by experiments and theory. The experiments include flow visualization and temperature measurements. The dynamic behavior of a diode is analyzed and explained. Performance of three diodes of different designs that were installed in a test cell this past winter showed an average 50% thermal efficiency over a three-month period. If only the performance of the most efficient diode among the three is considered, it is expected that this figure may be increased to 60% or possibly 65% with some design improvements. A simple analytical model, which was developed earlier, is discussed. A comparison of reservoir temperatures from one of the test cell diodes with predicted temperatures from the model showed excellent agreement. The good agreement indicates that the model contains the elements that are necessary to accurately predict site-specific diode performance.

Jones, G.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Supported liquid membrane system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Liquid-permeable electrode  

SciTech Connect

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, G.R.

1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Preparation and purification of ionic liquids and precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially pure ionic liquids and ionic liquid precursors were prepared. The substantially pure ionic liquid precursors were used to prepare substantially pure ionic liquids.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

231

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels per Day)

232

U.S. Exports of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Exports; Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Supply and Disposition;

233

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

235

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Superconductors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Index Next Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen Superconductors What happens when a magnet is placed on a superconductor? Play the video to find...

237

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the...

238

A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

^•BsêS A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t • > f «lf ,«f X'i£ Si -tel A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t V« Berkeley,

Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faidas, Homer (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

THE LIQUID METAL LINEAR GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In the utilization of nuclear heat energy, liquid metal could be used in a vapor cycle to propel a column of liquid metal in a jet pump or injector where electrical energy could be extracted by means of a MHD arrangement. The recirculating system is being studied as a means of increasing the efficiency. Results are described briefly for a preliminary run made using steam and water; the efficiency of conversion of steam kinetic energy to liquid kinetic energy was approximates 20%. The possible causes of the low efficiency and some of the methods for decreasing hydraulic losses are outlined. (D.L.C.)

Sowa, E.S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Controlled release liquid dosage formulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

Benton, Ben F. (Centerburg, OH); Gardner, David L. (Bellville, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Introducing the PilGRIM: a processor for executing lazy functional languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processor designs specialized for functional languages received very little attention in the past 20 years. The potential for exploiting more parallelism and the developments in hardware technology, ask for renewed investigation of this topic. In this ...

Arjan Boeijink; Philip K. F. Hölzenspies; Jan Kuper

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Essays on liquidity and information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the interaction of liquidity and incomplete or asymmetric information. In Chapter 1, I study a dynamic economy with illiquidity due to adverse selection in financial markets. Investment is undertaken ...

Kurlat, Pablo (Pablo Daniel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

249

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

251

Studies on a novel secondary battery: MH/MnO{sub 2} rechargeable battery. 2: Characteristics of the MnO{sub 2} cathode  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of the MnO{sub 2} cathode of a MH/MnO{sub 2} battery have been studied by cyclic voltammetry, x-ray diffraction, and potentiostatic techniques. It was found that the addition of Ni(OH){sub 2} to the MnO{sub 2} can prevent overcharge of the MnO{sub 2} and decrease the imbalance of the charge/discharge states of the positive and negative electrodes, raise the working voltage of the MH/MnO{sub 2} cell, and prevent the formation of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, thereby improving the rechargeability of the MnO{sub 2} electrode. The discharge mechanism is also discussed.

Xia, X.; Guo, Z. [Xinjiang Univ., Urumqi, Xinjiang (China). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Liquid membrane purification of biogas  

SciTech Connect

Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

255

Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction Centrifugal Contactor Separators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine the effective wetted area and local liquid holdup for an air-water contactor containing structured communication errors. 2.3. Air-Water Contactor. The air-water column used for the imaging studies, shown and the other for vapor flow into the contactor. The column base is simply clamped to the turntable. Four

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

256

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

257

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Pub - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

258

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

259

Domestic supply of liquid fuels projected to increase, resulting ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

260

Liquid fuels production in Middle Eastern and North African ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Liquid Fuels Graphic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

26. World Liquids Supply in three Cases, 2006 and 2030 Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2006-2030 Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector,...

262

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

263

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

264

Nucleation and Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments on a refrigerating catalyst?liquid nitrogen (LN)?in different cloud chambers and their results. The nucleation threshold temperature of liquid nitrogen is 0°C, and when the temperature less than ?2°C, the ice ...

Cao Xuecheng; Wang Weimin

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Spin liquids, exotic phases and phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spin liquid, or featureless Mott-Insulator, is a theoretical state of matter firstly motivated from study on High-Tc superconductor. The most striking property of spin liquids is that they do not break any physical symmetry, ...

