Sample records for liquid oil embedded

  1. OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC SURFACES flow friction for water and oil. Charge stability of electret in liquid is much improved with new hysteresis of SLS for oil droplets are experimentally demonstrated, indicating low motion resistance

  2. Solid-liquid composite structures: elastic beams with embedded liquid-filled parallel-channel networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoav Matia; Amir Gat

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformation due to embedded fluidic networks is currently studied in the context of soft-actuators and soft-robotics. Expanding on this concept, beams can be designed so that the pressure in the channel-network is created directly from external forces acting on the beam, and thus can be viewed as passive solid-liquid composite structure. We obtain a continuous function relating the network geometry to the deformation. This enables design of networks creating arbitrary steady and time varying deformation-fields as well as to eliminate deformation created by external forces.

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction as the means of refining cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Manubhai Chunibhai

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A 4 AI CvLLEGE OF TEXAS LIOVID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OI REFINING CCTTONSEFZ OIL A Thesis By 1'RVUBHAI CHIINIBHAI PATEL a 0 U z A R 0 Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Auuust 1996 Major Subject Chemical ineeri LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OF REFINING COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis By MANUBHAI CHUNIBHAI PATEL Approved as to style...

  4. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  5. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

  8. Liquid phase oxidation kinetics of oil sands bitumen: Models for in situ combustion numerical simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adegbesan, K.O.; Donnelly, J.K.; Moore, R.G.; Bennion, D.W.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiresponse kinetic models are established for the low-temperature oxidation (LTO) reaction of Athabasca oil sands bitumen. The models provide adequate description of the overall rate of oxygen consumption and of the reactions of the liquid phase bitumen components. The LTO models are suitable for use in the in situ combustion numerical simulators of oil sands.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  12. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Bo [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  13. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Martin M. (Broken Arrow, OK)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  14. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  15. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wissman, J., E-mail: jwissman@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Finkenauer, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Deseri, L. [DICAM, Department of Mechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77 38123 Trento (Italy); TMHRI-Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin St., MS B-490 Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mechanics, Materials and Computing Center, CEE and ME-CIT, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Majidi, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Robotics Institute and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage ? to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ?. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of ?. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ? on ? that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

  16. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

  17. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  18. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  19. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  20. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  1. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  2. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  3. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help the design of enhanced processes for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize evaluation of novel surfactant mixtures and obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants for efficient chemical flooding EOR processes. In this regard, an understanding of the aggregate shape, size and structure is crucial since these properties govern the crude oil removal efficiency. During the three-year period, the adsorption and aggregation behavior of sugar-based surfactants and their mixtures with other types of surfactants have been studied. Sugar-based surfactants are made from renewable resources, nontoxic and biodegradable. They are miscible with water and oil. These environmentally benign surfactants feature high surface activity, good salinity, calcium and temperature tolerance, and unique adsorption behavior. They possess the characteristics required for oil flooding surfactants and have the potential for replacing currently used surfactants in oil recovery. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation technique has been successfully employed for the first time, to characterize the aggregate species present in mixed micellar solution due to its powerful ability to separate particles based on their size and shape and monitor them simultaneously. Analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain important information on mixed micelles, structure-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and their role in interfacial processes. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. Four softwares: OptimaTM XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The results have been compared to that from Light Scattering. Based on the tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis were chosen for further studies.

  4. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  5. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  6. Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Liquid (Bio-oil).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGrath, Arran Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A study was carried out into the computational fluid dynamic simulation of bio-oil combustion. Measurements were taken in an empirical burner to obtain information regarding… (more)

  7. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    demonstrate the possibility of an expanding role for domestic natural gas and crude oil in meeting both current and projected U.S. energy demands. Shale gas development in...

  8. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    .S. natural gas proved reserves 2 --estimated as "wet" gas which includes natural gas plant liquids Federal Offshore, California, Alaska, and North Dakota) in 2009. Texas had the largest proved reserves to render the gas unmarketable. Natural gas plant liquids may be recovered from volumes of natural gas, wet

  9. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  10. Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus, agriculture crops such as corn and sugarcane, municipal solid waste, agriculture wastes and forest residues. Energy crops are more preferred since they produce high yield, low fertilizer application requirements and low...), plastic wastes (Bhattacharya et al., 2009; Karaduman et al., 2001; Rutkowski and 7 Kubacki, 2006; Scott et al., 1990), waste biomass like oil cakes (?zbay et al., 2001), energy crops (He et al., 2009), and forest residues (Ingram et al., 2007...

  11. Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Data embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for embedding auxiliary information into a set of host data, such as a photograph, television signal, facsimile transmission, or identification card. All such host data contain intrinsic noise, allowing pixels in the host data which are nearly identical and which have values differing by less than the noise value to be manipulated and replaced with auxiliary data. As the embedding method does not change the elemental values of the host data, the auxiliary data do not noticeably affect the appearance or interpretation of the host data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. 19 figs.

  13. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    viable is the recovery of shale oil from our substantialdeposits of oil shale (1). Shale oil is recovered from oilproduce~ along with the shale oil, considerable amounts of

  14. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  15. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  16. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those… (more)

  17. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  18. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  19. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  20. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  1. Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    " or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

  2. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , Colorado School ofCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

  3. Challenges In Embedded System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fei

    there is a collection of small CPUs in an embedded system Embedded/CPS survivability presents unique problems · Not everything will look like a smaller version of desktops · Combining desktop & embedded technology beyond seat for per-driver customization CPU CPU CPU CPU #12;8 But, Is Security An Issue For CPS? YES

  4. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    such as shale oil or synthetic crude oil from tar sands (see Table 4.1). A whole range of petroleum products69 1 What is Oil ? General information Petroleum is a complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons in sedimentary rock. Coming from the Latin petra, meaning rock, and oleum, meaning oil, the word "petroleum

  5. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  6. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  7. PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    liquid fuels: 1) Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) can marginally increase production from existing reservoirs oil production declines from reservoirs that are past their peak production: 2) Heavy oil / oil sandsPEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT Robert L. Hirsch, SAIC

  8. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS); Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Olson, Ronald B. (Kansas City, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  9. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  10. KTH Innovative Centre for Embedded Systems 3rd Annual Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    by oil, coal and gas. Technology-wise, many solutions are already available, but hard to implement the huge potential of embedded systems to energy related stakeholders in a contextual and informative way in a developed country, reliable and relatively cheap provision of energy, including electricity, is the norm

  11. OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kök; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

    Seyitömer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

  12. Modular error embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  13. Challenges in Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    even if AC power available u Harsh environment · Power fluctuations, RF interference, lightning · Heat Can't You Design Embedded Systems Just Like Desktop Systems? #12;10 Case Study: Synthesize A Remote-by-composition tool #12;11 What's A Remote Entry Receiver? u RF receiver for door locks, trunk (boot), latch, etc. · 8

  14. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  15. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  16. Embedding Dark Energy in Supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Brax

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a brief overview of some of the constraints on the embedding of dark energy in supergravity.

  17. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  18. 61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts Rockies Gas & Oil Conference, Denver, CO, April

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts I, II Modeling of the In-Situ Production of Oil from .',1 l ',".1" Oil Shale ilil 'I' 'I~ :' l of conventional oil reserves amidst increasing liquid fuel demand in the world have renewed interest in oil shale

  19. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  20. Oil burner nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Donald G. (Rockville Center, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  1. Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    to other crops due to the high level of CAP support and high olive-oil prices and d) the lack that is centered on olive oil; and olive oil production is something embedded in their histories. Social concernsOlive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant

  2. Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, Tomasz A. [Département de Chimie Physique, Université de Genève, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)] [Département de Chimie Physique, Université de Genève, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed.

  3. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity...

  4. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  5. Embedded Automotive System Development Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langenwalter, Joachim

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model based design enables the automatic generation of final-build software from models for high-volume automotive embedded systems. This paper presents a framework of processes, methods and tools for the design of automotive embedded systems. A steer-by-wire system serves as an example.

  6. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  7. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  8. Microfluidic systems with embedded materials and structures and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Rose, Klint A (Boston, MA); Maghribi, Mariam (Livermore, CA); Benett, William (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA)

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein is a process for fabricating microfluidic systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are molded into the polymeric material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Micromachining is used to create a mold master and the liquid precursors for PDMS are poured over the mold and allowed to cure. The PDMS is then removed form the mold and bonded to another material such as PDMS, glass, or silicon after a simple surface preparation step to form sealed microchannels.

  9. Changes in non-target arthropod populations following application of liquid bait formulations of insecticides for control of rangeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    using liquid bait formulations of insecticides (canola and corn oil as carriers of carbaryl). Canola and corn oils are vegetable oils high in linolenic and linoleic acids which function in the responses of non-target populations to treatments with the liquid baits (canola and corn oil carriers

  10. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  11. Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Worldwide supplies of conventional oil will soon reach a peak production rate and begin an irreversible long-term decline. Options to augment liquid fuel supplies in the United States have once again begun to focus on oil shale as long-term source of reliable, affordable, and secure oil. The United

  12. Creaming and breaking of liquid emulsions: a free boundary problem 1 / 48 Creaming and breaking of liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Fabio

    , as opposite to the other case called instead a water-in-oil emulsion. #12;Creaming and breaking of liquid emulsions: a free boundary problem 4 / 48 What is an emulsion? Everyday life examples (a) water-in-oil of the model 5 A priori estimates 6 Existence and uniqueness #12;Creaming and breaking of liquid emulsions

  13. Hydrophilization of Liquid Surfaces by Plasma Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Ron Yosef Loew; Naor Siany; Edward Bormashenko

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of the cold radiofrequency air plasma on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) was studied. Silicone oils of various molecular masses were markedly hydrophilized by the cold air plasma treatment. A pronounced decrease of the apparent water contact angles was observed after plasma treatment. A general theoretical approach to the calculation of apparent contact angles is proposed. The treated liquid surfaces demonstrated hydrophobic recovery. The characteristic time of the hydrophobic recovery grew with the molecular mass of the silicone oil.

  14. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  15. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  16. Quantum walks on embedded hypercubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adi Makmal; Manran Zhu; Daniel Manzano; Markus Tiersch; Hans J. Briegel

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proved by Kempe that discrete quantum walks on the hypercube (HC) hit exponentially faster than the classical analog. The same was also observed numerically by Krovi and Brun for a slightly different property, namely, the expected hitting time. Yet, to what extent this striking result survives in more general graphs, is to date an open question. Here we tackle this question by studying the expected hitting time for quantum walks on HCs that are embedded into larger symmetric structures. By performing numerical simulations of the discrete quantum walk and deriving a general expression for the classical hitting time, we observe an exponentially increasing gap between the expected classical and quantum hitting times, not only for walks on the bare HC, but also for a large family of embedded HCs. This suggests that the quantum speedup is stable with respect to such embeddings.

  17. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  18. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  19. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  20. Adsorptive Drying of Organic Liquids- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    reactions lowering yields and compro mising product quality. In these several situations where liquids are involved, any of the following means may be used to lower the water content: Inert Gas Purging Liquid Extraction Freeze Drying Pervaporation... Fractional Distillation Adsorption Although fractional distillation and adsorption are almost exclusively used, the others are included to complete the list. Inert Gas Purging This method can be used to dry high boiling liquids such as gear oils...

