Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

2

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

3

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

4

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan Science Standards Addressed (From the Colorado=0 Standard 1 - Physical Science 1st Grade: Outcome 1: Solids and liquids have unique properties) Large Metal or plastic mixing bowl Wire whisk and wooden spoon 4 cups heavy cream 1-1/2 Half & Half

5

Frostbite Theater - Just for Fun - How to Make Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Total Lunar Eclipse of December 21, 2010 The Total Lunar Eclipse of December 21, 2010 Previous Video (The Total Lunar Eclipse of December 21, 2010) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Viewer Requests!) Liquid Nitrogen Viewer Requests! How to Make Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream What do you do if you need to make ice cream in a hurry? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Steve: Okay! So, We are here at Jefferson Lab and it's about 100 degrees outside and we though "Why not make a little bit of ice cream?" Now, of course we don't have a lot of ice cream on hand, but we do have half-and-half, sugar and vanilla and, since we are at Jefferson Lab where we have a superconductive accelerator, we have lots of liquid nitrogen. So, we're going to make ourselves some liquid nitrogen ice cream. So, Joanna

6

Nucleation and Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments on a refrigerating catalyst?liquid nitrogen (LN)?in different cloud chambers and their results. The nucleation threshold temperature of liquid nitrogen is 0°C, and when the temperature less than ?2°C, the ice ...

Cao Xuecheng; Wang Weimin

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

8

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

9

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

10

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

11

Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Yen, S.C. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

13

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Superconductors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Index Next Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen Superconductors What happens when a magnet is placed on a superconductor? Play the video to find...

14

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

15

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

16

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

17

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

18

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

19

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

20

The Bevatron liquid nitrogen circulation system  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen liquefier and computer controlled valving system have been added to the Bevatron cryoliner vacuum system to cut operating costs by reducing liquid nitrogen consumption. The computer and interface electronic systems, which control the temperatures of twenty-eight liquid nitrogen circuits, have been chosen and designed to operate in the Bevatron's pulsating magnetic field. The nitrogen exhaust is routed back to a liquefier, of about five kilowatt capacity, liquefied, and rerouted through the cooling circuits. A description of the system and operating results are presented.

Hunt, D.; Stover, G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

22

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

23

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

Chang, Ho-Myung

24

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freeze the Rainbow!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! Freeze the Rainbow! Starburst candy. They're fruity. They're chewy. They're delicious! But, can they survive taking a bath in liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A student visiting Jefferson Lab from Huntington Middle School in Newport News, Virginia, asked what happens to a starburst if you put it in liquid nitrogen. Well, we're going to find out! Steve: At room temperature, starburst isn't really all that special. I can kind of squish it if I squeeze it hard enough and, if I drop it, nothing

26

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Giant Koosh Ball!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Previous Video (Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Giant Koosh Ball! Sometimes, you just want to know what's going to happen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! A while ago, I was at the mall and I saw this. And, the first thing that popped into my head was 'I wonder what would happen if we were to put this in liquid nitrogen?' Now, that's one thing I really love about science. If you have a question, you can, sometimes, do an experiment to find out what the answer is! Here at the Lab, we have a lot of liquid nitrogen, so that's

27

Cloud Liquid Water and Ice Content Retrieval by Multiwavelength Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud liquid water and ice content retrieval in precipitating clouds by the differential attenuation method using a dual-wavelength radar, as a function of the wavelength pair, is first discussed. In the presence of non-Rayleigh scatterers, ...

Nicolas Gaussiat; Henri Sauvageot; Anthony J. Illingworth

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Relative Humidity in Liquid, Mixed-Phase, and Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of in situ observations of the relative humidity in liquid, mixed, and ice clouds typically stratiform in nature and associated with mesoscale frontal systems at temperatures ?45°C < Ta < ?5°C are presented. The data were collected ...

Alexei Korolev; George A. Isaac

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Questions and Answers - Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How cold is liquid nitrogen? How cold is liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (How cold is liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize?) If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen,would your body instantly crystallize? Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen? Yes, there are things colder than liquid nitrogen, like most of the Universe! I assume, though, that you mean things on the Earth. There actually is an entire branch of science called cryogenics that deals with really cold things. Generally the science of cryogenics is when the temperature goes below that which we can reach with conventional refrigeration equipment, around 250 degrees (Fahrenheit) below zero. Many

30

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Popping Film Canisters!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploding Rubber Stopper! Exploding Rubber Stopper! Previous Video (Exploding Rubber Stopper!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Insulators!) Insulators! Popping Film Canisters! What happens when liquid nitrogen is trapped inside a sealed container? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are a bunch of film canisters! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we trap the liquid nitrogen in the film canisters! Steve: Okay! Now the room, and everything in it, is way too hot for the liquid nitrogen to stay as a liquid. As soon as the liquid nitrogen touches anything in the room, it boils and changes into a gas.

31

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - The Flying Ring!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Pewter Bells) Pewter Bells The Flying Ring! A copper ring leaps off an electromagnet when it's turned on. What happens when the ring's resistance is lowered using liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is an AC powered electromagnet. And this is a copper ring. When I place the copper ring on the electromagnet and turn it on, the magnet's changing magnetic field will induce an electric current in the copper ring. The current in the ring will then create it's own magnetic

32

Thermodynamics of Icing Cylinder for Measurements of Liquid Water Content in Supercooled Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rosemount Icing Detector (RICE) has been used extensively over the last three decades for aircraft measurements of the rate of ice riming in supercooled liquid and mixed clouds. Because of difficulties related to calibration and ...

I. P. Mazin; A. V. Korolev; A. Heymsfield; G. A. Isaac; S. G. Cober

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

Paulozzi, L.J. (Vermont Health Dept., Burlington, VT (United States)); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Distributions of Liquid, Vapor, and Ice in an Orographic Cloud from Field Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase distribution of the water mass of a cold orographic cloud into vapor, liquid, and ice is calculated from measurements made from an instrumented aircraft. The vapor values are calculated from thermodynamic measurements, and the liquid is ...

Taneil Uttal; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Prepulse effect on laser-induced water-window radiation from a liquid nitrogen jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is schematically shown in Fig. 1. A high-purity nitrogen gas was cooled and liquefied through the cooling stagesPrepulse effect on laser-induced water-window radiation from a liquid nitrogen jet J. Son,a M. Cho.3­4.4 nm x ray from a liquid nitrogen jet. It is observed that a prepulse of only 2 mJ enhances

Kim, Jae-Hoon

36

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle

Weber, T B; Howell, G; Racine, M; Weisend, J G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Precipitation and Evolution Sensitivity in Simulated Deep Convective Storms: Comparisons between Liquid-Only and Simple Ice and Liquid Phase Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weisman and Klemp suggested that their liquid-only, deep convective storm experiments should be repeated with a liquid-ice microphysics scheme to determine if the solutions are qualitatively the same. Using a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic ...

Matthew S. Gilmore; Jerry M. Straka; Erik N. Rasmussen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Retrieval of Vertical Profiles of Liquid Water and Ice Content in Mixed Clouds from Doppler Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to retrieve vertical profiles of liquid water content Mw(z), ice water content Mi(z), and ice particle size distribution Ni(D, z), (where D is the ice particle size and z the vertical coordinate) in mixed nonprecipitating clouds ...

Henri Sauvageot

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Quantum melting of charge ice and non-Fermi-liquid behavior: An exact solution for the extended Falicov-Kimball model in the ice-rule limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An exact solution is obtained for a model of itinerant electrons coupled to ice-rule variables on the tetrahedron Husimi cactus, an analogue of the Bethe lattice of corner-sharing tetrahedra. It reveals a quantum critical point with the emergence of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in melting of the "charge ice" insulator. The electronic structure is compared with the numerical results for the pyrochlore-lattice model to elucidate the physics of electron systems interacting with the tetrahedron ice rule.

Masafumi Udagawa; Hiroaki Ishizuka; Yukitoshi Motome

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

40

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The protection of aircraft against shoulder fired heat seeking missiles is of growing concern in the aviation community. This thesis presents a simple method for shielding the infrared signature of a jet engine from heat seeking missiles. The research efforts investigated two approaches to shield the thermal signature of the Noel Penny Type 401 turbojet at the Texas A&M University Propulsion Lab Test Cell. First, liquid nitrogen was injected through a manifold at a flow rate equivalent to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding. Water was then injected through a manifold at a ?ow rate of 118% of the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a substantial reduction in temperature and complete shielding of the infrared signature. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed using FLUENT to support these experiments. Results are presented in the form of thermocouple data and thermal images from the experiments, and in the form of temperature contours and streamtraces from the simulations.

Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Convective heat transfer model for determining quench recovery of high temperature superconducting YBCO in liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability of a superconducting magnet is critical for reliable operation of a device in which the magnet plays a role. With the advent of high temperature superconductors (HTS), liquid nitrogen may be used to cool HTS ...

Jankowski, Joseph Edward, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Understanding Thermal Drift in Liquid Nitrogen Loads Used for Radiometric Calibration in the Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An absorbing load in a liquid nitrogen bath is commonly used as a radiance standard for calibrating radiometers operating at microwave to infrared wavelengths. It is generally assumed that the physical temperature of the load is stable and equal ...

Scott N. Paine; David D. Turner; Nils Küchler

44

Icing Wind Tunnel Tests on the CSIRO Liquid Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet wind tunnel tests have been Performed on several versions of the CSIRO probe designed for the airborne measurement of liquid water content. Four different controller units and 17 different Probe sensors (including half-size and shielded ...

W. D. King; J. E. Dye; D. Baumgardner; J. W. Strapp; D. Huffman

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Remote Sensing D/H Ratios in Methane Ice: Temperature-Dependent Absorption Coefficients of CH3D in Methane Ice and in Nitrogen Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of strong absorption bands of singly deuterated methane (CH3D) at wavelengths where normal methane (CH4) absorbs comparatively weakly could enable remote measurement of D/H ratios in methane ice on outer solar system bodies. We performed laboratory transmission spectroscopy experiments, recording spectra at wavelengths from 1 to 6 \\mum to study CH3D bands at 2.47, 2.87, and 4.56 \\mum, wavelengths where ordinary methane absorption is weak. We report temperature-dependent absorption coefficients of these bands when the CH3D is diluted in CH4 ice and also when it is dissolved in N2 ice, and describe how these absorption coefficients can be combined with data from the literature to simulate arbitrary D/H ratio absorption coefficients for CH4 ice and for CH4 in N2 ice. We anticipate these results motivating new telescopic observations to measure D/H ratios in CH4 ice on Triton, Pluto, Eris, and Makemake.

Grundy, W M; Bovyn, M J; Tegler, S C; Cornelison, D M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Simulations of the Effects of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, and Ice on AMSU Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer simulations are performed to determine how water vapor and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water and ice particles within typical midlatitude atmospheres affect brightness temperatures TB's of moisture sounding channels used in ...

Bradley M. Muller; Henry E. Fuelberg; Xuwu Xiang

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Ice Nature Bulletin No. 661-A january 7, 1978 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation ICE There was a time when ice, cut on frozen ponds and lakes, was transported by fast clipper ships from New England to New Orleans where it was worth its weight in gold. Nowadays this cold brittle colorless substance is commonplace everywhere. Few people, however, know that ice is one of the strangest of all solids; and that, because of its unique properties, life on earth is what it is. Those properties are due to the distinctive structure of a molecule of water, formed of three elemental particles or atoms -- two of hydrogen and one of oxygen -- expressed by the familiar symbol, H2O. The three atoms are held together by two chemical bonds expressed by another symbol, H-O-H. Briefly, the unique properties of water, water vapor, and ice arise from that bonding and the arrangement of electron pairs around the oxygen atom.

49

Solutions for Liquid Nitrogen Pre-Cooling in Helium Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pre-cooling of helium by means of liquid nitrogen is the oldest and one of the most common process features used in helium liquefiers and refrigerators. Its two principle tasks are to allow or increase the rate of pure liquefaction, and to permit the initial cool-down of large masses to about 80 K. Several arrangements for the pre-cooling process are possible depending on the desired application. Each arrangement has its proper advantages and drawbacks. The aim of this paper is to review the possible process solutions for liquid nitrogen pre-cooling and their particularities.

Wagner, U

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

51

In Situ Aircraft Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Liquid and Ice Water Content in Midlatitude Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical distribution of liquid and ice water content and their partitioning is studied using 34 cases of in situ measured microphysical properties in midlatitude mixed-phase clouds, with liquid water path ranging from near zero to ~248 g m?2, ...

Yoo-Jeong Noh; Curtis J. Seaman; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Guosheng Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Frostbite Theater - Just for Fun - When Liquid Nitrogen Attacks! - Season 2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Season One Bloopers Season One Bloopers Previous Video (Season One Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freezing Balloons!) Freezing Balloons! When Liquid Nitrogen Attacks! - Season 2 Bloopers Making videos is just another opportunity to catch mistakes on film! Enjoy these outtakes from Season 2! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We made more videos! Steve: And we made more mistakes! Joanna: Enjoy! ----------------------------------------- Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: Oh, jeez! Joanna: Oh, oh, oh! That was a little too much! Steve: You okay? Joanna: Uh, huh. I'm fine. Steve: This is why you wear the safety gear. This is why you have the

53

A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of $(1.51\\pm 0.15)\\times10^{-4} \\;\\mathrm{cm^{-1} ppm^{-1}}$, corresponding to an absorption cross section of $(7.14 \\pm 0.74)\\times10^{-21}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{2} molecule^{-1}}$. We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, where a concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuation length due to nitrogen will be $30 \\pm 3$ meters.

B. J. P. Jones; C. S. Chiu; J. M. Conrad; C. M. Ignarra; T. Katori; M. Toups

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

Homogeneous Ice Nucleation and Supercooled Liquid Water in Orographic Wave Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates ice nucleation mechanisms in cold lenticular wave clouds, a cloud type characterized by quasi-steady-state air motions and microphysical properties. It is concluded that homogeneous ice nucleation is responsible for the ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Larry M. Miloshevich

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Densities in the Liquid Hydrogen Chloride Solvent System Heather Brooks Shapiro and Donald R. Sadoway*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for electrodeposition of several reactive metals and silicon from liquefied halogenous gases at subambient temperatures requires more cooling power than simple dry ice slush baths but much less than standard liquid nitrogen

Sadoway, Donald Robert

56

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Effects of Mountain Lee Waves on the Transport of Liquid Propane-Generated Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of rawinsonde balloon ascent rates, low-elevation aircraft, and ground-based tracer sampling measurements are presented. These data indicate that mountain-induced gravity waves have a significant impact on the transport of ice ...

David W. Reynolds

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon-nitrogen bond-forming reactions in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide media : green synthetic chemistry with multiscale reaction and phase behavior modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to develop a detailed understanding of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond-forming reactions of amines carried out in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) media. Key motivations behind ...

Ciccolini, Rocco P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Response of ice and liquid water paths of tropical cyclones to global warming simulated by a global nonhydrostatic model with explicit cloud microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud feedback plays a key role in the future climate projection. Using global non-hydrostatic model (GNHM) simulation data for a present-day (CTL) and a warmer (GW) experiment, we estimate the contribution of tropical cyclones (TC) to ice/liquid ...

Yohei Yamada; Masaki Satoh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Calibrations of Johnson-Williams Liquid Water Content Meters in a High-Speed Icing Tunnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind tunnel tests have provided calibrations and intercomparisons of 14 Johnson-Williams (J–W) cloud liquid water content (LWC) measuring devices with 23 sensor heads from 10 research organizations. The absolute tunnel LWC was deduced using a ...

J. Walter Strapp; Robert S. Schemenauer

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

63

Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

Hamilton, D.C.

1986-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ionization signals from electrons and alpha-particles in mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen - perspectives on protons for Gamma Resonant Nuclear Absorption applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report on a detailed study of ionization signals produced by Compton electrons and alpha-particles in a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) flled with different mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen. The measurements were carried out with Nitrogen concentrations up to 15% and a drift electric feld in the range 0-50 kV/cm. A prediction for proton ionization signals is made by means of interpolation. This study has been conducted in view of the possible use of liquid Ar-N2 TPCs for the detection of gamma-rays in the resonant band of the Nitrogen absorption spectrum, a promising technology for security and medical applications.

Zeller, M; Delaquis, S; Ereditato, A; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Messina, M; Moser, U; Rossi, B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Liquid and Ice Cloud Microphysics in the CSU General Circulation Model. Part 1: Model Description and Simulated Microphysical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microphysical processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of water and ice clouds have been incorporated into the Colorado State University General Circulation Model in order to 1) yield a more physically based representation of the ...

Laura D. Fowler; David A. Randall; Steven A. Rutledge

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Thermodynamic Models for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Nitrogen+Oxygen+Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the design and optimization of CO2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N2+O2+CO2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N2 and O2 in CO2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO2-rich region.

Vrabec, J; Buchhauser, U; Meyer-Pittroff, R; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method of forming clathrate ice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method of forming calthrate ice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice ...

Jerry M. Straka; Edward R. Mansell

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Vapor--liquid equilibria of nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane binary mixtures at LNG temperatures from total pressure measurements. [For use in design of equipment for storage and handling of LNG  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been measured on four binary mixtures relative to the calculation of phase equilibria at temperatures of liquid natural gas. Measurements at -260/sup 0/F were made by a total pressure method for mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, methane-ethane, and methane-propane. Interaction coefficients were derived for the P-V-T, Inc. Mark V computer program. Good agreement is found with literature data where comparisons can be made.

Wilson, G.M.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Potential Applications of the SSM/I Cloud Liquid Water Parameter to the Estimation of Marine Aircraft Icing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Images of integrated cloud liquid water derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program polar-orbiting satellite are presented. Examples with infrared and visible images and synoptic ...

Thomas F. Lee; James R. Clark; Steven D. Swadley

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A Modeling Study of the Influence of Ice Scavenging on the Chemical Composition of Liquid-Phase Precipitation of a Cumulonimbus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence of the efficient removal of chemicals by ice particles has been deduced from past field experiments and laboratory studies. However, the ice phase has been poorly represented in prior cloud chemistry modeling. This paper uses a two-...

Nicole Audiffren; Sylvie Cautenet; Nadine Chaumerliac

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Gas processing/The boiling behavior of LPG and liquid ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane spilled on water  

SciTech Connect

Boiling-rate calorimeter studies showed that unlike liquid nitrogen, methane, and LNG, LPG (84.7% propane, 6.0% ethane, and 9.3% n-butane; 442/sup 0/C bp), or pure propane, when rapidly spilled on water, reacted violently, ejecting water and ice into the vapor space; but in 1-2 sec, a coherent ice layer was formed and further boiloff was quiet and well predicted by a simple one-dimensional, moving-boundary-value, heat transfer model with a growing ice shield. Increasing the content of ethane and butane in LPG to 20% and 10%, respectively, had almost no effect on the LPG boiling, indicating that boiling may be modeled by using pure propane. Ethane, ethylene, and n-butane behaved quite differently from LPG. In spills of pure liquid propane on solid ice, the boiloff rate was almost identical to that predicted by the moving-boundary model.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Theory of amorphous ices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use large-deviation theory to study nonequilibrium transitions between amorphous solids and liquid in an atomistic model of supercooled water. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between the two amorphous solids, a finding that is consistent with experiment. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where the two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. While the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly-aging glasses, their melting leads quickly to the formation of ice. This irreversible behavior is demonstrated in our theoretical treatment and compared with experiment.

David T Limmer; David Chandler

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Impacts of Ice Clouds on GPS Radio Occultation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical solutions accounting for the effects of liquid and ice clouds on the propagation of the GPS radio signals are first derived. The percentage contribution of ice water content (IWC) to the total refractivity increases linearly with the ...

X. Zou; S. Yang; P. S. Ray

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the climate effect of aerosol perturbations to ice clouds. The simulations have different ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations. These different states occur from different parameterizations of the ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. At reasonable efficiencies, consistent with laboratory measurements and constrained by the global radiative balance, black carbon has a small (-0.06 Wm?2) and not statistically significant climate effect. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur mostly due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction as a consequence of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. The resulting ice indirect effects do not seem strongly dependent on the ice micro-physical balance, but are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.26±0.09 Wm?2 (1? uncertainty). This represents an offset of 20-30% of the simulated total Aerosol Indirect Effect for ice and liquid clouds.

Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, U.; Chen, Chih-Chieh

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

Quantum Ice : a quantum Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice states, in which frustrated interactions lead to a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy, occur in water ice, in problems of frustrated charge order on the pyrochlore lattice, and in the family of rare-earth magnets collectively known as spin ice. Of particular interest at the moment are "quantum spin ice" materials, where large quantum fluctuations may permit tunnelling between a macroscopic number of different classical ground states. Here we use zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo simulations to show how such tunnelling can lift the degeneracy of a spin or charge ice, stabilising a unique "quantum ice" ground state --- a quantum liquid with excitations described by the Maxwell action of 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. We further identify a competing ordered "squiggle" state, and show how both squiggle and quantum ice states might be distinguished in neutron scattering experiments on a spin ice material.