Ran, Ying

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Limit order markets, liquidity, and price impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I explore various aspects of market liquidity and analyze its effect on asset prices. First, in a model of a limit order market I explain how to define liquidity and derive a price impact function. Second, ...

Rosu, Ioanid, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Essays in macroeconomics : liquidity and taxation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis consists of three independent chapters on the Macroeconomics of Liquidity and Taxation. The first chapter studies how concerns about future funding difficulties and liquidity dry ups influence investment ...

Iachan, Felipe Saraiva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch employing flashlamps. 2 figs.

Christophorou, L.; Faidas, H.

1989-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Measuring Devices: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid-Measuring Devices. Intro about it. EPOs, Field Manual, Training Materials & Presentaions, Newsletter Articles, Other ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

270

Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid Unsaturated Flow ...

271

Method for enhanced atomization of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum Foams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

273

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

274

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

Wear reduction systems liquid piston ring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving an acceptable wear rate for the cylinder liner, piston, and piston rings in a coal/water-slurry-fueled engine that utilized the concept of a liquid piston ring above the conventional piston rings and to identify technical barriers and required research and development. The study included analytical modeling of the system, a bench study of the fluid motion in the liquid piston ring, and a single-cylinder test rig for wear comparison. A system analysis made on the different variations of the liquid supply system showed the desirability of the once-through version from the standpoint of system simplicity. The dynamics of the liquid ring were modeled to determine the important design parameters that influence the pressure fluctuation in the liquid ring during a complete engine cycle and the integrity of the liquid ring. This analysis indicated the importance of controlling heat transfer to the liquid ring through piston and liner to avoid boiling the liquid. A conceptual piston design for minimizing heat transfer is presented in this report. Results showed that the liquid piston ring effectively reduced the solid particles on the wall by scrubbing, especially in the case where a surfactant was added to the water. The wear rates were reduced by a factor of 2 with the liquid ring. However, leakage of the contaminated liquid ring material past the top ring limited the effectiveness of the liquid ring concept. 8 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

Raymond, R.J.; Chen, T.N.; DiNanno, L.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

Alvarez, Joseph L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

280

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Novel synthesis process and structure refinements of Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12} for rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Well crystallized Li4Mn5O12 was prepared from LiOAc-Mn(NO3)2 under flowing oxygen. Rietveld refinement with XRD and neutron powder diffraction indicated that Li4Mn5O12 has cubic spinel structure in which the Li ions occupy both the tetrahedral sites 8a and part of the octahedral sites 16d but not the 16c sites, while all the Mn ions occupy the 16d sites of the space group Fd{bar 3}m. The lattice parameter was found to be sensitive to synthesis temperature owing to variation in Mn valence. Sample prepared at 500 C showed better electrode performance: a rechargeable capacity of 135 mAh/g for the cell Li/Li4Mn5O12 at cell voltages 2.5-3.6 V. It is found that Mn oxidation state in Li4Mn5O12 has a strong effect on electrode performance of Li/Li4Mn5O12 cell.

Takada, Toshimi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Akiba, Etsuo [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Izumi, Fujio [National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan); Chakoumakos, B.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fractionation and Removal of Solutes from Ionic Liquids ...  

Recovers biomass solids from ionic liquids without formation of gel phase intermediates; Tested on several ionic liquids; Applications and Industries.

287

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are molten salts with high ionic conductivity,ionic liquids are aprotic molten salts at room temperatures

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

289

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

Bell, N.E.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Method of foaming a liquid metal  

SciTech Connect

A method for promoting the formation of a foam and for improving bubble retention and foam lifetimes in liquid metal NaK or sodium used to generate power in two-phase liquid metal MHD generators is described. In a two-phase liquid metal MHD generator, a compressed, hot, inert gas is used as the thermodynamic working fluid to electrically drive a conductive liquid metal such as NaK, sodium or tin through the generator channel. The gas and liquid are mixed together just as the mixture enters the generator channel so that the expansion of the gas drives the conductive liquid across the magnetic field, generating electrical power. The two phases are then separated and returned to the mixer through different loops.

Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1978-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the nonabrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the nonabrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Liquid Desiccant Drying of Thermoreversibly Gelcast Bodies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Liquid Desiccant Drying of Thermoreversibly Gelcast Bodies. Author(s), Noah O Shanti, Katherine T Faber. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Noah ...

295

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Cation Ionic Liquids Hideaki Shirota, Alison M. Funston, James F. Wishart, Edward W. Castner, Jr. J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184512 (2005). Find paper...

296

ADSORPTION SEPARATION PROCESSES FOR IONIC LIQUID CATALYTIC ...  

