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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

2

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

6

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics electrodes are critical to the operation of optoelectronic devices. Effective elec- trodes need to combine

Fan, Shanhui

10

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A. (Oakland, CA); Wen, Shi-Jie (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Surface attack on metals in the presence of liquid metals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to evaluate liquid metals as electrical collectors in contact with solid metal alloys. Surface attack of the liquid metal on the solid metal is expected to be a major challenge to the development of a credible system. Low-melting-temperature metals and alloys of the fusible type are to be utilized for a collector that will operate in the 200-500 F range, with emphasis towards the lower end. Solid metals have been selected for experimental work based on their electrical properties and minimal potential reaction with the candidate liquid-metal alloys. Material properties of both liquid and solid metals were reviewed to identify initial material combinations for evaluation. Thorough literature searches were conducted to obtain as much pertinent physical-property and metallurgical data as possible, prior to actual experimental work. Process and material modelling was adopted to select candidate materials for both solids and liquids. Consideration of practical requirements for the eventual collectors is an integral part of the study. Work effort has concentrated on apparatus construction, evaluation and a program of testing to obtain screening data on materials selected and the chosen test method. Results have identified limitations of the test unit design and maximum current loads under test conditions with experimental current collectors. Candidate electrode materials have been exposed in low-melting fusible alloys for direct-dissolution data.

Beal, R.E.

1986-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU)

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

Greg M. Swain, PI

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Friction welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor and a ceramic electrode body connected by a friction weld between a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect such a friction weld and a portion of the metal conductor.

Byrne, Stephen C. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Maximal light-energy transfer through a dielectric/metal-layered electrode on a photoactive device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the fabrication of an optimized low reflective dielectric/metal-layered electrode that provides significant electrical conductivity and light transparency in the...

Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Q-Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Ionization EM calorimetry with accordion electrodes and liquid krypton or argon  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study and tests of a liquid krypton/argon electromagnetic calorimeter with accordion electrode structure are briefly summarized. This includes the calorimeter response to electrons and muons, energy, pointing and timing resolution, and a measurement by multiple sampling. The electrode layout with fine segmentation is illustrated.

Radeka, V.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells. 1 fig.

Keller, D.G.; Giovannoni, R.T.; MacFadden, K.O.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

29

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

30

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

31

Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD); Johnson, Steven Lloyd (Arbutus, MD)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

36

Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal=ðkT�, where q is total heat flux and k is the fluid's thermal conductivity. Heat flux q is total heat power P by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more

37

Emerging Applications of Liquid Metals Featuring Surface Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 4. 3D printing of free-standing liquid metal structures. ... Ladd, C.; So, J.-H.; Muth, J.; Dickey, M. D.3D Printing of Free Standing Liquid Metal Microstructures Adv. ... 3D Printing of Free Standing Liquid Metal Microstructures ...

Michael D. Dickey

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode D. Luo, H.T. Dai, X.W. Sun , H.V. Demir School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Keywords: Diffraction Liquid crystal devices Propagation A pair of electrically switchable finite energy

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

39

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

Electrical Features of Radio-frequency, Atmospheric-pressure, Bare-metallic-electrode Glow Discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metallic electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, disinfection and sterilization, ....

He-Ping Li; Wen-Ting Sun; Hua-Bo Wang; Guo Li…

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite electrical discharge machining electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite (cermet) electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrodes have been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating TiB2/Cu, TaC/Cu,… (more)

Kim, Eugene Ty

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrode materials. In order to fully understand the processes involved in the corrosion study, tests were carried at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. These tests showed that Zn prevented the corrosion of Ni-a...

Alexander, Michael Scott

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Interfacial Properties of Ultrathin- Film Metal Electrodes: Studies by Combined Electron Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The fuel cell catalyst is the main contributor to these problems. In current PEMFC construction, Pt metal dispersed on a support (for 4 both the anode and the cathode) is the most widely used electrocatalyst. Major drawbacks in employing Pt..., ?, is defined as the deviation of the electrode potential from its equilibrium value required to drive a given current density to flow through the electrode. Minimizing this excess potential is the ultimate goal of efforts to develop better electrocatalysts...

Cummins, Kyle

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

46

Characteristics of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with air using bare metal electrodes  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, an induced gas discharge approach is proposed and described in detail for obtaining a uniform atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with air in a {gamma} mode using water-cooled, bare metal electrodes driven by radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) power supply. A preliminary study on the discharge characteristics of the air glow discharge is also presented in this study. With this induced gas discharge approach, radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges using bare metal electrodes with other gases which cannot be ignited directly as the plasma working gas, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc., can also be obtained.

Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Zhang Xiaozhang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Numerical simulation of the Tayler instability in liquid metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical current through an incompressible, viscous and resistive liquid conductor produces an azimuthal magnetic field that becomes unstable when the corresponding Hartmann number exceeds a critical value in the order of 20. This Tayler instability, which is not only discussed as a key ingredient of a non-linear stellar dynamo model (Tayler-Spruit dynamo), but also as a limiting factor for the maximum size of large liquid metal batteries, was recently observed experimentally in a column of a liquid metal (Seilmayer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 244501, 2012}. On the basis of an integro-differential equation approach, we have developed a fully three-dimensional numerical code, and have utilized it for the simulation of the Tayler instability at typical viscosities and resistivities of liquid metals. The resulting growth rates are in good agreement with the experimental data. We illustrate the capabilities of the code for the detailed simulation of liquid metal battery problems in realistic geometries.

Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom; Wondrak, Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An unusual non-Tafel dependence for electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids at large electrode polarisations: Fiction or reality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We speculate about the existence of a “square-root Tafel dependence” for simple one stage anodic/cathodic electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids. In this dependence, the logarithm of the current depends linearly on the square-root of electrode potential. The modified law is a consequence of ion crowding in the electrical double layer at high charges of the electrode. It may be expected that this effect may be observed for slow reactions at large electrode polarisations, yet not triggering electrochemical decomposition of ionic liquids, and only if diffusion limitations on the transport of reactants are absent.

Alexei A. Kornyshev; Lu-Peng Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Available online 3 June 2013 Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes

Gilson, Erik

50

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes of electrical breakdown

Gilson, Erik

51

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_NETL_ liquid metal anode.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Harry Abernathy, Kirk Gerdes, Randy Gemmen Phone: (304)285-4342, Kirk.Gerdes@NETL.DOE.GOV Fuel cells are one of the most efficient methods for converting the chemical energy in coal directly to electrical energy, minimizing the amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants produced per kilowatt of electricity even before scrubbing and carbon sequestration. To use coal as a fuel source, even the most tolerant solid ceramic fuel cell systems require prior gasification of the coal into syngas, which significantly adds to total system cost. By replacing the ceramic fuel electrode of a traditional high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a liquid metal

52

Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development - Nuclear Engineering Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

> Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development > Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Overview Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Generation IV Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Advanced Reactor Development and Technology Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Bookmark and Share STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge. Click on image to view larger image. Argonne has traditionally been the foremost institute in the US for

53

Magnetorotational instability in a rotating liquid metal annulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Magnetorotational instability in a rotating liquid metal annulus Hantao Ji 1 Jeremy Goodman 2 Akira Kageyama 1 3 E-mail: hji@pppl.gov 1 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA 2 Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ......

Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat Transfer by Free Convection in a Liquid Metal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

19 December 1961 research-article Heat Transfer by Free Convection in a Liquid Metal F. J. Bayley...an experimental investigation of the free convection heat transfer process under the special conditions associated with...

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electrodeposition of Crystalline GaAs on Liquid Gallium Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystalline gallium arsenide (c-GaAs) possesses many desirable optoelectronic properties suited for solar energy conversion,(1) light and radiation detection,(2) chemical sensing,(3) lighting,(4) and high speed electronics. ... In contrast to conflicting previous reports on the electrodeposition of GaAs,(17, 18) we posit that c-GaAs(s) can be synthesized predictably through the electrodeposition of As from dissolved As2O3 specifically on a Ga(l) electrode at modest temperatures in water. ... Specifically, for any binary system composed of a solid dissolving into a liquid, the rate of dissolution of the solid into the liquid phase is given by eq 5:(60)(5)where kdiss is the dissolution rate constant, s is the surface area of the solid in contact with the liquid, V is the volume of the liquid, Csat is the solubility of the solid in the liquid, and Cdiss is the concentration of the dissolved solid in the bulk of the liquid phase. ...

Eli Fahrenkrug; Junsi Gu; Stephen Maldonado

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

56

Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery  

SciTech Connect

A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Recently published research from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reports that biohybrid hydrogen electrodes comprising metallic single-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, for application in photoelectrochemical or fuel cells. The high-performance hydrogen electrodes are based cells. Such an application could contribute to the large-scale deployment of fuel cells and other high that biohybrid hydrogen electrodes comprising metallic single- walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Metal Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids UCLA, UCB, Yale DE-EE0005941 | April 15, 2013 | Ju 1.1 Thermochemistry modeling * Continue CALPHAD based calculations to search for optimal ternary alloy compositions. * Initiate development of liquid density models. 1.2 Combinatorial synthesis and characterization * Pipe-Liquid interaction of compositional library * More alloys, alloy additions and effect on liquidus temperatures * Iteratively optimize the compositions. 1.3 Corrosion characterization and mitigation * Tune static corrosion testing systems for testing over an extended period of time. * Perform analysis of the micro mechanical testing on the oxide layers. 1.4 Heat transfer characterization and modeling * Complete the construction of the flow loop and perform experiments to measure

62

Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

Trost, G.G.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

High performance cermet electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

ESS liquid-metal target design using computational fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The thermal-hydraulic performance of a spallation neutron source target limits the highest neutron fluxes that can be generated. The current design for the European spallation source consists of a liquid metal encased within a containing shell, wedge-shaped in the direction of the incoming proton beam, with rounded sides in a cross section through a plane normal to the beam.

Dury, T.V. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Weight and volume changing device with liquid metal transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a weight-changing device based on the transfer of mass. We chose liquid metal (Ga-In-Tin eutectic) and a bi-directional pump to control the mass that is injected into or removed from a target object. ...