Nic Shannon; Olga Sikora; Frank Pollmann; Karlo Penc; Peter Fulde

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

78

Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. Previous studies have suggested that this longevity may be due to a paucity of ice nucleating aerosols (ice nuclei, or IN) in the Arctic. Such studies have shown that small changes in IN concentrations can cause large changes in the amount of liquid water within a mixed-phase stratus deck. We use the Regional

80

Archimedean Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

Kari Eloranta

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

82

Dynamics and energetics of the cloudy boundary layer in simulations of off-ice flow in the marginal ice zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kinetic energy even in the present case where very strong surface heat fluxes occur. Ice-phase. Inclusion of the ice phase significantly affected the radiative budget as compared to purely liquid clouds, illustrating the importance of ice-phase­radiative couplings for accurate simulations of arctic clouds

Harrington, Jerry Y.

83

Ice Fishing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Fishing Ice Fishing Nature Bulletin No. 327-A January 11, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation ICE FISHING We have a peculiar class of people known as the "Frosty-toed Tribe". As soon as winter comes and the ice permits, they put on all the clothes they own and what they can borrow, pack their automobiles with equipment, and start early in the morning for some inland body of water or a bay along one of the Great Lakes. Usually, two or three go together and they may drive 50 or 100 miles. For hours, even in below zero weather, they huddle around holes cut in the ice, fishing patiently, sustained by hope, hot coffee, and a lot of conversation. Some days a man may catch nothing. Other days he may bring home all the law allows. Sometimes he fishes vainly until almost sundown and then begins to haul them in, all of the same kind and size, as fast as he can re-bait his hook. In the meantime, other anglers have rushed over, cut holes, and are fishing all around him -- usually in vain, because one of the strange things about ice fishing is that, although you may catch fish out of one hole, you may get nothing out of another only a few feet from it, using the same kind of bait at the same depth. There are a lot of hotly contested theories but nobody knows why. After watching and questioning scores of ice fishermen, some of them noted for their prowess, we find that although each has his own secret techniques and favorite spots, good catches seem more a matter of luck than skill. Although they are sluggish and don't fight, fish caught in winter have the firmest flesh and finest flavor. The biggest thrill comes from the skillet.

84

On-site generated nitrogen cuts cost of underbalanced drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of on-site generated nitrogen, instead of liquid nitrogen, has reduced the cost of drilling underbalanced horizontal wells in Canada and the western US. Because nitrogen is inert and inflammable, it is the preferred gas for underbalanced drilling. Nitrogen can be supplied for oil field use by three different methods: cryogenic liquid separation, pressure swing adsorption, and hollow fiber membranes. The selection of nitrogen supply from one of these methods depends on the cost of delivered nitrogen, the required flow rates and pressure, the required nitrogen purity, and the availability and reliability of the equipment for nitrogen generation. These three methods are described, as well as the required equipment.

Downey, R.A. [Energy Ingenuity Co., Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

85

Discrimination of Mixed- versus Ice-Phase Clouds Using Dual-Polarization Radar with Application to Detection of Aircraft Icing Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual-polarization radar measurements and in situ measurements of supercooled liquid water and ice particles within orographic cloud systems are used to develop probabilistic criteria for identifying mixed-phase versus ice-phase regions of sub-0°C ...

David M. Plummer; Sabine Göke; Robert M. Rauber; Larry Di Girolamo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Influence of parameterized ice habit on simulated mixed phase Arctic clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of parameterized ice habit on simulated mixed phase Arctic clouds Alexander Avramov1 12 February 2010. [1] The phase partitioning of cloud mass between liquid and ice in mixed phase clouds and its dependence on ambient ice nuclei (IN) concentrations and ice habit parameterizations

87

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

91

The Icing of an Unheated, Nonrotating Cylinder. Part II. Icing Wind Tunnel Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of icing on non-rotating cylinders, under both wet and dry conditions was undertaken. Airspeeds of 30, 61 and 122 m s?1 appropriate to aircraft icing, liquid water contents of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 g m?3 and temperatures ...

E. P. Lozowski; J. R. Stallabrass; P. F. Hearty

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds  

SciTech Connect

PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

93

Formation of Ice Crystals and Dissipation of Supercooled Fog by Artificial Nucleation, and Variations of Crystal Habit at Early Growth Stages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The early stages of ice crystal formation in supercooled fogs were studied in detail by electron microscopy, and ice nucleation experiments using liquid propane seeding were conducted in a thermostatically controlled coldroom. Ice crystals, ...

Motoi Kumai

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

An Investigation of Ice Production Mechanisms in Small Cumuliform Clouds Using a 3D Model with Explicit Microphysics. Part II: Case Study of New Mexico Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new 3D model with explicit liquid- and ice-phase microphysics and a detailed treatment of ice nucleation and multiplication processes is applied to study ice formation and evolution in cumulus clouds. Simulation results are compared with in ...

Mikhail Ovtchinnikov; Yefim L. Kogan; Alan M. Blyth

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ice Storm Database and Ice Severity Maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical icing information has several valuable uses in overhead transmission line ice loading design and research. Previously, this type of information was neither readily available nor easily acquired. This report describes the creation of an electronic ice storm database and regional ice severity maps for the United States.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

An Application of an Explicit Microphysics Mesoscale Model to a Regional Icing Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hydrostatic regional prediction model is modified to permit the existence of both liquid and ice hydrometeors within the same grid volume. The modified model includes an efficient ice-water saturation adjustment and a simple procedure to create ...

George D. Modica; Scot T. Heckman; Roy M. Rasmussen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

An Intercomparison of Mesoscale Forecasts of Aircraft Icing Using SSM/I Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for the detection of supercooled liquid water (SLW) from Special Sensor Microwave/ (SSM/I) data is discussed. For this study, these SLW retrievals depict areas of icing that are used to compare against different aircraft icing ...

André Tremblay; Stewart G. Cober; Anna Glazer; George Isaac; Jocelyn Mailhot

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the meltingcrystalline ice at two different temperatures, and gas-phaseof gas-phase water, liquid water and crystalline ice using

Nordlund, Dennis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: Theorganic nitrogen to the oceans, Nature, 376, 243 – 246.trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,

Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles S; Luo, Chao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 {mu}g C {center dot} {mu}g chl{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h{sup {minus}1} higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and {sup 14}C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and {sup 14}C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities.

Lizotte, M.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Glossary Term - Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deuteron Previous Term (Deuteron) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Electron) Electron Dry Ice A block of dry ice sublimating on a table. Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide...

102

Millimeter wave scattering from ice crystals and their aggregates: Comparing cloud model simulations with X and Kaband  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the relative amounts of cloud liquid and ice. Modeling studies have shown that the poorly understood ice phase parameterizations has proven to be a difficult task. This study evaluates results of different ice microphysics conclusions about the appropriateness of different CRM ice microphysics parameterizations. Citation: Botta, G

103

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameterization in BRM scheme accounts for two general mech- anisms distinguishable according to the involvement of liquid phase in the ice

Sednev, I.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Detection of supercooled liquid in mixedphase clouds using radar Doppler spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the temperature range from 0 to -40°C, where both liquid and ice hydrometeor phases are sustainable of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Current cloud parameterizations that parti- tion water into liquid and ice 2010; published 1 October 2010. [1] Cloud phase identification from active remote sensors

Shupe, Matthew

105

Radar Backscattering of Microwaves by Spongy Ice Spheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar backscattering cross section of a spongy ice hailstone—a mixture of ice and liquid water—depends on its size, shape and dielectric function. There are two types of theories of the effective dielectric function of two-component mixtures: ...

Craig F. Bohren; Louis J. Battan

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds  

SciTech Connect

Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Effect of Stochastic Cloud Structure on the Icing Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current understanding of the icing process through collisions between a surface and supercooled cloud droplets is based upon two factors. First, for a given temperature, when the cloud liquid water content, W, exceeds a critical value, wc (the ...

A. R. Jameson; A. B. Kostinski

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Ice Growth from the Vapor at ?5°C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are summarized and illustrated from a long series of experiments on ice growth from the vapor, nearly all in a very small range of conditions: ?5°C, slightly below liquid water saturation, with minimal environmental gradients and no ...

Charles A. Knight

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS  

SciTech Connect

We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Grundy, W. M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Romanishin, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Vilas, F., E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed, E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed, E-mail: W.Grundy@lowell.ed, E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: fvilas@mmto.or [MMT Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

111

Aging of Accreted Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of annealing in accreted ice has been investigated for artificially grown ice deposits after 100 days of storage in a deep freeze unit. Cross sections of the cylindrical deposits have been cut and replicated soon after growth and ...

F. Prodi; L. Levi

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice nuclei Small particles around which ice particles form. Categories Cloud Properties...

113

Anemometry in Icing Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of wind measurements in icing conditions is discussed, and wind tunnel calibrations as well as field comparisons are presented for three heated anemometers that use different measuring principles. It is pointed out that ice-free ...

Lasse Makkonen; Pertti Lehtonen; Lauri Helle

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Stability of ferroelectric ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically study the stability conditions of the ferroelectric ice of the Cmc21 structure, which has been considered, for decades, one of the most promising candidates of the low temperature proton-ordered phase of pure ice Ih. It turned out that the Cmc21 structure is stable only with a certain amount of dopant and the true proton-ordered phase of pure ice Ih remains to be found at lower temperature. Implication for spin ice is mentioned.

Iitaka, Toshiaki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

CYANATE ION IN COMPACT AMORPHOUS WATER ICE  

SciTech Connect

The 4.62 {mu}m infrared (2164.5 cm{sup -1}) absorption band, observed in ice mantels toward many young stellar objects, has been mostly attributed to the {nu}{sub 3} (CN stretch) band of OCN{sup -} ions. We present in this work a spectroscopic study of OCN{sup -} ions embedded in compact amorphous ice in a range of concentrations and temperatures relevant to astronomical observations together with quantum mechanical calculations of the {nu}{sub 3} band of OCN{sup -} in various H{sub 2}O environments. The ice samples containing the ions are prepared through hyperquenching of liquid droplets of K{sup +}OCN{sup -} solutions on a substrate at 14 K. The {nu}{sub 3} OCN{sup -} band appears as a broad feature peaking at 4.64 {mu}m with a secondary maximum at 4.54 {mu}m and is much weaker than the corresponding peak in the liquid solution or in the solid salt. A similar weakening is observed for other OCN{sup -} absorption peaks at 7.66 {mu}m (2{nu}{sub 2}) and 8.20 {mu}m ({nu}{sub 1}). The theoretical calculations for the {nu}{sub 3} vibration lead to a range of frequencies spanning the experimentally observed width. This frequency spread could help explain the pronounced drop in the band intensity in the ice. The OCN{sup -} {nu}{sub 3} band in the present compact ices is also broader and much weaker than that reported in the literature for OCN{sup -} ions obtained by variously processing porous ice samples containing suitable neutral precursors. The results of this study indicate that the astronomical detection of OCN{sup -} in ice mantels could be significantly impaired if the ion is embedded in a compact water network.

Mate, Belen; Herrero, Victor J.; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Moreno, Miguel A.; Escribano, Rafael [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Torre, Delia [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28050 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Pedro C. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Universidad Complutense, Unidad Asociada UCM-CSIC, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

119

Analysis of Rotating Multicylinder Data in Measuring Cloud-Droplet Size and Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective method is presented for the analysis of rotating multicylinder data in measuring the liquid water content and median volume droplet diameter of icing clouds. The method is based on time-dependent numerical modeling of cylinder icing ...

Lasse Makkonen

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

An ice lithography instrument  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Transporting Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

122

Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Baltimore Aircoil Company (BAC) ice storage test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. Baltimore Aircoil Company (BAC) provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a liquid overfeed refrigeration system. Separate coils were also supplied for use with a secondary fluid system. The BAC ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. System performance was satisfactory under both charging and discharging conditions. During the liquid-overfeed ice build cycle, the evaporator temperature closely matched the manufacturer's literature. The measured average brine temperatures were slightly higher than those given in the BAC literature (i.e., the BAC report is conservative). During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature remains nearly constant below 35{degree}F, rising only after most of the ice has been melted. The discharge performance was relatively unaffected by discharge rates or tank inlet temperatures. Based on these tests, a storage tank sized solely according to the latent ice storage capacity is capable of providing a relatively constant temperature to the load throughout most of the discharge cycle. This report describes BAC system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. Companion reports describe ISTF test procedures and ice-making efficiency test results that are common to many of the units tested. 10 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

Stovall, T.K.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available This data set, prepared by Elizabeth Holland and colleagues, contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and...

125

Skin supersolidity slipperizing ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistency between theory predictions and measurements and calculations revealed that the skin of ice, containing water molecules with fewer than four neighbours, forms a supersolid phase that is highly polarized, elastic, hydrophobic, with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice.

Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

126

Reionization on ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The case for substantial far infrared ice emission in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies, expected based on the presence of mid-infrared ice absorption in their spectra and the known far infrared optical properties of ice, is still largely unsupported by direct observation owing to insufficient far infrared spectral coverage. Some marginal supportive evidence is presented here. A clear consequence of far infrared ice emission is the need to extend the range of redshifts considered for submillimeter sources. This is demonstrated via the example of HDF 850.1. The solid phase of the ISM during reionization may be dominated by ice, and this could lead to the presence of reionization sources in submillimeter source catalogs. Submillimeter sources not detected at 24 micron in the GOODS-N field are examined. Two candidate reionization sources are identified at 3.6 micron through possible Gunn-Peterson saturation in the Z band.

C. C. Dudley; M. Imanishi; P. R. Maloney

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ice Cream with a Heart Create a new Clemson Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice Cream with a Heart Contest! Create a new Clemson Ice Cream flavor! Raise money for your favorite charity! Win a free Clemson Ice Cream party for your organization! Enter at www organizations. The contest is called Ice Cream with a Heart and its purpose is to help student organizations

Bolding, M. Chad

129

Magnetic Monopoles in Spin Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrically charged particles, such as the electron, are ubiquitous. By contrast, no elementary particles with a net magnetic charge have ever been observed, despite intensive and prolonged searches. We pursue an alternative strategy, namely that of realising them not as elementary but rather as emergent particles, i.e., as manifestations of the correlations present in a strongly interacting many-body system. The most prominent examples of emergent quasiparticles are the ones with fractional electric charge e/3 in quantum Hall physics. Here we show that magnetic monopoles do emerge in a class of exotic magnets known collectively as spin ice: the dipole moment of the underlying electronic degrees of freedom fractionalises into monopoles. This enables us to account for a mysterious phase transition observed experimentally in spin ice in a magnetic field, which is a liquid-gas transition of the magnetic monopoles. These monopoles can also be detected by other means, e.g., in an experiment modelled after the celebrated Stanford magnetic monopole search.

Claudio Castelnovo; Roderich Moessner; Shivaji L. Sondhi

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Shattering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Education Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab Home Search Jefferson Lab Contact Jefferson Lab Science Education Home Teacher Resources Student Zone Games and Puzzles Science Cinema...

131

Molecular dynamics study of photodissociation of water in crystalline and amorphous ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of classical dynamics calculations, performed to study the photodissociation of water in crystalline and amorphous ice surfaces at a surface temperature of 10 K. Dissociation in the top six monolayers is considered. Desorption of H2O has a low probability (less than 0.5% yield per absorbed photon) for both types of ice. The final outcome strongly depends on the original position of the photodissociated molecule. For molecules in the first bilayer of crystalline ice and the corresponding layers in amorphous ice, desorption of H atoms dominates. In the second bilayer H atom desorption, trapping of the H and OH fragments in the ice, and recombination of H and OH are of roughly equal importance. Deeper into the ice H atom desorption becomes less important and trapping and recombination dominate. The distribution of distances traveled by H atoms in the ice peaks at 6 - 7 Angstroms with a tail going to about 60 Angstroms for both types of ice. The mobility of OH radicals is low within the ice with most probable distances traveled of 2 and 1 Angstroms for crystalline and amorphous ice, respectively. OH is however quite mobile on top of the surface, where it has been found to travel more than 80 Angstroms. Simulated absorption spectra of crystalline ice, amorphous ice, and liquid water are found to be in very good agreement with experiments.

Stefan Andersson; Ayman Al-Halabi; Geert-Jan Kroes; Ewine F. van Dishoeck

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

132

Fish Smother Under Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smother Under Ice Smother Under Ice A BULLETIN FOR THE CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS DESIGNED FOR INCLUSION IN THE WEEKLY ANNOUNCEMENT SENT OUT FROM THE OFFICE OF SUPT. WILLIAM H. JOHNSON Clayton F. Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation February 1, 1945 Nature Bulletin No. 1 FOREST PRESERVE NOTES Grown-ups, who used to kive on a farm or in a small town, are fond of talking about the old-fashioned winters "when I was a boy" and the winters that grandpa used to tell about. Well, one would have to go back a long, long time to find a winter as severe as this one. FISH SMOTHER UNDER ICE Lakes and streams breathe the same as living things. When they are covered with ice and snow they cannot get air and they much hold their breath until the ice thaws. While they are holding their breath the oxygen in the water is gradually used up by the living things sealed up in it -- fish, plants "bugs", snails, and hosts of microscopic life. If the ice lasts long enough, these living things die one after another as each kind reaches the point where it cannot stand any further oxygen starvation. Sometimes temporary relief is given by rains and melting snow that bring fresh, serated water under the ice, but no method of artificial respiration has been found that works. Sometimes, too, when water plants get enough sunlight through clear ice they produce small amounts of oxygen and delay the suffocation of the fish, etc.; but when snow and cloudy ice cuts off the light this does not happen.

133

Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.  

SciTech Connect

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Physical Response of Convective Clouds over the Sierra Nevada to Seeding with Dry Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of seeding convective clouds with dry ice was studied using simultaneous aircraft and radar observations. Clouds that were initially ice-free with supercooled liquid water contents of 0.5 g m?3 when the tops reached the ?10°C level had ...

Arlen W. Huggins; Alfred R. Rodi

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

The Ice Crystal–Graupel Collision Charging Mechanism of Thunderstorm Electrification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice crystal–graupel collision charging mechanism, which is considered important in thunderstorm electrification, was studied using the newly developed Triple Interaction Facility that allows independent control of the solid, liquid, and vapor ...

Peter Berdeklis; Roland List

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexe BOSAK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as ice-nine [K. Vonnegut, Cat's Cradle] #12;Phase diagram of water #12;Phase diagram of water Here we areDIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexeï BOSAK European Synchrotron Radiation Facility #12;Ice as the mild threat ice Ih the only ice in the crust #12;Ice as the absolute weapon Ice IX : melting point 45.8°C

Titov, Anatoly

138

Prediction of Vessel Icing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vessel icing from wave-generated spray is a severe hazard to expanded marine operations in high latitudes. Hardships in making observations during operations, combined with differences in vessel type and heading, have resulted in great ...

J. E. Overland; C. H. Pease; R. W. Preisendorfer; A. L. Comiskey

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Sublimation of Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent experiments on the sublimation of single crystals of ice in an atmosphere of air indicate that the sublimation rate is diffusion limited and initially solid prismatic crystals evolve into time-independent shapes similar to confocal ...

Jon Nelson

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Global Warming, Soot, Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming, Soot, Ice Speaker(s): James Hansen Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Irreversible "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Global ice sheet modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Contractor SOW Template - ICE | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SOW Template - ICE Contractor SOW Template - ICE Contractor SOW Template - ICE.pdf More Documents & Publications Contractor SOW Template - ICR Statement of Work (SOW) Template...

143

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Behind the Scenes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paramagnetism Paramagnetism Previous Video (Paramagnetism) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Opposites Attract and Likes Repel) Opposites Attract and Likes Repel Behind the Scenes A behind the scenes look at the making of an episode of Frostbite Theater! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Welcome to the behind the scenes look at the making of Frostbite Theater. Steve: Yes, today we're hoping to film three... three? Joanna: Two. Steve: Because Joanna doesn't think she knows her lines for the third one yet. But three episodes, well, two episodes of Frostbite Theater. But, before we do that, we want to give you sort of feel for what goes on into

144

Interface limited growth of heterogeneously nucleated ice in supercooled water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heterogeneous ice growth exhibits a maximum in freezing rate arising from the competition between kinetics and the thermodynamic driving force between the solid and liquid states. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the atomistic details of this competition, focusing on water properties in the interfacial region along the secondary prismatic direction. The crystal growth velocity is maximized when the efficiency of converting interfacial water molecules to ice, collectively known as the attachment kinetics, is greatest. We find water molecules that contact the intermediate ice layer in concave regions along the atomistically roughened surface are more likely to freeze directly. The increased roughening of the solid surface at large undercoolings consequently plays an important limiting role on the rate of ice growth, as water molecules are unable to integrate into increasingly deeper surface pockets. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms for self-assembly of solid phases that are important in many biological and atmospheric processes.

Razvan A. Nistor; Thomas E. Markland; B. J. Berne

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Dissolution Studies of Si Metal in Liquid Al under Different Forced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Dissolution Studies of Si Metal in Liquid Al under Different Forced ... studies of Silicon metal in liquid Aluminum will be reported under natural and ... conditions of two-phase flow, utilizing Nitrogen gas, in liquid Aluminum will ...