Presently disclosed are methods and apparatus for separation of reaction products from reaction mixtures in an ionic liquid catalysis process, particularly in ...

297

Brillouin Scattering and Relaxation in Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectrum of light inelastically scattered from density fluctuations is considered both for nonrelaxing and relaxing fluids. When the thermal conductivity of the liquid is small

C. J. Montrose; V. A. Solovyev; T. A. Litovitz

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2011,"6301979" ,"Release Date:","81...

299

Ultrasonic Liquid Level Monitor - Available Technologies - PNNL  

The ultrasonic liquid level monitor is a single transducer mounted to the outside surface of a tank and an estimation algorithm that relies on the ...

300

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids  

pot reactor) CHEMICALS Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids ORNL-2213 Contact: Greg Flickinger Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box ...

302

Modeling Magnetically Excited and Magnetically Damped Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamic interaction of the turbulent flow with the oscillating interface needs to be accounted if it is required to levitate liquid metal of up to few kilograms ...

303

Liquid Phase Sintering of Nickel Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

does not seem to be a requisite, the liquid phase being responsible for particle ..... using standard silicate bonded casting molds rather than alum.ina. 413 ...

304

Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrokinetic power generation using liquid water microjetscalculations of power generation and conversion efficiency.for electrokinetic power generation. By creating a jet of

Duffin, Andrew M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment.

Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels B. Fuel Ethanol Production and Market Conditions Ethanol is consumed as fuel in the United States primarily as "gasohol"--a blend ...

307

Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry...

308

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids  

Using molecular dynamics simulations, the researchers found that particles are trapped in liquid environments when appropriate AC/DC electric fields ...

310

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2011,"6301979" ,"Release...

311

Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Liquid flow through a reactive packed bed.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The flow phenomena of liquid iron and slag in the lower zone of an iron making blast furnace influences the permeability of the coke bed,… (more)

George, Hazem Labib

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

314

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

315

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Rechargeable Batteries: Basics, Pitfalls, and Safe Recharging Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This overview of charging methods and current battery technologies gives you a better understanding of the batteries used in portable devices. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li+) battery chemistries are discussed. The article also describes a product that protects single-cell lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

\ UNCLASSIFIED ' ;c ,. ' UNCLASSIFIED AECU-29'79 Subject Category: PHYSICS UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TAYLOR INSTABILITY OF INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUIDS BY Enrico Fermi John von Neumann , _ November 1955 [ TIS Issuance D.a&?] Los Alamos Scientific Labqratqry Los Alamos, New Mexico Technical Information Service, Ooic Ridge, Tennessee DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available document. original I , The date for Part 1 is September 4, 1951. The date for Part 2 is August 19, 1953. Work performed under Contract PTo. W-7405-Eng-36. The Atomic Energy Commission makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy or usefulness of the lnformatlon or statements contained

320

Theoretical model of liquid metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory for calculating the bulk properties of metals and other materials is described. The approach is based upon the fluid perturbation theory of Kerley and the electronic structure model of Liberman. Application of the theory involves three steps. First, the zero Kelvin isotherm of the solid is constructed from electronic structure calculations, experimental data, or both. This curve contains information about the effective interactions between atoms in the ground electronic state. Next, the cold curve is combined with perturbation theory to compute contributions from thermal motion of the atoms to the liquid properties. Finally, contributions from thermal electron excitation are computed using the electronic structure model. This paper shows that theory agrees well with experimental data for xenon and iron.

Kerley, G.I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

322

Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990  

SciTech Connect

Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.

Kim, J.M. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hashemi, A. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media Abstract Liquid saturation and gas-liquid interfacial area the specific gas-liquid interfacial area from the area under the primarydrainage branch of the Seff -h

Weisbrod, Noam

324

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells â–  Hydrogen Energy â–  Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US â–  Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

325

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

326

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

327

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

LSA large area silicon sheet task continuous liquid feed Czochralski growth. Quarterly report, July-September 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project, currently in its second phase, is directed toward the design and development of equipment and processes to demonstrate continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method, suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells. Continuous is defined as the growth of at least 150 kg of monosilicon crystal, 150 mm in diameter, from one growth container. The approach to meeting this goal is to develop a furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a meltdown system with a continuous solid silicon fedd methanism and a liquid transfer system, with associated automatic feedback controls. In order to establish process parameters for conventional CZ growth of 150 mm ingots, several runs with 12-kg charges were performed, and solidification rates of 2.7 to 3.5 kg/hr were achieved. Significant progress has been made in the development of a new melt transfer system. Basic material problems relating to the high temperature environment were solved. The cost of the new transfer mechanism is lowered substantially through multiple use of the major system components. Manufacturing of parts and installation of the polyrod feed mechanism for continuous recharging of the meltdown chamber were completed together with the feedback control system which uses the melt level sensor belonging to the growth crucible as input. The design for a continuous particle feeder into the meltdown chamber has been completed, and the fabrication of this system is currently in progress. Several short melt replenishment runs with 5 to 8 kg of continuous melt transfer were performed in an effort to develop feedback control systems for solid rod and particle feeding as well as to establish the permissible pressure region in which melt transfer can be assured.