  1. FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

  2. Network Embedded Systems Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    Battery Energy Reserve Manager = Bank Each task requests an account with conditions W ­ fraction Tracking 9 #12;Virtual Battery: An Energy Reserve Abstraction for Embedded Sensor Networks Qing Cao of real battery allocated N ­ number of energy installments L ­ expected lifetime of the task C

  3. Oil shale as an energy source in Israel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

  4. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  5. Embeddings for solutions of Einstein equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Paston; A. A. Sheykin

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study isometric embeddings of some solutions of the Einstein equations with suffciently high symmetries into a flat ambient space. We briefly describe a method for constructing surfaces with a given symmetry. We discuss all minimal embeddings of the Schwarzschild metric obtained using this method and show how the method can be used to construct all minimal embeddings for the Friedmann models. We classify all the embeddings in terms of realizations of symmetries of the corresponding solutions.

  6. Oil/Liquids | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico:CommunityNorthwestInformation

  7. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh of Edinburgh, June 25 2014 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  8. Bioconversion of Heavy oil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbakk, Sandra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??70 % of world?s oil reservoirs consist of heavy oil, and as the supply of conventional oil decreases, researchers are searching for new technologies to… (more)

  9. EIS-0068: Development Policy Options for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves prepared this programmatic statement to examine the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of development projects on the Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1, and examine select alternatives, such as encouraging production from other liquid fuel resources (coal liquefaction, biomass, offshore oil and enhanced oil recovery) or conserving petroleum in lieu of shale oil production.

  10. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

  11. Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

  12. Remediation of oil field wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment and disposal of drilling muds and hazardous wastes has become a growing concern in the oil and gas industry. Further, past practices involving improper disposal require considerable research and cost to effectively remediate contaminated soils. This paper investigates two case histories describing the treatments employed to handle the liquid wastes involved. Both case histories describe the environmentally safe cleanup operations that were employed. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  15. Hydrotreating of oil from eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.; Garner, J.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale provides one of the major fossil energy reserves for the United States. The quantity of reserves in oil shale is less than the quantity in coal, but is much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) than the quantity of crude oil reserves. With so much oil potentially available from oil shale, efforts have been made to develop techniques for its utilization. In these efforts, hydrotreating has proved to be an acceptable technique for upgrading raw shale oil to make usuable products. The present work demonstrated the use of the hydrotreating technique for upgrading an oil from Indiana New Albany oil shale.

  16. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  17. Molecular-Thermodynamic Framework for Asphaltene-Oil Equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Molecular-Thermodynamic Framework for Asphaltene-Oil Equilibria Jianzhong Wu and John M. Prausnitz 94304 Asphaltene precipitation is a perennial problem in producing and rejming crude oils. To avoid precipitation, it is usefid to know the solubility of asphaltenes in petroleum liquids as a function

  18. jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(1):33-37(ISSN: 2141-7016) A Comparative Study of Soya Bean Oil and Palm Kernel Oil as Alternatives to Transformer Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. T. Henshaw

    This study investigated the use of soya bean oil and palm kernel oil as alternatives to mineral oil in a transformer system. Crude samples of these oils and their blend in varied proportions were tested for dielectric strength, pour point, flash point, kinematic viscosity, density and moisture content. The results showed that soya bean oil and palm kernel oil have good properties to act as insulating and cooling liquid in a transformer. These properties could be further improved when the oils are refined and purified. Soya bean oil and palm kernel oil have dielectric strengths of 39 kV and 25 kV respectively in their crude states compared with transformer (mineral) oil which has a maximum dielectric strength of 50 kV. Blend of soya bean oil and palm kernel oil showed synergy only in pour point and viscosity. The results of the study further showed that soya bean oil and palm kernel oil and their blends have very high flash points of 234°C and 242°C respectively. In terms of economic costs and environmental considerations, soya bean oil and palm kernel oil appear to be viable alternatives to transformer oils

  19. Chaotic vibration of a liquid-filled thin cylindrical shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toyoda, Y.; Masuko, Y. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a large number of thin walled cylindrical tanks have been widely used, such as oil-storage tanks, and LMFBR primary components. To assess the safety of these systems against earthquakes, it is of great technical importance to clarify the fluid-coupled vibration characteristics of the systems subjected to certain kinds of dynamic loads. This paper describes an experimental study on the chaos of a partially liquid-filled cylindrical tank under horizontal excitation. The test cylinder with a mean radius of 170 mm was made of polyester film with a nominal thickness of 0.188 mm which was lap-joined along a longitudinal seam and bonded with an aluminum end plate along one edge. Shaking table tests were conducted in order to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the shell response. Several types of limit cycles were observed at lower accelerations, and the instability phenomenon, which jumped at some excitation frequencies, occurred for acceleration amplitudes above a critical value. Finally, at higher excitation accelerations, the shell responses became chaotic. The occurrence of the chaos was recognized by the time history, Poincare map, phase trajectory, power spectrum and a positive Lyapunov exponent calculated from the orbits in the three dimensional phase space. In order to visualize the strange attractor, phase portraits were constructed by embedding the trajectories in the phase space.

  20. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments You Should Know About Submerged Oil 1. Submerged oil is relatively uncommon: DWH oil is a light crude

  1. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS, AND NGL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    AM-i Chapter AM U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of the oil, gas, and natural-gas liquids (NGL) resources by the USGS in1998 for undiscovered oil, gas, and NGL resources that reside in conventional accumulations

  2. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS MSc. Hans in an oil production system is developed. Each well may be manipulated by injecting lift gas and adjusting in the maximum oil flow rate, water flow rate, liquid flow rate, and gas flow rate. The wells may also

  3. a Newtonian liquid surface Matthew Thrasher, Sunghwan Jung,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    a lubricating layer air. Figure 2 shows rebound nearly vertical small velocities and becomes more oblique larger into a mineral oil. 1 1 Thrasher, S. Y. Pang, C.­P. Chuu, Swinney, bouncing Newtonian liquid rebounding surface

  4. Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

  5. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  7. Composite materials with integrated embedded sensing networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaaf, Kristin Leigh

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interlaminar Response of Composite Materials , ed. N. J.in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibreDutton, and D. Kelly. 2004. Composite Materials for Aircraft

  8. Computational materials: Embedding Computation into the Everyday

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomsen, Mette Ramsgard; Karmon, Ayelet

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational materials: Embedding Computation into thepaper presents research into material design merging thean integrated part of our material surroundings. Rather than

  9. Oil spill response resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS . . Vn INTRODUCTION. . Oil Pollution Act. Oil Spill Response Equipment . . OB JECTIVES . 12 LITERATURE REVIEW. United States Contingency Plan. . Response Resources Definition of Clean in Context to an Oil Spill. Oil... this fitle. Title IV expands federal authority in managing oil spill clean up operations and amends the provisions for oil spill clean up under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. It also called for Oil spill plans for vessels and facilities starting...

  10. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  12. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  13. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  14. WIRELESS SENSORS EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE Amal Abbadi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WIRELESS SENSORS EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE Amal Abbadi 1 Phd Student, IRCICA, IEMN, Université Lille1 antennas with concrete are investigated at 860MHz. Simulations for different cases (different concrete are presented. KEYWORDS : Wireless sensor networks, concrete attenuation, embedded antenna, concrete

  15. Proceedings of the Second UK Embedded Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pont, Michael J.

    , a satellite event to the Embedded Systems Show (a yearly exhibition of embedded software and hardware products place on October 20th , 2005, at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham. The event was well attended of York 111 On-line IDDQ testing of security circuits J. Murphy, A. Bystrov, University of Newcastle 119

  16. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  17. Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0 0

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    business of having some oil in inventory, which is referredKnowledge of all the oil going into inventory today for salebe empty, because inventories of oil are essential for the

  19. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  3. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capability to secure oil transport security. Additionally,international oil agreements: 1) ensuring energy security;security, and many argue that as the second-largest consumer of oil

  8. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,Mexico, Italy, France, Canada, US, and UK. Figure 10. Historical Chinese oil

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by this point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supplycurrent pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.in the supply or demand for oil itself could be regarded as

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  13. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  14. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  15. High Performance Zintl Phase TE Materials with Embedded Particles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TE Materials with Embedded Particles Presents results from embedding nanoparticles in magnesium silicide alloy matrix reducing thermal conductivity by phonon scattering and...

  16. High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials with Embedded Particles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles...

  17. Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom Probe Tomography. Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom Probe Tomography....

  18. Quantification and Physics of Cold Plasma Treatment of Organic Liquid Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Evgeny Shulzinger; Roman Pogreb; Hadas Aharoni; Yakir Nagar

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma treatment increases the surface energy of condensed phases: solids and liquids. Two independent methods of the quantification of the influence imposed by a cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) of various molecular masses and castor oil are introduced. Under the first method the water droplet coated by oils was exposed to the cold air radiofrequency plasma, resulting in an increase of oil/air surface energy. An expression relating the oil/air surface energy to the apparent contact angle of the water droplet coated with oil was derived. The apparent contact angle was established experimentally. Calculation of the oil/air surface energy and spreading parameter was carried out for the various plasma-treated silicone and castor oils. The second method is based on the measurement of the electret response of the plasma-treated liquids.

  19. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  20. Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Worldwide supplies of conventional oil will soon reach a peak production rate and begin an irreversible long-term decline. Options to augment liquid fuel supplies in the United States have once again begun to focus on oil shale as long-term source of reliable, affordable, and secure oil. The United States government has long recognized the strategic potential of the nation’s vast oil shale resources to support national security. President Taft in 1912 established an Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves and charged that office with ensuring oil for naval military operations. This office continues to oversee the United States strategic interest in oil shale. America’s 2 trillion barrel oil shale resource is recognized as having the same production potential as Canada’s tar sands. Tar sand production, initiated in the 1960s, has increased steadily to more than 1 million per barrels/day and is moving toward a near-term goal of 2.5 million barrels per day by 2017. This amount of oil is equivalent to the volume of oil currently imported by the United States from Middle East countries. Tar sands production has enabled Canada to add 174 billion barrels to its recoverable oil reserves, making Canada’s proved reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moloodi, Sina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid, also known as bio-oil, is a promising renewable fuel for heat and power generation; however, implementing crude bio-oil in some current… (more)

  2. CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  3. Re-embedding the global soul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Joy (Joy Yuk-Hwa), 1975-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis proposes to "re-embed" the "global nomad" into the context of an increasingly globalized world at the room scale. I define re-embedding as the "plugging in" of social relationships to local contexts and their ...

  4. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  5. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  7. Anomalous pH Dependent Stability Behavior of Surfactant-Free Nonpolar Oil Drops in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    . In this study, we investigated the interaction across an aqueous thin film between fluorocarbon with a higher refractive index than water, and a fluorocarbon oil (perfluoropentane, C5F12), a liquid will be attractive for the hydrocarbon oil and repulsive for the fluorocarbon oil. Traditional methods

  8. Liquid Resin Infusion process monitoring with superimposed Fibre Bragg Grating sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Liquid Resin Infusion process monitoring with superimposed Fibre Bragg Grating sensor Emmanuel Resin Infusion (LRI) , with the FBG/LPG sensor embedded in a composite part. Dielectric analysis the material and the structure. Among the various composite manufacturing processes, Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI

  9. AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bommareddi, Anveshan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil… (more)

  10. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  11. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  12. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Venezuela with Mexico, another major oil pro- ducing countryOil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .

  13. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  14. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  15. Slippage effect during gassed oil displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suleimanov, B.A.; Azizov, K.F.; Abbasov, E.M. [Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Baku (Azerbaijan). Inst. of Mathematics and Mechanics

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The filtration of gassed liquid in the oil-bearing layer at a pressure value above that of the bubble-point pressure is examined. It is shown that behavior of this system may be explained by the slippage effect. Models that may be used in the virtual calculations are proposed. It is shown that use of surfactant additives may regulate the filtration characteristics of the researched systems.