147

Ice cream headache  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice cream headache Ice cream headache Name: fath Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: What causes an "ice cream headache"? Are they dangerous? What would happen if I induced an ice cream headache when I had a regular headache? Replies: This is really a neat question. I am certainly no expert on headaches, but it has a lot to do blood circulation in the sinuses and around and within the brain. Why do some people get them easily and other seem resistant? The cold might restrict blood flow which is the basis for the problem. An Ice cream headache can be turned "on" or "off" by adjusting the rate of consumption, Slurpees work best, so really cold stuff enhances the effect. Are there stages: cold sensation, lingering headache, subsiding headache, warming, etc? Does the cold actually create similar headache "conditions" or does the brain confused cause it cannot directly feel pain? The difference in people is probably due to differences in arteriole branching and general circulation. In my experience smokers get worse headaches than nonsmokers of the same age. Do you find a similar trend? I am trying to stimulate discussion!

148

Recent Great Lakes Ice Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of ice observations made by cooperative observers from shoreline stations reveals significant changes in the ice season on the North American Great Lakes over the past 35years. Although the dataset is highly inhomogeneous and year-to-...

Howard P. Hanson; Claire S. Hanson; Brenda H. Yoo

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

ARM - Measurement - Ice water content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (massvol) of ice water particles in a cloud....

150

Dry Ice vs. Pipette Experiment Description  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry Ice vs. Pipette Experiment Description Dry ice (solid) is put into the bulb of a pipette, plastic pipette 1 ice cube sized piece of dry ice Butter knife (or some object to break dry ice) Gloves (surgical gloves will not work, they must protect hands from dry ice) Safety glasses for demonstrator

151

Ice maker safety control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a refrigeration apparatus including an evaporator, a defrost heater for defrosting the evaporator, a defrost thermostat having a switch for de-energizing the defrost heater at a preselected high temperature of the evaporator, and an ice making apparatus having a mold, a mold heater, and a control circuit controllably energized the mold heater, a safety control for the ice making apparatus is described comprising: means for thermally coupling the defrost thermostat with the mold; and means electrically connecting the defrost thermostat switch with the control circuit for de-energizing the mold heater at a preselected high temperature of the mold to prevent overheating thereof.

Linstromberg, W.J.

1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effects of ice number concentration on dynamics of a shallow mixed-phase stratiform cloud  

SciTech Connect

Previous modeling studies have shown a high sensitivity of simulated properties of mixed-phase clouds to ice number concentration, Ni, with many models losing their ability to maintain the liquid phase as Ni increases. Although models differ widely at what Ni the mixed-phase cloud becomes unstable, the transition from a mixed-phase to an ice only cloud in many cases occurs over a narrow range of ice concentration. To gain better understanding of this non-linear model behavior, in this study, we analyze simulations of a mixed-phase stratiform Artic cloud observed on 26 April 2008 during recent Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). The BASE simulation, in which Ni is constrained to match the measured value, produces a long-lived cloud in a quasi steady state similar to that observed. The simulation without the ice (NO_ICE) produces a comparable but slightly thicker cloud because more moisture is kept in the mixed layer due to lack of precipitation. When Ni is quadrupled relative to BASE (HI_ICE), the cloud starts loosing liquid water almost immediately and the liquid water path is reduced by half in less than two hours. The changes in liquid water are accompanied by corresponding reduction in the radiative cooling of the layer and a slow down in the vertical mixing, confirming the important role of interactions among microphysics, radiation and dynamics in this type of clouds. Deviations of BASE and HI_ICE from NO_ICE are used to explore the linearity of the model response to variation in Ni. It is shown that at early stages, changes in liquid and ice water as well as in radiative cooling/heating rates are proportional to the Ni change, while changes in the vertical buoyancy flux are qualitatively different in HI_ICE compared to BASE. Thus, while the positive feedback between the liquid water path and radiative cooling of the cloud layer is essential for glaciation of the cloud at higher Ni, the non-linear (with respect to Ni) reduction in positive buoyancy flux within and below the liquid cloud layer emerges as the process that influences the initial response of the mixed layer dynamics to the appearance of ice and subsequently determines the sustainability of liquid water in the cloud in this case.

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Korolev, Alexei; Fan, Jiwen

2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

153

Ice–Ice Collisions: An Ice Multiplication Process in Atmospheric Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice in atmospheric clouds undergoes complex physical processes, interacting especially with radiation, which leads to serious impacts on global climate. After their primary production, atmospheric ice crystals multiply extensively by secondary ...

J.-I. Yano; V. T. J. Phillips

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Frostbite Theater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Welcome to Frostbite Theater, a collection of science videos produced by Welcome to Frostbite Theater, a collection of science videos produced by Jefferson Lab! Liquid Nitrogen Experiments Have you ever wanted to play with liquid nitrogen, but didn't happen to have any lying around the house? No problem! We did the experiments and filmed them for your viewing pleasure! Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Giant Koosh Ball! Giant Koosh Ball! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!

155

Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nitrogen, liquid helium, liquid argon) can lead to serious workplace injuries due to hazards related, students and visitors. Definition · A cryogenic liquid is defined as a liquefied gas that is stored or used and Technology) as being below 93.15 K (-180C). · Common examples: nitrogen, argon, neon, helium

Chan, Hue Sun

156

thors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representation of a phase diagram for the surface region. Ice is also believed to have a surface region of the liquid phase during the melting of ice appears to occur in the disordered surface region, and further melthors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative

157

THE SPITZER ICE LEGACY: ICE EVOLUTION FROM CORES TO PROTOSTARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d Legacy ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}:CH{sub 4}:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H{sub 2}O of CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, and the component of CO{sub 2} mixed with H{sub 2}O typically vary by ice components, XCN, and CH{sub 3}OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN{sup -} identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are constrained by comparing ice inventories toward different types of protostars and background stars, through ice mapping, analysis of cloud-to-cloud variations, and ice (anti-)correlations. Based on the analysis, the first ice formation phase is driven by hydrogenation of atoms, which results in an H{sub 2}O-dominated ice. At later prestellar times, CO freezes out and variations in CO freezeout levels and the subsequent CO-based chemistry can explain most of the observed ice abundance variations. The last important ice evolution stage is thermal and UV processing around protostars, resulting in CO desorption, ice segregation, and the formation of complex organic molecules. The distribution of cometary ice abundances is consistent with the idea that most cometary ices have a protostellar origin.

Oeberg, Karin I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Boogert, A. C. Adwin [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van den Broek, Saskia; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bottinelli, Sandrine [Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR), CNRS-UMR 5187, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

Nitrogen spark denoxer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Determination of Liquid Water Altitudes Using Combined Remote Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods by which attitude ranges of supercooled cloud liquid water in the atmosphere may be estimated are explored using measurements from a combination of ground-based remote sensors. The tests were conducted as part of the Winter Icing and ...

Marcia K. Politovich; B. Boba Stankov; Brooks E. Martner

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hail ice impact on composite structures at glancing angles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigation of high velocity ice impacts on woven carbon/and ice sphere. .by trailing ice fragments. ..

Funai, Sho

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Nitrogen Fixation by Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When some of the uncertainties associated with lightning are reviewed, it becomes difficult to support a large production of fixed nitrogen from the lightning shock wave.

G. A. Dawson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Image Content Engine (ICE)  

SciTech Connect

The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

Brase, J M

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled Surface Air Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summer surface melting plays an important role in the evolution of ice shelves and their progenitor ice sheets. To explore the magnitude of surface melt occurring over modern ice shelves and ice sheets in a climate scenario forced by ...

Jeremy G. Fyke; Lionel Carter; Andrew Mackintosh; Andrew J. Weaver; Katrin J. Meissner

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The Use of lce-Liquid Water Potential Temperature as a Thermodynamic Variable In Deep Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have shown liquid water potential temperature to be an inappropriate choice for a thermodynamic variable in a deep cumulus convection model. In this study, an alternate form of this variable called ice-liquid water potential ...

Gregory J. Tripoli; William R. Cotton

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Spitzer ice legacy: Ice evolution from cores to protostars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H2O:CO:CO2:CH3OH:NH3:CH4:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H2O of CH4, NH3, and the component of CO2 mixed with H2O typically vary by ice components, XCN and CH3OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN- identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are cons...

Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Broek, Saskia van den; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Backhand tecniques in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective of this project based multimedia thesis is to show video material of how to use a backhand side of the ice hockey… (more)

Luoma, Matti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the slag thickness. The model predictions are based on mathematical and empirical evidence which are derived from thermodynamic and kinetic fundamental principles.

Richard J. Fruehan; Siddhartha Misra

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of water's unsolved puzzles is the question of what determines the lowest temperature to which it can be cooled before freezing to ice. The supercooled liquid has been probed experimentally to near the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH{\\approx}232 K, yet the mechanism of ice crystallization - including the size and structure of critical nuclei - has not yet been resolved. The heat capacity and compressibility of liquid water anomalously increase upon moving into the supercooled region according to a power law that would diverge at Ts{\\approx}225 K,(1,2) so there may be a link between water's thermodynamic anomalies and the crystallization rate of ice. But probing this link is challenging because fast crystallization prevents experimental studies of the liquid below TH. And while atomistic studies have captured water crystallization(3), the computational costs involved have so far prevented an assessment of the rates and mechanism involved. Here we report coarse-grained molecular simulations with the mW water model(4) in the supercooled regime around TH, which reveal that a sharp increase in the fraction of four-coordinated molecules in supercooled liquid water explains its anomalous thermodynamics and also controls the rate and mechanism of ice formation. The simulations reveal that the crystallization rate of water reaches a maximum around 225 K, below which ice nuclei form faster than liquid water can equilibrate. This implies a lower limit of metastability of liquid water just below TH and well above its glass transition temperature Tg{\\approx}136 K. By providing a relationship between the structural transformation in liquid water, its anomalous thermodynamics and its crystallization rate, this work provides a microscopic foundation to the experimental finding that the thermodynamics of water determines the rates of homogeneous nucleation of ice.(5)

Emily B. Moore; Valeria Molinero

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

170

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Modeling of Ice Accretion on Wires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time-dependent numerical model of ice accretion on wires, such as overhead conductors, is presented. Simulations of atmospheric icing are made with the model in order to examine the dependence of the accreted ice amount on atmospheric ...

Lasse Makkonen

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

ICE Raids: Compounding Production, Contradiction, and Capitalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is just a cheap way of boosting ICE ‘criminal alien’ arrestRegardless of whether or not ICE is motivated by maintainingWorkers in America: Factories and ICE Raids Produce Citizens

Reas, Elizabeth I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate...

174

Virtual Floe Ice Drift Forecast Model Intercomparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both sea ice forecast models and methods to measure their skill are needed for operational sea ice forecasting. Two simple sea ice models are described and tested here. Four different measures of skill are also tested. The forecasts from the ...

Robert W. Grumbine

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, Version 6. 0. Model-Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) Model was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for use by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) in preparing future assessments of industrial-boiler emissions. The ICE Model user's manual includes a summary of user options and software characteristics, a description of the input data files, and a description of the procedures for operation of the ICE Model. Proper formatting of files and creation of job-control language are discussed. The ICE Model projects for each State the sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and nitrogen oxides emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial boilers. Projections of emissions and costs of boiler generation, including emission-control costs, are projected for the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2020, and 2030.

Elliott, D.J.; Hogan, T.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice March 30, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper, Math & Computer Science...

177

Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments  

SciTech Connect

Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

Jeffery, Nicole [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

X-ray absorption signatures of the molecular environment in water and ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, including the small effects of temperature change in the liquid, are quantitatively reproduced from molecular configurations generated by ab-initio molecular dynamics. The spectral difference between the solid and the liquid is due to two major short range order effects. One, due to breaking of hydrogen bonds, enhances the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other, due to a non-bonded molecular fraction in the first coordination shell, affects the main spectral edge in the conversion of ice to water. This effect may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice.

Wei Chen; Xifan Wu; Roberto Car

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Cycle Data Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of a data set prepared by Elisabeth Holland and colleagues titled "Global N Cycle: Fluxes and N2O Mixing Ratios...

180

ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ice particle ice particle ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud ice particle Particles made of ice found in clouds. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Field Campaign Instruments REPLICATOR : Balloon-borne Ice Crystal Replicator CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor LEARJET : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Dynamics of ice shelf rift propagation and iceberg calving inferred from geodetic and seismic observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Ice Shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. Ice Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.vi Calving Glaciers and Ice

Bassis, Jeremy N.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Inclusion of Ice Microphysics in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3)  

SciTech Connect

A prognostic equation for ice crystal number concentration together with an ice nucleation scheme are implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3) with the aim of studying the indirect effect of aerosols on cold clouds. The effective radius of ice crystals which is used in the radiation and gravitational settlement calculations is now calculated from model predicted mass and number of ice crystals rather than diagnosed as a function of temperature. We add a water vapor deposition scheme to replace the condensation and evaporation (C-E) in the standard CAM3 for ice clouds. The repartitioning of total water into liquid and ice in mixed-phase clouds as a function of temperature is removed, and ice supersaturation is allowed. The predicted ice water content in the modified CAM3 is in better agreement with the Aura MLS data than that in the standard CAM3. The cirrus cloud fraction near the tropical tropopause, which is underestimated in the standard CAM3, is increased, and the cold temperature bias there is reduced by 1-2 °K. However, an increase in the cloud fraction in polar regions makes the underestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the standard CAM3 even worse. A sensitivity test reducing the threshold relative humidity with respective to ice (RHi) for heterogeneous ice nucleation from 120% to 105% (representing nearly perfert ice nuclei) increases the global cloud cover by 1.7%, temperature near the tropical tropopause by 4-5 °K, and water vapor in the stratosphere by 50-90%.

Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, M.

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

A Concept for a Scalable 2 kTon Liquid Argon TPC Detector for Astroparticle Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-module configuration and to its large liquid nitrogen consumption (~1 liquid m3 /hour), the 300-ton geometry purity (UHP) liquefied noble gas and for coping with the engineering and safety issues related

McDonald, Kirk

184

Fluid Migration During Ice/Rock Planetesimal Differentiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much speculation on extraterrestrial life has focused on finding environments where water is present. Heating of smaller icy bodies may create and sustain a possible liquid layer below the surface. If liquid water was sustained for geologically significant times (> 108 years) within the ubiquitous small bodies in the outer solar system, the opportunities for development of simple life are much greater. The lifetime of the liquid water layer will depend on several factors, including the rate of rock/water reaction, which will depend on the rate at which water can be segregated from a melting ice/rock core. For the liquid water phase to migrate toward the surface, the denser rock phase must compact. The primary question that this thesis will answer is how fast melt water can segregate from the core of an ice-rich planetesimal. To answer this question we treat the core as two phase flow problem: a compacting viscous “solid” (ice/rock mixture) and a segregating liquid (melt water). The model developed here is based on the approach derived to study a different partially molten solid: in the viscously deforming partially molten upper mantle. We model a planetesimal core that initially a uniform equal mixture of solid ice and rock. We assume chondritic levels of radiogenic heating as the only heat source, and numerically solve for the evolution of solid and melt velocities and the distribution of melt fraction (“porosity”) during the first few million years after accretion. From a suite of numerical models, we have determined that the meltwater is segregated out of the core as fast as it is created, except in the case of very fast melting times (0.75 My vs. 0.62 My), and small ore radius (~25 to 150 km, depending on the viscosity of the ice/rock mixture in the solid core). In these latter cases, segregation is slower than migration and a high water fraction develops in the core. Heat released by water-rock reactions (not included in this model) will tend to drive up melting rates in all cases, which may favor this latter endmember.

Raney, Robert 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Passive solar roof ice melter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

Deutz, R.T.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

Forecast Verification of the Polar Ice Prediction System (PIPS) Sea Ice Concentration Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Ice Center relies upon a coupled ice–ocean model called the Polar Ice Prediction System (PIPS) to provide guidance for its 24–120-h sea ice forecasts. Here forecast skill assessments of the sea ice concentration (C) fields from PIPS ...

Michael L. Van Woert; Cheng-Zhi Zou; Walter N. Meier; Philip D. Hovey; Ruth H. Preller; Pamela G. Posey

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ice_slurry_fact_sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new approach to saving stroke and cardiac arrest victims by using a specially engineered ice slurry to cool organs. The technology is also being investigated as a way to improve...

188

Melting of Ice under Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF PURE AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-WATER ICES INDUCED BY HEAVY IONS  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic rays are possibly the main agents to prevent the freeze-out of molecules onto grain surfaces in cold dense clouds. Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the most abundant molecules present in dust ice mantles, with a concentration of up to 15% relative to water (H{sub 2}O). FTIR spectroscopy is used to monitor pure NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice samples as they are irradiated with Ni and Zn ion beams (500-600 MeV) at GANIL/France. New species, such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), diazene (N{sub 2}H{sub 2} isomers), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were identified after irradiation of pure NH{sub 3} ices. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) are some of the products of the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice radiolysis. The spectral band at 6.85 {mu}m was observed after irradiation of both types of ice. Besides the likely contribution of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and amino (NH{sub 2}) radicals, data suggest a small contribution of NH{sub 2}OH to this band profile after high fluences of irradiation of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ices. The spectral shift of the NH{sub 3} ''umbrella'' mode (9.3 {mu}m) band is parameterized as a function of NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O ratio in amorphous ices. Ammonia and water destruction cross-sections are obtained, as well as the rate of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O (1:10) ice compaction, measured by the OH dangling bond destruction cross-section. Ammonia destruction is enhanced in the presence of H{sub 2}O in the ice and a power law relationship between stopping power and NH{sub 3} destruction cross-section is verified. Such results may provide relevant information for the evolution of molecular species in dense molecular clouds.

Bordalo, V.; Da Silveira, E. F. [Departamento de Fisica/Laboratorio do Acelerador Van de Graaff, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de S. Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lv, X. Y.; Domaracka, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie), CIMAP-CIRIL-GANIL, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Seperuelo Duarte, E., E-mail: vbordalo@fis.puc-rio.br [Grupo de Fisica e Astronomia, Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Lucio Tavares 1045, 26530-060 Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

190

An Inverse Method for Tracking Ice Motion in the Marginal Ice Zone Using Sequential Satellite Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for tracking ice motion and estimating ocean surface currents from sequential satellite images is presented. It is particularly suited for the marginal ice zone. A simple ice advection model, driven by wind and surface currents, is ...

Mark Buehner; Keith R. Thompson; Ingrid Peterson

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effects of Surface Roughness and Surface Energy on Ice Adhesion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice adheres to steel surfaces when the environment temperature is low. In many cases, ice formation on surfaces is unwanted; therefore, anti-icing techniques ...

192

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures ICE-ICR SOP.pdf More Documents & Publications External Independent Review (EIR) Standard Operating...

193

Ice structures, patterns, and processes: A view across the ice-fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We look ahead from the frontiers of research on ice dynamics in its broadest sense; on the structures of ice, the patterns or morphologies it may assume, and the physical and chemical processes in which it is involved. We highlight open questions in the various fields of ice research in nature; ranging from terrestrial and oceanic ice on Earth, to ice in the atmosphere, to ice on other solar system bodies and in interstellar space.

Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Rafael; Finney, John L; Grothe, Hinrich; Gutiérrez, Pedro J; Haapala, Jari; Kuhs, Werner F; Pettersson, Jan B C; Price, Stephen D; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Stokes, Debbie J; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Thomson, Erik S; Trinks, Hauke; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin; 10.1103/RevModPhys.84.885

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radiative effects of supercooled water Summary. Supercooled liquid water layers are visible in lidar imagery as a strongly enhanced return followed by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameters. Hence cloud phase parameterizations in numerical forecast and climate models have tended parameterizations use other model variables (such as vertical velocity) to aid the diagnosis of liquid/ice fraction, suggesting that they are radiatively important. In this chapter, three profiles of liquid and ice extinction

Hogan, Robin

195

Fractionation of Dissolved Solutes and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter During Experimental Sea Ice Formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past decade there has been an overall decrease in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover. Changes to the ice cover have important consequences for organic carbon cycling, especially over the continental shelves. When sea ice is formed, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other tracers are fractionated in relation to the initial water. Two separate “freeze-out” experiments were conducted to observe the effects of fractionation during ice formation. In experiment 1, marine and freshwater end members were mixed together in different ratios to create four different salinities. In experiment 2, a brackish water sample was collected. The initial unfrozen water, ice melt, and post-freeze brine water were tested for dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fluorescence and absorption (optics), water isotopes (?18O and ?D), and lignin phenols. Results showed a clear fractionation effect for all parameters, where the ice samples contained much less of the dissolved species than the enriched brine samples. This information is important to consider when trying using these parameters to determine the fate of carbon and the freshwater budget to the Arctic Ocean.

Smith, Stephanie 1990-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Evaluation of Liquid Water Measuring Instruments in Cold Clouds Sampled during FIRE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid water measurements from the Rosemount icing detector (RICE), Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP), and Johnson–williams and King hot-wire probes used on the NCAR King Air aircraft are evaluated for ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Larry M. Miloshevich

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Performance of a Counterflow Virtual Impactor in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) designed for aircraft use was evaluated at the NASA Icing Research Tunnel in Cleveland, Ohio. Tests were conducted for tunnel speeds of 67 and 100 m s?1, for liquid water contents of 0.23–1.4 g m?3, and for a ...

C. H. Twohy; J. W. Strapp; M. Wendisch

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ross Ice Shelf in situ radio-frequency ice attenuation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the in situ average electric field attenuation length for radio-frequency signals broadcast vertically through the Ross Ice Shelf. We chose a location, Moore Embayment, south of Minna Bluff, known for its high reflectivity at the ice-sea interface. We confirmed specular reflection and used the return pulses to measure the average attenuation length from 75-1250 MHz over the round-trip distance of 1155 m. We find the average electric field attenuation length to vary from 500 m at 75 MHz to 300 m at 1250 MHz, with an experimental uncertainty of 55 to 15 m. We discuss the implications for neutrino telescopes that use the radio technique and include the Ross Ice Shelf as part of their sensitive volume.