Niiyama, Ryuma

66

Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions comprise (a) microspheres with an average diameter between 200 nanometers (nm) and 10 micrometers (.mu.m); (b) mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres, wherein the mesopores have an average diameter between 1 nm and 50 nm and the microspheres have a surface area between 50 m.sup.2/g and 500 m.sup.2/g, and wherein the composition has an electrical conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-7 S/cm at 25.degree. C. and 60 MPa. The methods of making comprise forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least one method selected from the group consisting of: (i) annealing in a reducing atmosphere, (ii) doping with an aliovalent element, and (iii) coating with a coating composition.

Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Brown, Gilbert M

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

67

Spin-Polarized Tunneling Spectroscopy in Tunnel Junctions with Half-Metallic Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have studied the magnetoresistance (TMR) of tunnel junctions with electrodes of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and we show how the variation of the conductance and TMR with the bias voltage can be exploited to obtain precise information on the spin and energy dependence of the density of states. Our analysis leads to a quantitative description of the band structure of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 including the energy gap ? between the Fermi level and the bottom of the t2g minority-spin band, in good agreement with data from spin-polarized inverse photoemission experiments. This shows the potential of magnetic tunnel junctions with half-metallic electrodes for spin-resolved spectroscopic studies.

M. Bowen, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, E. Jacquet, J.-P. Contour, A. Fert, F. Ciccacci, L. Duò, and R. Bertacco

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

68

An electrochemical investigation of the chemical diffusivity in liquid metal alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid metal battery has been shown to be a viable candidate for grid-scale energy storage, due to its fast kinetics and ability to be constructed from economically feasible materials. Various of the liquid metal couples ...

Barriga, Salvador A. (Salvador Aguilar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electrode Plate For An Eletrlchemical Cell And Having A Metal Foam Type Support, And A Method Of Obtaining Such An Electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrode plate includes an active portion that is pasted with active material, and a plate head that is made up of three layers of compressed metal foam comprising: a non-pasted portion of height G of the support of the electrode plate; and two strips of non-pasted metal foam of height R on either side of the non-pasted portion of height G of the support and also extending for an overlap height h.sub.2 over the pasted portion of the support. The plate head includes a zone of reduced thickness including a portion that is maximally compressed, and a transitional portion between said maximally compressed portion and the remainder of the electrode which is of thickness e.sub.2. A portion of said plate head forms a connection tab. The method of obtaining the electrode consists in simultaneously rolling all three layers of metal foam in the plate head, and then in cutting matter away from the plates so as to obtain respective connection tabs.

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Bordeaux, FR); Stewart, Donald (Bordeaux, FR)

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Supercritical CO2Brayton Cycle Control Strategy for Autonomous Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle control strategy for autonomous liquid metal-cooled reactors.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J.J.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

71

High-Energy Redox-Flow Batteries with Hybrid Metal Foam Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3]+/2+ and [Fe(bpy)3]2+/3+ redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. ... We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. ... By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. ...

Min-Sik Park; Nam-Jin Lee; Seung-Wook Lee; Ki Jae Kim; Duk-Jin Oh; Young-Jun Kim

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

72

SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Operating Temperature Liquid High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards

73

Icosahedral order and defects in metallic liquids and glasses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular-dynamics simulations of 500 particles have been performed to study the icosahedral order and the defects in the supercooled liquid and glass states of metallic Mg3Ca7. Not only are Frank-Kasper polyhedra and Bernal ‘‘hole’’ polyhedra detected, but also a variety of defective icosahedra. Especially, the number of the type of defective icosahedron defined by eight 1551 bonds, two 1661 bonds, and two 1441 bonds is much greater than the number of any kind of Frank-Kasper and Bernal polyhedra. This strongly supports the physical picture of liquids and glasses being a disordered, entangled array of +72° and -72° disclination lines in an icosahedral medium.

D. W. Qi and S. Wang

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a concentrating solar power plant. A successful candidate fluid would allow for the reduction of the levelized cost of energy by increasing the operating temperature for the CSP plant power cycle, which would increase thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency.

75

Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed.

Ji, H; Kageyama, A; Ji, Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Kageyama, Akira

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed.

Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus  

SciTech Connect

Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed.

Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

2001-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Liquid metal MHD experimental activities for LLCB TBM development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket concept, Lead–Lithium (Pb–Li) liquid metal is used to extract heat from its own bulk volume and also from the neighboring solid breeder zones. The moderate flow velocity of Pb–Li inside the module can be significantly modified due to MHD effects, which arise because of the presence of strong toroidal magnetic field. Recently, two MHD experiments have been jointly carried out at Institute of Physics, University of Latvia (IPUL) with hot Pb–Li (?350 ?C) as the working fluid under a strong transverse magnetic field of up to ?4.0 T. The uncoated test sections are made of SS316L material and consist of LLCB TBM relevant flow geometries, such as rectangular and circular flow cross-sections, 90? bends, rectangular to circular flow transition region. The details of the liquid metal MHD experimental set up and experimental results are discussed in this paper.

Rajendraprasad Bhattacharyay; Anita Patel; Rajendrakumar Ellappan; Pravat K. Swain; Polepalle Satyamurthy; Sushil Kumar; Sergei Ivanov; Andrew Shishko; Erik Platacis; Anatoli Ziks

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Farnum, E.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vitkovski, I.V. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). MHD-Machines Lab.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mixing effect of metal oxides on negative electrode reactions in the nickel-hydride battery  

SciTech Connect

Negative electrodes for use in nickel-hydride batteries were prepared from MmNi[sub 3.6]Mn[sub 0.4]Al[sub 0.3]Co[sub 0.7] (Mm = misch metal with the composition of 24.87% La, 52.56% Ce, 5.57% Pr, 16.86% Nd, and 0.14% Sm) alloy being mixed with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder. Then the hydrogen evolution reactions at the electrodes were investigated by measuring the potential decay immediately after the interruption of an applied cathodic current. The reactions were found to proceed by the Volmer-Tafel mechanism. The total overvoltage ([eta]) was divided into two components ([eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]) corresponding to the Tafel and Volmer reactions. The exchange current densities of the elementary reactions, i[sub 0V] and i[sub 0T], were then evaluated by extrapolating the Tafel lines for [eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]. The Volmer reaction is much more accelerated by surface modification with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder than the Tafel reaction, which results in the enrichment of adsorbed hydrogen, leading to higher charging efficiency.

Iwakura, Chiaki; Matsuoka, Masao; Kohno, Tatsuoki (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid  

SciTech Connect

It is known that ultrathin (<10 nm) metal films (UTMFs) can achieve high level of optical transparency at the expense of the electrical sheet resistance. In this letter, we propose a design, the incorporation of an ad hoc conductive grid, which can significantly reduce the sheet resistance of UTMF based transparent electrodes, leaving practically unchanged their transparency. The calculated highest figure-of-merit corresponds to a filling factor and a grid spacing-to-linewidth ratio of 0.025 and 39, respectively. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed method the sheet resistance of a continuous 2 nm Ni film (>950 OMEGA/square) is reduced to approx6.5 OMEGA/square when a 100 nm thick Cu grid is deposited on it. The transparency is instead maintained at values exceeding 75%. These results, which can be further improved by making thicker grids, already demonstrate the potential in applications, such as photovoltaic cells, optical detectors and displays.

Ghosh, D. S.; Chen, T. L. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels, Barcelona, 08860 Catalunya (Spain); Pruneri, V. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels, Barcelona, 08860 Catalunya (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

85

Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes for Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes for Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) September 30, 2009 Team Members: Adam Weber, Rachel Segalman, Robert Kostecki, Jeff Reimer, John Arnold, Martin Head-Gordon (LBNL). Piotr Zelenay, James Boncella, Yu Seung Kim, Neil Henson, Jerzy Chlistunoff (LANL). Steve Hamrock, Radoslav Atanasoski (3M) Budget: DOE share - $9.58MM over four years; 3M share - in-kind over four years. 2 Objectives 1) Demonstrate that non-platinum group metal catalysts can be used for oxygen reduction in polymer-coated electrode structures based on polyelectrolyte membranes. 2) Incorporate catalysts into polymer binders of composite electrodes for the construction of MEAs to demonstrate that this

86

Utilizing Metalized Fabrics for Liquid and Rip Detection and Localization  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a novel technique for utilizing conductive textiles as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing liquids (e.g., blood), rips (e.g., bullet holes), and potentially biosignals. The proposed technique is verified through both simulation and experimental measurements. Circuit theory is utilized to depict conductive fabric as a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. Solutions to the well-known infinite resistance grid problem are used to confirm the accuracy and validity of this modeling approach. Simulations allow for discontinuities to be placed within the resistor matrix to illustrate the effects of bullet holes within the fabric. A real-time experimental system was developed that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge approach to reconstruct the resistor grid across the conductive fabric and detect liquids and rips. The resistor grid model is validated through a comparison of simulated and experimental results. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of discontinuities in conductive fabric samples. Future work is focused on refining the experimental system to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events as well as developing a complete prototype that can be deployed for field testing. Potential applications include intelligent clothing, flexible, lightweight sensing systems, and combat wound detection.

Holland, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mahan, Cody [Western Kentucky University; Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

90

Low resistance fuel electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

Maskalick, Nichols J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Turbulence and the Feasibility of Self-Cooled Liquid Metal Blankets for Fusion Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid-Metal Blankets and Magnetohydrodynamic Effects / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

H. Branover; S. Sukorianksy; G. Talmage; E. Greenspan

92

Performance of Liquid Metals in Natural Circulation Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The inherent safety capability of natural circulation makes reactor design more reliable. Additionally, the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant with natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit is an interesting alternative for nuclear plant designers, due to their lower operational and investment costs obtained by simplifying systems and controls. This paper deals with the feasibility of application of natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit of a liquid metal fast reactor. The methodology employed is a non-dimensional analysis, which describes the relationship between the physical properties and system variables. The performance criterion is bounded by a safety argument, referring to the maximum cladding temperature allowed during operation. The study considers several coolants, which can play a part in reactor cooling systems, such as lead, lead-bismuth and sodium. Bismuth and gallium are included in this analysis, in order to extend the range of properties for reference purposes. The results present a characterization of natural circulation flow in a reactor and compare the cooling capabilities from different liquid metals coolants. (authors)

Ceballos, Carlos; Lathouwers, Danny; Verkooijen, Adrian [Interfacultair Reactor Instituut, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 15, Delft (Netherlands)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths  

SciTech Connect

Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were ...