  16. Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings and Its Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang H.; Yoo S.; Yu, D.; Qin, H.

    2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—Spectral Embedding is one of the most effective dimension reduction algorithms in data mining. However, its computation complexity has to be mitigated in order to apply it for real-world large scale data analysis. Many researches have been focusing on developing approximate spectral embeddings which are more efficient, but meanwhile far less effective. This paper proposes Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings (DPIE), which not only retains the similar efficiency of power iteration methods but also produces a series of diverse and more effective embedding vectors. We test this novel method by applying it to various data mining applications (e.g. clustering, anomaly detection and feature selection) and evaluating their performance improvements. The experimental results show our proposed DPIE is more effective than popular spectral approximation methods, and obtains the similar quality of classic spectral embedding derived from eigen-decompositions. Moreover it is extremely fast on big data applications. For example in terms of clustering result, DPIE achieves as good as 95% of classic spectral clustering on the complex datasets but 4000+ times faster in limited memory environment.

  17. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  18. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  19. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  20. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  1. Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

  2. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule1, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description...

  3. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

  4. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  5. Using Oils As Pesticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

  6. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  8. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  9. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  10. Oil Sands Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NCUT National Centre for Upgrading Technology 'a Canada-Alberta alliance for bitumen and heavy oil research' Oil Sands Feedstocks C Fairbridge, Z Ring, Y Briker, D Hager National...

  11. Some results on embeddings of near rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCracken, John David

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES VITA 14 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. SUMS AND PRODUCTS IN R Page II. ELEMENTS OF U LISTED BY EQUIVALENCE CLASS III. IMAGES OF R IN U 10 12 CHAP TER I INTRODUCTION Definition 1. 1. A (left) near ring R is distribu- ~tivel generated (d. g... ideal in the ring with identity. Of the d. g. near rings exhibited in ~ 2] only 429 ot Section 2. 5 cannot be embedded by one of the techniques presented in [3]. The purpose of this thesis is to evhib- it an embedding of this near ring as a right...

  12. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    in Table (2.2) (OTM, 1999). Crude oils are composed of 80 to 90% hydrogen saturated aliphatic alkanes (paraffins) and cycloalkanes (naphthenes). Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes (olefins) comprise 10- 20% and 1%, respectively, of crude oil composition....2 Hydrocarbon Contents in Crude Oil (ATSDR, 1995; OTM, 1999) HYDROCARBONS GENERAL FORMULA CHAIN TYPE STATE (Room temp) EXAMPLES Paraffins (Aliphatic) CnH2n+2 (n:1 to20) Linear or Branched Gas or Liquid Methane, Propane Hexane Aromatic C6H5-Y...

  13. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  14. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  15. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  16. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  17. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  19. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (75%) Char (13%) Gas (12%) Catalytic Auto-thermal Reforming of Bio-Oil at 650oC: 0.71 CH1.98O0.76 + 0 Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1 Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6

  20. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  1. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  2. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  3. Embedded software version 1. 1. Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    are connected with connector on front panel; - a temperature sensor, placed on the board; - header, which allows to change base address of device; - embedded microcontroller. A photo of device. The device may work sensitivity of on-board sensor ­ 1,9 mV/°. 13. Output voltage of temperature sensor at +25 ° ­ 0.56 ±10%. 14

  4. Embedding Learning Strategies into the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    , and evaluation #12;Learning About Learning #12;Learning About Learning Highlight organizational skillsEmbedding Learning Strategies into the Curriculum VI VI AN FA YOWSKI BRENDA KOLLER Academic Success Centre UNBC CTLT Brown Bag Lunch October 23, 2013 #12;Learning About Learning Why embed learning

  5. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  6. Undergraduate Embedded System Education at Carnegie Mellon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Priya

    be requested from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 USA, fax: +1 (212) 869 Trying to teach embedded computing as a unified topic is a difficult task. Em- bedded applications of the IEEE Computer Society worldwide, has 94,841 subscribers [IEEE 2004]. From our experience, most em

  7. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Manufacture of refrigeration oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

  12. Energy efficient scheduling techniques for real-time embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prathipati, Rajesh Babu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery-powered portable embedded systems have been widely used in many applications. These embedded systems have to concurrently perform a multitude of complex tasks under stringent time constraints. As these systems become more complex...

  13. Functionalism and Embodied, Embedded Mind - The Extended Story 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Lise Marie

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In “The Mind Incarnate” Shapiro argues that research in the area of embodied, embedded mind and cognition undermines a functionalist program. In contrast Clark, in “Pressing the Flesh”, argues that embodied, embedded approaches can be viewed...

  14. Embedded Software Edward A. Lee, eal@eecs.berkeley.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). It is not the idealized procedures of Alan Turing. Computer science has tended to view this physicality of embedded

  15. Embeddings of the black holes in a flat space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Sheykin; D. A. Grad; S. A. Paston

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the explicit embeddings of static black holes. We obtain two new minimal embeddings of the Schwarzchild-de Sitter metric which smoothly cover both horizons of this metric. The lines of time for these embeddings are more complicated than hyperbolas. Also we shortly discuss the possibility of using non-hyperbolic embeddings for calculation of the black hole Hawking temperature in the Deser and Levin approach.

  16. Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vosamae

    determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All

  17. Does Ownership Matter? The Performance and Efficiency of State Oil vs. Private Oil (1987-2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, C

    -owned International Oil Companies (IOCs). The dataset, which is based on a survey published by Energy Intelligence and covers 1,001 firm observation years in the period 1987 to 2006, provides a unique corporate perspective on the industry’s development. After... could enter into long-term supply contracts as a temporary measure, but ultimately “the Admiralty should become the independent owner and producer of its own supplies of liquid fuel”.2 In 1914, the British government therefore acquired a controlling...

  18. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  19. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  20. Bouncing of a jet off a Newtonian liquid surface Matthew Thrasher, Sunghwan Jung,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    of silicone oil of flow rate Q and viscosity is falling from height H to a bath of the same liquid, which until the jet bounces; the jet and bath are separated by a lubricating layer of air. Figure 2 shows by pouring mineral oil into a pan of mineral oil.1 1 M. Thrasher, S. Jung, Y. K. Pang, C.-P. Chuu, and H. L

  1. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  2. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

  4. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  5. Embeddings for Schwarzschild metric: classification and new results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Paston; A. A. Sheykin

    2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a method to search the embeddings of Riemannian spaces with a high enough symmetry in a flat ambient space. It is based on a procedure of construction surfaces with a given symmetry. The method is used to classify the embeddings of the Schwarzschild metric which have the symmetry of this solution, and all such embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space (i.e. a space with a minimal possible dimension) are constructed. Four of the six possible embeddings are already known, while the two others are new. One of the new embeddings is asymptotically flat, while the other embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space do not have this property. The asymptotically flat embedding can be of use in the analysis of the many-body problem, as well as for the development of gravity description as a theory of a surface in a flat ambient space.

  6. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  7. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  8. Co-processing of heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M.R. [Texaco Research and Development, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In co-processing of petroleum and coal, the petroleum fraction may serve as the {open_quotes}liquefaction solvent,{close_quotes} or hydrogen donor, and the aromatics present in the coal liquid may serve as hydrogen {open_quotes}shuttlers{close_quotes} by efficiently transferring hydrogen moieties to places where they are most deficient. The important advantages of co-processing include the following: (1) upgrading of heavy petroleum in a reaction with coal and (2) conversion of coal to synthetic crudes which could be further upgraded to a premium liquid fuel. Co-processing of coal with petroleum, heavy crudes, and residues through catalytic hydrogenation or solvent extraction have been extensively investigated. The studies were typically conducted in the temperature range of 450{degrees}-500{degrees}C under pressurized hydrogen; catalysts are generally also added for hydroconversion of the feedstocks. However, relatively little has been reported in the literature regarding co-processing of coal with heavy petroleum by simple pyrolysis. In this study, co-processing of heavy oil and coal at relatively middle conditions was conducted without the complicating influences of pressurized hydrogen or catalysts. The resulted demonstrate that there is a synergism during co-processing of petroleum and coal. This synergism enhances both the yield and quality of the liquid products. In general, liquids from co-processing the mixture contain a higher content of alkane/alkene, neutral aromatics, lower content of monophenols, and other oxygen containing compounds as compared to the liquids from coal alone. The liquid from the mixture also contains a higher content of naphthenic carbon and naphthenic rings/molecules than those from coal liquid. This suggests that the product from the mixture can be easily upgraded to a premium quality fuel.

  9. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  10. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  11. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  12. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  13. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  14. Chinaâs Oil Diplomacy with Russia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jiun-chuan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In Chinaâs view, it is necessary to get crude oil and oil pipeline. Under Russia and China strategic partnership, China tries to obtain âlong term… (more)

  15. OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

    In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

  16. Peak oil: diverging discursive pipelines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doctor, Jeff

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as… (more)

  17. Petroleum Oil | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Oil Petroleum Oil The production of energy feedstock and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural...

  18. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  19. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . OilEllner, ”Organized Labor in Venezuela 1958-1991: Behavior

  20. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  1. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  2. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft Ś 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tintź technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft Ś 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  3. Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kuwait, Middle East, oil and gas fields, oil refinery, oil waste, oil well,Equipment Kuwait Oil Co. 1991. Mideast well fire, oil spillKuwait, Persian Gulf, Saudia Arabia, Oil spill, cleanup, oil spills, crude, oil spill incidents, oil spills-pipeline, warfare, oil skimmers, oil wells,

  4. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  5. Characterization of jovian plasma embedded dust particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amara L. Graps

    2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    As the data from space missions and laboratories improve, a research domain combining plasmas and charged dust is gaining in prominence. Our solar system provides many natural laboratories such as planetary rings, comet comae and tails, ejecta clouds around moons and asteroids, and Earth's noctilucent clouds for which to closely study plasma-embedded cosmic dust. One natural laboratory to study electromagnetically-controlled cosmic dust has been provided by the Jovian dust streams and the data from the instruments which were on board the Galileo spacecraft. Given the prodigious quantity of dust poured into the Jovian magnetosphere by Io and its volcanoes resulting in the dust streams, the possibility of dusty plasma conditions exist. This paper characterizes the main parameters for those interested in studying dust embedded in a plasma with a focus on the Jupiter environment. I show how to distinguish between dust-in-plasma and dusty-plasma and how the Havnes parameter P can be used to support or negate the possibility of collective behavior of the dusty plasma. The result of applying these tools to the Jovian dust streams reveals mostly dust-in-plasma behavior. In the orbits displaying the highest dust stream fluxes, portions of orbits E4, G7, G8, C21 satisfy the minimum requirements for a dusty plasma. However, the P parameter demonstrates that these mild dusty plasma conditions do not lead to collective behavior of the dust stream particles.

  6. A Flexible Approach to Embedded Network Multicast Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    A Flexible Approach to Embedded Network Multicast Authentication Chris Szilagyi ECE Department Carnegie Mellon University szilagyi@cmu.edu Philip Koopman ECE Department Carnegie Mellon University

  7. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  8. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  9. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  10. Imbibition assisted oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed in detail to investigate oil recovery during spontaneous imbibition with different types of boundary conditions. The results of these studies have been upscaled to the field dimensions. The validity of the new definition of characteristic length...