Taylor Barrella; Steven Barwick; David Saltzberg

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

LANNDD -A line of liquid argon TPC detectors scalable in mass from 200 Tons to 100 KTons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to its large liquid nitrogen consumption (~1 liquid m3/hour), the 300-ton geometry and construction required for a detector based on an ultra high purity (UHP) liquefied noble gas and for coping

McDonald, Kirk

200

Relative Dispersion of Ice Crystals in Seeded Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relative dispersion of ice crystals was measured in 30 seeded cumulus clouds. A quasi-instantaneous, vertical area source of ice was generated by releasing dry-ice pellets from an airplane. The ice concentration distribution and relative ...

Jeffrey C. Weil; R. Paul Lawson; Alfred R. Rodi

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Rheology of Discrete Failure Regimes of Anisotropic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rheological model of sea ice is presented that incorporates the orientational distribution of ice thickness in leads embedded in isotropic floe ice. Sea ice internal stress is determined by coulombic, ridging and tensile failure at orientations ...

Alexander V. Wilchinsky; Daniel L. Feltham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ice Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ice Energy Ice Energy Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ice Energy Name Ice Energy Address 9351 Eastman Park Drive Place Windsor, Colorado Zip 80550 Sector Renewable energy Product Energy Storage Year founded 2003 Number of employees 51-200 Phone number 970-545-3630 Website http://www.ice-energy.com/ Coordinates 40.4651775°, -104.882° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.4651775,"lon":-104.882,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

203

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

ICE Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ICE Solar ICE Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name ICE Solar Place Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Sector Solar Product India-based company focused on solar PV engineering, procurement and construction opportunities. Coordinates 17.6726°, 77.5971° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":17.6726,"lon":77.5971,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

206

Correlation between thermodynamic anomalies and pathways of ice nucleation in supercooled water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The well-known classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the free energy barrier towards formation of a nucleus of critical size of the new stable phase within the parent metastable phase fails to take into account the influence of other metastable phases having density/order intermediate between the parent metastable phase and the final stable phase. This lacuna can be more serious than capillary approximation or spherical shape assumption made in CNT. This issue is particularly significant in ice nucleation because liquid water shows rich phase diagram consisting of two (high and low density) liquid phases in supercooled state. The explanations of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of supercooled water often invoke the possible influence of a liquid-liquid transition between two metastable liquid phases. To investigate both the role of thermodynamic anomalies and presence of distinct metastable liquid phases in supercooled water on ice nucleation, we employ density functional theoretical approach to find nucleation free energy barrier in different regions of phase diagram. The theory makes a number of striking predictions, such as a dramatic lowering of nucleation barrier due to presence of a metastable intermediate phase and crossover in the dependence of free energy barrier on temperature near liquid-liquid critical point. These predictions can be tested by computer simulations as well as by controlled experiments.

Rakesh S. Singh; Biman Bagchi

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers Thomasconditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of areaction of reactant gases (1). A number of strategies exist

Dursch, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Modeling Sea Ice Transport Using Incremental Remapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice models contain transport equations for the area, volume, and energy of ice and snow in various thickness categories. These equations typically are solved with first-order-accurate upwind schemes, which are very diffusive; with second-...

William H. Lipscomb; Elizabeth C. Hunke

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Why Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice? Lake Vostok is the largest known subglacial lake in central Antarctica, though it's been buried under 4 kilometers (nearly 2.5 miles) of ice for...

210

Microsoft Word - IceMountainFinal.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tumbled-down boulders, called talus, on Ice Mountain's north- western slope collect ice during the winter. In the summer, cold air flows out of vents in the base of the talus,...

211

Icing Conditions Encountered by a Research Aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristics of clouds which have led to airframe icing on an instrumented Beechcraft Super King Air are summarized. The icing encounters occurred at altitudes from 0–8000 m MSL, in summer and winter, in stratiform and cumuliform clouds, ...

Wayne R. Sand; William A. Cooper; Marcia K. Politovich; Donald L. Veal

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ice Crystal Replication with Common Plastic Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of common plastics, i.e., polystyrene, Plexiglas (polymethyl methacrylate) and Lexan (polycarbonate), was investigated for ice crystal replication. The results suggest that all common plastics tested are usable for ice crystal replication ...

Tsuneya Takahashi; Norihiko Fukuta

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Airplane Instrument to Detect Ice Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple instrument that detects ice particles has been developed for use in airplane studies of thunderstorms. Although sophisticated instruments are available for imaging atmospheric ice particles, the spatial resolution of the particle ...

J. J. Jones; C. Grotbeck; B. Vonnegut

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Light Scattering by Single Natural Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the South Pole Ice Crystal Experiment, angular scattering intensities (ASIs) of single ice crystals formed in natural conditions were measured for the first time with the polar nephelometer instrument. The microphysical properties of the ...

Valery Shcherbakov; Jean-François Gayet; Brad Baker; Paul Lawson

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Sound Scattering from Sea Ice: Aspects Relevant to Ice-Draft Profiling by Sonar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate discrimination between thin ice and open water using sonar is an important practical concern for the calibration of ice-draft observations and for the use of ice-profiling sonar in climate-related studies of sea ice. To guide improvement ...

Humfrey Melling

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model to study coupled ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics. Most existing ice-sheet numerical models use grid-based Eulerian discretizations, and are usually restricted ... Keywords: Grounding line, Ice sheet, Non-Newtonian fluid, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics

W. Pan, A. M. Tartakovsky, J. J. Monaghan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

ICE™ and ICE/T™: tools to assist in compiler design and implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ICE (Intermediate Code Engine) and ICE/T (ICE/Translator) are compiler back ends that execute on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). They allow the student to complete a working compiler quickly and can execute on any platform that supplies a JVM. ICE is a ... Keywords: back-end, compiler, project, translator

Truman Parks Boyer; Mohsen Chitsaz

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gas isotopes in ice reveal a vegetated central Greenland during ice sheet invasion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ground surface as snow- drift and the ice sheet during a growing phase, with a mixing ratio of the localGas isotopes in ice reveal a vegetated central Greenland during ice sheet invasion R. Souchez,1 J prevailing during build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) are not yet established. Here we use results from

Chappellaz, Jérôme

219

Global simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme in the Community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloudGlobal simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme; accepted 3 June 2010; published 28 September 2010. [1] A processbased treatment of ice supersaturation

Gettelman, Andrew

220

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate u...

Limmer, David T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Off peak ice storage generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the high costs associated with peak demand charges imposed by most electrical companies today, various means of shifting the peak HVAC load have been identified by the industry. This paper discusses the results of a study based upon a building site located in the high desert of the southwestern United States that evaluated ice storage as a mechanism of operating cost reductions. The discussion addresses both the seasonal and the annual cost and energy impacts of an ice storage system when used in place of an air-to-air heat pump system.

Davis, R.E.; Cerbo, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Application in Advanced Laparoscopic Procedures: Medical Ice...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

223

SPECIALREPORT95-18 Structural Ice Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

described in this review are not limited to confluence ice situations. A second phase of the work unit will examine and select confluences with known ice problems for detailed analysis. A third phase will combineSPECIALREPORT95-18 Structural Ice Control Review of Existing Methods Andrew M. Tuthill July 1995

224

Absence of superheating for ice Ih with a free surface : a new method of determining the melting point of different water models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for ice Ih with a free surface. The simulations were carried out at several temperatures and each run lasted more than 7ns. At high temperatures the ice melts. It is demonstrated that the melting process starts at the surface and propagates to the bulk of the ice block. Already at the temperatures below the melting point, we observe a thin liquid layer at the ice surface, but the block of ice remains stable along the run. As soon as the temperature reaches the melting point the entire ice block melts. Our results demonstrate that, unlike in the case of conventional simulations in the NpT ensemble, overheating of the ice Ih with a free surface does not occur. That allows to estimate the melting point of ice at zero pressure. We applied the method to the following models of water: SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP4P/Ew, TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005, and found good agreement between the melting temperatures obtained by this procedure and the values obtained either from free energy calculations or from direct simulations of the ice/water interface.

Carlos Vega; Maria Martin-Conde; Andrzej Patrykiejew

2013-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen

Y. T. Shah; G. J. Stiegel; S. Krishnamurthy

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

227

Calmac Ice Storage Test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. Calmac provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The Calmac ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging was similar to that reported by the manufacturer. Both the measured average and minimum brine temperatures were in close agreement with Calmac's literature values, and the ability to fully charge the tank was relatively unaffected by charging rate and brine flow rate. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend most strongly on the discharge conditions required to serve the load. This report describes Calmac system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. Companion reports describe ISTF test procedures and ice-making efficiency test results that are common to many of the units tested. 11 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

Stovall, T.K.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Understanding Nitrogen Fixation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

Paul J. Chirik

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

229

Nitrogen fixation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The diffusion of H[sub 2] in hexagonal ice at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The diffusion of hydrogen molecules in hexagonal D[sub 2]O ice (Ih) in the temperature range of 25--60 K was investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering. The observed spectra consist of a narrow elastic peak and a broad quasielastic component. The single-particle diffusion coefficient for H[sub 2] in D[sub 2]O ice was obtained using a simple model of diffusion and is remarkably high---comparable to the coefficient of H[sub 2] in a liquid.

Strauss, H.L.; Chen, Z. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1460 (United States)); Loong, C. (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4818 (United States))

1994-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

FEM analysis of in-flight ice break-up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a fracture mechanics framework, this paper presents a finite element method to simulate the break-up of ice accreted on the wings of aircraft. The fully automated ice break-up module is integrated in FENSAP-ICE [1,2], which is an in-flight ice ... Keywords: Finite element methods, Fracture mechanics, Ice break-up, Ice shedding, In-flight icing, Multi-physics phenomenon

Shiping Zhang; Oubai El Kerdi; Rooh A. Khurram; Wagdi G. Habashi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Minimizing Discomfort during the injection of Radiesse™ with the use of either local anesthetic or ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comite SL, Storwick GS. Ice minimizes discomfort associatedeither local anesthetic or ice Stephen Comite MD 1 , Alexisinvolves the use of an ice cube for anesthesia. Ice has been

Comite, Stephen; Greene, Alexis; Cieszynski, Sabina A; Zaroovabeli, Pauline; Marks, Karen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ice Initiation by Aerosol Particles: Measured and Predicted Ice Nuclei Concentrations versus Measured Ice Crystal Concentrations in an Orographic Wave Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initiation of ice in an isolated orographic wave cloud was compared with expectations based on ice nucleating aerosol concentrations and with predictions from new ice nucleation parameterizations applied in a cloud parcel model. Measurements ...

T. Eidhammer; P. J. DeMott; A. J. Prenni; M. D. Petters; C. H. Twohy; D. C. Rogers; J. Stith; A. Heymsfield; Z. Wang; K. A. Pratt; K. A. Prather; S. M. Murphy; J. H. Seinfeld; R. Subramanian; S. M. Kreidenweis

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Questions and Answers - If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is there anything colderthan liquid nitrogen? Is there anything colder<br>than liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What's the melting point of steel?) What's the melting point of steel? If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize? Nothing happens instantly. The first thing would be frostbite to the skin followed by the onset of hypothermia to the internal organs. No doubt everything would "freeze up" with time. What this really brings up though is safety issues with cryogenic fluids, that is, those substances that are normally gases (like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, or helium) at room temperature but can be changed to liquid form through the use of

235

The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water, Part II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and arXiv:1107.0337v2]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, SW silicon and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative nonequilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

David T. Limmer; David Chandler

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

236

Nitrogen chiller acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the inspection and testing requirements for the Nitrogen Chiller unit. The Chiller will support the Rotary Mode core Sampling System during the summer. The Chiller cools the Nitrogen Purge Gas that is used when drilling in tank wastes to cool the drill bit.

Kostelnik, A.J.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas Mauricio-dimensional associating lattice gas (ALG) model. This model combines orientational ice-like interactions and "van der the presence of two liquid phase, two critical points and density anomaly. PACS numbers: 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

239

On a phase field model for solid-liquid phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distinct phases. This is the case for solid-liquid mix- tures (e.g. ice-water or alloys duringOn a phase field model for solid-liquid phase transitions S. Benzoni-Gavage , L. Chupin , D. Jamet , and J. Vovelle December 3, 2010 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Phase field equations 3 2.1 Derivation

240

2, 4378, 2006 Ice-driven CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- dred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine 18 O) have varied in phase both at the 41 000-yearCPD 2, 43­78, 2006 Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume W. F. Ruddiman Title Page Abstract Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Climate of the Past Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth, Space Sciences » Earth, Space Sciences » Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. Get Expertise Phil Jones COSIM Email Matthew Hecht COSIM Email Elizabeth Hunke COSIM Email Mat Maltrud COSIM Email Bill Lipscomb COSIM Email Scott Elliott COSIM Email Todd Ringler COSIM Email We are also developing a set of next-generation ocean and ice models with variable resolution horizontal grids to focus resolution on regions of interest or regions where specific processes (like eddies) need to be resolved. Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the

244

ice rheology in HadCM3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We present results of an implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP) sea ice dynamics scheme into the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model HadCM3. Although the large-scale simulation of sea ice in HadCM3 is quite good with this model, the lack of a full dynamical model leads to errors in the detailed representation of sea ice and limits our confidence in its future predictions. We find that introducing the EVP scheme results in a worse initial simulation of the sea ice. This paper documents various enhancements made to improve the simulation, resulting in a sea ice simulation that is better than the original HadCM3 scheme overall. Importantly, it is more physically based and provides a more solid foundation for future development. We then consider the interannual variability of the sea ice in the new model and demonstrate improvements over the HadCM3 simulation. 1

W. M. Connolley; A. B. Keen; A. J. Mclaren

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dependence of Sea Ice Yield-Curve Shape on Ice Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this note, the authors discuss the contribution that frictional sliding of ice floes (or floe aggregates) past each other and pressure ridging make to the plastic yield curve of sea ice. Using results from a previous study that explicitly ...

Alexander V. Wilchinsky; Daniel L. Feltham

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Modeling Thermodynamic Ice–Ocean Interactions at the Base of an Ice Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves are driven primarily by the heat and freshwater fluxes that are associated with phase changes at the ice–ocean boundary. Their behavior is therefore closely linked to the mathematical description of ...

David M. Holland; Adrian Jenkins

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A Thermodynamic Coupled Ice-Ocean Model of the Marginal Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled ice-ocean model for thermodynamic growth of sea ice suitable for coupling with a similar dynamic model is considered. The model is balanced locally in that no horizontal (or vertical) advection or diffusion of properties are considered. ...

Lars Petter Røed

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Assessment of Aircraft Icing Potential and Maximum Icing Altitude from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite product that displays regions of aircraft icing potential, along with corresponding cloud-top heights, has been developed using data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and sounder. The icing ...

Gary P. Ellrod; Andrew A. Bailey

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Measurement of South Pole ice transparency with the IceCube LED calibration system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, approximately 1 km^3 in size, is now complete with 86 strings deployed in the Antarctic ice. IceCube detects the Cherenkov radiation emitted by charged particles passing through or created in the ice. To realize the full potential of the detector, the properties of light propagation in the ice in and around the detector must be well understood. This report presents a new method of fitting the model of light propagation in the ice to a data set of in-situ light source events collected with IceCube. The resulting set of derived parameters, namely the measured values of scattering and absorption coefficients vs. depth, is presented and a comparison of IceCube data with simulations based on the new model is shown.

IceCube Collaboration; M. G. Aartsen; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; D. Altmann; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; V. Baum; R. Bay; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. Becker Tjus; K. -H. Becker; M. Bell; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; A. Bernhard; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; G. Binder; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; S. Bohaichuk; C. Bohm; D. Bose; S. Böser; O. Botner; L. Brayeur; A. M. Brown; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; S. Buitink; M. Carson; J. Casey; M. Casier; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; K. Clark; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; D. F. Cowen; A. H. Cruz Silva; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; S. De Ridder; P. Desiati; M. de With; T. DeYoung; J. C. Díaz-Vélez; M. Dunkman; R. Eagan; B. Eberhardt; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; J. Feintzeig; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; S. Flis; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; K. Frantzen; T. Fuchs; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glüsenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; G. Golup; J. A. Goodman; D. Góra; D. Grant; A. Groß; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Haj Ismail; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Hanson; D. Heereman; P. Heimann; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; R. Hellauer; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; R. Hoffmann; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; W. Huelsnitz; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; E. Jacobi; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; K. Jero; O. Jlelati; B. Kaminsky; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. L. Kelley; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; J. Kläs; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Köhne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Köpke; C. Kopper; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; M. Krasberg; G. Kroll; J. Kunnen; N. Kurahashi; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; M. Lesiak-Bzdak; J. Leute; J. Lünemann; J. Madsen; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; F. McNally; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Mészáros; T. Meures; S. Miarecki; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; L. Mohrmann; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; R. Nahnhauer; U. Naumann; H. Niederhausen; S. C. Nowicki; D. R. Nygren; A. Obertacke; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; L. Paul; J. A. Pepper; C. Pérez de los Heros; C. Pfendner; D. Pieloth; N. Pirk; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; L. Rädel; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; M. Richman; B. Riedel; J. P. Rodrigues; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; S. M. Saba; T. Salameh; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; M. Scheel; F. Scheriau; T. Schmidt; M. Schmitz; S. Schoenen; S. Schöneberg; L. Schönherr; A. Schönwald; A. Schukraft; L. Schulte; O. Schulz; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; C. Sheremata; M. W. E. Smith; M. Soiron; D. Soldin; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; A. Stasik; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; A. Stößl; E. A. Strahler; R. Ström; G. W. Sullivan; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; M. Usner; D. van der Drift; N. van Eijndhoven; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge; M. Vraeghe; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; R. Wasserman; Ch. Weaver; M. Wellons; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; T. R. Wood; C. Xu; D. L. Xu; X. W. Xu; J. P. Yanez; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky; J. Ziemann; S. Zierke; A. Zilles; M. Zoll

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

250

Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Seawater Observations under Pack Ice in All Seasons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated, easily deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) instrument system, developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in the polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean water properties in all seasons, is described, and representative ...

R. Krishfield; J. Toole; A. Proshutinsky; M-L. Timmermans

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Ice Accretion on Wires and Anti-Icing Induced by Joule Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study concerns both the formation of ice accreted around wires due to rotation from gravitational and aerodynamic forces, and the anti-icing induced by the Joule effect. The experiments have been carried out in an instrumented wind tunnel ...

P. Personne; J-F. Gayet

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Siple Coast Ice Streams in a General Antarctic Ice Sheet Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an earlier paper by Verbitsky and Saltzman, a vertically integrated, high-resolution, nonlinearly viscous, nonisothermal ice sheet model was presented to calculate the “present-day” equilibrium regime of the Antarctic ice sheet. Steady-state ...

Mikhail Verbitsky

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

IceT users' guide and reference.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (IceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. In addition to providing accelerated rendering for a standard display, IceT provides the unique ability to generate images for tiled displays. The overall resolution of the display may be several times larger than any viewport that may be rendered by a single machine. This document is an overview of the user interface to IceT.

Moreland, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

IceT users' guide and reference.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (IceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. In addition to providing accelerated rendering for a standard display, IceT provides the unique ability to generate images for tiled displays. The overall resolution of the display may be several times larger than any viewport that may be rendered by a single machine. This document is an overview of the user interface to IceT.

Moreland, Kenneth D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds. Part II: Testing Characteristics of Heterogeneous Ice Formation in Lee Wave Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a source of uncertainty in models that represent ice clouds. The primary goal of the Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds (ICE-L) field campaign was to determine if a link can be demonstrated between ice ...

P. R. Field; A. J. Heymsfield; B. J. Shipway; P. J. DeMott; K. A. Pratt; D. C. Rogers; J. Stith; K. A. Prather

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Microparticulate Ice Slurry For Renal Hypothermia: Laparoscopic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MICROPARTICULATE ICE SLURRY FOR RENAL HYPOTHERMIA : LAPAROSCOPIC PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY IN A PORCINE MODEL Sergey Shikanov a * , Mark Wille a , Michael Large a , Aria Razmaria a ,...

257

Ice Fall Doctors 5, Changing Route  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'....

Loomis, Molly

258

Development of ice self-release mechanisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study reports the results of a series of experiments that investigated a thermal storage technology whereby slush ice is grown on a submerged cold surface, and the resultant growth of slush ice releases without auxiliary thermal or mechanical means. The process investigated consists of growing slush ice from an electrolyte solution of low molarity. The cold surface (substrate) upon which the slush ice forms is submerged in the bulk solution. As the buoyancy force on the ice crystals exceeds the adhesion of the slush ice to the cold surface, the slush ice is forced from the substrate and floats away to the top of the solution. The results of this study reveal the relative insensitivity of the growth rate of ice crystals to solution initial bulk concentration over the range of values tested and to concentration of electrolyte during accumulation of ice crystals. The critical parameter appears to be substrate temperature, which cannot be less than {approximately}2{degrees}C below the freezing point temperature of the solution, because apparent adhesion increases rapidly with decreasing substrate temperature. 1 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Stewart, W.E. Jr. (Missouri Univ., Independence, MO (USA). Energy Research Lab.)