Poizeau, Sophie (Sophie Marie Claire)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effects on the positive electrode of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in nickel-metal-hydride batteries  

SciTech Connect

Effects of corrosion of MmNi{sub 4.3{minus}x}Mn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4}Co{sub x} alloys (where Mm = Ce 50%, La 30%, Nd 15%, Pr 5%) are evaluated in nickel-metal-hydride (Ni-MH) cells. Particularly, it is shown how Al released by the corroded alloys pollutes the positive electrode, which endures a loss of charging efficiency, due to the formation of a hydrotalcite-like phase stabilized with Al. Furthermore, since Al is eluted from the hydride electrode and is completely trapped in the positive active material, the titration of this element in the positive electrode is a powerful technique for quantification of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in Ni-MH cells.

Bernard, P. [SAFT, Marcoussis (France). Research Dept.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Tight-Binding Models of Amorphous Systems: Liquid Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tight-binding approach to the electronic structure of disordered systems is developed for a simple one-orbital model of a liquid metal. An equation is derived for a one-electron continuum Green's function from which the electronic density of states can be obtained. Utilizing an analogy between this Green's function and the T matrix of multiple-scattering theory, results are obtained corresponding to the quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) of Lax and the self-consistent approximation (SCA) of Schwartz and Ehrenreich. Moments of the spectral function are also analyzed. Calculations were made using random and hard-sphere pair distribution functions. The QCA in this model is quite inadequate, and the SCA, while a considerable improvement, proves to involve a questionable approximation to the three-body distribution function.

Laura M. Roth

1973-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces Ahmed Hassanein the PFC surface (helium and hydrogen isotopes) while accommodating high heat loads. To study this problem. Hydrogen isotope (DT) particles are likely be trapped in the liquid metal surface (e.g., lithium) due

Harilal, S. S.

98

Evolution of Light-Induced Vapor Generation at a Liquid-Immersed Metallic Nanoparticle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of Light-Induced Vapor Generation at a Liquid-Immersed Metallic Nanoparticle Zheyu Fang nanoparticle in a liquid medium is illuminated with resonant light of sufficient intensity, a nanometer scale- known process of liquid boiling, occurring at a single nanoparticle nucleation site, resulting from

Polman, Albert

99

(Liquid metal reactor/fast breeder reactor research and development)  

SciTech Connect

The second meeting of the UJCC was held in Japan on June 6--8, 1990. The first day was devoted to presentations of the status of the US and Japanese Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) programs and the status of specific areas of cooperative work. Briefly, the Japanese are following the FBR development program which has been in place since the 1970s. This program includes an FBR test reactor (JOYO), a pilot-scale reactor (MONJU), a demonstration-scale plant, and commercial-scale plants by about 2020. The US program has been redirected toward an actinide recycle mission using metal fuel and pyroprocessing of spent fuel to recovery both Pu and the higher actinides for return to the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR). The second day was spent traveling from Tokyo to Tsuruga for a tour of the MONJU reactor. The tour was especially interesting. The third day was spent writing the minutes of the meeting and the return trip to Tokyo.

Homan, F.J.

1990-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

SciTech Connect

Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Effect of Bubbles on Liquid Nitrogen Breakdown in Plane-Plane Electrode Geometry From 100-250 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) is used as the cryogen and dielectric for many high temperature superconducting, high voltage applications. When a quench in the superconductor occurs, bubbles are generated which can affect the dielectric breakdown properties of the LN(2). Experiments were performed using plane-plane electrode geometry where bubbles were introduced into the gap through a pinhole in the ground electrode. Bubbles were generated using one or more kapton heaters producing heater powers up to 30 W. Pressure was varied from 100-250 kPa. Breakdown strength was found to be relatively constant up to a given heater power and pressure at which the breakdown strength drops to a low value depending on the pressure. After the drop the breakdown strength continues to drop gradually at higher heater power. This is particularly illustrated at 100 kPa. After the drop in breakdown strength the breakdown is believed to be due to the formation of a vapor bridge. Also the heater power at which the breakdown strength changes from that of LN(2) to that of gaseous nitrogen increases with increasing pressure. The data can provide design constraints for high temperature superconducting fault current limiters (FCLs) so that the formation of a vapor bridge can be suppressed or avoided.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

"Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Inventor ..--.. Richard P. Majeski Disclosed is a design for a fully axisymmetric, fast flowing liquid lithium plasma facing "wall" or surface which, in its present form, is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The implementation of the disclosure design includes a system for recirculating the liquid metal within the volume of the toroidal field coils using inductive pumping, an approach wich allows independent energizing of the wall-forming and recirculating pumping systems, cooling of the recirculating liquid using fluid heat exchange with a molten salt,

103

A grid-level alkali liquid metal battery recycling process : design, implementation, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of liquid metal batteries for large scale grid-level energy storage is being enabled through the development of research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2006. A recycling ...

Thomas, Dale Arlington, III

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Silver nanowire transparent electrodes for liquid crystal-based smart windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

privacy glass or as energy saving windows through the modulation of solar heat gain [1,3,4]. The operating sheet resistance, and low-cost. While the benefits of increased transparency and low-cost are obvious Polymer dispersed liquid crystal Smart window a b s t r a c t A significant manufacturing cost of polymer

Goldthorpe, Irene

105

EIS-0085-S: Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, Supplemental  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this supplemental statement to examine the reduced scope of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and the environmental impacts associated therewith, including a re-examination of the purpose, need and timing of the program, the present program structure, including reasonable program alternatives, and alternative electricity production technologies anticipated to be available within the same timeframe as the LMFBR technology option. This statement supplements ERDA-1535, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program.

106

Manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite electrical discharge machining electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

left, Ti right . . . . . . . 103 126 TiC/CuNi cross section after EDM at 180p, s, 1000x . . . . . . . 104 127 TiC/CuNi cross section after EDM at 7. 5ps, 4000x 128 Tic/CuNi cross section after EDM at 7. 5ps, 300x. 129 TiC/CuNi cross section after... 132 TIC/CuNi dot maps after EDM at 7. 5ps, 1000x, Cu left, Ni right. . . . . Page . . . . 107 xv1 1 1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Properties of materials. . . . . . 12 2 Candidate EDM electrode systems. . 3 ZrBq/Cu electrode production path...

Kim, Eugene Ty

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Mechanistic Studies of Charge Injection from Metallic Electrodes into Organic Semiconductors Mediated by Ionic Functionalities: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Metal-organic semiconductor interfaces are important because of their ubiquitous role in determining the performance of modern electronics such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), fuel cells, batteries, field effect transistors (FETs), and organic solar cells. Interfaces between metal electrodes required for external wiring to the device and underlying organic structures directly affect the charge carrier injection/collection efficiency in organic-based electronic devices primarily due to the mismatch between energy levels in the metal and organic semiconductor. Environmentally stable and cost-effective electrode materials, such as aluminum and gold typically exhibit high potential barriers for charge carriers injection into organic devices leading to increased operational voltages in OLEDs and FETs and reduced charge extraction in photovoltaic devices. This leads to increased power consumption by the device, reduced overall efficiency, and decreased operational lifetime. These factors represent a significant obstacle for development of next generation of cheap and energy-efficient components based on organic semiconductors. It has been noticed that introduction of organic materials with conjugated backbone and ionic pendant groups known as conjugated poly- and oligoelectrolytes (CPEs and COEs), enables one to reduce the potential barriers at the metal-organic interface and achieve more efficient operation of a device, however exact mechanisms of the phenomenon have not been understood. The goal of this project was to delineate the function of organic semiconductors with ionic groups as electron injection layers. The research incorporated a multidisciplinary approach that encompassed the creation of new materials, novel processing techniques, examination of fundamental electronic properties and the incorporation of the resulting knowledgebase into development of novel organic electronic devices with increased efficiency, environmental stability, and reduced cost. During the execution of the project, main efforts were focused on the synthesis of new charge-bearing organic materials, such as CPEs and COEs, and block copolymers with neutral and ionic segments, studies of mechanisms responsible for the charge injection modulation in devices with ionic interlayers, and use of naturally occurring charged molecules for creation of enhanced devices. The studies allowed PIs to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach for the improvement of operational parameters in model OLED and FET systems resulting in increased efficiency, decreased contact resistance, and possibility to use stable metals for fabrication of device electrodes. The successful proof-of-the-principle results potentially promise development of light-weight, low fabrication cost devices which can be used in consumer applications such as displays, solar cells, and printed electronic devices. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed have been identified thus advancing the fundamental knowledgebase.

Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [UCSB; Bazan, Guillermo [UCSB; Mikhailovsky, Alexander [UCSB

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

Praeg, W.F.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Rotating Electrode System for the Generation of Metal Alloy Microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterize this process for various U-Zr alloys and provide the feed material for testing fabrication techniques, a Rotating Electrode System (RES) was designed and built. The RES is largely based on a combination of two designs; an early REP system...