  11. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  12. Production of Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

  13. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  14. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with air. Liquid carbon monoxide is extremely toxic and extremely flammable. #12;Cryogenic liquids connecting cylinder to lower pressure piping or systems. 6. Use a check valve or trap in the discharge line

  15. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  16. The measurement of solubility and viscosity of oil/refrigerant mixtures; At high pressures and temperatures test facility and initial results for R-22/naphthenic oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gaalen, N.A.; Zoz, S.C.; Pate, M.B. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and construction of a test facility for measuring the solubility and viscosity of lubricating oil/refrigerant mixtures at high pressures and temperatures are described. An auxiliary charging system, developed to provide precisely measured quantities of oil and refrigerant to the test facility, is also presented. Initial results for liquid mixtures of 10% to 40% R-22 (by mass) in a 150 SUS naphthenic oil are reported over the temperature range 70 {degrees} F (20{degrees}C) to 300 {degrees} F(150 {degrees}C). Good agreement with existing data from the open literature is obtained over the limited temperature range for which previously published data are available.

  17. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  18. Nuclei embedded in an electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Buervenich; Igor N. Mishustin; Walter Greiner

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of nuclei embedded in an electron gas are studied within the relativistic mean-field approach. These studies are relevant for nuclear properties in astrophysical environments such as neutron-star crusts and supernova explosions. The electron gas is treated as a constant background in the Wigner-Seitz cell approximation. We investigate the stability of nuclei with respect to alpha and beta decay. Furthermore, the influence of the electronic background on spontaneous fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei is analyzed. We find that the presence of the electrons leads to stabilizing effects for both $\\alpha$ decay and spontaneous fission for high electron densities. Furthermore, the screening effect shifts the proton dripline to more proton-rich nuclei, and the stability line with respect to beta decay is shifted to more neutron-rich nuclei. Implications for the creation and survival of very heavy nuclear systems are discussed.

  19. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  20. Urethane coatings rehabilitate large crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kresic, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. (IPL) provides a vital transportation link for moving liquid petroleum resources from oil-producing areas of western Canada to refining centers and markets in eastern canada and the midwestern US. Together with Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., the pipeline system consists of about 7,600 miles of pipe. Approximately 1.6 million bpd of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons are transported by the system. Along with high-resolution inspection data, an in-house engineering critical assessment process based on Battelle`s NG-18 surface flaw equation was developed to identify corrosion anomalies needing structural reinforcement sleeve repairs. A majority of ht non-critical anomalies remained unearthed and were exposed to possible future growth which could become critical. Several rehabilitation methods were considered including on-going sleeve repair, selective pipe replacement, and coating reconditioning. Economics and logistics of sleeving programs and selective pipe replacement were well known at IPL. However, aspects of replacing a coating system over a relatively long length of pipe were not completely known. Preliminary cost estimates favored replacement of the coating over a massive sleeving program or pipe replacement. To gain further insight, IPL began a two-year pilot program to research long length coating replacement feasibility. Two sections of Line 3 ultimately were rehabilitated in this manner. This paper reviews the project.

  1. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Organic Embedded Architecture for Sustainable FPGA Soft-Core Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMara, Ronald F.

    Organic Embedded Architecture for Sustainable FPGA Soft-Core Processors KENING ZHANG, JAAFAR ________________________________________________________________________ An Organic Embedded System (OES) architecture is developed for sustainable performance using SRAM-based Field. In addition to simulation, the proposed OES architecture synthesized from HDL was prototyped on Xilinx Virtex

  3. WE -ADKWindows Embedded Automotive Development Kit Benefits to the developer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    WE -ADKWindows Embedded Automotive Development Kit Benefits to the developer: The Official-ADK, Microsoft Auto 4.1 installs on top of WindowsÂź Embedded CE 6.0 R3 and adds automotive -specific an Automotive Infotainment Solution with Microsoft Auto 4.1 and Qualnetics WE

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of boronnitride nanotubes embedded in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Patrik L.

    , theoretical studies suggest that BN nanotubes exhibit an energy gap of about 4--5 eV independent of chiralityMolecular dynamics simulations of boron­nitride nanotubes embedded in amorphous Si­B­N Michael In this article, we examine the elastic properties of boron­nitride nanotubes, which are embedded in amorphous

  5. Hybrid Heuristics for Optimizing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schott, René - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    Hybrid Heuristics for Optimizing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems Maha IDRISSI AOUAD1 , Ren to BEH). Keywords: Energy consumption reduction, Genetic algorithms, hybrid heuristics, memory allocation energy consumption of embedded systems is of great importance. To do so, numerous options to save energy

  6. EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluffi, Paolo

    EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO Abstract. We prove that a (2m \\Gamma n grant DMS­9626624. 1 #12; 2 J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO theory, for removing intersections of manifolds­manifold with the DDP , n â?? 5, could be approximated by embeddings [5]. Bryant [2] and Walsh [20] were able to establish

  7. EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mio, Washington

    EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO Abstract. We prove that a (2m \\Gamma n supported by NSF grant DMS­9626624. 1 #12; 2 J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO specifically, we establish analogues­manifold with the DDP , n â?? 5, could be approximated by embeddings [5]. Bryant [2] and Walsh [20] were able to establish

  8. EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mio, Washington

    EMBEDDINGS IN GENERALIZED MANIFOLDS J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO Abstract. We prove that a 2m,n+1 manifolds,embeddings. Partially supported by NSF grant DMS-9626624. 1 #12;2 J. L. BRYANT AND W. MIO speci . Bryant 2 and Walsh 20 were able to establish general position theorems for maps of arbitrary polyhedra

  9. Attacking and Defending Networked Embedded Devices Kwang-Hyun Baek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sean W.

    Attacking and Defending Networked Embedded Devices Kwang-Hyun Baek Dartmouth College Hanover, NH College Hanover, NH 03755 sws@cs.dartmouth.edu ABSTRACT Currently, work on malware attack and defense become the launching point for many attacks on the enterprise network in which the embedded devices

  10. Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznik, Leon

    Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri School of Communications and Informatics Victoria University PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC VIC 8001 2-5, 2001 Abstract. The paper describes the development of a smart embedded fuzzy system for reefer

  11. Embedded NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors in Aerospace Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    1 Embedded NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors in Aerospace Applications Victor Giurgiutiu (NDE) is explored. Laboratory tests are used to prove that PWAS can satisfactorily perform Lamb wave method. INTRODUCTION Embedded nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is an emerging technology that will allow

  12. The Role of Virtualization in Embedded Systems Gernot Heiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the embedded domain. Starting from a comparison of key characteristics of enterprise systems and embedded virtualization has become a mainstream tool in the com- puting industry, as indicated by billion-dollar IPOs virtual ma- chines on demand on a lightly-used host, or even migrating live VMs. This utilises

  13. EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, FlĂĄvio Rech

    EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING UML-BASED TOOLS FLÁVIO R. WAGNER, carro}@inf.ufrgs.br Abstract: This tutorial discusses design space exploration and software automation based on an UML front-end. First, we review software automation tools targeted at the embedded systems

  14. Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutertre, Bruno

    Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols To be presented at TPHOLs'97, Bell for a veri cation method described in 14]. The PVS formalization consists of a semantic embedding of CSP, 16, 12, 9]. In 14], Schneider presents such a method based on CSP 7]. The approach relies onageneral

  15. Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols To be presented at TPHOLs'97, Bell for a veri cation method described in 14]. The PVS formalization consists of a semantic embedding of CSP]. In 14], Schneider presents such a method based on CSP 7]. The approach relies onageneral

  16. Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutertre, Bruno

    Using a PVS Embedding of CSP to Verify Authentication Protocols To be presented at TPHOLs'97, Bell for a verification method described in [14]. The PVS formalization consists of a semantic embedding of CSP for this purpose [3, 16, 12, 9]. In [14], Schneider presents such a method based on CSP [7]. The approach relies

  17. LAGRANGIAN EMBEDDINGS INTO SUBCRITICAL STEIN PAUL BIRAN AND KAI CIELIEBAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cieliebak, Kai

    LAGRANGIAN EMBEDDINGS INTO SUBCRITICAL STEIN MANIFOLDS PAUL BIRAN AND KAI CIELIEBAK Abstract. In this paper we obtain new topological restrictions on La- grangian embeddings into subcritical Stein manifolds of C n to the more general case of subcritical Stein mani- folds. 1. Introduction This paper is devoted

  18. Embedded Control Systems Research Lab Truth, American Culture, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dan

    Embedded Control Systems Research Lab Truth, American Culture, and Fuzzy Logic Dan Simon Cleveland" (Wiener) ­ Postmodernism: Amoral, liable to misuse ­ Fuzzy logic: ??? #12;Embedded Control Systems Control Systems Research Lab Modernism, pre- and post- · Does fuzzy logic work because it is true

  19. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  20. Optimising the Use of Spent Oil Shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOSTER, HELEN,JANE

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and high quality, and could… (more)

  1. Oil Prices and Long-Run Risk.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    READY, ROBERT

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide anexcellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low… (more)

  2. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  3. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that in a declining oil reservoir, seismic waves sent acrosswells. Because oil reservoirs are often at kilometers orproximity to the oil reservoir. Our analysis suggests there

  4. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parekh, M.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

  5. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  6. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  7. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  8. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers have developed means to increase the anhydrosugars content of bio-oil above the usual 3% produced during normal pyrolysis by mild acid pretreatment of the biomass feedstock. Mississippi State University has developed a proprietary method to produce an aqueous fraction containing more than 50% of anhydrosugars content. These anhydrosugars can be catalyzed to hydrogen or hydrocarbons; alter-nately, the aqueous fraction can be hydrolyzed to pro-duce a high-glucose content. The hydrolyzed product can then be filtered to remove microbial inhibitor compounds followed by production of alcohols by fer-mentation. Production of bio-oil is now considered a major candidate as a technology promising production of drop-in transportation and boiler fuels.

  9. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  11. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  12. Integration of waste pyrolysis with coal/oil coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, J.; Zhou, P.; Lee, T.L.K.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HTI has developed a novel process, HTI CoPro Plus{trademark}, to produce alternative fuels and chemicals from the combined liquefaction of waste materials, coal, and heavy petroleum residues. Promising results have been obtained from a series of bench tests (PB-01 through PB-06) under the DOE Proof of Concept Program. Recently, HTI acquired a proven technology for the mild co-pyrolysis of used rubber tires and waste refinery or lube oils, developed by the University of Wyoming and Amoco. The feasibility of integration of pyrolysis with coal-oil coprocessing was studied in the eighth bench run (PB-08) of the program. The objective of Run PB-08 was to study the coprocessing of coal with oils derived from mild pyrolysis of scrap tires, waste plastics, and waste lube oils to obtain data required for economic comparisons with the DOE data base. A specific objective was also to study the performance of HTI`s newly improved GelCat{trademark} catalyst in coal-waste coprocessing under low-high (Reactor 1-Reactor 2 temperatures) operating mode. This paper presents the results obtained from Run PB-08, a 17-day continuous operation conducted in August 1997. A total of 5 conditions were tested, including a baseline coal-only condition. During the coprocessing conditions, 343{degrees}C+ pyrolysis oils derived from co-pyrolysis of rubber tires or a mixture of rubber tires and plastics with waste lube oil, were coprocessed with Black Thunder coal using HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst. In the last condition, rubber tires were pyrolyzed with 524{degrees}C- coal liquid to study the possible elimination of lube oil used as pyrolysis processing oil. Overall coal conversion above 90 W% was achieved.

  13. Improved liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, B.F.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  14. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  15. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Oil droplet in alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Foy, Roderick R.

    The elegant patterns formed by fluid droplets falling through a dissimilar liquid were first studied over a century ago.1 The emerging patterns are driven by hydrodynamic instabilities set up by velocity and density gradients ...