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Sea ice mapping method for seawinds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A sea ice mapping algorithm for SeaWinds is developed that incorporates statistical and spatial a priori information in a modified maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. Spatial a priori data are incorporated in the loss terms of a Bayes risk formulation. Conditional distributions and priors for sea ice and ocean statistics are represented as empirical histograms that are forced to conform to a set of expected histograms via principal component filtering. Tuning parameters for the algorithm allow adjustments in the algorithm’s performance. Results of the algorithm exhibit high correlation with the Remund–Long sea ice mapping algorithm for SeaWinds and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager National Aeronautics and Space Administration Team 30 % ice edge, and are verified with RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR imagery. The resulting sea ice maps exhibit high edge detail, preserve polynyas and ice bodies disjoint from the primary ice sheet, and thus are suitable for use with wind retrieval and sea ice studies. Principles employed in the algorithm may be of interest in other classification studies. Index Terms—Bayes method, maximum a posteriori (MAP), principal components, QuikSCAT, scatterometer, sea ice extent, SeaWinds. I.

Hyrum S. Anderson; Student Member; David G. Long; Senior Member

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high-particle-density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. We find that the particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function, and that the particles' characteristic velocity increased with temperature. We explain this behavior in terms of ice grain boundary migration.

Melissa Spannuth; S. G. J. Mochrie; S. S. L. Peppin; J. S. Wettlaufer

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ice hockey players' perceived legitimacy of aggression.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recent incidents of aggressive and violent behavior in professional ice hockey have caused many in and out of the sport world to again question the… (more)

Visek, Amanda J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Scouting technical skills in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective was to create an effective scouting tool to evaluate technical skills of an ice hockey player. The purpose was to provide an… (more)

Räihä, Tuukka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Guide for organizing ice hockey events.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Purpose of making a Guide for Organizing Ice Hockey Events was to create an easy following guide for students at Vierumäki and other people… (more)

Maclean, Ross

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice ...  

Emergency Responders More Time • Video: Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in the Porcine Model License Status: Available for ...

265

Effects of Stochastic Ice Strength Perturbation on Arctic Finite Element Sea Ice Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice strength parameter P* is a key parameter in dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice models that cannot be measured directly. Stochastically perturbing P* in the Finite Element Sea Ice–Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute aims at ...

Stephan Juricke; Peter Lemke; Ralph Timmermann; Thomas Rackow

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Simplified Ice–Ocean Coupled Model for the Antarctic Ice Melt Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Antarctic Ocean, sea ice melts mostly by warming of the ocean mixed layer through heat input (mainly solar radiation) in open water areas. A simplified ice–upper ocean coupled model is proposed in which sea ice melts only by the ocean heat ...

Kay I. Ohshima; Sohey Nihashi

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Air–Ice–Ocean Momentum Exchange. Part 1:Energy Transfer between Waves and Ice Floes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy exchange between ocean surface waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) involves the scattering and attenuation of wave energy and the excitation of oscillation modes of the ice floes, as open ocean waves propagate into the ...

W. Perrie; Y. Hu

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Origin and Concentration of Ice Crystals in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in supercooled clouds may form upon ice nuclei, or they may arise through secondary processes. Two of these secondary ice “multiplication” mechanisms are discussed in some detail: the rime-splintering process and the mechanical ...

S. C. Mossop

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Origin of Ice in Mountain Cap Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystal development in relatively simple layer clouds was studied using airborne instrumentation. The patterns in the development of ice in those clouds suggest that the ice originates in association with the initial condensation process, ...

William A. Cooper; Gabor Vali

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

ADWICE: Advanced Diagnosis and Warning System for Aircraft Icing Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design of the Advanced Diagnosis and Warning System for Aircraft Icing Environments (ADWICE) and presents results for two different icing weather situations with typical icing conditions. ADWICE has been in development ...

A. Tafferner; T. Hauf; C. Leifeld; T. Hafner; H. Leykauf; U. Voigt

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Novel and Low Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance buoys (IMB buoys) deployed over the past two decades have contributed to our ...

Keith Jackson; Jeremy Wilkinson; Ted Maksym; Justin Beckers; Christian Haas; David Meldrum; David Mackenzie

273

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EASE-Grid weekly snow cover and sea ice extent version 3.USA, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Digital media, 2005.climate forcing via snow and ice albedos, Proc. Natl. Acad.

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice Dry ice is regulated as a hazardous material if shipped by air or water. Contact Shipping for any shipments that include dry ice (x5094, x4388, or shipping@lbl.gov)....

275

A Heat Balance for the Bering Sea Ice Edge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed oceanographic, meteorological and sea ice observations were obtained from the Bering Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the February–March 1983 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX West). These data have been used in estimating a mean ...

Peter J. Hendricks; Robin D. Muench; Gilbert R. Stegen

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Atmospheric Icing Climatologies of Two New England Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric icing climatologies of two New England mountaintops with different elevations are compared: Mount Mansfield in northern Vermont and Mount Washington in New Hampshire. Atmospheric icing, as measured with Rosemount ice detectors, is ...

Charles C. Ryerson

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids  

This invention relates in general to compositions to remove ice, snow and/or frost ("frozen precipitation") from surfaces and/or to prevent ice from forming on surfaces, and in particular to deicing/anti-icing fluids.

278

It's Elemental - The Element Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen The Element Nitrogen [Click for Isotope Data] 7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.0067 Melting Point: 63.15 K (-210.00°C or -346.00°F) Boiling Point: 77.36 K (-195.79°C or -320.44°F) Density: 0.0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming." Say what? Nitrogen is pronounced as NYE-treh-gen. History and Uses: Nitrogen was discovered by the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. It is the fifth most abundant element in the universe and makes up

279

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Intercomparison of In-Flight Icing Algorithms. Part I: WISP94 Real-Time Icing Prediction and Evaluation Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Icing Forecasting Improvement Program is to conduct research on icing conditions both in flight and on the ground. This paper describes a portion of the in-flight aircraft icing prediction ...

Gregory Thompson; Roelof T. Bruintjes; Barbara G. Brown; Frank Hage

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. COVER: Ice protection technologies—clockwise from upper left (reprinted with permission): 1. Feltwick Anti-Icing Grate from Innovative Dynamics Inc. 2. Ocean Bounty semi-submersible iced in Cook Inlet

Charles C. Ryerson April; Vacca Heater From Vacca Inc; Charles C. Ryerson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

under a Creative Commons License. Climate of the Past Modelling the Early Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheets: role of ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. During the last glaciation, a marine ice sheet repeatedly appeared in Eurasia. The floating part of this ice sheet was essential to its rapid extension over the seas. During the earliest stage (90 kyr BP), large ice-dammed lakes formed south of the ice sheet. These lakes are believed to have cooled the climate at the margin of the ice. Using an ice sheet model, we investigated the role of ice shelves during the inception and the influence of ice-dammed lakes on the ice sheet evolution. Inception in Barents sea seems due to thickening of a large ice shelf. We observe a substantial impact of the lakes on the evolution of the ice sheets. Reduced summer ablation enhances ice extent and thickness, and the deglaciation is delayed by 2000 years. 1

V. Peyaud; C. Ritz; G. Krinner

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Parameterization of the Visible Extinction Coefficient of Ice Clouds in Terms of the Ice/Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a parameterization of the visible extinction coefficient of cirrus and frontal ice cloud in terms of the ice/water content. The parameterization is based on the discovery that the ice cloud particle size spectra from a ...

C. Martin R. Platt

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Observing Climate with Satellites Are We on Thin Ice?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observing Climate with Satellites Are We on Thin Ice? A glacial-melt stream on the top of the Greenland ice sheet in late summer. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

286

Chairs: Ice, Ishikawa, Khounsary, Padmore, Shen Topic Speaker  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chairs: Ice, Ishikawa, Khounsary, Padmore, Shen Topic Speaker Affiliation Session 1 8:30-10 Chair: G. Ice Maskless patterning Enzo Di Fabrizo Elettra, Trieste, Italy Possible...

287

ICE Press Office U.S. Department of Homeland Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICE Press Office U.S. Department of Homeland Security December 19, 2003 Contact: SEVP Fact Sheet) at (202) 353-3049. www.ice.gov #12;

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

288

SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for Petascale...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for Petascale, High-Resolution, Unstructured Simulations SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for...

289

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vostok Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciologie...

290

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICRICE SOPSep 2013Final.pdf More Documents & Publications...

291

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siple Station Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators A. Neftel, H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Ltscher, H....

292

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| Help | PrivacySecurity Notice Home > Capabilities > Biomedical Applications > Medical Ice Slurry Coolants > Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in the...

293

Ice hockey instructor's guide for EC Dornbirner Bulldogs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to build an ice hockey instructor´s manual for Austrian ice hockey club EC Dornbirner Bulldogs. The manual consists of… (more)

Suomalainen, Juhani

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation P. A. C. Jansson,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid nitrogen,8 and argon9 for 1 keV, micros- copy and reflectometry , and hard x rays copper solutions of liquefied inert gases such as xenon. Finally, the new range of target materials allows improved flexibility

295

ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the

296

Modeling Linear Kinematic Features in Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice deformation is localized in narrow zones of high strain rate that extend hundreds of kilometers, for example, across the Arctic Basin. This paper demonstrates that these failure zones may be modeled with a viscous–plastic sea ice model, ...

Jennifer K. Hutchings; Petra Heil; William D. Hibler III

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ice Fall Doctors 6, Long Conversation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ang Nima and Ang Kami discuss different elements of their lives as Ice Fall Doctors: what they like about the job; safety; what their wives think of the work; religion and how it keeps them safe in the ice; spirits in the Icefall and the surrounding...

Loomis, Molly

298

Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Maintenance of the Sea-Ice Edge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global climate model is used to evaluate processes that determine the equilibrium location of the sea-ice edge and its climatological annual cycle. The extent to which the wintertime ice edge departs from a symmetric ring around either ...

C. M. Bitz; M. M. Holland; E. C. Hunke; R. E. Moritz

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Recovery mechanisms of Arctic summer sea ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We examine the recovery of Arctic sea ice from prescribed ice?free summer conditions in simulations of 21st century climate in an atmosphere–ocean general circulation model. We find that ice extent recovers typically within two years. The excess oceanic heat that had built up during the ice?free summer is rapidly returned to the atmosphere during the following autumn and winter, and then leaves the Arctic partly through increased longwave emission at the top of the atmosphere and partly through reduced atmospheric heat advection from lower latitudes. Oceanic heat transport does not contribute significantly to the loss of the excess heat. Our results suggest that anomalous loss of Arctic sea ice during asinglesummerisreversible,astheice–albedo feedback is alleviated by large?scale recovery mechanisms. Hence, hysteretic threshold behavior (or a “tipping point”) is unlikely to occur during the decline of Arctic summer sea?

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Wind Turbines Under Atmospheric Icing Conditions - Ice Accretion Modeling, Aerodynamics, and Control Strategies for Mitigating Performance Degradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a combined engineering methodology of ice accretion, airfoil data, and rotor performance analysis of wind turbines subject to moderate atmospheric icing conditions.… (more)

Brillembourg, Dwight

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responsible almost 40% of the ice sheet’s total dischargeCurrently, no coupled Greenland Ice Sheet model experimentaccelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet, Science, v. 313,

Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ice Machines Ice Machines Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines October 8, 2013 - 2:25pm Addthis Vary capacity size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Ice Cube Machine Ice Making Head Self-Contained Remote Condensing Unit Ice Making Head Type of Condenser Air Cooled Water Cooled Air Cooled Ice Harvest Rate (lbs. ice per 24 hrs.) lbs. per 24 hrs. 500 lbs. per 24 hrs. Energy Consumption (per 100 lbs. of ice) kWh 5.5 kWh Quantity of ice machines to be purchased 1 Energy Cost $/kWh 0.06 $/kWh Annual Hours of Operation hrs. 3000 hrs. Calculate Reset OUTPUT SECTION Performance per Ice Cube Machine Your

305

Accurate Liquid Water Path Retrieval from Low-Cost Microwave Radiometers Using Additional Information from a Lidar Ceilometer and Operational Forecast Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, but their presence in the liquid rather than the ice phase can lead to shortwave flux changes of about 100 W m 2 (NWP). In most operational NWP models, production of rain by collision and coalescence is parameterized

Reading, University of

306

Glossary of Scientific Terms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmosphere Cyclotron Deuterium Deuteron Dry Ice Electron Electron Capture Electron Volt (eV) Gluon Half-life Helios Isotope Joule Lepton Liquid Nitrogen Mercury Mole Neptune...

307

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Derived Heavy Oil Coal Sarofim and Flagan (1976) Coal Liquids Coal-oil Slurry Heap (1978) Heap (1978) Heap (1978) Nitric oxide production

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Debye-Hueckel theory for spin ice at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

At low temperatures, spin ice is populated by a finite density of magnetic monopoles--pointlike topological defects with a mutual magnetic Coulomb interaction. We discuss the properties of the resulting magnetic Coulomb liquid in the framework of Debye-Hueckel theory, for which we provide a detailed context-specific account. We discuss both thermodynamical and dynamical signatures and compare Debye-Hueckel theory to experiment as well as numerics, including data for specific heat and AC susceptibility. We also evaluate the entropic Coulomb interaction that is present in addition to the magnetic one and show that it is quantitatively unimportant in the current compounds. Finally, we address the role of bound monopole anti-monopole pairs and derive an expression for the monopole mobility.

Castelnovo, C. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Moessner, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Sondhi, S. L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

310

Learning to predict ice accretion on electric power lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice accretion on power transmission and distribution lines is one of the major causes of power grid outages in northern regions. While such icing events are rare, they are very costly. Thus, it would be useful to predict how much ice will accumulate. ... Keywords: Ice accretion, Machine learning, NWP, SVM regression

Ashkan Zarnani; Petr Musilek; Xiaoyu Shi; Xiaodi Ke; Hua He; Russell Greiner

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Surface Albedo of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In three ship-based field experiments, spectral albedos were measured at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths for open water, grease ice, nilas, young “grey” ice, young grey-white ice, and first-year ice, both with and without snow ...

Richard E. Brandt; Stephen G. Warren; Anthony P. Worby; Thomas C. Grenfell

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe Nanopores. For Immediate Release: April 27, 2010. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

314

Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or phase space. In this work we con- sider the trajectory of sea ice in the ice thickness phase space. We175 Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications Geophysical Is the Trajectory of Arctic Sea Ice? Harry L. Stern and Ronald W. Lindsay Polar Science Center, Applied Physics

Lindsay, Ron

315

3, 435467, 2007 Gas age-ice age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the ice phase (using volcanic horizons) and in the gas phase (using rapid methane variations). We useCPD 3, 435­467, 2007 Gas age-ice age differences along the EPICA cores L. Loulergue et al. Title of the Past New constraints on the gas age-ice age difference along the EPICA ice cores, 0­50 kyr L. Loulergue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in sea ice, and canopy leaf density--as well as by the phase state of water (meltwater on sea ice1 Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data David G. Long Brigham Young CA 91109 ben@pacific.jpl.nasa.gov Sasan.Saatchi@jpl.nasa.gov Cheryl Bertoia U. S. National Ice Center

Long, David G.

317

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The existence of memory effect on hydrogen ordering in ice: The effect makes ice attractive  

SciTech Connect

The existence of ferroelectric ice XI with ordered hydrogen in space becomes of interest in astronomy and physical chemistry because of the strong electrostatic force. However, the influence was believed to be limited because it forms in a narrow temperature range. From neutron diffraction experiments, we found that small hydrogen-ordered domains exist at significantly higher temperature and the domains induce the growth of 'bulk' ice XI. The small ordered domain is named 'memory' of hydrogen ordered ice because it is the residual structure of ice XI. Since the memory exists up to at least 111 K, most of ices in the solar system are hydrogen ordered and may have ferroelectricity. The small hydrogen-ordered domains govern the cosmochemical properties of ice and evolution of icy grains in the universe.

Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Neutron spectroscopy of high-density amorphous ice.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vibrational spectra of high-density amorphous ice (hda-ice) for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O samples were measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The measured spectra of hda-ice are closer to those for high-pressure phase ice-VI, but not for low-density ice-Ih. This result suggests that similar to ice-VI the structure of hda-ice should consist of two interpenetrating hydrogen-bonded networks having no hydrogen bonds between themselves.

Kolesnikov, A. I.

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

320

METHOD OF FIXING NITROGEN FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fixing nitrogen from air by compressing the air, irradiating the compressed air in a nuclear reactor, cooling to remove NO/ sub 2/, compressing the cooled gas, further cooling to remove N/sub 2/O and recirculating the cooled compressed air to the reactor.

Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ICES Training programme The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) offers courses led by high-profile scientists and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: +45 3338 6700 Fax: +45 3393 4215 info@ices.dk You can find more information about: ICES HQ here Hotels tuition fee. Organization The course is organized by the ICES Secretariat as part of the ICES Training

322

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface ?ows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is veri?ed by simulating Poiseuille ?ow, plane shear ?ow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian ?uid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian ?uid and non-Newtonian ?uid, such that the e?ect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glen’s law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

A ``triple sea-ice state'' mechanism for the abrupt warming and synchronous ice sheet collapses during Heinrich events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes. This weak coupling can lead to a ``nonlinear phase locking'' of the different ice sheets whichA ``triple sea-ice state'' mechanism for the abrupt warming and synchronous ice sheet collapses. [1] Abrupt, switch-like, changes in sea ice cover are proposed as a mechanism for the large

Sayag, Roiy

325

THE DUAL ORIGIN OF THE NITROGEN DEFICIENCY IN COMETS: SELECTIVE VOLATILE TRAPPING IN THE NEBULA AND POSTACCRETION RADIOGENIC HEATING  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scenario that explains the apparent nitrogen deficiency in comets in a way that is consistent with the fact that the surfaces of Pluto and Triton are dominated by nitrogen-rich ice. We use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of the successive multiple guest clathrates that may have formed during the cooling of the primordial nebula from the most abundant volatiles present in the gas phase. These clathrates agglomerated with the other ices (pure condensates or stoichiometric hydrates) and formed the building blocks of comets. We report that molecular nitrogen is a poor clathrate former, when we consider a plausible gas-phase composition of the primordial nebula. This implies that its trapping into cometesimals requires a low disk temperature ({approx}20 K) in order to allow the formation of its pure condensate. We find that it is possible to explain the lack of molecular nitrogen in comets as a consequence of their postformation internal heating engendered by the decay of short-lived radiogenic nuclides. This scenario is found to be consistent with the presence of nitrogen-rich ice covers on Pluto and Triton. Our model predicts that comets should present xenon-to-water and krypton-to-water ratios close to solar xenon-to-oxygen and krypton-to-oxygen ratios, respectively. In contrast, the argon-to-water ratio is predicted to be depleted by a factor of {approx}300 in comets compared to solar argon-to-oxygen, as a consequence of poor trapping efficiency and radiogenic heating.

Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Rousselot, Philippe [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Besancon, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cochran, Anita L. [University of Texas McDonald Observatory, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Waite, J. Hunter, E-mail: olivier.mousis@obs-besancon.fr [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Aircraft Measurements of Icing in Supercooled and Water Droplet/Ice Crystal Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Icing measurements were carried out in Spain during the Precipitation Enhancement Project experiment in 1979, with an instrumented DC-7 aircraft.

M. Bain; J. F. Gayet

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight A research team led by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory identified specific strengths and weaknesses of four different ice cloud retrieval algorithms. Their comparisons tested the ability of the algorithms to obtain cloud properties from radar and lidar observational measurements. The team noted the sometimes large variances in heating/cooling measurements compared to the observed data. Identifying specific weaknesses will help scientists improve our understanding of cloud properties in the atmosphere, which can be used for climate model development and evaluation. "Measuring the effective size and mass of ice crystals impacts our understanding

328

PSU BEN & JERRY'S STUDENT ICE CREAM CATERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIY Sundae Student Sundae Party Do you want it delivered? We will bring your order right to your door. This is a complete DIY Ice Cream Sundae Extravaganza, just for PSU students! Pick 3 flavors and 3 toppings, we

329

Single Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of scattering and polarization properties for randomly oriented polyhedral ice crystals are presented based on the geometric optics and the far-field diffraction approximation. Particle shapes range from various hexagonal symmetric ...

Andreas Macke; Johannes Mueller; Ehrhard Raschke

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Ice Crystal Production by Mountain Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented for a process of ice crystal generation in supercooled orographic clouds in contact with snow-covered mountain surfaces. Comparisons of the crystal concentrations at the surface with aircraft sampling indicate that the “...

David C. Rogers; Gabor Vali

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Aggregation of Ice Crystals in Cirrus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are given from analysis of the aggregation of thick plate, columnar, and bullet rosette ice crystals in cirrus. Data were obtained from PMS 2D-C images, oil coated slides, and aircraft meteorological measurements. Crystal size ranged from ...

Masahiro Kajikawa; Andrew J. Heymsfield

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Radar and Radiation Properties of Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors derive relations of the equivalent radar reflectivity Ze and extinction coefficient ? of ice clouds and confirm the theory by in situ aircraft observations during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional ...