Thompson, Chad 1984-

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1990-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1988-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

112

High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalyst is dispersed as small clusters with size less than 2 nm over a depth of 500 nm. PEMFC test Caquot, 28500 Vernouillet, France Ultra-low Pt content PEMFC electrodes have been manufactured usingPd cm-2 for the anode and 0.01 mgPd cm-2 + 0.001 mgPt cm-2 for the cathode and Nafion 212 membrane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Microfabricated three-electrode on-chip PDMS device with a vibration motor for stripping voltammetric detection of heavy metal ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A microfabricated three-electrode on-chip device with a vibration motor for stripping voltammetric detection of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions is introduced. Gold electrodes on a glass substrate are utilized as the counter electrode directly, as well as the working electrode with bismuth coating. The reference electrode is achieved by painting silver/silver chloride layer on the gold layer. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover is bonded onto the glass substrate, organizing a compact module. A vibration motor in the device provides vibration as the alternate for stirring to improve detection limits and decrease deposition time. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is performed with the on-chip reference electrode and a commercial liquid electrolyte Ag/AgCl electrode, showing that the potential shift is less than 20 mV. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) is used to detect Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. Linearity is well defined from 10 µg/L to 80 µg/L for both ions. Detection limits for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions are 0.7 µg/L and 1.2 µg/L, respectively, at 325 s deposition without vibration; the limits are 0.11 µg/L and 0.25 µg/L at 120 s deposition with vibration. The reliability is verified by detecting Cd2+ and Pb2+ concentrations of natural water samples and comparing with the results obtained from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Wen Zhang; Han Zhang; Spencer E. Williams; Anhong Zhou

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800C. By allowing higher...

115

LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Microstructure and characteristics of the metalceramic composite (MgCa-HA/TCP) fabricated by liquid metal infiltration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in calcium phosphate bioceramics. Recently metal matrix composites (MMC), consisting of an adequate ceramicMicrostructure and characteristics of the metal­ceramic composite (MgCa-HA/TCP) fabricated and characteristics of the metal­ ceramic composite (MgCa-HA/TCP) fabricated by liquid metal infiltration. J Biomed

Zheng, Yufeng

117

Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink. 5 figs.

Kuznetsov, S.B.

1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

118

Influence of thin metal as a top electrode on the characteristics of P?I?N a? Si:H solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a?Si:H) p?n junction solar cells have been fabricated which utilize various metals (Cr Cu Al Pd Ag) as a top electrode. Experimental and theoretical analysis of photovolatic performance in a?Si:H solar cells as a function of resistivity optical transmittance and work function of thin metal films are presented. Metal work function changes the effective built?in potential of p?n junction diodes. Furthermore a lower work function metal forms a good Ohmic contact for substrate –P +?I?N +– electrode cells and high work function metals improve V oc of substrate ?N?I?P cells. Typical V o c values are 760 mV with Cr– Cu– and Al–N?I?P–stainless steel (SS) 700 mV with Pd–N?I?P?SS 600 mV with Pd–P?I?N?SS and 540 mV with Cr–P?I?N?SS. J sc is strongly dependent on transmittance and resistivity of the metal films. Fill factor is independent of the choice of a top electrode. An efficient of 2% has been obtained on a 2 cm2solar cell.

Min?Koo Han; Wayne A. Anderson; R. Lahri; John Coleman

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Metal slits and liquid crystals at microwave frequencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the possible use of dual frequency materials to allow drive-on as well as drive-off. Unfortunately such dual-frequency materials have reduced...T Nomoto2002Microwave variable delay line using dual-frequency switching-mode liquid...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

New techniques for double-layer capacitance measurements at solid metal electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two new techniques are described for the measurement of electric double-layer capacitance particularly suited for application to solid electrodes. The capacitance can be recorded as a function of time and/or potential with an accuracy of better than 1%, and a response time in the range of 0·01–0·1 s, depending on the applied frequency. Measurements on an analogue made of electric capacitors and resistors show the effect of a parallel or series resistance on the measured capacitance at various frequency. Agreement with available data for measurements of the capacitance of mercury in 0·1 M NaCl and 0·1 M NaOH has been found.

N. Tshernikovski; E. Gileadi

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PHOTOEMISSION YIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF METAL ELECTRODES J. K. SASS and H. 5. LEWERENZ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

character of the metal-electrolyte contact with a variable threshold for electron emission allows with various electrolytes was heavily emphasized. Therefore the thermalization of hot electrons, the formation of solvated electrons and their subsequent chemical and electrochemical reac- tions were extensively

Boyer, Edmond

122

MERCURY PURIFICATION IN THE MEGAWATT LIQUID METAL SPALLATION TARGET OF EURISOL-DS Joerg Neuhausena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MERCURY PURIFICATION IN THE MEGAWATT LIQUID METAL SPALLATION TARGET OF EURISOL-DS Joerg Neuhausena. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present-components are of different origin: Gaseous impurities include oxygen, nitrogen and water. The construction materials

McDonald, Kirk

123

Giant and switchable surface activity of liquid metal via surface oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recent developments . Adv Colloid Interface Sci 159 ( 2 ): 198 – 212 . 27 Ladd C So J-H Muth J Dickey MD ( 2013 ) 3D printing of free standing liquid metal microstructures . Adv Mater 25 ( 36 ): 5081 – 5085 . 28 Regan MJ ( 1997 ) X-ray reflectivity...

Mohammad Rashed Khan; Collin B. Eaker; Edmond F. Bowden; Michael D. Dickey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

LIQUID METAL ATOMIZATION USING CLOSE-COUPLED NOZZLES, 2 1 Copyright 2005 by Begell House, Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particle size control and energy efficiency in this costly powder manufacturing process. INTRODUCTION to more effectively approach the problems of poor particle size control and low energy efficiency, bothLIQUID METAL ATOMIZATION USING CLOSE-COUPLED NOZZLES, 2 1 Copyright © 2005 by Begell House, Inc

Settles, Gary S.

126

Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with partners at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, under the 2012 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids funding opportunity, is investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800°C. By allowing higher temperature operation, CSP systems can achieve greater efficiencies and thereby reduce the overall cost of electricity production.

129

Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

130

Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electromagnetic induction pump is described in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

Smither, R.K.

1993-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

131

Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Liquid Metal Pool With Bottom Heating and Top Cooling  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). A relationship is determined between the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra in the liquid metal rectangular pool. Results are compared with correlations and experimental data in the literature. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with top subcooling are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or experiments. The current test results are utilized to develop natural convection heat transfer correlations applicable to low Prandtl number Pr fluids that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used in designing BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment at remote sites cycled with MOBIS (Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System) for electricity generation, tied with NAVIS (Naval Application Vessel Integral System) for ship propulsion, joined with THAIS (Thermochemical Hydrogen Acquisition Integral System) for hydrogen production, and coupled with DORIS (Desalination Optimized Reactor Integral System) for seawater desalination. Tests are performed with Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool whose lower surface is heated and upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The test section is 20 cm long, 11.3 cm high and 15 cm wide. The simulant has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. The constant temperature and heat flux condition was realized for the bottom heating once the steady state had been met. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature of the liquid metal pool, the input power to the bottom surface of the section, and the coolant temperature. (authors)

Lee, Il S.; Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Hwang, Jin S.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Investigation on edge fringing effect and oxide thickness dependence of inversion current in metal-oxide-semiconductor tunneling diodes with comb-shaped electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A particular edge-dependent inversion current behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) tunneling diodes was investigated utilizing square and comb-shaped electrodes. The inversion tunneling current exhibits the strong dependence on the tooth size of comb-shaped electrodes and oxide thickness. Detailed illustrations of current conduction mechanism are developed by simulation and experimental measurement results. It is found that the electron diffusion current and Schottky barrier height lowering for hole tunneling current both contribute on inversion current conduction. In MOS tunneling photodiode applications, the photoresponse can be improved by decreasing SiO{sub 2} thickness and using comb-shaped electrodes with smaller tooth spacing. Meantime, the high and steady photosensitivity can also be approached by introducing HfO{sub 2} into dielectric stacks.

Lin, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Lin, Li; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo, E-mail: jghwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ?20 dB, and a “blueshift” of ?600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

Micheli, Davide, E-mail: davide.micheli@uniroma1.it; Pastore, Roberto; Marchetti, Mario [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy)] [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy); Gradoni, Gabriele [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Performance and degradation of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with impregnated electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFCs) containing porous 430L stainless steel supports, YSZ electrolytes and porous YSZ cathode backbones are fabricated by tape casting, laminating and co-firing in a reducing atmosphere. Nano-scale Ni and La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.9Sc0.1O3?? (LSFSc) coatings are impregnated onto the internal surfaces of porous 430L and YSZ, acting as the anode and the cathode catalysts, respectively. The resulting MS-SOFCs exhibit maximum power densities of 193, 418, 636 and 907 mW cm?2 at 650, 700, 750 and 800 °C, respectively. Nevertheless, a continuous degradation in the fuel cell performance is observed at 650 °C and 0.7 V during a 200-h durability measurement. Possible degradation mechanisms were discussed in detail.

Yucun Zhou; Xianshuang Xin; Junliang Li; Xiaofeng Ye; Changrong Xia; Shaorong Wang; Zhongliang Zhan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Experiments with liquid metal walls: Status of the lithium tokamak experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstarct Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the current drive experiment-upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS). Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions.

Robert Kaita; Laura Berzak; Dennis Boyle; Timothy Gray; Erik Granstedt; Gregory Hammett; Craig M. Jacobson; Andrew Jones; Thomas Kozub; Henry Kugel; Benoit Leblanc; Nicholas Logan; Matthew Lucia; Daniel Lundberg; Richard Majeski; Dennis Mansfield; Jonathan Menard; Jeffrey Spaleta; Trevor Strickler; John Timberlake; Jongsoo Yoo; L. Zakharov; Rajesh Maingi; Vlad Soukhanovskii; Kevin Tritz; Sophia Gershman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Liquid Metal as a Heat Transport Fluid for Thermal Solar Power Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to increase the thermal efficiency and produce process heat for hydrogen production, the operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid in thermal solar plants needs to increase. In addition reaching 900 °C would also increase the heat storage density and the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle by using a combined cycle for electricity production. The benefits of hydrogen (e.g., for fuel cells) and a more efficient thermodynamic cycle would allow a plant to have a higher energy output per square acre of land use, thereby increasing its economic competiveness. Today, solar thermal plants do not operate at these high temperatures due to the fact that conventional heat transport fluids begin to disintegrate around 600 °C [1,2]. For non-solar applications, low melting-temperature metals, such as wood's metal and lead- bismuth eutectic alloy, have been examined as heat-transport media, because of the large temperature ranges over which they remain liquid. Lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE; 45% Pb, 55% Bi) melts at 125 °C and does not boil until 1670 °C, making it an ideal heat-transfer medium for application in thermal solar power [3]. The main obstacle to using LBE is finding structural materials that can withstand the harsh corrosion environments at high temperatures. In this work the key issues of materials exposed to liquid metal are described while initial data on carious steels tested in liquid metal are provided. While corrosion is a significant issue in this environment, mechanical failure of steels in liquid metal are discussed as well.