  18. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  19. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  20. Case School of Engineering San Diego Programs MOBILITY-DRIVEN EMBEDDED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    480Y COURSE DESCRIPTION: Foundations of reliable, energy-efficient and secure design of embedded. Fundamentals of mobility in embedded systems 2. Mobility Constraints: energy-efficiency

  1. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIO-N SERVICE G. G. Gibson, Director, College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] I the bast I ir used the low I . .. 1 the fol or mort , needed SPOT-OILING JOHNSONGRASS H. E. Rea, M. J. Norris..., and Fred C. Elliott* Texas A. & M. College System ~HNSONGRASS CAN BE killed to the i ground by the application of 1 / 3 teaspoonful of a herbicidal oil to the crown of each stem. Eradication of established Johnsongrass can be obtained in a single...

  2. Oil | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange VisitorsforDepartment ofNo FearOfficeOil Oil For the

  3. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  4. (Non)-Dissipative Hydrodynamics on Embedded Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay Armas

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct the theory of dissipative hydrodynamics of uncharged fluids living on embedded space-time surfaces to first order in a derivative expansion in the case of codimension-1 surfaces (including fluid membranes) and the theory of non-dissipative hydrodynamics to second order in a derivative expansion in the case of codimension higher than one under the assumption of no angular momenta in transverse directions to the surface. This construction includes the elastic degrees of freedom, and hence the corresponding transport coefficients, that take into account transverse fluctuations of the geometry where the fluid lives. Requiring the second law of thermodynamics to be satisfied leads us to conclude that in the case of codimension-1 surfaces the stress-energy tensor is characterized by 2 hydrodynamic and 1 elastic independent transport coefficient to first order in the expansion while for codimension higher than one, and for non-dissipative flows, the stress-energy tensor is characterized by 7 hydrodynamic and 3 elastic independent transport coefficients to second order in the expansion. Furthermore, the constraints imposed between the stress-energy tensor, the bending moment and the entropy current of the fluid by these extra non-dissipative contributions are fully captured by equilibrium partition functions. This analysis constrains the Young modulus which can be measured from gravity by elastically perturbing black branes.

  5. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  6. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively...

  7. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  8. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  9. Process for the production of refrigerator oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

  10. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  11. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  12. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  13. Nochar Petrobond{reg_sign} Absorbent Polymer Tritiated Oil Solidification. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOCHAR is a high technology polymer solidifying agent that can provide a simple and effective disposal method for tritiated oil. The NOCHAR agent will absorb oil with no mixing or required mixing equipment, and with a combination or 'formula' of high tech polymers can be specifically designed to address the characteristics of waste oil as it exists at a given site. The NOCHAR Petro Bond product can be effectively used for free liquid control in storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive and RCRA defined waste oils. Petro Bond Polymer Crystals are non-toxic, non-biodegradable and incinerable to less than 0.02% ash with an absorbent capacity of up to 15:1 (oil to solidification agent ratio by weight).

  14. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  15. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  16. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  17. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  19. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  20. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  1. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Aging on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-Ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarghami-Tehran, Milad

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid is a renewable fuel for stationary heat and power generation; however degradation of bio-oil by time, a.k.a. aging, has an impact… (more)

  3. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen.hamptonassociates.com pRINTED BY nB GroUP Paper sourced from sustainable forests CONTENTS 3/5 does the north Sea still industry partnership drives research into sensor systems 11 Beneath the waves in 3d 12/13 does

  4. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  5. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  6. Naphthenic lube oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger Jr., W. P.; Beck, H. W.; Rozman, G. J.; Turrill, F. H.

    1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for increasing the volume of lubricating oil base stocks recovered from a crude oil. A fraction having an atmospheric boiling range of about 675/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ F. is recovered by vacuum distillation. This fraction is treated with furfural to extract a hydrocarbon mixture containing at least 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons. The raffinate is a lubricating oil base stock very high in paraffinic hydrocarbons and low in naphthenic hydrocarbons. The fraction extracted by the furfural contains at least about 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons and less than about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons. The mixture is hydrotreated to hydrogenate a substantial portion of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrotreated product then is catalytically dewaxed. After removal of low boiling components, the finished lubricating oil base stock has a viscosity of at least about 200 SUS at 100/sup 0/ F., a pour point of less than 20/sup 0/ F. and contains at least 50 volume % of naphthenic hydrocarbons, a maximum of about 40 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons, and a maximum of about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons.

  7. Oil and Global Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brad Setser

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current account surplus of the world’s major oil exporting economies – defined as the IMF’s fuel-exporting emerging economies plus Norway – increased from $110b to about $500b between 2002 and 2006. 2 In 2006, the current account surplus of the Gulf

  8. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  9. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Tenth Quarterly Report January–March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Ziker; James Francfort

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (January– March 2005) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of oil bypass filter technologies being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eleven INL fourcycle diesel-engine buses and six INL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems. Eight of the buses and the six Tahoes are equipped with oil bypass filters from the puraDYN Corporation; the remaining three buses are equipped with oil bypass filters from Refined Global Solutions. Both the puraDYN and Refined Global Solutions bypass filters have a heating chamber to remove liquid contaminates from the oil. During the January to March 2005 reporting quarter, the eleven diesel engine buses traveled 97,943 miles. As of March 31, 2005, the buses had accumulated 744,059 total test miles. During this quarter, four regularly scheduled 12,000-mile bus servicings were performed. The full-flow and bypass oil filters were changed and oil analysis samples were taken for the four buses. Bus 73446 had its oil changed due to a low total base number value. Bus 73450 had a major engine failure at the beginning of the quarter when one of its pushrods and valves were damaged. Buses 73432 and 73433 were removed from the bypass filter evaluation project and placed into the INL Diesel Engine Idling Wear-Rate Evaluation Test. While a total of nine oil changes on the INL buses occurred during the past 29 months, 53 oil changes have been avoided by using the oil bypass filters. The 53 avoided oil changes equates to 1,855 quarts (464 gallons) of new oil not consumed and 1,855 quarts of waste oil not generated. Therefore, over 85% of the oil normally required for oil-changes was not used, and, consequently, the evaluation achieved a greater than 85% reduction in the amount of waste oil normally generated by the buses. The six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 40,700 miles, and as of March 31, 2005, the Tahoes had accumulated 231,428 total test miles.

  10. Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems Volume 2009, Article ID 175043 Yassin El-Hillali,1 and Atika Rivenq-Menhaj1 1 UniversitÂŽe de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-CambrÂŽesis, ISTV

  11. Dynamical Systems and Embedded Cognition Randall D. Beer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beer, Randall D.

    1 Dynamical Systems and Embedded Cognition Randall D. Beer Cognitive Science Program Dept University Press. Please address all correspondence to: Randall D. Beer Phone: (812) 856-0873 Cognitive

  12. Roll-to-Roll Embedding of Conductive Sintered Silver Grids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagudala, Ashish Kumar

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? R2R embedding of conductive sintered grids: Within the organic light emitting diode(OLED) and organic photovoltaic(OPV) applications, to improve the efficiency of these devices, high… (more)

  13. The approach to gravity as a theory of embedded surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Sheykin; S. A. Paston

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the approach to gravity in which our curved spacetime is considered as a surface in a flat ambient space of higher dimension (the embedding theory). The dynamical variable in this theory is not a metric but an embedding function. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this theory (Regge-Teitelboim equations) are more general than the Einstein equations, and admit "extra solutions" which do not correspond to any Einsteinian metric. The Regge-Teitelboim equations can be explicitly analyzed for the solutions with high symmetry. We show that symmetric embeddings of a static spherically symmetric asymptotically flat metrics in a 6-dimensional ambient space do not admit extra solutions of the vacuum Regge-Teitelboim equations. Therefore in the embedding theory the solutions with such properties correspond to the exterior Schwarzchild metric.

  14. Embedded Sensor Array Development for Composite Structure Integrity Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Bryan, W. L.; Clonts, L. G.; Franks, S.

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Accellent Technologies, Inc. (the "Participant") was for the development of an embedded ultrasonic sensor system for composite structure integrity monitoring.

  15. Specifying mode requirements of embedded systems Graeme Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Specifying mode requirements of embedded systems Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre University of Queensland, Australia Email: smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract This paper presents a formal

  16. Security needs in embedded systems Tata Elxsi Ltd. India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    also briefs on the security enforced in a device by the use of proprietary security technology and also will be useless #12;Security needs in embedded systems 2 or unintelligible for anyone who is having unauthorized

  17. Induced magnetism in Cu nanoparticles embedded in Co P. Swaminathan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    the effects of changing the nature of confinement to three dimensions by embedding Cu nanoparticles in a Co.1063/1.2806236 Nonmagnetic spacer layers grown between layers of magnetic materials exhibit an induced magnetic moment.1

  18. Complete Embedded Minimal Surfaces of Finite Total David Hoffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complete Embedded Minimal Surfaces of Finite Total Curvature David Hoffman Department-5300 Bonn, Germany July 18, 1994 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Basic theory and the global Weierstrass representation 4 2.1 Finite total curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2

  19. Embedded NICT* tools and traceability to control phytochemical treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Embedded NICT* tools and traceability to control phytochemical treatments Vincent de RUDNICKI the possible tracks allowing the management of news methods of treatment. 1. Introduction Water pollution how environmental pollution could be mitigated through: the optimisation of pesticide application

  20. Embedding Continuous Commissioning in an Energy Efficiency Retrofit Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, J. T.; Claridge, D.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Turner, W. D.; Wei, G.; Verdict, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    his paper presents a case study where Continuous Commissioning (CC), a process that optimizes the HVAC system operation and controls to reduce the building energy consumption and improve comfort, was embedded as one Energy Cost Reduction Measure...

  1. Compilation and Synthesis for RealTime Embedded Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compilation and Synthesis for Real­Time Embedded Controllers Martin FrË?anzle 1 and Markus MË?uller­Olm.Fraenzle@Informatik.Uni­Oldenburg.DE 2 University of Dortmund, Department of Computer Science, FB 4, LS 5, 44221 Dortmund, Germany Markus.Mueller­OlmË?anzle and Markus MË?uller­Olm non­digital nature, i.e. these systems belong to the class of real­time embedded

  2. Development of an embedded 3D graphics processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Brian

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMBEDDED 3D GRAPHICS PROCESSOR A Thesis by BRIAN MURRAY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2002 Major... Subject: Computer Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMBEDDED 3D GRAPHICS PROCESSOR A Thesis by BRIAN MURRAY Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style...

  3. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 WeekExpectedBarrels) Liquids,

  5. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Huber, Aniruddha A Upadhye, David M. Ford, Surita R. Bhatia, Phillip C. Badger

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8 Ă?Â?Ă?”m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125Ă?Â?Ă?°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90Ă?Â?Ă?ÂșC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the bio-oils. The

  6. Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMartelot, S., E-mail: sebastien.lemartelot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Nkonga, B., E-mail: boniface.nkonga@unice.fr [RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University of Nice, LJAD UMR CNRS 7351, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex (France); Saurel, R., E-mail: richard.saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University Institute of France, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup ?3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.

  7. Absorption of sound in liquids and liquid mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musa, Raiq S

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTION OF SOUND IN LIQUIDS AND LIQUID MIXTURES A Thesis Raiq S. causa Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) January 1955 L1BRARY A 4 M COLLEOE OF IEXAS ADSORPTION OF SOfP@ LIQUIDS AND LIQUID NIXTURES A Thesis... Introduction to the Problem Experimental Methods and Procedures Results Discussion of Results Acknowledgements Bib 1 io graphy 22 4I 42 Introduction to the Problem The study of sound absorption in liquids and liquid mixtures is of considerable...