David Atlas; Sergey Y. Matrosov; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Ming-Dah Chou; David B. Wolff

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

GELISOLS GEOCHEMISTRY OF SNOW AND ICE ... - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and poses a serious risk to dam stability (Richardson and Reynolds, 2000b). Average rates of subsidence due to melting of buried ice in the moraine dam at Imja.

334

Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

ANITA collaboration; P. W. Gorham; S. W. Barwick; J. J. Beatty; D. Z. Besson; W. R. Binns; C. Chen; P. Chen; J. M. Clem; A. Connolly; P. F. Dowkontt; M. A. DuVernois; R. C. Field; D. Goldstein; A. Goodhue; C. Hast; C. L. Hebert; S. Hoover; M. H. Israel; J. Kowalski; J. G. Learned; K. M. Liewer; J. T. Link; E. Lusczek; S. Matsuno; B. Mercurio; C. Miki; P. Miocinovic; J. Nam; C. J. Naudet; J. Ng; R. Nichol; K. Palladino; K. Reil; A. Romero-Wolf; M. Rosen; D. Saltzberg; D. Seckel; G. S. Varner; D. Walz; F. Wu

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

335

Aircraft Icing Caused by Large Supercooled Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristic of aircraft icing environments containing large supercooled droplets are described. Substantial loss in rate of climb capability can result from less than 10 minutes duration in conditions where fewer than 0.1–1 cm?3 of ...

Marcia K. Politovich

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Aircraft Icing Conditions in Northeast Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The in-flight icing environment in northeastern Colorado is described through remote and in situ measurements. Four field efforts in the winters of 1990 through 1994 were conducted in the area, and comprehensive datasets from research aircraft, ...

Marcia K. Politovich; Tiffany A. O. Bernstein

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

Under sub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) drastically reducing cell performance. Although a number of strategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of freezing within PEMFC components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to elucidate the effects of hydrophobicity (Teflon® loading) and water saturation on the rate of ice formation within three commercial GDLs. We find that as the Teflon® loading increases, the crystallization temperature decreases due to a change in internal ice/substrate contact angle, as well as the attainable level of water saturation. Classical nucleation theory predicts the correct trend in freezing temperature with Teflon® loading.

Dursch, Thomas; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

Gorham, P.W.

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

339

FINAL REPORT FOR THE DOE/ARM PROJECT TITLED Representation of the Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Ice Clouds in SCMs and GCMs  

SciTech Connect

The broad goal of this research is to improve climate prediction through better representation of cirrus cloud microphysical and radiative properties in global climate models (GCMs). Clouds still represent the greatest source of uncertainty in climate prediction, and the representation of ice clouds is considerably more challenging than liquid water clouds. While about 40% of cloud condensate may be in the form of ice by some estimates, there have been no credible means of representing the ice particle size distribution and mass removal rates from ice clouds in GCMs. Both factors introduce large uncertainties regarding the global net flux, the latter factor alone producing a change of 10 W/m2 in the global net flux due to plausible changes in effective ice particle fallspeed. In addition, the radiative properties of ice crystals themselves are in question. This research provides GCMs with a credible means of representing the full (bimodal) ice particle size distribution (PSD) in ice clouds, including estimates of the small crystal (D < 65 microns) mode of the PSD. It also provides realistic estimates of mass sedimentation rates from ice clouds, which have a strong impact on their ice contents and radiative properties. This can be done through proper analysis of ice cloud microphysical data from ARM and other field campaigns. In addition, this research tests the ice cloud radiation treatment developed under two previous ARM projects by comparing it against laboratory measurements of ice cloud extinction efficiency and by comparing it with explicit theoretical calculations of ice crystal optical properties. The outcome of this project includes two PSD schemes for ice clouds; one appropriate for mid-latitude cirrus clouds and another for tropical anvil cirrus. Cloud temperature and ice water content (IWC) are the inputs for these PSD schemes, which are based on numerous PSD observations. The temperature dependence of the small crystal mode of the PSD for tropical anvils is opposite to that of mid-latitude cirrus, and this results in very different radiative properties for these two types of cirrus at temperatures less than about 50 C for a given ice water path. In addition, the representative PSD fall velocity is strongly influenced by the small crystal mode, and for temperatures less than 52 C, this fall velocity for mid-latitude cirrus is 2-8 times greater than for tropical anvil cirrus. Finally, the treatment of ice cloud optical properties was found to agree with laboratory measurements and exact theory within 15% for any given wavelength, PSD and ice particle shape. This treatment is analytical, formulated in terms of the PSD and ice particle shape properties. It thus provides the means for explicitly coupling the ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and can treat any combination of ice particle shape. It is very inexpensive regarding computer time. When these three deliverables were incorporated into the GCM at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) under another project, it was found that the sunlight reflected and the amount of upwelling heat absorbed by cirrus clouds depended strongly on the PSD scheme used (i.e. mid-latitude or tropical anvil). This was largely due to the fall velocities associated with the two PSD schemes, although the PSD shape was also important.

Mitchell, David L.

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation by Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production Of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) by lightning flashes has been computed from a model of gaseous molecular reactions occurring as heated lightning-channel air cools by mixing with surrounding ambient air. The effect of ozone (O3) on ...

R. D. Hill; R. G. Rinker; H. Dale Wilson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Parameterization of ice cloud radiative properties and its application to the potential climatic importance of mixed-phase clouds  

SciTech Connect

It is often assumed, in modeling and radiation budget simulation, that clouds below the cirrus level are entirely in the liquid phase. There is substantive evidence from observations that low and middle clouds are often of mixed phase. Using a light-scattering program for hexagonal crystals, the authors update a parameterization of the radiative properties of ice clouds from an earlier study and use the new parameterization to investigate the role of mixed-phase clouds in three areas: (i) the interpretation of ISCCP optical depth, (ii) the simulation of the earth radiation budget, and (iii) the sensitivity of a simple radiative-convective model to an increase in CO{sub 2}. In all cases, mixed-phase clouds are shown to have the potential to significantly modify the results obtained using liquid phase clouds. A precise quantification is not yet possible as the dependence of the fraction of ice and liquid water is mixed-phase clouds on atmospheric properties, and the way in which the ice and liquid water are mixed, are not known with sufficient detail. 43 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Sun, Z.; Shine, K.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

343

First Results from IceCube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IceCube is a 1 km$^3$ neutrino observatory being built to study neutrino production in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, and a host of other astrophysical sources. High-energy neutrinos may signal the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. IceCube will also study many particle-physics topics: searches for WIMP annihilation in the Earth or the Sun, and for signatures of supersymmetry in neutrino interactions, studies of neutrino properties, including searches for extra dimensions, and searches for exotica such as magnetic monopoles or Q-balls. IceCube will also study the cosmic-ray composition. In January, 2005, 60 digital optical modules (DOMs) were deployed in the South Polar ice at depths ranging from 1450 to 2450 meters, and 8 ice-tanks, each containing 2 DOMs were deployed as part of a surface air-shower array. All 76 DOMs are collecting high-quality data. After discussing the IceCube physics program and hardware, I will present some initial results with the first DOMs.

Spencer R. Klein; for the IceCube Collaboration

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is directed toward understanding how the availability of nitrogen affects the accumulation of chloroplast pigments and proteins functioning in energy transduction and carbon metabolism. Molecular analyses performed with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in a continuous culture system such that ammonium concentration is maintained at a low steady-state concentration so as to limit cell division. As compared to chloroplasts from cells of non-limiting nitrogen provisions, chloroplasts of N-limited cells are profoundly chlorophyll-deficient but still assimilate carbon for deposition of as starch and as storage lipids. Chlorophyll deficiency arises by limiting accumulation of appropriate nuclear-encoded mRNAs of and by depressed rates of translation of chloroplast mRNAs for apoproteins of reaction centers. Chloroplast translational effects can be partially ascribed to diminished rates of chlorophyll biosynthesis in N-limited cells, but pigment levels are not determinants for expression of the nuclear light-harvesting protein genes. Consequently, other signals that are responsive to nitrogen availability mediate transcriptional or post-transcriptional processes for accumulation of the mRNAs for LHC apoproteins and other mRNAs whose abundance is dependent upon high nitrogen levels. Conversely, limited nitrogen availability promotes accumulation of other proteins involved in carbon metabolism and oxidative electron transport in chloroplasts. Hence, thylakoids of N-limited cells exhibit enhanced chlororespiratory activities wherein oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in a pathway that involves plastoquinone and other electron carrier proteins that remain to be thoroughly characterized. Ongoing and future studies are also outlined.

Schmidt, G.W.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

346

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

347

Force criterion prediction of damage for carbon/epoxy composite panels impacted by high velocity ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H, Kedward, K. T. Modeling Hail Ice Impacts and PredictingInvestigation of High Velocity Ice Impacts on Woven Carbon/Analysis Correlation of Hail Ice Impacting Composite

Rhymer, Jennifer D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Melting Ice and Tangled Nets: Litigation and Conservation Policy in the US, Australia, and Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Melting Ice and Tangled Nets: Litigation and Conservationare heavily dependent on sea ice for their survival, both asvulnerable to the receding sea ice boundaries predicted to

Shaffer, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiationmechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during October 9th-10th, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-hour simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and subsaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the hydrometeors grow.

Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

350

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9th-10th October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and undersaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the hydrometeors grow.

Sednev, Igor; Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

351

Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in 2007 Follows Thinning Trend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimum of Arctic sea ice extent in the summer of 2007 was unprecedented in the historical record. A coupled ice–ocean model is used to determine the state of the ice and ocean over the past 29 yr to investigate the causes of this ice extent minimum within a historical perspective. It is found that even though the 2007 ice extent was strongly anomalous, the loss in total ice mass was not. Rather, the 2007 ice mass loss is largely consistent with a steady decrease in ice thickness that began in 1987. Since then, the simulated mean September ice thickness within the Arctic Ocean has declined from 3.7 to 2.6 m at a rate of ?0.57 m decade ?1. Both the area coverage of thin ice at the beginning of the melt season and the total volume of ice lost in the summer have been steadily increasing. The combined impact of these two trends caused a large reduction in the September mean ice concentration in the Arctic Ocean. This created conditions during the summer of 2007 that allowed persistent winds to push the remaining ice from the Pacific side to the Atlantic side of the basin and more than usual into the Greenland Sea. This exposed large areas of open water, resulting in the record ice extent anomaly. 1.

R. W. Lindsay; J. Zhang; A. Schweiger; M. Steele; H. Stern

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Modeling of Antarctic sea ice in a general circulation model  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice distributions The model is efficient, rapid to compute, and useful for a range of climate studies. The thermodynamic part of the sea ice model is similar to that developed by Parkinson and Washington, the dynamics contain a simplified ice rheology that resists compression. The thermodynamics is based on energy conservation at the top surface of the ice/snow, the ice/water interface, and the open water area to determine the ice formation, accretion, and ablation. A lead parameterization is introduced with an effective partitioning scheme for freezing between and under the ice floes. The dynamic calculation determines the motion of ice, which is forced with the atmospheric wind, taking account of ice resistance and rafting. The simulated sea ice distribution compares reasonably well with observations. The seasonal cycle of ice extent is well simulated in phase as well as in magnitude. Simulated sea ice thickness and concentration are also in good agreement with observations over most regions and serve to indicate the importance of advection and ocean drift in the determination of the sea ice distribution. 64 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Wu, Xingren; Budd, W.F. [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia)] [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia); Simmonds, I. [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)] [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Ice-Tethered Profiler Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen under Permanent Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted ...

M.-L. Timmermans; R. Krishfield; S. Laney; J. Toole

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Comparative ICE genomics: insights into the evolution of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating and conjugative elements (ICEs) are one of the three principal types of self-transmissible mobile genetic elements in bacteria. ICEs, like plasmids, transfer via conjugation; but unlike plasmids and similar to many phages, these elements integrate into and replicate along with the host chromosome. Members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs have been isolated from several species of gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, where they have been important vectors for disseminating genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. Here we developed a plasmid-based system to capture and isolate SXT/R391 ICEs for sequencing. Comparative analyses of the genomes of 13 SXT/R391 ICEs derived from diverse hosts and locations revealed that they contain 52 perfectly syntenic and nearly identical core genes that serve as a scaffold capable of mobilizing an array of variable DNA. Furthermore, selection pressure to maintain ICE mobility appears to have restricted insertions of variable DNA into intergenic sites that do not interrupt core functions. The variable genes confer diverse element-specific phenotypes, such as resistance to antibiotics. Functional analysis of a set of deletion mutants revealed that less than half of the conserved core genes are required for ICE mobility; the functions of most of the dispensable core genes are unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that there has been extensive recombination between SXT/R391 ICEs, resulting in re-assortment of their respective variable gene content. Furthermore,

Rachel A. F. Wozniak; Derrick E. Fouts; Matteo Spagnoletti; Mauro M. Colombo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Simulations of Snow, Ice, and Near-Surface Atmospheric Processes on Ice Station Weddell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 4-month drift of Ice Station Weddell (ISW) produced over 2000 h of nearly continuous measurements in the atmospheric surface layer and in the snow and sea ice in the western Weddell Sea. This paper reports simulations, based on these data, of ...

Edgar L. Andreas; Rachel E. Jordan; Aleksandr P. Makshtas

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effects of ice particle size vertical inhomogeneity on the passive remote sensing of ice clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar reflectance bi-spectral (SRBS) and infrared split-window (IRSpW) methods are two of the most popular techniques for passive ice cloud property retrievals from multispectral imagers. Ice clouds are usually assumed to be vertically homogeneous in global operational algorithms based on these methods, although significant vertical variations of ice particle size are typically observed in ice clouds. In this study we investigate uncertainties in retrieved optical thickness, effective particle size, and ice water path introduced by a homogeneous cloud assumption in both the SRBS and IRSpW methods, and focus on whether the assumption can lead to significant discrepancies between the two methods. The study simulates the upwelling spectral radiance associated with vertically structured clouds and passes the results through representative SRBS and IRSpW retrieval algorithms. Cloud optical thickness is limited to values for which IRSpW retrievals are possible (optical thickness less than about 7). When the ice cloud is optically thin and yet has a significant ice particle size vertical variation, it is found that both methods tend to underestimate the effective radius and ice water path. The reason for the underestimation is the nonlinear dependence of ice particle scattering properties (extinction and single scattering albedo) on the effective radius. Because the nonlinearity effect is stronger in the IRSpW than the SRBS method, the IRSpW-based IWP tends to be smaller than the SRBS counterpart. When the ice cloud is moderately optically thick and ice particle size increases monotonically towards cloud base, the two methods are in qualitative agreement; in the event that ice particle size decreases towards cloud base, the effective radius and ice water path retrievals based on the SRBS method are substantially larger than those from the IRSpW. The main findings of this study suggest that the homogenous cloud assumption can affect the SRBS and IRSpW methods to different extents and, consequently, can lead to significantly different retrievals. Therefore caution should be taken when comparing and combining the ice cloud property retrievals from these two methods.

Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

357

Sea Ice Brightness Temperature as a Function of Ice Thickness, Part II: Computed curves for thermodynamically modelled ice profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice thickness is an important variable for climate scientists and is still an unsolved problem for satellite remote sensing specialists. There has been some success detecting the thickness of thin ice from microwave radiometers, and with this in mind this study attempts to model the thickness-radiance relation of sea ice at frequencies employed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR): between 1.4 and 89 GHz. In the first part of the study, the salinity of the ice was determined by a pair of empirical relationships, while the temperature was determined by a thermodynamic model. Because the thermodynamic model can be used as a simple ice growth model, in this, second part, the salinities are determined by the growth model. Because the model uses two, constant-weather scenarios representing two extremes ("fall freeze-up" and "winter cold snap"), brine expulsion is modelled with a single correction-step founded on mass conservation. The growt...

Mills, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Surface Wave Propagation in Shallow Water beneath an Inhomogeneous Ice Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scattering of flexural–gravity waves in a layer of shallow fluid beneath an ice cover with irregularities is investigated. The irregularities considered are the ice edges, cracks, areas of finely broken ice, and ice ridges. Even this ...

A. V. Marchenko; K. I. Voliak

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Web-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for Macromolecular Crystallography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Blu-Ice. Figure 7: SSRL Web-Ice interface displaying theTable 1: Programs used by Web-Ice for data analysis. ProgramWeb-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for

Gonzalez, Ana

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Quantification of the effects of shattering on airborne ice particle measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice particle shattering poses a serious problem to airborne characterization microstructure of ice clouds. Shattered ice fragments may contaminate particle measurements resulting in artificially high concentrations of small ice. The ubiquitous ...

A. V. Korolev; E. F. Emery; J. W. Strapp; S. G. Cober; G. A. Isaac

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Quantification of the Effects of Shattering on Airborne Ice Particle Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice particle shattering poses a serious problem to the airborne characterization of ice cloud microstructure. Shattered ice fragments may contaminate particle measurements, resulting in artificially high concentrations of small ice. The ubiquitous ...

A. V. Korolev; E. F. Emery; J. W. Strapp; S. G. Cober; G. A. Isaac

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A New Apparatus for Monitoring Sea Ice Thickness Based on the Magnetostrictive-Delay-Line Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-precision ice thickness observations are required to gain a better understanding of ocean–ice–atmosphere interactions and to validate numerical sea ice models. A new apparatus for monitoring sea ice and snow thickness has been developed, ...

Ruibo Lei; Zhijun Li; Yanfeng Cheng; Xin Wang; Yao Chen

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schaller, E. L., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

SURVIVAL OF AMORPHOUS WATER ICE ON CENTAURS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Centaurs are believed to be Kuiper Belt objects in transition between Jupiter and Neptune before possibly becoming Jupiter family comets. Some indirect observational evidence is consistent with the presence of amorphous water ice in Centaurs. Some of them also display a cometary activity, probably triggered by the crystallization of the amorphous water ice, as suggested by Jewitt and this work. Indeed, we investigate the survival of amorphous water ice against crystallization, using a fully three-dimensional thermal evolution model. Simulations are performed for varying heliocentric distances and obliquities. They suggest that crystallization can be triggered as far as 16 AU, though amorphous ice can survive beyond 10 AU. The phase transition is an efficient source of outgassing up to 10-12 AU, which is broadly consistent with the observations of the active Centaurs. The most extreme case is 167P/CINEOS, which barely crystallizes in our simulations. However, amorphous ice can be preserved inside Centaurs in many heliocentric distance-obliquity combinations, below a {approx}5-10 m crystallized crust. We also find that outgassing due to crystallization cannot be sustained for a time longer than 10{sup 4}-10{sup 4} years, leading to the hypothesis that active Centaurs might have recently suffered from orbital changes. This could be supported by both observations (although limited) and dynamical studies.

Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie, E-mail: aguilbert@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that while the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice-covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a ...

Eisenman, I; 10.1073/pnas.0806887106

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

368

Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Agency/Company /Organization: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Sector: Climate, Energy Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.feem.it/getpage.aspx?id=138&sez=Research&padre=18&sub=75&idsub=102 Related Tools Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) DNE21+ ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model developed with the main but not exclusive purpose of assessing the final welfare implication of climate change impacts on world economies. In addition to climate-change impact

369

Ice Towing Tank | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ice Towing Tank Ice Towing Tank Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Ice Towing Tank Overseeing Organization University of Iowa Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tow Tank Length(m) 21.2 Beam(m) 5.0 Depth(m) 1.3 Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Specialized for cold regions research, room temperature can be decreased to -10°F Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities Yes Maximum Velocity(m/s) 0.5 Length of Effective Tow(m) 15.0 Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume None Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Cameras Yes Description of Camera Types Underwater Available Sensors Acoustics, Thermal, Turbulence, Velocity Data Generation Capability

370

Supercooling and Supercompressing of Liquid Metals and Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Similar behavior is observed on water-ice transition. ... Bulk Nanostructured Materials with Multifunctionality Produced by High-Pressure Torsion.

371

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Field Campaigns The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP ICE) was conducted near...

372

Application of Ice Nucleation Kinetics in Orographic Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nucleation by silver iodide-sodium iodide aerosol particles has been characterized in the Colorado State University isothermal cloud chamber using the techniques of chemical kinetics. Two separate mechanisms of condensation-freezing ice ...

Rochelle R. Blumenstein; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant; William G. Finnegan

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Aircraft Icing Measurements in East Coast Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of the aircraft icing environments of East Coast winter storms have been made from 3 1 flights duringthe second Canadian Atlantic Storms Program. Microphysical parameters have been summarized and are compared to common icing intensity ...

Stewart G. Cober; George A. Isaac; J. W. Strapp

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Prediction of Vessel Icing for Near-Freezing Sea Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational NOAA categorical vessel icing algorithm is evaluated with regard to advances in understanding of the icing process and forecasting experience. When sea temperatures are <2–3°C above the saltwater freezing point there is the ...

James E. Overland

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Changes in Ice Storm Impacts over Time: 1886–2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice storms have a variety of negative effects on society. Through an analysis of newspaper accounts of nine exceptional ice storms, the most widespread and longest lasting impact is the loss of electrical power. Power outages also cause secondary ...

David A. Call

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

An Improved Filter Technique for Ice Nucleus Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No satisfactory standard field method has been established for the measurement of ice nucleus concentrations, although the filter technique is a promising candidate if the tendency for ice nucleus concentrations to decrease as the sample volume ...