D. Frazer; E. Stergar; C. Cionea; P. Hosemann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An  

SciTech Connect

A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

Loustau, Marie-Therese (Bordeaux, FR); Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Lormont, FR)

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

138

Facilities, testing program and modeling needs for studying liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in fusion blankets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Since many years, liquid metal flows for applications in fusion blankets have been investigated worldwide. A review is given about modeling requirements and existing experimental facilities for investigations of liquid metal related issues in blankets with the focus on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Most of the performed theoretical and experimental works were dedicated to fundamental aspects of MHD flows under very strong magnetic fields as they may occur in generic elements of fusion blankets like pipes, ducts, bends, expansions and contractions. Those experiments are required to progressively validate numerical tools with the purpose of obtaining codes capable to predict MHD flows at fusion relevant parameters in complex blanket geometries, taking into account electrical and thermal coupling between fluid and structural materials. Scaled mock-up experiments support the theoretical activities and help deriving engineering correlations for cases which cannot be calculated with required accuracy up to now.

L. Bühler; C. Mistrangelo; J. Konys; R. Bhattacharyay; Q. Huang; D. Obukhov; S. Smolentsev; M. Utili

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Sivill, R.L.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Measurements of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, sodium purity, and leakage. The paper identifies the overall instrumentation requirements for LMFBR's and those aspects of instrumentation which are unique or of special concern to LMFBR systems. It also gives an overview of the status of instrument design and performance.

Sackett, J.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxidef /? a k ? Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxide Table? a k ? Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxide CHAPTER

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Accurate viscosity modeling of liquid metals based on friction theory and PC-SAFT equation of state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Values of the viscosities of liquid metals are important in the prediction of fluid flow in many metallurgical manufacturing processes. In this work the friction theory (f-theory...) for viscosity modeling is use...

M. H. Mousazadeh

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Adhesion-diffusion formation of a multilayer wall for the liquid metal flow channel of a fusion reactor blanket  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique for calculating the adhesion-diffusion formation of a multilayer metal-ceramic structure is presented. The development of this technique is dictated by requirements imposed on the wall of the liquid m...

I. V. Vitkovsky; L. Yu. Frolenkova; V. S. Shorkin

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Impact of nuclear irradiation on helium bubble nucleation at interfaces in liquid metals coupled to permeation through stainless steels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of nucleating gas bubbles in the form of a dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation at interfaces between liquid metals, like LLE, and structural materials, like stainless steel, has been studied. Liquid metal to structural material interfaces involving surfaces, may lower the nucleation barrier promoting bubble nucleation at active sites. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control at interfaces may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. He bubbles as a permeation barrier principle is analysed showing a significant impact on hydrogen isotope permeation, which may have a significant effect on liquid metal systems, e.g., tritium extraction systems. Liquid metals like LLE under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

SunShot Initiative: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids UCLA logo University of California Berkeley logo Yale logo Four graphics in a grid that represent the sputtering technique being used in this project. Combinatorial screening and high throughput characterization of materials will be used to identify, develop, and demonstrate metal alloys that meet the MURI HOT Fluids targets suitable for CSP applications. The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with partners at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, under the 2012 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids funding opportunity, is investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800°C. By allowing higher temperature operation, CSP systems can achieve greater efficiencies and thereby reduce the overall cost of electricity production.

146

Isolation of metals from liquid wastes: Reactive scavenging in turbulent thermal reactors. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to develop the fundamental science base necessary to assess the utility of high-temperature processes to volatilize metals in DOE metal-bearing liquid wastes, so that they can be reactively scavenged by sorbents. The problem is addressed through a collaborative research program involving a team of five senior scientists and their respective laboratories, at four institutions. Specific goals are to: (1) Understand high-temperature reaction kinetics between sorbent substrates and certain volatile and semi-volatile metals in the DOE liquid waste inventory (e.g., Cs and Sr), using a laminar-flow reactor for which extraction of kinetic data is not complicated by turbulence; (2) Develop models to predict both trajectories of individual droplets in turbulent high-temperature reactors, and rates of metal evolution from droplets, and compare model predictions with experimental data from a pilot-scale turbulent thermal reactor; (3) Connect the reaction kinetic models with the droplet trajectory/mass evolution models, in order to predict and optimize metal scavenging processes in turbulent-flow reactors, and to test these combined models against data taken from a turbulent high temperature reactor. This report summarizes work at a point midway through the first year of a 3-year project. At the University of Arizona (UA), two tasks are underway. The first task is concerned with attempting to understand high-temperature reaction kinetics between sorbent substrates and certain volatile and semi-volatile metals. The second task is concerned with applying Kerstein''s One Dimensional Turbulence model to prediction of droplet trajectories in turbulent flow.'

Wendt, J.O.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (US); Linak, W.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (US); Pearlstein, A.J.; Scheeline, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (US)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Nonlocal pseudopotential calculation for the electron-ion correlation in liquid metals S. K. Lai,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlocal pseudopotential calculation for the electron-ion correlation in liquid metals S. K. Lai,1 nonlocal model potential is employed to calculate the screened electron charge density nEC (q are subsequently used as input data for the calculation of the electron-ion correlation. For the simple liquid

148

Liquid metal MHD studies with non-magnetic and ferro-magnetic structural material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In most of the liquid metal MHD experiments reported in the literature to study liquid breeder blanket performance, SS316/SS304 grade steels are used as the structural material which is non-magnetic. On the other hand, the structural material for fusion blanket systems has been proposed to be ferritic martensitic grade steel (FMS) which is ferromagnetic in nature. In the recent experimental campaign, liquid metal MHD experiments have been carried out with two identical test sections: one made of SS316L (non-magnetic) and another with SS430 (ferromagnetic), to compare the effect of structural materials on MHD phenomena for various magnetic fields (up to 4 T). The maximum Hartmann number and interaction number are 1047 and 300, respectively. Each test section consists of square channel (25 mm × 25 mm) cross-section with two U bends, with inlet and outlet at the middle portion of two horizontal legs, respectively. Pb–Li enters into the test section through a square duct and distributed into two parallel paths through a partition plate. In each parallel path, it travels ?0.28 m length in plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and faces two 90° bends before coming out of the test section through a single square duct. The wall electrical potential and MHD pressure drop across the test sections are compared under identical experimental conditions. Similar MHD behavior is observed with both the test section at higher value of the magnetic field (>2 T).

A. Patel; R. Bhattacharyay; P.K. Swain; P. Satyamurthy; S. Sahu; E. Rajendrakumar; S. Ivanov; A. Shishko; E. Platacis; A. Ziks

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fabrication and characterization of fibers with built-in liquid crystal channels and electrodes for transverse incident-light modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on an all-in-fiber liquid crystal (LC) structure designed for the modulation of light incident transverse to the fiber axis. A hollow cavity flanked by viscous conductors is introduced into a polymer matrix, and ...

Wei, Lei

150

Liquid crystalline phase synthesis of nanoporous MnO{sub 2} thin film arrays as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) MnO{sub 2} thin film arrays with nanoporous structure is electrodeposited on Ti foil from hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase. Low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), wide-angle XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are employed to study the morphology and the structure of the as-synthesized MnO{sub 2} materials. Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements show the nanoporous, 3D electrode material exhibits excellent capacitive performance between the potential range of ?0.1 to 0.9 V, and a maximum specific capacitance as high as 462 F g{sup ?1} are achieved in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a charge/discharge current density of 4 A g{sup ?1}. Highlights: ? 3D MnO{sub 2} thin film arrays with nanoporous structure is fabricated for the first time. ? A maximum specific capacitance as high as 462 F g{sup ?1} is obtained. ? The 3D and nanoporous superarchitecture facilitate electrolyte penetration. -- Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) MnO{sub 2} thin film arrays with nanoporous structure is electrodeposited on Ti foil from hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase. Low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), wide-angle XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are employed to study the morphology and the structure of the as-synthesized MnO{sub 2} materials. Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements show the nanoporous, 3D electrode material exhibits excellent capacitive performance between the potential range of ?0.1 to 0.9 V, and a maximum specific capacitance as high as 462 F g{sup ?1} are achieved in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a charge/discharge current density of 4 A g{sup ?1}.

Yang, Guangwu, E-mail: yanggw@upc.edu.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China) [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Physics and Materials Science in Universities of Shandong, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Wang, Baoli [School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China)] [School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Guo, Wenyue, E-mail: wyguo@upc.edu.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China) [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Physics and Materials Science in Universities of Shandong, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Bu, Zhongheng; Miao, Chengcheng [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China)] [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Xue, Tong; Li, Hulin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

153

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Formation of amorphous superconducting transition-metal alloys by liquid quenching on hot substrates  

SciTech Connect

An improved cooling rate has been achieved by liquid quenching on a hot substrate, which facilitates the preparation of amorphous and metastable crystalline states of refractory-metal-based alloys. The effectiveness has been proved by the experimental results for Mo-Zr and Nb-Si-Ge alloys. A single amorphous phase was obtained from 40--60 at. % Zr. In the Nb-Si-Ge alloy system, amorphous and metastable A15 phases were obtained in a wide composition range. The superconducting properties and thermal stability of these phases have been studied.

Togano, K.; Kumakura, H.; Tachikawa, K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Liquid Metal Flow Can Be One Clue to Explain the Frequently Observed Fluid-Like Matters on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The frequently discovered flooding structure on Mars and other planets has long been an intriguing mystery remained un-disclosed so far. Considering that on Earth, quite a few low melting point liquid metals or their alloy can be candidates of fluid like matters, we proposed here that there might also exists certain liquid metal instead of water or methane alone on Mars or the like planets. Compared with water, such liquid metal would be much easier to stay at the Mars surface because of its low melting point however extremely high evaporation point. Along this theoretical route, quite a few observations on the fluid like matters in former space explorations can be well interpreted. Such hypothesis for the existence of liquid metal on Mars surface does not mean refuting the possibility of water on Mars. This new point would be helpful for planning further exploration of Mars in a sense according to the characters of liquid metal. It at least identifies one more target fluid towards either finding or denying life at outer space. Whether the planet could harbor life in some form or it reaffirms Mars as an important future destination for human exploration still needs serious but not just enthusiasm explorations.