  8. Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies… (more)

  9. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  10. Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  13. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  14. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  15. Collaborative Modelling and Co-simulation in the Development of Dependable Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Embedded Systems John Fitzgerald, Peter Gorm Larsen, Ken Pierce, Marcel Verhoef and Sune Wolff TECHNICAL

  16. LAMB-WAVE EMBEDDED NDE WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER ACTIVE SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    LAMB-WAVE EMBEDDED NDE WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER ACTIVE SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING waves and enable the development of embedded NDE concepts. This paper will present two embedded NDE Embedded nondestructive evaluation (E-NDE) is an emerging technology that aims at performing NDE testing

  17. Embedded Non-destructive Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, and Failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    in an emerging new technology: embedded ultrasonic non-destruc- tive evaluation (NDE). Embedded ultrasonic NDE to determine its current state of structural health. The enabling element of embedded ultra- sonic NDE NDE results are contrasted with embedded NDE results. Detection of cracks, disbonds, delaminations

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 219904(E) (2013) Erratum: Parametric amplification in Josephson junction embedded transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedland, Lazar

    embedded transmission lines [Phys. Rev. B 87, 144301 (2013)] Oded Yaakobi, Lazar Friedland, Chris Macklin

  19. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Ninth Quarterly Report October–December 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (October–December 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of oil bypass filter technologies being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL; formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INL four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INL employees on various routes and six INL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. This quarter, three additional buses were equipped with bypass filters from Refined Global Solutions. Oil bypass filters are reported to have an engine oil filtering capability of less than 1 micron. Both the puraDYN and Refined Global Solutions bypass filters have a heating chamber to remove liquid contaminate from the oil. During the quarter, the eleven diesel engine buses traveled 62,188 miles, and as of January 3, 2005 the buses had accumulated 643,036 total test miles. Two buses had their engine oil changed this quarter. In one bus, the oil was changed due to its degraded quality as determined by a low total base number (<3.0 mg KOH/g). The other bus had high oxidation and nitration numbers (>30.0 Abs/cm). Although a total of six buses have had their oil changed during the last 26 months, by using the oil bypass filters the buses in the evaluation avoided 48 oil changes, which equates to 1,680 quarts (420 gallons) of new oil not consumed and 1,680 quarts of waste oil not generated. Therefore, over 80% of the oil normally required for oil-changes was not used, and, consequently, the evaluation achieved over 80% reduction in the amount of waste oil normally generated. The six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 39,514 miles, and as of January 3, 2005 the Tahoes had accumulated 189,970 total test miles. The Tahoe filter test is in transition. To increase the rate of bypass filter oil flow on the Tahoes, puraDYN provided a larger orifice assembly, and these are being changed out as the Tahoes come in for regular service.

  20. Energy Management Program of an Integrated National Oil Company in the Middle-East

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Aseeri, A. S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (GOSPs), 5 wholly-owned oil refineries processing 1600 MBD of crude, 5 gas-processing plants, and 2 condensate fractionation plants. The Company’s total in-Kingdom energy consumption in 2005 was over 50,000 MMBtu/h of fuel gas and liquids, and 1.55 GW...

  1. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  2. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  3. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  4. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReservesYear Jan Feb0

  5. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionExpectedChangesAdministration Cost and

  6. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  7. Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two major energy challenges for the United States are replacing crude oil in our transportation system and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. A domestic-source greenhouse-gas-neutral nuclear hydrogen biomass system to replace oil in the transportation sector is described. Some parts of the transportation system can be electrified with electricity supplied by nuclear energy sources that do not emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Other components of the transportation system require liquid fuels. Biomass can be converted to greenhouse-gas-neutral liquid fuels; however, the conversion of biomass-to-liquid fuels is energy intensive. There is insufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid fuel demands and provide the energy required to process the biomass-to-liquid fuels. With the use of nuclear energy to provide heat, electricity, and hydrogen for the processing of biomass-to-liquid fuels, the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass is dramatically increased, and the available biomass could meet U.S. liquid fuel requirements.

  8. Using simple models to describe oil production from unconventional reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Shale oil (tight oil) is oil trapped in low permeability shale or sandstone. Shale oil is a resource with great potential as it is heavily… (more)

  9. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

  10. Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

  11. Liquid Vortex Shielding for Fusion Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardet, Philippe M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Supiot, Boris F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Peterson, Per F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Savas, Oemer [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Swirling liquid vortices can be used in fusion chambers to protect their first walls and critical elements from the harmful conditions resulting from fusion reactions. The beam tube structures in heavy ion fusion (HIF) must be shielded from high energy particles, such as neutrons, x-rays and vaporized coolant, that will cause damage. Here an annular wall jet, or vortex tube, is proposed for shielding and is generated by injecting liquid tangent to the inner surface of the tube both azimuthally and axially. Its effectiveness is closely related to the vortex tube flow properties. 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is being conducted to precisely characterize its turbulent structure. The concept of annular vortex flow can be extended to a larger scale to serve as a liquid blanket for other inertial fusion and even magnetic fusion systems. For this purpose a periodic arrangement of injection and suction holes around the chamber circumference are used, generating the layer. Because it is important to match the index of refraction of the fluid with the tube material for optical measurement like PIV, a low viscosity mineral oil was identified and used that can also be employed to do scaled experiments of molten salts at high temperature.

  12. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  13. Carbometallic oil conversion with ballistic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, P.W.; Benslay, R.M.; Barger, D.F.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes improvement in a method for converting carbo-metallic containing residual oils to form upgraded liquid products by mixing. The improvement comprises: discharging the suspension from the reaction zone at a velocity of 55 to 100 ft/sec. imparting greater momentum to the solid particles than to the hydrocarbon product vapors whereby instantaneous separation of at least about 80 wt % of the vapors from the solid particles occurs; encouraging separation of solids from remaining vapors following discharge from the reaction zone by diverting solids from the remaining vapors by directional impingement on a target baffle and by providing a lower pressure vapor recovery zone in open communication with one or more cyclone separation zones outside the reaction zone open end; recovering solid particles separated by momentum from the suspension and diverted laterally from the vapor recovery zone as a mass of collected solid particles; stripping and regenerating the collected the particles in a sequence of separate zones; and recycling hot regenerated solids to the reaction zone for contact with the residual oil feed.

  14. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  15. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  16. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  17. Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

  18. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  20. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  1. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen, E-mail: chenh@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Libisch, Florian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/136, 1040 Vienna (Austria)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/136, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Peng, Qing [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Chemistry, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na{sub 4} cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na{sub 4} cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods.

  5. BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

  6. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  7. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  8. Carbo-metallic oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for catalytically cracking reduced crude oil feeds comprising Conradson carbon in the presence of a premised catalyst temperature of about 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F). The cracking is carried out to form hydrocarbon products comprising gasoline, which method comprises maintaining the functions of oil feed, Conradson carbon, hydrogen in deposited carbonaceous material, and water addition to the oil feed to be converted in accordance with the relationship of operating parameters for a catalyst to oil ratio in the range of about 4.5 to 7.5.

  9. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  10. Oil and macroeconomy in China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This paper uses two different approaches to investigate the relationship between the oil price shock and the macroeconomy in China. The first approach is the… (more)

  11. Oil and Gas Exploration (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to activities conducted for the purpose of obtaining geological, geophysical, or geochemical information about oil or gas including seismic activities but excluding...

  12. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  13. SHM of Galaxies Embedded within Condensed Neutrino Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter D. Morley; Douglas J. Buettner

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-examine the question of condensed neutrino objects (de- generate neutrino matter) based on new calculations. The potential show-stopper issue of free-streaming light neutrinos inhibiting galaxy formation is addressed. We compute the period associated with sim- ple harmonic motion (SHM) of galaxies embedded within condensed neutrino objects. For observational consequences, we examine the ro- tational velocities of embedded galaxies using Hickson 88A (N6978) as the prototype. Finally, we point out that degenerate neutrino objects repel each other in overlap and we compute directly the repulsive force between two interesting and relevant con?gurations. An outstanding issue is whether the accompanying tidal forces generated by condensed neutrino matter on embedded galaxies give rise to galactic bulges and halos.

  14. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  15. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change Solutions National Team Leader- IEA Bioenergy Task 40- Bio-trade 402 Third Avenue ·Ottawa, Ontario ·Canada K. Market Determining Factors 5. EU Country Perspectives 6. Potential European Markets 6.1. Pulp Mill Lime

  16. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil price

  17. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil

  18. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version)ec 1827 TableB (11-19-10)Fuel Oil

  19. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0

  20. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries08,909

  1. Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on CokersA2. ForJanuary 2013 (Thousand

  2. Absence of Embedded Mass Shells: Cerenkov Radiation and Quantum Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. De Roeck; J. Froehlich; A. Pizzo

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that, in a model where a non-relativistic particle is coupled to a quantized relativistic scalar Bose field, the embedded mass shell of the particle dissolves in the continuum when the interaction is turned on, provided the coupling constant is sufficiently small. More precisely, under the assumption that the fiber eigenvectors corresponding to the putative mass shell are differentiable as functions of the total momentum of the system, we show that a mass shell could exist only at a strictly positive distance from the unperturbed embedded mass shell near the boundary of the energy-momentum spectrum.

  3. A Cartesian embedded boundary method for hyperbolic conservation laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors develop an embedded boundary finite difference technique for solving the compressible two- or three-dimensional Euler equations in complex geometries on a Cartesian grid. The method is second order accurate with an explicit time step determined by the grid size away from the boundary. Slope limiters are used on the embedded boundary to avoid non-physical oscillations near shock waves. They show computed examples of supersonic flow past a cylinder and compare with results computed on a body fitted grid. Furthermore, they discuss the implementation of the method for thin geometries, and show computed examples of transonic flow past an airfoil.

  4. Smart Grid Embedded Cyber Security: Ensuring Security While Promoting Interoperability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragsdale, G.

    Smart Grid Embedded Cyber Security: Ensuring Security While Promoting Interoperability Communications and Embedded Systems Department Southwest Research Institute Gary Ragsdale, Ph.D., P.E. August 24 ? 25, 2010 ESL-HH-10-08-09 Proceedings of the 17... of Smart Grid devices ? Describe progress made in Smart Grid security ? Propose a more robust approach to SG security ? Describe needs for further research and development ESL-HH-10-08-09 Proceedings of the 17th Symposium for Improving Building Systems...

  5. Investigation of grid embedment techniques as applied to subcritical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF GRID EMBEDMENT TECHNIOUES AS APPI IED TO SUBCRITICAL FLOW A Thesis by MICHAEL E. WATTS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@1 University in partial fulfi11ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December, 1980 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering INVESTIGATION OF GRID EMBEDMENT TECHNIQUES AS APPLIED TO SUBCRITICAL FLOW A Thesis by MICHAEL E, WATTS Approved as to style and content by: a)rm n o Committee 3 J4W Member p' c. ember Member...

  6. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Killelea, Daniel R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Loyola University Chicago, 1068 W. Sheridan Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60660 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas collection and release, and the chemical composition of astrophysical icy bodies in space.

  7. Oil resources: the key to prosperity or to poverty? : Influence of oil price shocks on spending of oil revenues.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selivanova, Olga

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Abundant natural resources, in particular oil, play an important role in the economics of many countries. The oil price shocks that have been happening continuously… (more)

  8. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

  9. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

  10. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  11. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

  12. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

  13. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Componentin In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80, Paper No.6-10, 1981 CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A.