Chi-Fan Shih; Takeshi Ohtake

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Production of Ice in Tropospheric Clouds: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice in the troposphere affects a variety of processes, including the formation of precipitation, and cloud lifetime, albedo, dynamics, and electrification. A lack of understanding of the ways in which ice is created and multiplied hampers ...

Will Cantrell; Andrew Heymsfield

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Production of Ice Particles in Clouds Due to Aircraft Penetrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that the passage of an aircraft through supercooled clouds can produce high concentrations of ice particles (> 1000 L?1 at ?8°C in one case). These Aircraft Produced Ice Particles (APIPs) are characterized, initially, both ...

Arthur L. Rangno; Peter V. Hobbs

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Simulated Atmospheric Rime Icing of Some Wind Speed Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four commercially available wind speed sensors have been tested in an icing wind tunnel to determine the relative susceptibility of each to atmospheric icing and to determine the influence of ire accumulations upon the operation and accuracy of ...

E. M. Gates; W. C. Thompson

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Atmospheric Ice Crystals over the Antarctic Plateau in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Falling ice crystals were collected daily on a gridded glass slide at South Pole Station, Antarctica, during the Antarctic winter of 1992 and were photographed through a microscope. Nine types of ice crystals are identified, which fall into three ...

Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren; Elizabeth Tuttle

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The mystery of ice crystal multiplication in a laboratory experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of the large discrepancies between ice crystal concentrations in clouds and the number of ice nuclei in nearby clear air reported in published papers. Such discrepancies cannot always be explained, even by taking ...

Gianni Santachiara; Franco Belosi; Franco Prodi

382

Evolutionary Optimization of an Ice Accretion Forecasting System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to model and forecast accretion of ice on structures is very important for many industrial sectors. For example, studies conducted by the power transmission industry indicate that the majority of failures are caused by icing on ...

Pawel Pytlak; Petr Musilek; Edward Lozowski; Dan Arnold

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Observations of Thermohaline Convection adjacent to Brunt Ice Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations were made of ocean microstructure and horizontal currents adjacent to Brunt Ice Shelf in the southeastern Weddell Sea. Periods of in situ supercooled water extending as deep as 65 m were associated with ice nucleation and frazil ...

Ilker Fer; Keith Makinson; Keith W. Nicholls

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Aircraft Observations of Ice Crystal Evolution in an Altostratus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from a Lagrangian spiral descent within altostratus cloud associated with a cold front were used to study the evolution of ice particle spectra by following populations of ice crystals as they fell through the cloud. The flight track ...

Paul R. Field

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Late Pleistocene Ice Age Scenarios Based on Observational Evidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice age scenarios for the last glacial-interglacial cycle, based on observations of Boyle and Keigwin concerning the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and of Barnola et al. concerning atmospheric C02 variations derived from the Vostok ice ...

G. DeBlonde; W. R. Peltier

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Wave-induced Roll Motion beneath an Ice Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of gravity waves propagating at oblique angles along the sea-ice interface in a viscous, rotating ocean is studied theoretically. The motion is described by a Lagrangian formulation. Two theoretical models of the ice cover are considered. ...

Arne Melsom

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Laboratory Measurements of Light Scattering by Single Levitated Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have measured the differential light-scattering cross sections and phase functions of single vapor-grown hexagonal ice particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. The ice particles, grown at temperatures ?5° > T > ?10°C, were ...

Neil J. Bacon; Brian D. Swanson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell Title Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer...

389

Modeling the Effect of Ice Nuclei on ARM Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Upper-Tropospheric Ice Water Content in TWP-ICE Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Minghua Zhang, and Shaochen Xie March 31, 2009 Papers Published Recently * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang,...

390

SEAS Recognition Ceremony -May 10, 2009 Goggin Ice Arena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 SEAS Recognition Ceremony - May 10, 2009 Goggin Ice Arena Main Arena - Ceremony Location Oak Card Distribution, Student & Faculty Processional Line Up. Students: Upon arriving at Goggin Ice Arena

Dollar, Anna

391

Scattering Phase Function of Bullet Rosette Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in cirrus frequently exhibit the shape of a bullet rosette composed of multiple bullets that radiate from a junction center. The scattering phase function of these ice crystals, pertinent to the radiation budget of cirrus, may differ ...

Jean Iaquinta; Harumi Isaka; Pascal Personne

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Current Icing Potential: Algorithm Description and Comparison with Aircraft Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The “current icing potential” (CIP) algorithm combines satellite, radar, surface, lightning, and pilot-report observations with model output to create a detailed three-dimensional hourly diagnosis of the potential for the existence of icing and ...

Ben C. Bernstein; Frank McDonough; Marcia K. Politovich; Barbara G. Brown; Thomas P. Ratvasky; Dean R. Miller; Cory A. Wolff; Gary Cunning

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Water-Cooled Ice Machines, Purchasing Specifications for Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Makers. b) Measured in accordance with ARI Standard 810-2003. Does not include condenser water use. Buying Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines Several types of...

394

A New Horizontal Gradient, Continuous Flow, Ice Thermal Diffusion Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A continuous-flow, horizontal gradient, ice thermal diffusion chamber has been developed and tested for heterogeneous ice nucleation of aerosol particles under accurately controlled supersaturations and supercooling in the absence of a substrate. ...

E. M. Tomlinson; N. Fukuta

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Sublimation of Dry Ice Pellets Used for Cloud Seeding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the sublimation rate of cylindrical dry ice pellets in clear and cloudy air. Experiments conducted in the University of Alberta FROST icing-wind tunnel were used to make comparisons with the ...

B. Kochtubajda; E. P. Lozowski

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Estimating Intensity of Atmospheric Ice Accretion on Stationary Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of various atmospheric parameters in determining atmospheric ice accretion intensity on structures near the ground is examined theoretically, with an emphasis on glaze formation. Methods are presented for calculating the icing rate on ...

Lasse Makkonen

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Improving 30-Day Great Lakes Ice Cover Outlooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prediction of Great Lakes ice cover is important for winter operations and planning activities. Current 30-day forecasts use accumulated freezing degree-days (AFDDs) to identify similar historical events and associated ice cover. The authors ...

Raymond Assel; Sheldon Drobot; Thomas E. Croley II

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Retrieval of Ice Cloud Parameters Using a Microwave Imaging Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the radiative transfer theory, the microwave radiance emanating from ice clouds at arbitrary viewing angles is expressed as an analytic function of the cloud ice water path (IWP), the particle effective diameter (De), and the particle ...

Fuzhong Weng; Norman C. Grody

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cloud Ice Crystal Classification Using a 95-GHz Polarimetric Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two algorithms are presented for ice crystal classification using 95-GHz polarimetric radar observables and air temperature (T). Both are based on a fuzzy logic scheme. Ice crystals are classified as columnar crystals (CC), planar crystals (PC), ...

K. Aydin; J. Singh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Variability and Its Global Connectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study statistically evaluates the relationship between Antarctic sea ice extent and global climate variability. Temporal cross correlations between detrended Antarctic sea ice edge (SIE) anomaly and various climate indices are calculated. ...

Xiaojun Yuan; Douglas G. Martinson

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Ice Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on AddThis.com... Sept. 14, 2013

402

Ice Ball Impact Testing of Roofing Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Ice Ball Impact Testing of ...

403

Using Ice to Make Nature Inspired Hybrid Materials - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Surface Properties of Biomaterials. Presentation Title, Using Ice to Make Nature ...

404

Current Research on Medical Slurry Cooling: Medical Ice Slurry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

405

Technology Description: Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

406

An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass loss from land ice, including the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets as well as smaller glacier and ice caps, is making a large and growing contribution to global sea-level rise. Land ice is only beginning to be incorporated in climate models. The goal of the Land Ice Working Group (LIWG) is to develop improved land-ice models and incorporate them in CESM, in order to provide useful, physically-based sea-level predictions. LJWG efforts to date have led to the inclusion of a dynamic ice-sheet model (the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model, or Glimmer-CISM) in the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which was released in June 2010. CESM also includes a new surface-mass-balance scheme for ice sheets in the Community Land Model. Initial modeling efforts are focused on the Greenland ice sheet. Preliminary results are promising. In particular, the simulated surface mass balance for Greenland is in good agreement with observations and regional model results. The current model, however, has significant limitations: The land-ice coupling is one-way; we are using a serial version of Glimmer-CISM with the shallow-ice approximation; and there is no ice-ocean coupling. During the next year we plan to implement two-way coupling (including ice-ocean coupling with a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet) with a parallel , higher-order version of Glimmer-CISM. We will also add parameterizations of small glaciers and ice caps. With these model improvements, CESM will be able to simulate all the major contributors to 21st century global sea-level rise. Results of the first round of simulations should be available in time to be included in the Fifth Assessment Report (ARS) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Lipscomb, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

407

Measurements of Cloud Nuclei in the Effluents from Launches of Liquid- and Solid-Fueled Rockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of cloud nuclei [cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN)] were made in the stabilized ground clouds resulting from the launches of a liquid-fueled ATLAS/Centaur rocket and a solid-fueled TITAN III rocket. ...

Edward E. Hindman; Lawrence F. Radke; Mark W. Eltgroth

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A Balloonborne Instrument for the Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Supercooled Liquid Water Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vibrating wire placed in the humidity duct of a standard U.S. rawinsonde is used to measure vertical profiles of the concentration of supercooled liquid water in clouds. The natural frequency of vibration varies according to the mass of ice ...

Geoffrey E. Hill; Duard S. Woffinden

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and solid phases of water, including an accurate universal force field. The quest to achieve an accurate of the surfaces of either ice or liquid water (3), nor do we understand the origin of the intriguing anomalies difficult to accurately parameterize these interactions from ab initio calcu- lations. Moreover, the ab

Cohen, Ronald C.

410

Laboratory Calibration of a Vibrating Wire Device for Measuring Concentrations of Supercooled Liquid Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of supercooled liquid water are made by a vibrating-wire sensor whose frequency of vibration varies according to the mass of ice collected on it. The vibrating-wire system is designed to be placed in the humidity duct of ...

Geoffrey E. Hill

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance Reconstruction. Part III: Marine Ice Loss and Total Mass Balance (1840–2010)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenland ice sheet mass loss to the marine environment occurs by some combination of iceberg calving and underwater melting (referred to here as marine ice loss, LM). This study quantifies the relation between LM and meltwater runoff (R) at the ...

Jason E. Box; William Colgan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Estimation of Thin Ice Thickness and Detection of Fast Ice from SSM/I Data in the Antarctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antarctic coastal polynyas are important areas of high sea ice production and dense water formation, and thus their detection including an estimate of thin ice thickness is essential. In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm that estimates ...

Takeshi Tamura; Kay I. Ohshima; Thorsten Markus; Donald J. Cavalieri; Sohey Nihashi; Naohiko Hirasawa

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Greenland ice sheet mass balance reconstruction. Part III: marine ice loss and total mass balance (1840-2010)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenland ice sheet mass loss to the marine environment occurs by some combination of iceberg calving and underwater melting (referred to here as marine ice loss, LM). This study quantifies the relation between LM and meltwater runoff (R) at the ...

Jason E. Box; William Colgan

414

Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces Azar Alizadeh,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for nonicing applications. 1. INTRODUCTION Ice accretion on surfaces of aircraft, wind turbine blades, oil on surfaces with various wettabilities during and subsequent to single water droplet impact. We use surface wetting and icing phase transition events. Our methodology provides insights into multiple ice

Dhinojwala, Ali

415

Forecast of Icing Events at a Wind Farm in Sweden  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a method to identify icing events using a physical icing model, driven by atmospheric data from the WRF model, and applies it to a wind park in Sweden. Observed wind park icing events were identified by deviation from an ...

Neil Davis; Andrea N. Hahmann; Niels-Erik Clausen; Mark Žagar

416

Interannual variability of arctic landfast ice between 1976 and 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of weekly sea ice charts produced by the U.S. National Ice Center from 1976 to 2007 indicates large interannual variations in the averaged winter landfast ice extent around the Arctic Basin. During the 32-year period of the record, ...

Yanling Yu; Harry Stern; Charles Fowler; Florence Fetterer; James Maslanik

417

Modeling the fracture of ice sheets on parallel computers.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. Dramatic illustrations of fracture-induced phenomena most notably include the recent collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica (e.g. partial collapse of the Wilkins shelf in March of 2008 and the diminishing extent of the Larsen B shelf from 1998 to 2002). Other fracture examples include ice calving (fracture of icebergs) which is presently approximated in simplistic ways within ice sheet models, and the draining of supraglacial lakes through a complex network of cracks, a so called ice sheet plumbing system, that is believed to cause accelerated ice sheet flows due essentially to lubrication of the contact surface with the ground. These dramatic changes are emblematic of the ongoing change in the Earth's polar regions and highlight the important role of fracturing ice. To model ice fracture, a simulation capability will be designed centered around extended finite elements and solved by specialized multigrid methods on parallel computers. In addition, appropriate dynamic load balancing techniques will be employed to ensure an approximate equal amount of work for each processor.

Waisman, Haim (Columbia University); Bell, Robin (Columbia University); Keyes, David (Columbia University); Boman, Erik Gunnar; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

Grundy, W M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

W. M. Grundy

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

420

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows; and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. Previous research (Phase 1) conducted by CBI under DOE Contract FG01-86CE26564 has shown a friction reducing effect of ice crystals in water flow. The results of this work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems.

Winters, P.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Snow and Ice Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minnesota Snow and Ice Control Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators Second Revision Manual Number Local Road Research Board #12;#12;Minnesota Snow and Ice Control Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators for an Effective Anti-icing Program, produced by the Utah LTAP Center. Thanks to the following sponsors

Minnesota, University of

422

Modeling Landfast Sea Ice by Adding Tensile Strength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Landfast ice is sea ice that forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is either attached to the shore or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of ...

Christof König Beatty; David M. Holland

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

AIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ice accretion phase. Using5close-up photography and videography Hansman has studied the initial phase of ice accretion. At warm temperatures, a runback zone aft of the rough zone is observed. WaterAIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness on Airfoil Aerodynamics M. Bragg, M. Kerho and M

Bragg, Michael B.

424

Long-Term Ice Variability in Arctic Marginal Seas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Examination of records of fast ice thickness (1936–2000) and ice extent (1900–2000) in the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas provide evidence that long-term ice thickness and extent trends are small and generally not statistically ...

Igor V. Polyakov; Genrikh V. Alekseev; Roman V. Bekryaev; Uma S. Bhatt; Roger Colony; Mark A. Johnson; Valerii P. Karklin; David Walsh; Alexander V. Yulin

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effective Radius of Ice Particles in Cirrus and Contrails  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the ratio C between the volume mean radius and the effective radius of ice particles in cirrus and contrails. The volume mean radius is proportional to the third root of the ratio between ice water content and number of ice ...

U. Schumann; B. Mayer; K. Gierens; S. Unterstrasser; P. Jessberger; A. Petzold; C. Voigt; J-F. Gayet

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen.

429

Tracking of Ice Edges and Ice Floes by Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the use of wavelet transforms in the tracking of sequential ice features in the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, especially in situations where feature correlation techniques fail to yield reasonable results. ...

Antony K. Liu; Seelye Martin; Ronald Kwok

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ice Crystals Produced by Expansion: Experiments and Application to Aircraft-produced Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of ice crystals as a result of the expansion and cooling of moist air was investigated by laboratory experiment. In particular, the warmest expanded air temperature that produces crystals was sought as a function of the initial ...

T. C. Foster; J. Hallett

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, Version 6. 0. User's manual. Report for November 1984-August 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report is a user's manual for the Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model. It summarizes user options and software characteristics, and describes both the input data files and procedures for operating the model. It discusses proper formatting of files and creation of job-control language. The model projects for each state the emissions of sulfur oxides, sulfates, and nitrogen oxides from fossil-fuel combustion in industrial boilers. Emissions and costs of boiler generation, including emission-control costs, are projected for the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2020, and 2030.

Hogan, T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Optimization of a Sea Ice Model Using Basinwide Observations of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness, Extent, and Velocity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stand-alone sea ice model is tuned and validated using satellite-derived, basinwide observations of sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity from the years 1993 to 2001. This is the first time that basin-scale measurements of sea ice thickness ...

Paul A. Miller; Seymour W. Laxon; Daniel L. Feltham; Douglas J. Cresswell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen ...  

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers United States Patent. Patent Number: 8,152,988: Issued: April 10, 2012: Official Filing:

434

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

Bassham, James A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow depth and density were measured at Soviet drifting stations on multiyear Arctic sea ice. Measurements were made daily at fixed stakes at the weather station and once- or thrice-monthly at 10-m intervals on a line beginning about 500 m from ...

Stephen G. Warren; Ignatius G. Rigor; Norbert Untersteiner; Vladimir F. Radionov; Nikolay N. Bryazgin; Yevgeniy I. Aleksandrov; Roger Colony

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Arctic Sea Ice Albedo from AVHRR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle of surface albedo of sea ice in the Arctic is estimated from measurements made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the polar-orbiting satellites NOAA-10 and NOAA-11. The albedos of 145 200-km-square ...

R. W. Lindsay; D. A. Rothrock

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Visual simulation of ice crystal growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The beautiful, branching structure of ice is one of the most striking visual phenomena of the winter landscape. Yet there is little study about modeling this effect in computer graphics. In this paper, we present a novel approach for visual simulation ...

Theodore Kim; Ming C. Lin

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Piling aids gravity in ice resistance  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of foundations for offshore drilling platforms are described. To allow the base contact areas and ballast requirements to be minimized, thus allowing minimization of ice forces, a combined shallow mat and pile or spud founded system is proposed.

Bea, R.G.; Nour-Omid, S.; Coull, T.B.; Potter, R.E.; Bivens, H.R.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field studies in support of the Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP) were conducted in the Colorado Front Range area from 1 February to 31 March 1990(WISP90) and from 15 January to 5 April 1991 (WISP91). The main goals of the project are to ...

Roy Rasmussen; Marcia Politovich; Wayne Sand; Greg Stossmeister; Ben Bernstein; Kim Elmore; John Marwitz; John McGinley; John Smart; Ed Westwater; B. Boba Stankov; Roger Pielke; Steve Rutledge; Doug Wesley; Nick Powell; Don Burrows

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The control of ice storage systems  

SciTech Connect

The tradeoffs between chiller and tank capacity for different load profiles and two storage strategies are evaluated in this article. Air-conditioning systems that employ ice storage incorporate equipment that produces ice during one period and melts it in another period to provide cooling for the building. In designing such systems, there are two basic strategies to consider: full-load and partial-load. In a full-load strategy, the entire daytime cooling energy is met using only cooling supplied by the ice storage tank. In a partial-load strategy, the chiller and the storage are used simultaneously to meet the load. With a full-load strategy, the tank capacity must be sufficient to meet the entire energy requirement, and the chiller capacity must be sufficient to recharge the tank during the night-time. In a partial-load strategy, a smaller chiller and tank than that for a full-load strategy are required, and there are many combinations of the two that will meet a given building load. The design and sizing of the components of an ice storage system depend not only on the desired strategy and total daily cooling energy but also on other factors. The maximum load dictates the amount of cooling required at any time. The cooling rate provided by an ice filled tank is not constant, but decreases as the ice inventory drops, and the time that the maximum load occurs is important. Thus, there is an interaction between the building load profile and tank size. In addition, the flow rate of the circulating fluid through the tank and the cooling coil may limit the supply air temperatures that may be reached. Thus, the circulating fluid flow rate must be sufficient to provide the desired rates of cooling to the building. The challenge to the design engineer is to size the components to meet the building load at all times at the lowest system cost. Effective designs must acknowledge the dynamic performance of the ice storage system.

Carey, C.W. [Amana Corp., IA (United States); Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ice Formation in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Insights from a 3-D Cloud-Resolving Model with Size-Resolved Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics  

SciTech Connect

The single-layer mixed-phase clouds observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) are simulated with a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) coupled with an explicit bin microphysics scheme and a radar-lidar simulator. Two possible ice enhancement mechanisms – activation of droplet evaporation residues by condensation-followed-by-freezing and droplet freezing by contact freezing inside-out, are scrutinized by extensive comparisons with aircraft and radar and lidar measurements. The locations of ice initiation associated with each mechanism and the role of ice nuclei (IN) in the evolution of mixed-phase clouds are mainly addressed. Simulations with either mechanism agree well with the in-situ and remote sensing measurements on ice microphysical properties but liquid water content is slightly underpredicted. These two mechanisms give very similar cloud microphysical, macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative properties, although the ice nucleation properties (rate, frequency and location) are completely different. Ice nucleation from activation of evaporation nuclei is most efficient near cloud top areas concentrated on the edges of updrafts, while ice initiation from the drop freezing process has no significant location preference (occurs anywhere that droplet evaporation is significant). Both enhanced nucleation mechanisms contribute dramatically to ice formation with ice particle concentration of 10-15 times higher relative to the simulation without either of them. The contribution of ice nuclei (IN) recycling from ice particle evaporation to IN and ice particle concentration is found to be very significant in this case. Cloud can be very sensitive to IN initially and form a nonquilibrium transition condition, but become much less sensitive as cloud evolves to a steady mixed-phase condition. The parameterization of Meyers et al. [1992] with the observed MPACE IN concentration is able to predict the observed mixed-phase clouds reasonably well. This validation may facilitate the application of this parameterization in the cloud and climate models to simulate Arctic clouds.