Walters, D.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid absorber with its condenser and surge volume and theMICE liquid absorber, the condenser, and the absorber 4 Ka liquid surge tank (with condenser). The heat leak estimate

Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

employed to explore in detail fundamental interfacial processes. Using current-sensing atomic forcemicroscopy (CSAFM), small variations in the electronic conductance of battery...

331

RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

Cairns, Elton J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

October 1977-September 1978, Argonne National Lab Report 78-New York, 1976, p. 473. Argonne National Laboratory, AnnualOctober 1978-March 1979, Argonne National Lab Report No. 70-

Cairns, Elton J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Gas-liquid interaction in the liquid breakup region of twin-fluid atomization Abstract The interaction between air and liquid in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-liquid interaction in the liquid breakup region of twin-fluid atomization U. Shavit Abstract for the gas. High gas-to-liquid relative velocity results in an atomization mode which is more ef, drop size is smaller, and spray angle is wider. The in¯uence of the surrounding gas jet on the liquid

Shavit, Uri

334

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade...

335

Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

336

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade...

337

Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

338

Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) No Data Available For This Series - ...

339

California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

340

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

342

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

343

Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

344

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Lower 48 States Natural Gas Liquids Proved...

345

Gas-liquid separator and method of operation - Energy ...  

A system for gas-liquid separation in electrolysis processes is provided. The system includes a first compartment having a liquid carrier including a ...

346

California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

347

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Natural Gas Liquids Proved...

348

Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

349

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

350

Ohio Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Ohio Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

351

Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

352

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Montana Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

353

Computationally Probing the Cybotactic Region in Gas-Expanded Liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas-expanded liquids (GXLs) are novel and environmentally benign solvent systems with applications in reactions, separations, nanotechnology, drug delivery, and microelectronics. GXLs are liquid mixtures consisting… (more)

Shukla, Charu L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Florida Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

355

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

356

Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

357

New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

358

New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

359

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

360

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

362

Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

363

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

364

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

365

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Proved...

366

California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)...

367

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

368

Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

369

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

370

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

371

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

372

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

373

Louisiana--North Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

374

Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

375

Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

376

Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

377

West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

378

New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

379

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

380

Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

382

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

383

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

384

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Michigan Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

385

California--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...

386

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

387

Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

388

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

389

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

390

New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

391

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

392

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...

393

California--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...

394

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

395

North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

396

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

397

Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

Boyd, Erin M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

399

Long-term Outlook for Oil and Other Liquid Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels, natural gas liquids, and crude oil production are key sources of increased domestic liquids supply. Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011. Gulf of Mexico.

400

LR: the Liquids Reflectometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Liquids Reflectometer at SNS Liquids Reflectometer The reflectometry beam line at SNS consists of two separate instruments sharing the same primary shutter, one specialized in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana)...

402

Natural gas liquids consumption, production, and reserves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas liquids are condensates that occur during production and liquids recovered during processing, and they are classified as lease condensate or natural gas plant liquids (NGPL). There has been a decline in total domestic production, but an increase in ethane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during the past decade. Statistical tables illustrate trends in the production of NGPLs and liquefied refinery gases (LRG), imports and exports, and marketing and sales. World production data show that, while the US now produces close to 41% of world output, the production trends in other areas are increasing as ours decline. 10 tables. (DCK)

Sala, D.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

403

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Lyczkowski, Robert W. (Darien, IL); Wang, Chi-Sheng (Woodridge, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

407

Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Yen, S.C. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative nonequilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

David T. Limmer; David Chandler

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate u...

Limmer, David T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

411

LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidMaize LLC LiquidMaize LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidMaize, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80237 Product LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants within existing cattle feed-yards and dairy operations. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

412

The diverse world of liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

slime, laundry detergent, textile fibers such as silk and Kevlar, crude oil, insect wings, mineral at Kent State University in Ohio. Liquid crystals are all around us: in high-strength plas- tics, snail

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

413

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ionic Liquids Based on Polynitrile Anions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. Marin, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 7084-7094 (2013). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: Ionic liquids (IL) are being...