  14. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is in intimate contact with oil and shale during In in-situin contact with the oil and shale. These methods and othersWaters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,

  15. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

  16. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

  17. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  18. Effect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    can agglomerate, increasing the viscosity of the oil and significantly diminishing its lubrication performance. The soot can also form a high-viscosity sludge which can also degrade lubricant effectivenessEffect of Temperature on Carbon-Black Agglomeration in Hydrocarbon Liquid with Adsorbed Dispersant

  19. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  20. Crude oil and crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, He

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study attempts to resolve two important issues. First, it investigates the diversification benefit of crude oil for equities. Second, it examines whether or not… (more)

  1. www.fightbac.o anola oil is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ca co Th Ca "Canola" c which is Addition Ca he Ca in Th ca Ca m C know? anola oil is ooking oils. he average anola oil is comes fro s another nal Inform anola oil is eart healthy anola oil is n the world. he part of th anola meal anola oil ca many crop va ano the lowest . canola see a good sou m

  2. Process oil manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corman, B.G.; Korbach, P.F.; Webber, K.M.

    1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing a naphthenic process oil having reduced sulfur, nitrogen and polynuclear aromatics contents from a naphthenic feed containing same and having an atmospheric boiling range of about 650/sup 0/ to about 1200/sup 0/F. comprising: A. passing the feed into a first hydrotreating stage having a hydrotreating catalyst therein, the stage maintained at a temperature of about 600/sup 0/ to about 750/sup 0/F. and at a hydrogen partial pressure of about 400 to about 1500 psig, to convert at least a portion of the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and the nitrogen to ammonia; B. passing the hydrotreated feed from the first hydrotreating stage in an intermediate stripping stage wherein hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or both is removed; C. passing the hydrotreated feed from the intermediate stage into a second hydrotreating stage having therein a hydrotreating catalyst selected from the group consisting of nickel-molybdenum, cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten and mixtures thereof, the second hydrotreating stage maintained at a temperature lower than that of the first hydrotreating stage and at a hydrogen partial pressure ranging between about 400 and about 1,500 psig; D. monitoring the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both of the product exiting the second hydrotreating stage; and, E. adjusting the temperature in the second hydrotreating stage to keep the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both below a limit suitable for process oil.

  3. Oil market in international and Norwegian perspectives.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singsaas, Julia Nazyrova

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Crude oil is the most important energy source in global perspective. About 35 percent of the world’s primary energy consumption is supplied by oil, followed… (more)

  4. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  5. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields...

  6. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  7. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Development of the Basis for an Analytical Protocol for Feeds and Products of Bio-oil Hydrotreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oasmaa, Anja; Kuoppala, Eeva; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for easily following the main changes in the composition, stability, and acidity of bio-oil in hydrotreatment are presented. The correlation to more conventional methods is provided. Depending on the final use the upgrading requirement is different. This will create challenges also for the analytical protocol. Polar pyrolysis liquids and their products can be divided into five main groups with solvent fractionation the change in which is easy to follow. This method has over ten years been successfully used for comparison of fast pyrolysis bio-oil quality, and the changes during handling, and storage, provides the basis of the analytical protocol presented in this paper. The method has most recently been used also for characterisation of bio-oil hydrotreatment products. Discussion on the use of gas chromatographic and spectroscopic methods is provided. In addition, fuel oil analyses suitable for fast pyrolysis bio-oils and hydrotreatment products are discussed.

  9. e n e r g y Unconventional Oil Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuck In A Rock; A Hard Place; M. Engemann; Michael T. Owyang

    Highly variable oil prices and increasing world demand for oil have led producers to look for alternative sources of transportation fuel. Two popular alternatives are oil sands (aka tar sands) and oil shale. However, obtaining usable oil from oil sands or oil shale is more capital-intensive and more expensive than obtaining oil from conventional reserves. At what price of oil do these alternatives become cost-effective? Oil Sands Oil sands are a mixture of sand, water, clay and heavy, viscous oil called bitumen. The largest known deposits of oil sands are in Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco Oil

  10. Customized Kernel Execution on Reconfigurable Hardware for Embedded Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziavras, Sotirios G.

    is required. This can be facilitated through dynamic adaptation of the silicon resources in reconfigurable reconfiguration overheads can be estimated. Therefore, if the scheduling of time- consuming kernels considers also kernels. Experiments involving EEMBC (EDN Embedded Microprocessor Benchmarking Consortium) and Mi

  11. MEMORY DESIGN AND EXPLORATION FOR LOW POWER, EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    by (i) applying memory optimizing transformations such as loop transformations, (ii) storing frequently transformations. In this paper, we describe a procedure for memory design and exploration for low power embedded optimizing transformations such as loop transformations. While there exists a large number of loop

  12. A Highly Configurable Cache for Low Energy Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najjar, Walid A.

    A Highly Configurable Cache for Low Energy Embedded Systems CHUANJUN ZHANG San Diego State University and FRANK VAHID and WALID NAJJAR University of California, Riverside Energy consumption is a major for about 50% of the total energy consumed in these systems. The performance of a given cache architecture

  13. Complex Embedded Automotive Control Systems DaimlerChrysler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    Complex Embedded Automotive Control Systems CEMACS DaimlerChrysler SINTEF Glasgow University Description The high level of complexity in automotive systems requires a new approach to design. Moreover, to achieve higher performance and increased safety a coordination of different automotive control systems

  14. A Driving Simulator for Teaching Embedded Automotive Control Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Brent

    A Driving Simulator for Teaching Embedded Automotive Control Applications Paul G. Griffiths component uses a typical automotive power- train micro-controller and teaches topics in system dynamics students build a fixed-based driving simulator to test advanced automotive control system designs

  15. A Review of Embedded Automotive Protocols Nicolas Navet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    A Review of Embedded Automotive Protocols Nicolas Navet 1 , Françoise Simonot-Lion 2 April 14, 2008 of a large number of automotive networks such as LIN, J1850, CAN, FlexRay, MOST, etc.. This pa- per rst is given. Next, the current eorts of the automotive industry on middleware technologies which may

  16. Secure Embedded Platform for Networked Automotive M. Gomathisankaran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

    Secure Embedded Platform for Networked Automotive Systems M. Gomathisankaran Dept. of Computer University of North Texas 1 Introduction Modern automotive systems contain numerous electronic sensors automotive systems, is a challenge for our generation. Our focus in this position paper is on the security

  17. Improving Energy Efficiency for Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    of solar energy. The main control knobs in these problems are the voltage of charge transfer interconnect of charge migration problem [6] is to transfer energy internally from one EES bank to another, whileImproving Energy Efficiency for Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems* Yang Ge, Yukan Zhang and Qinru

  18. Securing Internet Coordinate Embedding Systems Mohamed Ali Kaafar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turletti, Thierry

    Securing Internet Coordinate Embedding Systems Mohamed Ali Kaafar INRIA Sophia Antipolis, FR mkaafar@sophia.inria.fr Laurent Mathy Lancaster University, UK laurent@comp.lancs.ac.uk Chadi Barakat INRIA Sophia Antipolis, FR barakat@sophia.inria.fr Kave Salamatian LIP6, FR and EPFL, CH kave

  19. Compilation and Synthesis for RealTime Embedded Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MĂŒller-Olm, Markus

    Compilation and Synthesis for Real­Time Embedded Controllers Martin FrË?anzle 1 and Markus MË?uller­Olm.Fraenzle@Informatik.Uni­Oldenburg.DE 2 University of Dortmund, Department of Computer Science, FB 4, LS 5, 44221 Dortmund, Germany Markus.Mueller­Olm

  20. Compilation and Synthesis for Real-Time Embedded Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MĂŒller-Olm, Markus

    Compilation and Synthesis for Real-Time Embedded Controllers Martin Fršanzle1 and Markus Mšuller-Olm.Fraenzle@Informatik.Uni-Oldenburg.DE 2 University of Dortmund, Department of Computer Science, FB 4, LS 5, 44221 Dortmund, Germany Markus.Mueller-Olm

  1. Correctness Proofs for Device Drivers in Embedded Systems Jianjun Duan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regehr, John

    that may be thousands of lines; we intend to integrate our manual proofs about bottom-level routines. For example, an auto- motive brake-by-wire system might be required to begin brake drum actuation within 50 ms of receiving a brake pedal input. Let's look at a more detailed example: a hypothetical embedded system

  2. Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    -tempera- ture exposure to oxygen, and an outer low thermal conduc- tivity ceramic coating, such as ytrriaDelamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers Matthew R layers upon thermal cycling delamination failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) driven by thickening

  3. GENETIC HEURISTICS FOR REDUCING MEMORY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schott, René - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    GENETIC HEURISTICS FOR REDUCING MEMORY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Maha IDRISSI AOUAD.loria.fr/zendra Keywords: Energy consumption reduction, Genetic heuristics, memory allocation management, optimizations on heuristic methods for SPMs careful management in order to reduce memory energy consumption. We propose

  4. MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cannata, Giorgio

    MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

  5. Functional-Architectural Diagnosability Analysis of Embedded Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of diagnosis, such as FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) and fault tree analysis. State of the art automotive systems. The approach we developed can be integrated into the design cycle. It has two important is applied on a real automotive experimental embedded platform based on several Electronic Control Units

  6. Utility Accrual Real-Time Scheduling for Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindran, Binoy

    Utility Accrual Real-Time Scheduling for Multiprocessor Embedded Systems Hyeonjoong Cho a Binoy We present the first Utility Accrual (or UA) real-time scheduling algorithm for mul- tiprocessors, called global Multiprocessor Utility Accrual scheduling algorithm (or gMUA). The algorithm considers

  7. Soft Autonomous Materials --Using Active Elasticity and Embedded Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Haiyi

    Soft Autonomous Materials -- Using Active Elasticity and Embedded Distributed Computation Nikolaus and demonstrate shape changing, and autonomous, sensor-based locomotion using distributed control. We show elasticity in their designs [23]. Here we show soft robots that can autonomously undergo shape-change and gen

  8. 1Chapter 1: Introduction 1Chapter 1: Introduction embedding sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    move business forward on the path toward sustainability. By working together we will build resilient1Chapter 1: Introduction 1Chapter 1: Introduction embedding sustainability in organizational see sustainability as important to their company's future success.1 1 according to the 2010 UN Global

  9. Embedded Ultrasonics NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Embedded Ultrasonics NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors Victor Giurgiutiu Department (NDE) is described. PWAS structure and principle of operation are presented. The interaction between exciting certain Lamb wave modes are identified. Recent trends in guided-wave ultrasonic NDE and damage

  10. Embedded Cyber-Physical Anomaly Detection in Smart Meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Embedded Cyber-Physical Anomaly Detection in Smart Meters Massimiliano Raciti, Simin Nadjm vulnerabilities that arise from deployment of local cyber-physical attacks at a smart metering location at destabilisation. In this paper we study a smart metering device that uses a trusted platform for storage

  11. Power Optimization and Management in Embedded Systems1 Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Power Optimization and Management in Embedded Systems1 Massoud Pedram University of Southern under contract number DAAB07-00-C-L516. Abstract Power-efficient design requires reducing power on the system performance and quality of service (QoS). Power-aware high-level language compilers, dynamic power

  12. A Local Linear Embedding Module For Evolutionary Computation Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boschetti, Fabio

    A Local Linear Embedding Module For Evolutionary Computation Optimization Fabio Boschetti CSIRO optimization problems. The LLE employs the stochastic sampling of the data space inherent in Evolutionary and considerably improves the EC convergence. Thirteen standard test functions and two real-world optimization

  13. A Formal Embedded Software Verification using Software Fault Tree Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail: jbyoo@konkuk.ac.kr Extended Abstract In developing embedded software such as nuclear reactor protection checking [4]. We used a prototype version of the KNICS RPS [5] in Korean nuclear power plants, but it may also be able to auto-populate address book changes. This is based on the use of an operating