Fan, Jiwen; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Khain, Alexander

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

442

An Investigation of Laboratory-Grown "Ice Spikes"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the formation of 10-50 mm long ``ice spikes'' that sometimes appear on the free surface of water when it solidifies. By freezing water under different conditions, we measured the probability of ice spike formation as a function of: 1) the air temperature in the freezing chamber, 2) air motion in the freezing chamber (which promotes evaporative cooling), 3) the quantity of dissolved salts in the water, and 4) the size, shape, and composing material of the freezing vessel. We found that the probability of ice spike formation is greatest when the air temperature is near -7 C, the water is pure, and the air in the freezing chamber is moving. Even small quantities of dissolved solids greatly reduce the probability of ice spike formation. Under optimal conditions, approximately half the ice cubes in an ordinary ice cube tray will form ice spikes. Guided by these observations, we have examined the Bally-Dorsey model for the formation of ice spikes. In this model, the density change during solidification forces supercooled water up through a hollow ice tube, where it freezes around the rim to lengthen the tube. We propose that any dissolved solids in the water will tend to concentrate at the tip of a growing ice spike and inhibit its growth. This can qualitatively explain the observation that ice spikes do not readily form using water containing even small quantities of dissolved solids.

K. G. Libbrecht; K. Lui

2003-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

443

The quantum nature of the OH stretching mode in ice and water probed by neutron scattering experiments  

SciTech Connect

The OH stretching vibrational spectrum of water was measured in a wide range of temperatures across the triple point, 269 K < T < 296 K, using Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). The hydrogen projected density of states and the proton mean kinetic energy, _OH, were determined for the first time within the framework of a harmonic description of the proton dynamics. We found that in the liquid the value of _OH is nearly constant as a function of T, indicating that quantum effects on the OH stretching frequency are weakly dependent on temperature. In the case of ice, ab initio electronic structure calculations, using non-local van der Waals functionals, provided _OH values in agreement with INS experiments. We also found that the ratio of the stretching (_OH) to the total (_exp) kinetic energy, obtained from the present measurements, increases in going from ice, where hydrogen bonding is the strongest, to the liquid at ambient conditions and then to the vapour phase, where hydrogen bonding is the weakest. The same ratio was also derived from the combination of previous deep inelastic neutron scattering data, which does not rely upon the harmonic approximation, and the present measurements. We found that the ratio of stretching to the total kinetic energy shows a minimum in the metastable liquid phase. This finding suggests that the strength of intermolecular interactions increases in the supercooled phase, with respect to that in ice, contrary to the accepted view that supercooled water exhibits weaker hydrogen bonding than ice.

Senesi, Roberto [ORNL; Flammini, Davide [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Murray, Eamonn D. [University of California, Davis; Galli, Giulia [University of California, Davis; Andreani, Carla [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

445

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

NITROGEN K-SHELL PHOTOABSORPTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable atomic data have been computed for the spectral modeling of the nitrogen K lines, which may lead to useful astrophysical diagnostics. Data sets comprise valence and K-vacancy level energies, wavelengths, Einstein A-coefficients, radiative and Auger widths, and K-edge photoionization cross sections. An important issue is the lack of measurements that are usually employed to fine-tune calculations so as to attain spectroscopic accuracy. In order to estimate data quality, several atomic structure codes are used and extensive comparisons with previous theoretical data have been carried out. In the calculation of K photoabsorption with the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method, both radiation and Auger dampings, which cause the smearing of the K edge, are taken into account. This work is part of a wider project to compute atomic data in the X-ray regime to be included in the database of the popular XSTAR modeling code.

GarcIa, J. [Catholic University of America, IACS, Physics Department, Washington DC 20064 (United States); Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Behar, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mendoza, C. [Centro de Fisica, IVIC, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P. [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Bautista, M.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Klapisch, M. [ARTEP, Inc., Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States)], E-mail: javier@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov, E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov, E-mail: behar@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: claudio@ivic.ve, E-mail: palmeri@umons.ac.be, E-mail: quinet@umons.ac.be, E-mail: bautista@vt.edu, E-mail: marcel.klapisch.ctr@nrl.navy.mil

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

448

Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

2000-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Visualizing Individual Nitrogen Dopants in Monolayer Graphene  

SciTech Connect

In monolayer graphene, substitutional doping during growth can be used to alter its electronic properties. We used scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and first principles calculations to characterize individual nitrogen dopants in monolayer graphene grown on a copper substrate. Individual nitrogen atoms were incorporated as graphitic dopants, and a fraction of the extra electron on each nitrogen atom was delocalized into the graphene lattice. The electronic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene was strongly modified only within a few lattice spacings of the site of the nitrogen dopant. These findings show that chemical doping is a promising route to achieving high-quality graphene films with a large carrier concentration.

L Zhao; R He; K Rim; T Schiros; K Kim; H Zhou; C Gutierrez; S Chockalingam; C Arguello; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

453

under a Creative Commons License. Climate of the Past Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The origin of the major ice-sheet variations during the last 2.7 million years is a long-standing mystery. Neither the dominant 41 000-year cycles in ?18O/ice-volume during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene nor the late-Pleistocene oscillations near 100 000 years is a linear (“Milankovitch”) response to summer insolation forcing. Both responses must result from non-linear behavior within the climate system. Greenhouse gases (primarily CO2) are a plausible source of the required non-linearity, but confusion has persisted over whether the gases force ice volume or are a positive feedback. During the last several hundred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine ?18O) have varied in phase at the 41 000-year obliquity cycle and nearly in phase within the ?100 000-year band. This timing rules out greenhouse-gas forcing of a very slow ice response and instead favors ice control of a fast CO2 response. In the schematic model proposed here, ice sheets responded linearly to insolation forcing at the precession and obliquity cycles prior to 0.9 million years ago, but CO2 feedback amplified the ice response at the 41 000-year period by a factor of approximately two. After 0.9 million years ago, with slow polar cooling, ablation weakened. CO2 feedback continued to amplify ice-sheet growth every 41 000 years, but weaker ablation permitted some ice to survive insolation maxima of low intensity. Step-wise growth of these longerlived ice sheets continued until peaks in northern summer insolation produced abrupt deglaciations every ?85 000 to ?115 000 years. Most of the deglacial ice melting resulted from the same CO2/temperature feedback that had built the ice sheets. Several processes have the northern geographic origin, as well as the requisite orbital tempo and phasing, to be candidate mechanisms for ice-sheet control of CO2 and their own feedback. 1

W. F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

Reynolds, J.G.

1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

455

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

456

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Searching for sterile neutrinos in ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillation interpretation of the results from the LSND, MiniBooNE and some other experiments requires existence of sterile neutrino with mass $\\sim 1$ eV and mixing with the active neutrinos $|U_{\\mu 0}|^2 \\sim (0.02 - 0.04)$. It has been realized some time ago that existence of such a neutrino affects significantly the fluxes of atmospheric neutrinos in the TeV range which can be tested by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. In view of the first IceCube data release we have revisited the oscillations of high energy atmospheric neutrinos in the presence of one sterile neutrino. Properties of the oscillation probabilities are studied in details for various mixing schemes both analytically and numerically. The energy spectra and angular distributions of the $\

Soebur Razzaque; A. Yu. Smirnov

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

458

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

ICE Cleaning Test Report.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

16 16 FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE ICE 250 TM CLEANING SYSTEM AT THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER CASPER, WYOMING August 18-19, 1999 Date Published: October 5, 1999 J.L. Johnston L.M. Jackson PREPARED FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY/ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER Work Performed Under Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) CRADA No. 99-009 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract.............................................................................................................................................1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................1 Product Description ...........................................................................................................................1

460

Why could ice ages be unpredictable?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly accepted that the variations of Earth's orbit and obliquity control the timing of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence comes from power spectrum analysis of palaeoclimate records and from inspection of the timing of glacial and deglacial transitions. However, we do not know how tight this control is. Is it, for example, conceivable that random climatic fluctuations could cause a delay in deglaciation, bad enough to skip a full precession or obliquity cycle and subsequently modify the sequence of ice ages? To address this question, seven previously published conceptual models of ice ages are analysed by reference to the notion of generalised synchronisation. Insight is being gained by comparing the effects of the astronomical forcing with idealised forcings composed of only one or two periodic components. In general, the richness of the astronomical forcing allows for synchronisation over a wider range of parameters, compared to periodic forcing. Hence, glacial cycles may conceivably have remained paced by the astronomical forcing throughout the Pleistocene. However, all the models examined here also show a range of parameters for which the structural stability of the ice age dynamics is weak. This means that small variations in parameters or random fluctuations may cause significant shifts in the succession of ice ages if the system were effectively in that parameter range. Whether or not the system has strong structural stability depends on the amplitude of the effects associated with the astronomical forcing, which significantly differ across the different models studied here. The possibility of synchronisation on eccentricity is also discussed and it is shown that a high Rayleigh number on eccentricity, as recently found in observations, is no guarantee of reliable synchronisation.

Michel Crucifix

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

On water ice formation in interstellar clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model is proposed for the formation of water ice mantles on grains in interstellar clouds. This occurs by direct accretion of monomers from the gas, be they formed by gas or surface reactions. The model predicts the existence of a threshold in interstellar light extinction, A(v), which is mainly determined by the adsorption energy of water molecules on the grain material; for hydrocarbon material, chemical simulation places this energy between 0.5 and 2 kcal/mole, which sets the visible exctinction threshold at a few magnitudes, as observed. Once the threshold is crossed, all available water molecules in the gas are quickly adsorbed, forming an ice mantle, because the grain cools down and the adsorption energy on ice is higher than on bare grain. The model also predicts that the thickness of the mantle, and, hence, the optical thickness at 3 mu, grow linearly with A(v), as observed, with a slope which depends upon the total amount of water in the gas. Chemical simulation was also used to determine the adsorption sites and energies of O and OH on hydrocarbons, and study the dynamics of formation of water molecules by surface reactions with gaseous H atoms, as well as their chances of sticking in situ.

Renaud Papoular

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

462

Wind-electric ice making investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The village power group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been researching the most practical and cost-effective means for producing ice from off-grid wind-electric power systems since 1993. The first phase of the project demonstrated that commercial vapor-compression ice makers could operate effectively when powered by a variable speed permanent magnet wind generator. In the second phase of the project, steady-state and dynamic numerical models of these systems were developed and experimentally validated. The third phase of the project was thorough steady-state and dynamic testing of a commercial 1.1 ton ice maker unit powered by a commercial 12 kW wind turbine alternator on an NREL dynamometer test stand. With the data from phases 1--3 an economic feasibility analysis was performed. It is hoped that continued development, and eventually commercialization, of this concept will take place in the private sector in the form of small business partnerships.

Holz, R.; Drouilhet, S.; Gevorgian, V.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

ICE LINES IN CIRCUMBINARY PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I examine the position of the ice line in circumbinary disks heated by steady mass accretion and stellar irradiation and compare with the critical semimajor axis, interior to which planetary orbits are unstable. There is a critical binary separation, dependent on the binary parameters and disk properties, for which binaries with separations larger than this critical value have ice lines that lie interior to the boundary of stability. For an equal-mass binary comprised of 1 M{sub Sun} components, this critical separation is Almost-Equal-To 1.04 AU, and scales weakly with mass accretion rate and Rosseland mean opacity ({proportional_to}[ M-dot {kappa}{sub R}]{sup 2/9}). Assuming a steady mass accretion rate of M-dot {approx}10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a Rosseland mean opacity of {kappa}{sub R} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}, I show that {approx}> 80% of all binary systems with component masses M{sub *} {approx}ice lines that lie interior to the critical semimajor axis. This suggests that rocky planets should not form in these systems, a prediction which can be tested by looking for planets around binaries with separations larger than the critical separation with Kepler (difficult) and with microlensing.

Clanton, Christian, E-mail: clanton@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

465

Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present valence photoelectron emission spectra of liquid water in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the melting point, low temperature amorphous and crystalline ice. All aggregation states have major electronic structure changes relative to the free molecule, with rehybridization and development of bonding and anti-bonding states accompanying the hydrogen bond formation. Sensitivity to the local structural order, most prominent in the shape and splitting of the occupied 3a{sub 1} orbital, is understood from the electronic structure averaging over various geometrical structures, and reflects the local nature of the orbital interaction.

Nordlund, Dennis; Odelius, Michael; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Nilsson, Anders

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

467

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-20 SUMMARY OF GREAT LAKES WEATHER AND ICE CONDITIONS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling Phase 3.2.2 Ice Formation and Breakup Phases 3.2.3 The Ice Cycle on Lake Superior 3.2.4 The IceNOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-20 SUMMARY OF GREAT LAKES WEATHER AND ICE CONDITIONS, WINTER of this NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories publication. ii #12;LANDSAT fake color image of ice cover

468

Measurement of density, temperature, and electrical conductivity of a shock-compressed nonideal nitrogen plasma in the megabar pressure range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinematic and thermodynamic parameters of shock-compressed liquid nitrogen are measured behind the front of a plane shock wave using plane wave and hemispherical shock wave generators. In these experiments, high values of compression parameters (shock-compressed hydrogen density {approx} 3.25 g/cm{sup 3} and temperature T{approx} 56000 K at a pressure of P {approx} 265 GPa) are attained. The density, pressure, temperature, and electrical conductivity of the nonideal plasma of shock-compressed liquid nitrogen are measured. A nearly isochoric behavior of the nitrogen shock adiabat is observed in the pressure range P = 100-300 GPa. The thermodynamics of shock-compressed nitrogen is an alyzed using the model of the equation of state in the quasi-chemical representation (SAHA code) as well as the semiempirical wide-range equation of state developed at the Institute of Experimental Physics. Experimental results are interpreted on the basis of calculations as the fixation of the boundary of transition of shock-compressed nitrogen from the polymer phase to the state of a strongly nonideal plasma at P {approx} 100 GPa, {approx} 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}.

Mochalov, M. A.; Zhernokletov, M. V.; Il'kaev, R. I.; Mikhailov, A. L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskiy, I. L., E-mail: ilios@orc.r [Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mezhevov, A. B.; Kovalev, A. E.; Kirshanov, S. I.; Grigor'eva, Yu. A.; Novikov, M. G.; Shuikin, A. N. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW) TEMPLATE FOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR The template presented below is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting an ICE. Project and review specific information should be incorporated. Explanatory text appears in italics, while information that should be selected appears in >. The format and contents of this SOW is not compulsory, and the use is at the discretion of the OECM Analysts, tailored as appropriate for the desired contractor support activities. If no contractor support is required, this appendix is not used. Statement of Work for Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) > <ICE (i.e., Alternative Selection and Cost Range (CD-1), Establish

470

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Investigation of Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Ice Crystal Shapes Using Multi-resolution Techniques Investigation of Ice Crystal Shapes Using Multi-resolution Techniques McFarquhar, Greg University of Illinois Better knowledge of small-scale features from ice crystals are needed to determine their effects on radiation and hence to improve the treatment of clouds in climate models. With the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) it is now possible to capture ice crystal images with 2.3 μm resolution and 256 gray scales of illumination, providing an unprecedented wealth of information to utilize in the ongoing quest to understand the small scale structure of ice crystals. In this study, we applied wavelet and fractal analysis to CPI images of ice crystals collected in cirrus by the University of North Dakota Citation during the Intensive Observation Period at the Southern

471

Orbital ice: An exact Coulomb phase on the diamond lattice  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the existence of an orbital Coulomb phase as the exact ground state of a p-orbital exchange Hamiltonian on the diamond lattice. The Coulomb phase is an emergent state characterized by algebraic dipolar correlations and a gauge structure resulting from local constraints (ice rules) of the underlying lattice models. For most ice models on the pyrochlore lattice, these local constraints are a direct consequence of minimizing the energy of each individual tetrahedron. On the contrary, the orbital ice rules are emergent phenomena resulting from the quantum orbital dynamics. We show that the orbital ice model exhibits an emergent geometrical frustration by mapping the degenerate quantum orbital ground states to the spin-ice states obeying the 2-in-2-out constraints on the pyrochlore lattice. We also discuss possible realization of the orbital ice model in optical lattices with p-band fermionic cold atoms.

Chern Giawei [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wu Congjun [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal  

SciTech Connect

A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Molecular Hydrogen Formation on Ice Under Interstellar Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of experiments on the formation of molecular hydrogen on low density and high density amorphous ice surfaces are analyzed using a rate equation model. The activation energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. The more porous morphology of the low density ice gives rise to a broader spectrum of energy barriers compared to the high density ice. Inserting these parameters into the rate equation model under steady state conditions we evaluate the production rate of molecular hydrogen on ice-coated interstellar dust grains.

Hagai B. Perets; Ofer Biham; Giulio Manico; Valerio Pirronello; Joe Roser; Sol Swords; Gianfranco Vidali

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

474

Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical ...  

Because of the high energy content of ice slurry, its cooling capacity is many times greater than that of single-phase fluids. ... Wind Energy; Partners (27)

475

Evaluation of icing design criteria for lattice towers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Atmospheric icing is a major design factor for guyed lattice masts and transmission lines in Canada and many others countries with cold climate. Tall and… (more)

Korotkov, Oleksiy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu Department of Meteorology Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction A better...

477

THE FORMATION AND REACTIONS OF OXIDANTS IN WATER ICE .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation investigates the chemistry in water ice of radical species, such as OH and O, produced in radio-frequency discharge. This novel method of studying… (more)

Do, Nhut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

LIMITS TO ICE ON ASTEROIDS (24) THEMIS AND (65) CYBELE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present optical spectra of (24) Themis and (65) Cybele, two large main-belt asteroids on which exposed water ice has recently been reported. No emission lines, expected from resonance fluorescence in gas sublimated from the ice, were detected. Derived limits to the production rates of water are {approx}ice because the measured albedos of Themis and Cybele are low ({approx}0.05-0.07). We also rule out models in which a large fraction of the surface is occupied by low-albedo ('dirty') water ice because dirty ice would be warm and would sublimate strongly enough for gaseous products to have been detected. If ice exists on these bodies it must be relatively clean (albedo {approx}>0.3) and confined to a fraction of the Earth-facing surface {approx}ice. If the ice is even more reflective (albedo {approx}>0.6), then the timescale for sublimation of an optically thick layer can rival the {approx}10{sup 3} yr interval between impacts with bodies this size. In this sense, exposure by impact may be a quasi steady-state feature of ice-containing asteroids at 3 AU.

Jewitt, David; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Ice-templated Porous Ceramic Structures for Energy Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the ice-templating method for filters and battery electrode applications with the hierarchical pore structure. The porous Si structure was ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid nitrogen ice" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Testing an Ice Storage System for Peak Load Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice storage systems allow for the offset of peak building cooling power by allowing the building operator to choose a convenient window for making ice and then using that ice, rather than a traditional cooling system, to provide space cooling. For the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested the Ice Bear 30, a 30 ton-hour system designed to operate independently of the unitary system. This report describes the testing and its results, based on work performed at a field ...

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

482

Microstructural Characterization of Snow and Ice - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Recent Advances in Structural Characterization of Materials. Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Snow and Ice. Author(s), I. Baker ...

483

Development of ice hockey in Bosnia and Hertzegovina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thesis explains general situation of ice hockey in Bosnia and Herzegovina, what is the current state of hockey and how did it came to the… (more)

Hasovic, Ermin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Implication of puck possession on scoring changes in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Much of the conventional wisdom in ice hockey suggests that moving the puck forward,towards the opponent's goal, is the best strategy for producing scoring chances.… (more)

Rollins, Laura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Dynamic implementation in organizing an ice hockey tournament.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis is to follow, describe and evaluate the phases of organizing internationally recognized ice hockey tournament. The authors were following the… (more)

Ijäs, Juhani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Teaching game sense in ice-hockey junior organization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of making a manual for Heinolan Kiekko junior ice-hockey club was to provide a tool for coaches everyday work in the field. The… (more)

Juurikkala, Markus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Jim Francfort (INEEL) Don Karner (ETA) 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar - San Antonio Session 5B - Hydrogen DOE - Advanced Vehicle Testing...

488

Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Response of Hot-Wire Liquid Water Content Instruments to Large Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet wind tunnel tests were performed on more than 23 cloud liquid water content (LWC) probes and drop spectrometers at the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, with a main objective to characterize their response to large-droplet conditions. As a part of ...

J. W. Strapp; J. Oldenburg; R. Ide; L. Lilie; S. Bacic; Z. Vukovic; M. Oleskiw; D. Miller; E. Emery; G. Leone

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE  

SciTech Connect

In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

Greg M. McFarquhar

2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

491

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

A Novel and Low-Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance (IMB) buoys deployed over the past two decades have contributed to scientists' ...

Keith Jackson; Jeremy Wilkinson; Ted Maksym; David Meldrum; Justin Beckers; Christian Haas; David Mackenzie

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Comparison of PARASOL Observations with Polarized Reflectances Simulated Using Different Ice Habit Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insufficient knowledge of the habit distribution and the degree of surface roughness of ice crystals within ice clouds is a source of uncertainty in the forward light scattering and radiative transfer simulations of ice clouds used in downstream ...

Benjamin H. Cole; Ping Yang; Bryan A. Baum; Jerome Riedi; Laurent C.-Labonnote; Francois Thieuleux; Steven Platnick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494
<