Jing Liu; Yunxia Gao; Huangde Li

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Liquid Metal Flow Can Be One Clue to Explain the Frequently Observed Fluid-Like Matters on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The frequently discovered flooding structure on Mars and other planets has long been an intriguing mystery remained un-disclosed so far. Considering that on Earth, quite a few low melting point liquid metals or their alloy can be candidates of fluid like matters, we proposed here that there might also exists certain liquid metal instead of water or methane alone on Mars or the like planets. Compared with water, such liquid metal would be much easier to stay at the Mars surface because of its low melting point however extremely high evaporation point. Along this theoretical route, quite a few observations on the fluid like matters in former space explorations can be well interpreted. Such hypothesis for the existence of liquid metal on Mars surface does not mean refuting the possibility of water on Mars. This new point would be helpful for planning further exploration of Mars in a sense according to the characters of liquid metal. It at least identifies one more target fluid towards either finding or denying l...

Liu, Jing; Li, Huangde

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Safeguards and security concept for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, SAF line technical support  

SciTech Connect

This report is a safeguards and security concept system review for the secure automated fabrication (SAF) and national liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel programs.

Schaubert, V.J.; Remley, M.E.; Grantham, L.F.

1986-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

159

Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

Hoelzel, Christina S., E-mail: Christina.Hoelzel@wzw.tum.de [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mueller, Christa [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany)] [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany); Harms, Katrin S. [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)] [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mikolajewski, Sabine [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany)] [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)] [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase entrapped in nano gold particles-ionic liquid-N,N-dimethylformamide composite film on glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) entrapped in nano gold particles (NAs)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluophosphate (BMIMPF6) composite film on a glassy carbon electrode (NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6)/GC) has been investigated for first time. The immobilized GOD exhibits a pair of well-defined reversible peaks in 0.050 M pH 5 phosphate solutions (PS), resulting from the redox of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in GOD. The peak currents are three times as large as those of GOD-NAs-DMF film coated GC electrode (i.e. NAs-DMF-GOD (water)/GC). In addition, the NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6) composite material has higher thermal stability than NAs-DMF-GOD (water). Results show that ionic liquid BMIMPF6, DMF and \\{NAs\\} are requisite for GOD to exhibit a pair of stable and reversible peaks. Without any of them, the peaks of GOD become small and unstable. Upon the addition of glucose, the peak currents of GOD decrease and a new cathodic peak occurs at ?0.8 V (versus SCE), which corresponds to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by the catalytic oxidation of glucose. The peak current of the new cathodic peak and the glucose concentration show a linear relationship in the ranges of 1.0 × 10?7 to 1.0 × 10?6 M and 2.0 × 10?6 to 2.0 × 10?5 M. The kinetic parameter Imax of H2O2 is estimated to be 1.19 × 10?6 A and the apparent Km (Michaelis–Menten constant) for the enzymatic reaction is 3.49 ?M. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human plasma and beer samples, and the average recoveries are 97.2% and 99%, respectively.

Jiangwen Li; Jingjing Yu; Faqiong Zhao; Baizhao Zeng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel 3?thermal conductivitymeasurement technique called metal-coated 3? is introduced for use with liquids gases powders and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3? exceeds alternate 3? based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases) using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques including transient hot-wire steady-state methods and solid-wire 3? are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3? was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity.

Scott N. Schiffres; Jonathan A. Malen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Solid-Liquid and Solid-Solid Transformations in the Rare-Earth Metals at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fusion behavior and solid-solid transformations in the rare-earth metals have been investigated at pressures in the range 6-65 kbar. The phase diagrams are presented for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb. The initial melting slopes of Dy to Lu have been obtained. Since most of the rare-earth (R.E.) metals melt from a bcc structure, they offer a series for comparison. When the initial melting slope is plotted against atomic number they fall into groups according to their valency; the typically divalent metals Eu and Yb in one, and the typically trivalent metals La, Gd, and Lu in another. Samarium and the metals from Tb to Tm have melting slopes which are intermediate between those of the typically divalent and trivalent metals. It is suggested that these metals assume a partial divalent character in the liquid state and possibly also in the bcc phase. This suggestion derives support from the fact that the gaseous neutral atoms of the R.E. elements, with the exception of La, Gd, and Lu, have no 5d electron and are therefore divalent. Cerium exhibits a unique fusion behavior and its negative melting slope has been attributed to the tetravalency (4f?5d electron promotion) of the atoms in the liquid. For the very small melting slope of Pr, it is suggested that the atoms in the liquid have partial tetravalent character due to 4f?5d electron promotion. Comparisons with alkali metals are made and it is deduced that the R.E. metals are quite compressible at high temperatures. Pressure induced transformations in the rare-earth metals are in the sequence hcp?Sm-type?double hcp?fcc. A plausible mechanism based on the variation of ca ratio with pressure is discussed for hcp?Sm-type transformation.

A. Jayaraman

1965-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

163

Extending surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to transition-metal surfaces: carbon monoxide adsorption and electrooxidation on platinum- and palladium-coated gold electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Thin (ca. one to three monolayers) films of platinum and palladium electrodeposited on electrochemically roughened gold are observed to yield surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra for adsorbed carbon monoxide. The major vibrational band(s) on these surfaces are diagnosed from their frequencies as arising from C-O stretching vibrations, nu/sub CO/ bound to the transition-metal overlayers rather than to residual gold sites. The observed SFR nu/sub CO/ frequencies are closely similar to (within ca. 10 cm/sup -1/ of) those obtained for these systems from potential-difference infrared (PDIR) spectra. The major SERS and PDIR nu/sub CO/ features for the platinum and palladium surfaces appear at 2060-2090 and 1965-1985 cm/sup -1/, respectively, consistent with the presence of terminal and bridging CO on these two electrodes. The infrared as well as electrochemical properties of these systems are closely similar to those for the corresponding polycrystalline bulk electrodes. A difference between the SER- and IR-active adsorbed CO, however, is that the former undergoes electrooxidation on both surfaces at 0.2-0.3 V higher overpotentials than the latter form. Examination of the potential-dependent SERS bands for metal oxide vibrations, nu/sub PtO/, on the platinum surface shows that the electrooxidation potential for the SERS-active adsorbed CO coincides with that for the appearance of the nu/sub PtO/ band. Some broader implications to the utilization of SERS for examining transition-metal surfaces are pointed out.

Leung, L.W.H.; Weaver, M.J.

1987-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

Theoretical investigation of liquid metal MHD free surface flows for ALPS.  

SciTech Connect

Free surface plasma facing components (PFCs) offer the potential to solve the lifetime issues limiting current solid surface designs for tokamak fusion reactors by eliminating the problems of erosion and thermal stresses accompanying solid surface designs. The moving PFC free surfaces provide the possibility of absorbing impurities and possibly helium for removal outside of the plasma chamber. Free surface PFCs may also offer more creative possibilities for heat removal and higher thermal conversion efficiencies for the entire system. Design requirements for PFCS include handling {approximately}50% of the plasma heat flux and 90% of the ion flux. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) liquid metal flows with free surfaces are discussed with reference to Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program. Specific MHD issues for the jet divertor are outlined. Results for the rivulet flow and for the thermocapillary flow in a jet are presented.

Molokov, S.; Cox, I.; Reed, C. B.

2000-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels  

SciTech Connect

Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human–electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

Tong In Oh; Tae Eui Kim; Sun Yoon; Kap Jin Kim; Eung Je Woo; Rosalind J Sadleir

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source A into electron-beam ion source EBIS . It does not use a buffer gas and therefore it provides only a very small types of low-charged ion sources have been used for external ion injection into BNL electron-beam ion

170

Electrode compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

Block, J.; Fan, X.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

171

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Determination of welding fume size with time using E7018 electrodes and A131B base metal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Welders are exposed to various hazardous fumes in the course of their work. Health hazard levels from welding fumes range from relatively little or no hazard to death. To incur these hazards the worker must inhale and retain the particulates in the lung...'. s are inhaled. These hazards range from little or no effect, such as metal fume fever, to death. The result depends on the chemical nature of the material, the length of exposure, and the amount and size of the fume particles. Metal fNne fever is a...

Owen, Richard James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (?0.9 J m{sup ?2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33?34} s{sup ?1} m{sup ?3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

Cai, Y. [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Wu, H. A., E-mail: wuha@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Review of In-Service Inspection and Repair Technique Developments for French Liquid Metal Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

In-service monitoring of nuclear plants is indispensable for both the Operator and the Regulator. The notion of in-service monitoring ranges from the continuous monitoring of the reactor in operation to the thorough in-service reactor inspection during programmed shutdowns. However, the highly specific environment found in French liquid metal fast reactor plants - Phenix and Superphenix - makes monitoring and inspection complicated because of the use of a sodium coolant that is hot, opaque, and difficult to drain.The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in collaboration with its traditional French partners, Electricite de France utilities and FRAMATOME/Novatome Engineering, decided to conduct a 6-yr research and development program (1994-2000) to explore this problem vis-a-vis Superphenix, as well as the possibilities of intervening within the reactor block or on components in a sodium environment. Furthermore, the safety reevaluation of Phenix, conducted between 1994 and 2003, represented an excellent 'test bench' during which the limits of inspection processes - applied to an integrated reactor concept - were surpassed using techniques such as fuel subassembly head scanning, ultrasonic examination of the core support, and visual inspection of the cover-gas plenum following a partial sodium draining. Repair techniques were investigated for cleaning of sodium wet structure surfaces, cutting of damaged parts, and welding in sodium aerosol atmosphere. Both conventional and laser processes were tested.

Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Natural Circulation and Linear Stability Analysis for Liquid-Metal Reactors with the Effect of Fluid Axial Conduction  

SciTech Connect

The effect of fluid axial thermal conduction on one-dimensional liquid metal natural circulation and its linear stability was performed through nondimensional analysis, steady-state assessment, and linear perturbation evaluation. The Nyquist criterion and a root-search method were employed to find the linear stability boundary of both forward and backward circulations. The study provided a relatively complete analysis method for one-dimensional natural circulation problems with the consideration of fluid axial heat conduction. The results suggest that fluid axial heat conduction in a natural circulation loop should be considered only when the modified Peclet number is {approx}1 or less, which is significantly smaller than the practical value of a lead liquid metal-cooled reactor.

Piyush Sabharwall; Qiao Wu; James J. Sienicki

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Feasibility Investigation of the Decay Heat Removal Capability Using the Concept of a Thermosyphon in the Liquid Metal Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new design concept for a decay heat removal system in a liquid metal reactor is proposed. The new design utilizes a thermosyphon to enhance the heat removal capacity and its heat transfer characteristics are analyzed against the current PSDRS (Passive Safety Decay heat Removal System) in the KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) design. The preliminary analysis results show that the new design with a thermosyphon yields substantial increase of 20{approx}40% in the decay heat removal capacity compared to the current design that do not have the thermosyphon. The new design reduces the temperature rise in the cooling air of the system and helps the surrounding structure in maintaining its mechanical integrity for long term operation at an accident. Also the analysis revealed the characteristics of the interactions among various heat transfer modes in the new design. (authors)

Yeon-Sik Kim; Yoon-Sub Sim; Eui-Kwang Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Experiments and analysis for an axially heterogeneous liquid-metal reactor assembly at the zero-power physics reactor  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in zero-power physics reactor 17 provided physics data for a full-scale axially heterogeneous 650-MW(electric) liquid-metal reactor. Measurements and analysis are reported for control rod worths, reaction rate distributions, gamma dose distributions, sodium void worths, and criticality. Agreement between measurement and calculation is generally satisfactory, but the axial heterogeneity did introduce analytical complications. Design-level calculation methods gave somewhat worse agreement with measurement than in previous homogeneous or radially heterogeneous assemblies.

Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Numerical simulation of intermediate heat exchanger of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor using COMMIX-1B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transfer correlation is made. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank Dr. Yassin A. Hassan my advisor and commitee chair for his understand- ing, support, and enthusiasm for this project. My thanks also go to Drs. Costantine Tzanoz and Hang Dommanus from Argonne... hydraulic computer code. It is developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for a. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). COMMIX-1B is the advanced version of COMMIX series that was first developed in 1976. s In this study, a nodalization...

Saleh, Habeeb H.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Flow through electrode with automated calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improved automated flow through electrode liquid monitoring system. The automated system has a sample inlet to a sample pump, a sample outlet from the sample pump to at least one flow through electrode with a waste port. At least one computer controls the sample pump and records data from the at least one flow through electrode for a liquid sample. The improvement relies upon (a) at least one source of a calibration sample connected to (b) an injection valve connected to said sample outlet and connected to said source, said injection valve further connected to said at least one flow through electrode, wherein said injection valve is controlled by said computer to select between said liquid sample or said calibration sample. Advantages include improved accuracy because of more frequent calibrations, no additional labor for calibration, no need to remove the flow through electrode(s), and minimal interruption of sampling.

Szecsody, James E [Richland, WA; Williams, Mark D [Richland, WA; Vermeul, Vince R [Richland, WA

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Information Bridge Energy Citations Database Highlighted documents of Rare Earth Metal research in DOE databases Information Bridge - Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces DOE R&D Project Summaries - Structural and magnetic studies on heavy rare earth metals at high pressures using designer diamonds Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells Science.gov - H.R.4866 - Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 WorldWideScience.org - China produces most of the world's rare earth metals DOepatents - Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

182

The influence of transition metal ions on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of some transition metal ions including Fe2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+...on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase partial hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene was ...

Yixin Qu; Chengxuan Fang; Chengyang Qian…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Film Boiling in Presence of a Magnetic Field in Liquid Metals Within Framework of Taylor–Helmholtz Instabilities in Application to Fusion Reactor Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas a lot of research has been done on boiling of various fluids [1] including liquid metals [2] not much work exists on Magnetohydrodynamic MHD boiling [3] and although some theoretical aspects of MHD boilin...

F. J. Arias

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Carbon nanotube micro-electrodes for neuronal interfacing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is based on planar metallic electrochemical electrode arrays (multi- electrodes arrays, MEAs). When in contact with ionic solution (i.e. biological medium), these electrodes can be regarded as electrochemical. This parameter defines the impedance of the electrode and determines its noise level, how well it can record

Jacob, Eshel Ben

185

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Electrode for a lithium cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

187

Solution of a Standard Thermal Hydraulics Problem in a Liquid Metal Subassembly  

SciTech Connect

The model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core consists of a pin bundle of square arrangement. In this bundle there are two zones which differ in the pin diameter and heat production. The model pin bundle contains one spacer grid which is located near the mid-plane of the rod bundle geometry. The working is a eutectic alloy of 22% sodium (Na) plus 78% potassium (K). Three kinds of experiments were performed to observe the thermal and hydraulic behavior of the liquid metal coolant in the BREST core simulator. Results were obtained for the coolant exit temperature distribution, central measuring pin simulator external surface temperature distribution, and coolant velocity distribution over the perimeter of the measuring pin simulator. The experiments were performed five times with increasing pin power ratios. Analysis was performed on the model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core using a subchannel analysis code MATRA and a computational fluid dynamics code CFX. Calculational results were compared against the experimental data. The experiment revealed that the temperature rise was strongly dependent upon the geometry of the pin simulator. In contrast to the experimental results, the MATRA results were mainly dependent upon the thermal and hydraulic conditions. It was concluded that MATRA requires modifications for the pressure drop correlations that were considered inappropriate for accurately simulating the coolant behavior near the BREST-type grid spacer. Hand calculations were additionally carried out under different assumptions to determine the coolant exit temperature distribution in the pin simulator. First, the hand calculation was performed to find the coolant exit temperature distribution assuming that there is no momentum or energy transfer between subchannels. Second, an assumption was made that the coolant mixing in the subchannel assembly took place instantaneously and the pressure was equilibrated at the channel exit. Since MATRA is based on a lumped parameter model, it only calculates the subchannel averaged velocity values. Here, CFX based on the finite volume method was utilized to calculate the velocity fields over the perimeter. Results from the experiment and CFX were averaged in each subchannel region so as to check on the tendency. The CFX analysis showed reasonable results which can be improved by imposing more detailed geometry accounting for the angle of the inclination of the grid spacer. (authors)

Son, Hyoung M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Integrating Experiment and Theory in Electrochemical Surface Science: Studies on the Molecular Adsorption on Noble-Metal Electrode Surfaces by Density Functional Theory, Electron Spectroscopy, and Electrochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The STM images of benzene chemisorbed on a Pd(111) electrode surface were simulated and the results suggested that, when the potential of the Pd electrode is held at 0.3 V, benzene is chemisorbed on a 3-fold site; while at 0.55 V, the molecule is adsorbed...

Javier, Alnald Caintic

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

189

Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Studies on the applicability of a flow coupler to a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor plant  

SciTech Connect

A flow coupler is considered as an alternative to the conventional primary pump in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A conceptual design of a flow coupler combined with an intermediate heat exchanger in a pool-type LMFBR was done. Based on this design, a one-tenth-scale flow coupler model was built and successfully operated in a high-temperature sodium loop. To estimate the flow coupler characteristics, a quasi-one-dimensional code was developed. From these studies, the flow coupler pump concept appears to be feasible for actual use in an LMFBR.

Hattori, S.; Takuma, S.; Nemoto, K. (Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi,, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (JP)); Terada, M.; Sano, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-5-1 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (JP))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Survey on ionic liquids effect based on metal anions over the thermal stability of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl 4 ...

J. A. Murillo-Hernández; S. López-Ramírez…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A capillary-jet instability method for measuring dynamic surface tension of liquid metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rapid physical and chemical processes affecting molten-metal...rapid physical and chemical processes affecting molten-metal...effectiveness of the jetting process. Tin-containing melts...McNallan and D. B. Wallace the commercialization of solder-jet technology...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

EROSIVE WEAR OF DUCTILE METALS BY A PARTICLE-LADEN HIGH-VELOCITY LIQUID-JET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

angle Concentration of coal ( 0 /o) XBL 8012-2452 20% by wtscale) Equivalent Diameter (11m) Coal Al 2 o 3 SiC Metals (for Fossil Energy, Office of Coal Research, Materials and

Li, Simon Ka-Keung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced liquid metal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 21 Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1 Summary: on...

197

A HIGH-FIELD PULSED SOLENOID MAGNET FOR LIQUID METAL TARGET STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studies have been car- ried out for rotating-band targets, a tantalum/water target, and a liquid parameters for a pulsed solenoid, including the magnet cryogenic sys- tem and power supply, that can generate, the operation of rf cavities near high-power targets, and evaluation of target materials. Mercury Jet + Proton

McDonald, Kirk

198

Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States) [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT REMOVAL USING CONCAVE LIQUID METAL TARGETS FOR HIGH-POWER ACCELERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

areas for the production of intense beams of secondary particles (IFMIF, SNS, RIA, LHC). The energy metal flow targets can be useful for future accelerator projects such as RIA, SNS, and ILC [1 dump areas for the production of intense beams of secondary particles. The severe constraints arising

Harilal, S. S.

202

Signatures of the Rayleigh-Plateau Instability Revealed by Imposing Synthetic Perturbations on Nanometer Liquid Metals on Substrates  

SciTech Connect

Fluid jets destabilize into droplets according to the well known Rayleigh Plateau (RP) instability. The applicability of the RP model to a nanoscale liquid metal supported on a substrate (a so called rivulet) was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as it has important implications for nanoscale materials assembly. Stochastic fluctuations were found to affect rivulet stability and dynamics when compared with microscopic predictions of rivulet break up; here a broad and delayed distribution of break up times was observed. Yet, hallmark characteristics of the RP theory were observed; (1) a critical wavelength demarcating stability, (2) stable and unstable growth modes and (3) neck formation induced by axial pressure gradients. Notably, MD simulations implementing synthetic perturbations, yielded significantly reduced dispersion in the final nanodroplet spacing and clearly revealed the underlying physics driving rivulet break up.