  14. SCORE: a Scalable Concolic Testing Tool for Reliable Embedded Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an automated fashion. One main task of concolic testing is to extract symbolic in- formation from a concrete cases in an automated manner. An alternative approach, concolic (CONCrete + symbOLIC) [17] testing (alsoSCORE: a Scalable Concolic Testing Tool for Reliable Embedded Software Yunho Kim and Moonzoo Kim

  15. ECE 561: HW/SW Design of Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    ECE 561: HW/SW Design of Embedded Systems - ECE 251 or equivalent Pre-requisites: Computer System basic knowledge of microprocessors and memory systems - Understands combinatorial and sequential logic design - Has experience with programming in C/C++/Java and/or VHDL/Verilog - Can analyze the system level

  16. Embeddings of local automata Marie-Pierre Beal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Embeddings of local automata Marie-Pierre BÂŽeal UniversitÂŽe Paris-Est Institut Gaspard-Monge 77454 Marne-la-VallÂŽee, France beal@univ-mlv.fr Sylvain Lombardy UniversitÂŽe Paris-Est Institut Gaspard

  17. ON THE EXISTENCE OF EMBEDDED EIGENVALUES HELGE KRUGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Helge

    of quasi- periodic Schršodinger operators. In particular, I construct embedded eigen- values of eigenfunctions of decaying perturbations of the free Laplacian to the semi-classical behavior of the spectrum real valued sequence called the potential, and R parametrizes the boundary condition. We also define

  18. Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

  19. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005), p. 59. Table 5: Oil production in barrels per daynot have much impact in oil production. In fact, oil exportscurrent oil reserves and oil production? 2) For how long can

  20. AEO2012 Preliminary Assumptions: Oil and Gas Supply

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and Gas Supply Working

  1. AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and Gas Supply AEO20149

  2. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and(Million

  3. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan FebProved Reserves (BillionCrude Oil

  4. Separation of oil-soluble sulfonates from sulfonated oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ul'yanenko, V.I.; Yur'eva, N.P.; Sergeev, V.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors aimed at developing a method for the complete recovery, from oil solutions, of oil-water-soluble sulfonates meeting the specifications, along with oils at least 99% pure, suitable for further processing. As the starting material the authors used an experimental batch of sulfonated and neutralized distillate lube stocks produced by selective solvent treatment. In determining the optimal extraction parameters, the authors investigated the influence of the solvent to original feed (S:F) weight ratio and the influence of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration on the composition of the sulfonates and oils recovered at 60/sup 0/C with a settling time of 2 h. The optimal conditions for two-stage extraction were found through a study of the influence of temperature and settling time on the compositions of the sulfonates and oils with S:F = 1.2:1 and with an IPA concentration of 40%. The process technology for two-stage recovery of oils and sulfonates from oil solutions was worked out in a pilot unit.

  5. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  6. oil1980.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, 1997November5.4

  7. oil1981.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, 1997November5.44.6

  8. oil1982.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988,

  9. oil1984.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, Total U.S.

  10. oil1987.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, Total U.S.7.4 14.0

  11. oil1990.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, Total U.S.7.4

  12. oil1993.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, Total

  13. oil1997.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, TotalTotal per

  14. oil2001.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, TotalTotal per

  15. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  16. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  17. No Oil: The coming Utopia/Dystopia and Communal Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Timothy

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies of conventional oil, and exploitable supplies of alternative forms of oil and related hydrocarbons, including tar sands and oil shale. Because new supplies of conventional oil are declining steadily, there is quite a lot of activity in the oil... to exploit the huge deposits of oil sands in Canada. Oil sands and oil shale look good because they contain vast amounts of oil. The problem is that of turning the reserves, locked into other geological formations, into useful oil. According to current...

  18. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kelley, Dennis [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States)] [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States); Cochaud, Chantal [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)] [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Serrano, Roger [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)] [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW) in France, two options can be considered: the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the disposal facility on ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these radwaste routes is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the radwaste route specifications. If the waste characteristics are incompatible with the radwaste route specifications (presence of significant quantities of chlorine, fluorine, organic component etc or/and high activity limits), it is necessary to find an alternative solution that consists of a waste pre-treatment process. In the context of the problematic Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. The first one is composed of organic liquids at 13.1 % (diphenyloxazol, mesitylene, TBP, xylene) and water at 86.9 %. The second one is composed of TBP at 8.6 % and water at 91.4 %. They contain chlorine, fluorine and sulphate and have got alpha/beta/gamma spectra with mass activities equal to some kBq.g{sup -1}. Therefore, tritium is present and creates the second problematic waste stream. As a consequence, in order for disposal acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. The NOCHAR polymers as an aqueous and organic liquid solidification process seem to be an adequate solution. Indeed, these polymers constitute an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing etc) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and immobilise the liquid. Then as the polymer-organic cure, over time, the polymer continues to collapse on the organic to create a permanent bond. The N960 has the ability to absorb aqueous waste up to 100 times its own weight. It creates a strong mechanical bond which permanently traps the contamination imbedded in the aqueous liquids. As a consequence, these two polymers seem to be able to constitute a suitable solidification matrix for a final acceptance in storage on ANDRA sites. In order to validate the polymers as an acceptable aqueous and organic solidification process for Cadarache LOR, some solidification tests realized with N910 and N960, have been carried out for different Waste/Polymer ratios. The determination of the best Waste/Polymer ratio and of the optimal experimental parameters has been made through an exudation test. Indeed, the process prevents leaching and it results in the absence of residual free organic or aqueous liquid which is forbidden in storage by ANDRA specifications. With these test results, we generated scientific data which are fundamental to obtain an ANDRA agreement. As a conclusion, the aim of this study is to demonstrate that the solidification by polymers can constitute a pre-treatment solution for Cadarache LOR and more generally, for various organic and mixed organic/aqueous waste which can not be directly acceptable at CENTRACO facility or at ANDRA storage sites. This work is, therefore, a solid background to demonstrate the feasibility of the waste pre-treatment by solidification with polymers and to encourage the development of this process. (authors)

  19. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  20. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  1. OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCES DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER-CERAMIC EMBEDDED CAPACITORS FOR MMIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    coefficient and the thermal conductivity between the ceramic dielectric, the terminations, the solderOPERATIONAL PERFORMANCES DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER- CERAMIC EMBEDDED CAPACITORS FOR MMIC candidates for dielectric materials applied for embedded passives are polymer- ceramic nanocomposites

  2. Mold design, fabrication and tensile testing of EMBed-812, a tissue embedding epoxy resin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Lucy W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Serial sectioning is a process whereby fixed tissue is embedded in a polymer to preserve structure and is then sliced into very thin sections as small as 25nm. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of this embedding ...

  3. A cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the heat equation and poisson's equation in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Peter; Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip; Ligocki, Terry

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the heatA Cartesian Grid Embedded Boundary Method for the HeatError Grid Size Fig. 17. Solution error for heat equation on

  4. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi http www abudhabi ae egovPoolPortal WAR appmanager...

  5. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  6. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  7. OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California 4 Superior figures refer to references at the end of the essay. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION California oil was always a valued commodity. When the Spanish explorers landed in California in the 1500s, they found Indians gathering asphaltum (very thick oil) from natural

  8. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference

  9. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Signature Service Oil Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    UNM Staff EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Jiffy Lube Signature Service Oil Change Fast - No Appointment We change your oil with up to 5 quarts of major brand motor oil We install a new oil fi We visually inspect. ASE training programs · Jiffy Lube uses top quality products that meet or exceed vehicle warranty

  10. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, views that the world will need oil for decades to come, the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacityCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest

  11. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil or oil reserves is a political act. The SEC, to satisfy bankers and shareholders, obliges the oil

  12. Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solvent for commercial-scale enhanced oil recovery to increase the amount of crude oil that canCONTENTS Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look at the eye Computational Science takes inside for more details #12;Greener, cheaper oil extraction Geographical and geological concerns

  13. Liens for Oil and Gas Operations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains regulations concerning lien allowances made to operators of oil and gas operations.

  14. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  15. Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

  16. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  18. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  19. A correlation between wettability and the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Thomas

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in color and dispersible in hard watez. Petronate L (32) is a low molecular weight& highly refined petroleum sulfonate It is insoluble in waterz highly soluble in kerosene& and is a very viscous~ dark brown liquid. Ethofat 2/+2/60 (33) i. s a tall oil... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE ~ust 1~6 Major Subject Petroleum ineerin A COHRELAT ION BETWEEN WETTABILlTY AND THE RECOVERY CF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis ROBERT T KLLIK Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  1. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed in the area related to the physicochemical factors for the improvement of the oil recovery efficiency in steamfloods. In this context, three general areas are studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes). (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems and long and narrow reservoirs (which are typical of oil reservoirs). (3) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the properties of foams.

  2. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  4. Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieu, Khanh

    Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite and demonstrate a new saturable absorber based on a fiber taper embedded in a carbon nanotube/polymer composite absorber. Using an embedded fiber-taper saturable absorber, we built an all-fiber mode-locked ring laser

  5. SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking for Embedded ANSI-C Software Lucas Cordeiro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking for Embedded ANSI-C Software Lucas Cordeiro University to the verification of embedded soft- ware written in ANSI-C. We have extended the encodings from previous SMT. Keywords-Bounded Model Checking; Satisfiability Modulo Theories; Embedded ANSI-C Software; I. INTRODUCTION

  6. Embeddings of Cubic Halin Graphs A Surface-by-Surface Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Jonathan L.

    Embeddings of Cubic Halin Graphs A Surface-by-Surface Inventory Jonathan L. Gross Columbia@cs.columbia.edu; http://www.cs.columbia.edu/gross/. 1 #12;Embeddings of Cubic Halin Graphs: An Inventory 2 1 graph for a 14-vertex tree with 8 leaves. #12;Embeddings of Cubic Halin Graphs: An Inventory 3

  7. Printed Optics: 3D Printing of Embedded Optical Elements for Interactive Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Printed Optics: 3D Printing of Embedded Optical Elements for Interactive Devices Karl D.D. Willis1 d Figure 1: Custom optical elements are fabricated with 3D printing and embedded in interactive), and embedded optoelectronics (d). ABSTRACT We present an approach to 3D printing custom optical ele- ments

  8. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production Zhenyu (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material offshore and the oil industry expects this share to grow continuously in the future. In last decade, oil

  9. Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil Pollution Tracking Heriot) Key Words Oil Spill, HF Radar, Trajectory Forecasting, Hydrodynamic Modelling, Oil Chemistry Overview In an oil spill emergency, an operational system must forecast ocean and weather conditions in addition

  10. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop among oils of common origin and manufacture. The importance of the emulsifier used with the oil of these products. Introduction Petroleum oils have been in use as crop protectants for over a hundred years

  11. OilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Robert

    the full power of an expressive web ontology language (OIL). OilEd uses reasoning to support ontology been merged under the name DAML+OIL, although there are some differences between the approaches usedOilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web Sean Bechhofer, Ian Horrocks, Carole

  12. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of microscopic plants and animals. Far beneath the surface, corals and other deepwater communities might also be a ected. OIL AND HUMAN AND SEDIMENTS · Water quality surveys · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment

  13. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    price shocks and economic downturns. Over the next 30 years oil demand is expected to grow by 60Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515­531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range

  14. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  15. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  16. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  17. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  18. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  19. Figure 4. World Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. World Oil Prices" " (2007 dollars per barrel)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,2029,2030...

  20. Oil and Gas Conservation (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the state's interest in encouraging the development, production, and utilization of natural gas and oil resources in a manner which will prevent waste and lead to the...