415

Dynamics of Fast Reactions in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in "Ionic Liquids IIIA: Properties and Structure" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 901, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2005, pp. x-x., in...

416

Synthesis of ionic liquids - Energy Innovation Portal  

New Ionic Liquids with ... was made with United States Government support under Contract No. DE-AC05-960R 22725 between the United States Department of Energy and ...

417

GAS-LIQUID-SOLID CAVITATION CHEMISTRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this chapter we briefly evaluate the effects of cavitation on the gas-liquid-solid ..... synthesis of A-type zeolites by enabling cheap natural minerals such as kaolin to ..... the aldehyde substrate is adsorbed, whereas under sonochemical ...

418

Impulse breakdown delay in liquid dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical images of streamers, revealing the mechanisms behind impulse breakdown in liquid dielectrics, are presented. Streamers lead to electrical breakdown by forming paths, capable of carrying large current amplitudes ...

Jadidian, Jouya

419

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Biomass to Liquids Hydrogen-from-Coal RD&D ENERGY ANALYSIS About Us Search Products Contacts SMART GRID ANALYSIS BASELINE STUDIES QUALITY GUIDELINES NETL-RUA About NETL-RUA...

420

Erosion of Ferrous Alloys by Liquid Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the degradation of ferrous alloys under the demands of liquid metal transfer conditions ... (by exposure to flowing aluminum) and response to thermal cycling (by cyclic exposure to static aluminum) ... 2008 Global Anode Effect Survey Results.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

On strategic default and liquidity risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How does the uncertain provision of external finance affect investment projects' default probability and liquidity risk? In this paper, I study the strategic interaction between many creditors and a single borrower in the context of a two...

Tambakis, Demosthenes N

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

SRS Liquid Waste Program Partnering Agreement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

We the members of the  SRS Liquid Waste Partnering Team do hereby mutually agree to work in a collaborative and cooperative manner through open communication and coordination with team members, and...

425

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address P.O. Box 76 Place McArthur, Ohio Zip 45651 Sector Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services Phone number...

427

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

429

Liquid cooling for 3D-ICs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigated micro-channel based liquid cooling in 3D-ICs. Specifically, the structure of 3D-IC with micro-channels, and its thermal/hydrodynamic modeling are studied. Also, the design challenges of micro-channel heat sinks in 3D-IC are summarized. Keywords: microchannel heat sink, liquid cooling, 3D-IC, thermal modeling, hydrodynamic modeling

Bing Shi; Ankur Srivastava

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Analysis of Hybrid Liquid Desiccant Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dehumidification technology is being investigated for potential savings in building air conditioning systems. The potential for savings lies in separating the sensible and latent cooling loads to more efficiently address the combined conditioning needs of the space. Two DuCool liquid desiccant systemsDuTreat and DuHandlingwere tested in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Knoxville, Tennessee psychrometric chambers. The DuCool uses an internal vapor compression system to regenerate a liquid desi...

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

Process for preparing a liquid fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

A process for preparing a liquid fuel composition which comprises liquefying coal, separating a mixture of phenols from said liquefied coal, converting said phenols to the corresponding mixture of anisoles, subjecting at least a portion of the remainder of said liquefied coal to hydrotreatment, subjecting at least a portion of said hydrotreated liquefied coal to reforming to obtain reformate and then combining at least a portion of said anisoles and at least a portion of said reformate to obtain said liquid fuel composition.

Singerman, Gary M. (Monroeville, PA)

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

Anderson, D.F.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

434

Sensitivity testing of liquid high explosives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a test procedure for a liquid high explosive. The liquid to be tested is NTN, a mixture of nitromethane, tetranitomethane, and 1-nitropropane in 52, 33.3, and 14.7 weight per cent. The test is to study the sensitivity of the explosive to shock by firing it in projectiles from a M1A1 155mm howlitzer, with a charge such that it will not exceed 16,500 g`s acceleration.

O`Connell, L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Simulations of ionic liquids near charged walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and anions (cf molten NaCl). • Electrostatic interactions are very important. • The liquid is easily polarised • But solvent cations and anions are larger than Na+ or Cl?, so dispersion interactions are also important They are interesting solvents as well... as being important. examples - dimethylimidazolium salts [dmim][Cl] and [dmim][PF6] butylmethylimidazolium salts [bmim][Cl], [bmim][N(SO2CF3)2], [bmim][PF6], tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkylphosphonium salts. [dmim]+ 22. Computer simulation of liquids...

Lynden-Bell, Ruth

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

436

Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

Anderson, David F. (Wheaton, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Microscopic calculation of the free energy cost for activated transport in glass-forming liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activated transport in liquids—supercooled liquids in particular—occurs via mutual nucleation of alternative

Pyotr Rabochiy; Vassiliy Lubchenko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Huagen Peng Staff Page  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) rechargeable lithium batteries offer several potential advantages over current battery technologies based on liquid ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

RI-:ClPIl<:NT:King County U.S. DEPARTlIIENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

rm nt Instrumnt Numbr NEPA Control Number CID Numbr DE-FOA-OOOOO13 DE-EEOOOO854 EEO Basd on my nview oftbe information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Complianc...

442

The Glass Transition and Liquid-Gas Spinodal Boundaries of Metastable Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A liquid can exist under conditions of thermodynamic stability or metastability within boundaries defined by the liquid-gas spinodal and the glass transition line. The relationship between these boundaries has been investigated previously using computer simulations, the energy landscape formalism, and simplified model calculations. We calculate these stability boundaries semi-analytically for a model glass forming liquid, employing accurate liquid state theory and a first-principles approach to the glass transition. These boundaries intersect at a finite temperature, consistent with previous simulation-based studies.

S. S. Ashwin; Gautam I. Menon; Srikanth Sastry

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While bank lending may fall in response to shocks to their liquidity, to what extent are such shocks transmitted to borrowing …rms? Tracing such transmission mechanisms has proven di ¢ cult in the past due to a lack of micro data linking banks to borrowing …rms and identi…cation concerns. This paper uses di¤erential liquidity shocks arising from unanticipated nuclear tests in Pakistan in 1998, and a dataset linking over 18; 000 …rms to all 145 banks to understand the full transmission mechanism. We isolate the causal impact of the bank lending channel by showing that for the same …rm borrowing from two di¤erent banks, its loan from the bank experiencing a 1 % larger decline in liquidity drops by an additional 0.6%. The liquidity shock also leads to large declines in the probability of continued lending to old clients, and extending credit to new ones. However, we …nd that …rms di¤er in their ability to compensate the bank lending channel shock. Larger …rms, while also facing a bank lending channel, are able to o¤set the adverse e¤ect by borrowing more from more liquid banks. Smaller …rms on the other hand are entiely unable to hedge out the bank lending channels. Consequently, a negative bank liquidity shock increases the

Asim Ijaz Khwaja; Atif Mian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

SciTech Connect

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Liquid effluents program FY 1997 multi-year work plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides the technical baseline and work breakdown structure for the liquid effluents program.

Green, F.T.

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, or Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, Natural Gas, or Liquid Hydrocarbon Flows Special Tests. Fluid Metrology ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

448

ccsd00001732, Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental waveccsd­00001732, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light

449

Collection of liquid from below-ground location  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA); Alexander, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle- beds using perforated plates devices and a liquid collector were used to study the influence of the gas flow rate on liquid in liquid distribution were evidenced. Indeed, the obtained results show that the influence of gas flow rate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

455

Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

1987-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

456

Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR Carsten obtained from high­temperature 77 Se NMR studies of molten samples. In materials having As contents simulations. At high temperatures (1.5�melting Temperature), only a single averaged 77 Se NMR signal

Rosenhahn, Bodo

458

Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR Carsten obtained from high-temperature 77 Se NMR studies of molten samples. In materials having As contents simulations. At high temperatures (1.5melting Temperature), only a single averaged 77 Se NMR signal

459

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

Chapter 1: Introduction Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) is a promising technology to separate the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was studied experimentally in a countercurrently operated pilot scale cascade of six Centrifugal Contactor to scale-up. Here, we report on the use of Centrifugal Contactor Separator (CCS) equipment for ELLE,5-dinitrobenzoyl-(R),(S)-leucine by liquid-liquid extraction in a cascade of continuous centrifugal separators

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow. 4 figs.

Zaromb, S.

1989-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow. 4 figs.

Zaromb, S.

1990-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

Fish, R.H.

1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

464

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

LiquidPiston Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidPiston Inc LiquidPiston Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidPiston Inc Address 21C Old Windsor Road Place Bloomfield, Connecticut Zip 06002 Sector Efficiency Product New combustion engine technology to drastically improve efficiency Website http://www.liquidpiston.com/ Coordinates 41.8572877°, -72.7032021° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8572877,"lon":-72.7032021,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

468

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

469

Oil/Liquids | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil/Liquids Oil/Liquids < Oil Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 93. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 11. Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Table 12. Petroleum Product Prices Table 14. Oil and Gas Supply Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South

470

Coal to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquids Liquids Coal to Liquids Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Program supports DOE's strategic goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use,

471

POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

Dwyer, O.E.

1958-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

472

Renormalization group flow for noncommutative Fermi liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some recent studies of the AdS/CFT correspondence for condensed matter systems involve the Fermi liquid theory as a boundary field theory. Adding B-flux to the boundary D-branes leads in a certain limit to the noncommutative Fermi liquid, which calls for a field theory description of its critical behavior. As a preliminary step to more general consideration, the modification of the Landau's Fermi liquid theory due to noncommutativity of spatial coordinates is studied in this paper. We carry out the renormalization of interactions at tree level and one loop in a weakly coupled fermion system in two spatial dimensions. Channels ZS, ZS' and BCS are discussed in detail. It is shown that while the Gaussian fixed-point remains unchanged, the BCS instability is modified due to the space noncommutativity.

Estrada-Jimenez, Sendic [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Calle 4a Oriente Norte 1428 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, Hugo [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wu Yongshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two models of a liquid-hydrogen (?-illegible) Cherenkov counter (illegible) been constructed (illegible). The first served as a prototype (?-illegible) and was (illegible) to demonstrate the feasibility (?-illegible) of the (illegible) concept (?-illegible) (illegible) liquid hydrogen does not give scintillation (?-illegible) (illegible) that of Cherenkov light. The second, final version (?-illegible), (illegible) in an experiment (?-illegible) in which particles brought to rest (?-illegible) (illegible) (illegible) electrons. In this second counter, the efficiency (?-illegible) (illegible) relativistic (?-illegible) particles (?-illegible) by their Cherenkov radiation in liquid hydrogen (?-illegible) was measured by stopping (illegible) mesons in the hydrogen and detecting their decay electrons outside (?-illegible) of the flask (?-illegible) after a suitable time delay. An average detection (?-illegible) efficiency (?-illegible) of 75% (?-illegible) was (illegible) taken over the volume of the hydrogen (?-illegible).

Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

1963-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

474

Liquid Hydrogen Target Experience at SLAC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen targets have played a vital role in the physics program at SLAC for the past 40 years. These targets have ranged from small ''beer can'' targets to the 1.5 m long E158 target that was capable of absorbing up to 800 W without any significant density changes. Successful use of these targets has required the development of thin wall designs, liquid hydrogen pumps, remote positioning and alignment systems, safety systems, control and data acquisition systems, cryogenic cooling circuits and heat exchangers. Detailed operating procedures have been created to ensure safety and operational reliability. This paper surveys the evolution of liquid hydrogen targets at SLAC and discusses advances in several of the enabling technologies that made these targets possible.

Weisend, J.G.; Boyce, R.; Candia, A.; Kaminskas, W.; Mark, J.; Racine, M.; St. Lorant, S.; Weber, T.; /SLAC; Arnold, R.; Bosted, P.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Carr, R.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; McKeown, R.; /Caltech

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

475

High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

1990-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

476

DOE studies on coal-to-liquids  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

478

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Liquids Production Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2007 Liquids Production Projections Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G2 World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G2. World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

479

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

480

The Bevatron liquid nitrogen circulation system  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen liquefier and computer controlled valving system have been added to the Bevatron cryoliner vacuum system to cut operating costs by reducing liquid nitrogen consumption. The computer and interface electronic systems, which control the temperatures of twenty-eight liquid nitrogen circuits, have been chosen and designed to operate in the Bevatron's pulsating magnetic field. The nitrogen exhaust is routed back to a liquefier, of about five kilowatt capacity, liquefied, and rerouted through the cooling circuits. A description of the system and operating results are presented.

Hunt, D.; Stover, G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid pil rechargeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Rayleigh Scattering in Rare Gas Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rayleigh scattering length has been calculated for rare-gas liquids in the ultraviolet for the frequencies at which they luminesce. The calculations are based on the measured dielectric constants in the gas phase, except in the case of xenon for which measurements are available in the liquid. The scattering length mayplace constraints on the design of some large-scale detectors, using uv luminescence, being proposed to observe solar neutrinos and dark matter. Rayleigh scattering in mixtures of rare-gas mixtures is also discussed.

G. M. Seidel; R. E. Lanou; W. Yao

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

Takigawa, Doreen Y. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank.

Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Separation of metals by supported liquid membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

485

Liquid crystalline thermosetting polyimides. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase separation of rodlike reinforcing polymers and flexible coil matrix polymers is a common problem in formulating molecular composites. One way to reduce phase separation might be to employ liquid crystalline thermosets as the matrix material. In this work, functionally terminated polyimide oligomers which exhibit lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior were successfully prepared. Materials based on 2,2{prime}-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4{prime}-diaminobiphenyl and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-biphenylenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride have been synthesized and characterized.

Hoyt, A.E.; Huang, S.J. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Molecular mean field theory for liquid water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attractive bonding interactions between molecules typically have inherent conservation laws which influence the statistical properties of such systems in terms of corresponding sum rules. We considered lattice water as an example and enunciated the consequences of the sum rule through a general computational procedure called "Molecular mean field" theory. Fluctuations about mean field are computed and many of the liquid properties have been deduced and compared with Monte Carlo simulation, molecular dynamics and experimental results. Large correlation lengths are seen to be a consequence of the sum rule in liquid phase. Long range Coulomb interactions are shown to have minor effects on our results.

Jampa Maruthi Pradeep Kanth; Ramesh Anishetty

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

487

ICARUS and Status of Liquid Argon Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICARUS is the largest liquid argon TPC detector ever built (~600 ton LAr mass). It operates underground at the LNGS laboratory in Gran Sasso. It has been smoothly running since summer 2010, collecting data with the CNGS beam and with cosmics. Liquid argon TPCs are really "electronic bubble chamber" providing a completely uniform imaging and calorimetry with unprecedented accuracy on massive volumes. ICARUS is internationally considered as a milestone towards the realization of the next generation of massive detectors (~tens of ktons) for neutrino and rare event physics. Results will be presented on the data collected during 2010 with the detector at LNGS.

Dorota Stefan

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

488

Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing low local free-energy configuration, which is bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena are also discussed.

Hajime Tanaka

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

489

Do Firms Choose Their Stock Liquidity? A Study of Innovative Firms and Their Stock Liquidity ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We ask whether firms can choose, or at least influence, their stock liquidity. We analyze a sample of firms that, we hypothesize, will value stock liquidity more than other firms – innovative firms that primarily hold intangible assets and expect to raise capital from the stock market. Consistent with their reliance on equity markets, we find that innovative firms have higher liquidity and that they take a variety of actions (e.g., frequent earnings guidance, stock splits etc) that help keep their stock more liquid. Maintaining liquidity appears to be less of a concern when innovative firms have greater access to other sources of capital. Given their low leverage, there is greater reliance on monitoring by large equity-holders and incentive contracts to help resolve agency issues, rather than banks or other creditors: consistent with the greater institutional ownership, higher likelihood of blockholders, and more incentivized CEO compensation contracts in these firms. The marginal impact on firm value (Tobin’s Q) of a plausibly exogenous increase in liquidity (e.g., following decimalization of stock prices) is greater for innovative firms, especially when CEOs have strong incentive contracts. Innovative activity tends to increase in the wake of such liquidity enhancements.

Nishant Dass; Vikram N; Steven Chong Xiao; Nikunj Kapadia; Simi Kedia; Pete Kyle; Er Ljungqvist

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

491

VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

492

2012 Brief: Natural gas liquids prices down in 2012 - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

493

Current status of the liquid lithium target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle Flexible tubes Oil pump Heat exchanger Oil chamber Inside the lab Outside the lab #12;Elect irradiations), Internal Report DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay (Dec 2003) 10 #12;Liquid lithium loop EM pump loop Water direction #12;15 Be Trap Heat Exchanger Cross Section Design to remove ~12 kW Lithium tank #12;Oil

McDonald, Kirk

494

Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies is presented. It includes a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the ionization pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

Cooke, Mark S. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

495

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

SciTech Connect

This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

January 2010 Venting Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unless You Have To According to NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook, venting exhaust system using rigid metal piping equivalent or better than that used in construction of the cabinet. Cabinets shall NOT be vented directly into the fume hood, through the fume hood work surface. Piping must

Kolner, Brian H.

497

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

Kuester, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Apparatus for dispensing a liquid additive  

SciTech Connect

A predetermined amount of an oil-spreading agent is automatically dispensed to the surface of ballast water contained in a cargo carrier tank having oil-based materials such as oil and sludge deposits floating on the ballast surface. After addition of the oil-spreading agent, the floating oil-based material is compressed against the vertical steel surfaces of the tank. The apparatus consists of a base fitting mounted on a pressurized tank containing the surface-contaminated ballast water. A pressure equalization line extends downward through an opening in the fitting to a point above the surface of the water. A valve is located in the intermediate portion of the line above the base fitting. A liquid flow line also extends downward through an opening in the base fitting adjacent the pressure equalization line to a point above the liquid surface. The intermediate portion of this liquid flow line contains an adjustable orifice and a valve to control flow. The upper portion of the liquid flow and pressure equalization lines extend upward through a container fitting having an inverted container containing a predetermined quantity of an oil spreading agent to be added to the ballast water.

Pelov, I.P.; Penman, B.R.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z