Horton, Scott R [ORNL; Rack, Prof. Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

Caplan, Malcolm (Fremont, CA); Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich (St. Peterburg, RU); Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich (St. Peterburg, RU)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S-band frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S) This letter describes the fabrication and characterization of a fluidic patch antenna operating at the S in antenna technologies,1­3 including mobile communications,4 compact high gain patch antenna,5

207

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids  

SciTech Connect

A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Influence of MSI (Metal-Support Interactions) and the Solvent in Liquid-Phase Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Results were repeatedly obtained that were consistent with a hypothesis proposed at the beginning of this program, i.e., due to Metal-Support Interactions (MSI), unique active sites can be created in the metal-support interfacial region to enhance activity and improve selectivity in certain types of reactions, especially those involving the hydrogenation of carbonyl and unsaturated C=C bonds. Higher turnover frequencies (TOF-molecule/s/site) and increased selectivity for C=O bond versus C=C bond hydrogenation was established in the hydrogenation reactions of: acetone, crotonaldehyde, acetophenone, phenylethanol, acetylcyclohexane, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde and citral over Pt/TiO{sub 2} MSI catalysts. Higher rates of hydrogenation benzene, toluene and xylene could be obtained over certain supported Pt and Pd catalysts. Au/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were developed that were active for CO hydrogenation at subambient temperatures. The influence of support and metal crystallite size were established for the adsorption of H{sub 2}, CO and O{sub 2} on families of Pt and Pd catalysts.

Vannice, M. A.

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale mercury droplet.  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Gas-Analyzers have many applications in detecting chemical compounds present in the air. MEMS valves are used to perform sampling of gasses, as they enable control of fluid flow at the micro level. Current generation electrostatically actuated MEMS valves were tested to determine their ability to hold off a given gauge pressure with an applied voltage. Current valve designs were able to hold off 98 psi with only 82 V applied to the valves. The valves were determined to be 1.83 times more efficient than older valve designs, due to increasing the electrostatic area of the valve and trapping oxide between polysilicon layers. Newer valve designs were also proposed and modeled using ANSYS multiphysics, which should be able to hold off 100 psi with only 29 V needed. This performance would be 2.82 times more efficient than current designs, or 5.17 times more efficient than older valve designs. This will be accomplished by further increasing the valve radius and decreasing the gap between the valve boss and electrode.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method of making an electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Isotopic mass-dependence of metal cation diffusion coefficients in liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Isotope distributions in natural systems can be highly sensitive to the mass (m) dependence of solute diffusion coefficients (D) in liquid water. Isotope geochemistry studies routinely have assumed that this mass dependence either is negligible (as predicted by hydrodynamic theories) or follows a kinetic-theory-like inverse square root relationship (D {proportional_to} m{sup -0.5}). However, our recent experimental results and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the mass dependence of D is intermediate between hydrodynamic and kinetic theory predictions (D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}} with 0 {<=} {beta} < 0.2 for Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mg{sup 2+}, and the noble gases). In this paper, we present new MD simulations and experimental results for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+} that confirm the generality of the inverse power-law relation D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}}. Our new findings allow us to develop a general description of the influence of solute valence and radius on the mass dependence of D for monatomic solutes in liquid water. This mass dependence decreases with solute radius and with the magnitude of solute valence. Molecular-scale analysis of our MD simulation results reveals that these trends derive from the exponent {beta} being smallest for those solutes whose motions are most strongly coupled to solvent hydrodynamic modes.

Bourg, I.C.; Richter, F.M.; Christensen, J.N.; Sposito, G.

2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

Hudak, Nicholas S.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Research on micro-electric resistance slip welding of copper electrode during the fabrication of 3D metal micro-mold  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract 3D micro-mold fabricated by the micro double-staged laminated object manufacturing process (micro-DLOM) is formed via stacking and fitting of multi-layer 2D micro-structures. The connection of 2D micro-structures is related to forming accuracy and mechanical properties of 3D micro-mold. In this research, micro-electric resistance slip welding of copper electrodes was proposed to connect multi-layer 2D micro-structures. Firstly, the proper process parameters of slip welding were obtained through the welding experiment, and the temperature field of micro-electric resistance slip welding under such process parameters was simulated. Secondly, deposition effect of the copper bar electrode produced during slip welding was studied and the study results show that the copper element deposited in the slip welding area decreases as the surface roughness of copper electrode decreases. Finally, based on the above research, a square micro-cavity mold with micro-channel, a circular micro-cavity mold with cross keyway and micro gear cavity mold with two-stage steps were welded by the micro-electric resistance slip welding.

Bin Xu; Xiao-yu Wu; Jian-guo Lei; Feng Luo; Feng Gong; Chen-lin Du; Xiu-quan Sun; Shuang-chen Ruan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10?000?000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9?11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5?2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized system.

Jie, Liang [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Li, KenLi, E-mail: lkl@hnu.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China) [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082 (China); Shi, Lin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Liu, RangSu [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Mei, Jing [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method for uniformly distributing carbon flakes in a positive electrode, the electrode made thereby and compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive electrode for a secondary electrochemical cell wherein an electrically conductive current collector is in electrical contact with a particulate mixture of gray cast iron and an alkali metal sulfide and an electrolyte including alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides. Also present may be a transition metal sulfide and graphite flakes from the conversion of gray cast iron to iron sulfide. Also disclosed is a method of distributing carbon flakes in a cell wherein there is formed an electrochemical cell of a positive electrode structure of the type described and a suitable electrolyte and a second electrode containing a material capable of alloying with alkali metal ions. The cell is connected to a source of electrical potential to electrochemically convert gray cast iron to an iron sulfide and uniformly to distribute carbon flakes formerly in the gray cast iron throughout the positive electrode while forming an alkali metal alloy in the negative electrode. Also disclosed are compositions useful in preparing positive electrodes.

Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL); Smaga, John A. (Lemont, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation  

SciTech Connect

Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations.

Shiu, Kelvin K.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Heat removal aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety in light of the Three Mile Island incident  

SciTech Connect

The safety aspects of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) loop design are compared with those of the Light Water Reactor (LWR), in light of the Three Mile Island (TMI) incident. The events at TMI are briefly described, the fundamental differences between the LWR water coolant and the LMFBR sodium coolant are presented, and the design of analogous LMFBR safety systems under similar events as those at TMI is discussed. A preliminary qualitative evaluation of a TMI-equivalent accident for an LMFBR indicates that there is likely to be: (1) negligible pressure transients in the primary loop, (2) no core damage, (3) isolation of the incident at the steam generator, and (4) no radiation release to the environment, except a negligible amount of tritium from the secondary sodium. Furthermore, with the absence of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System), pressurizer, and other pressure-related components in the LMFBR design, operator action for a LMFBR should be much simpler in dealing with the coolant upset condition and the decay heat removal problems.

Victor, H.R.; Graf, D.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5electrode and 0.ltoreq.y<1 in which the Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3 and LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 components have layered and spinel-type structures, respectively, and in which M is one or more metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

222

Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape  

SciTech Connect

Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed.

DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvent. Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid...

224

Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode...

225

Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

High frequency reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Advanced Binder for Electrode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a coin cell with Li counter electrode. The electrode does not contain other conductivity additives. 2. Demonstrated limited porosity is a major issue for high Si electrode loading...

229

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

230

Electrodeposition of ultrathin Pd, Co and Bi films on well-defined noble-metal electrodes: studies by ultrahigh vacuum-electrochemistry (UHV-EC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inherent interfacial properties of Pd can be dramatically altered in many ways. Alloy formation is a classical strategy of fusing together two or more metals. Alloying can be typically accomplished either by thermal treatment [6... is not unusual. A caveat to this preparative strategy is the occurrence of surface segregation upon equilibration [8]. The component with the lowest surface free-energy floats to the surface; consequently, the intended bulk composition significantly varies from...

Baricuatro, Jack Hess L

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Viscosity of Metallic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Viscosity measurements which have been recently carried out in this Department show that certain views normally ... not supported by experiments. For example, it is generally assumed1 that the relationship of viscosity to temperature is given by:

T. P. YAO; V. KONDIC

1950-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Near-electrode imager  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

RAPID FREE FLOW ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING VIA NOVEL ELECTRODE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAPID FREE FLOW ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING VIA NOVEL ELECTRODE STRUCTURES Jacob Albrecht, Suzanne Gaudet for micro free flow electrophoresis devices. Packed polymer beads or agar were used to isolate the sample from the electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode surface. These materials allow for applied

236

Metal inks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Li, Naichao (Croton on Hudson, NY)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

238

Microneedle Electrodes Toward an Amperometric Glucose-Sensing Smart Patch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here, efforts toward the development of a microneedle-based glucose sensor or “smart patch” for intradermal glucose sensing are described. Metallic microneedle array electrodes, conducting polymers, and glucose oxidase ...

Invernale, Michael A.

239

Device and technique for in-process sampling and analysis of molten metals and other liquids presenting harsh sampling conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for continuously analyzing liquids by creating a supersonic spray which is shaped and sized prior to delivery of the spray to a analysis apparatus. The gas and liquid is sheared into small particles which are of a size and uniformity to form a spray which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. The spray is shaped by a concentric supplemental flow of gas. 5 figs.

Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

240

Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrochemical continuous decomposition of chloroform and other volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a column type metal impregnated carbon fiber electrode  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethane and other chlorinated hydrocarbons are known to be toxic to human health. However, removal of these compounds from water is not easy. The authors attempted continuous electrochemical decomposition of chloroform that is the main compound of trihalomethanes and some toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a metal-impregnated CFE, concentration of chloroform in 0.5 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the supporting electrolyte) solution was decreased from 0.23m mol/L to below the limit of detection of their analysis system (1 ppm) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The main product of electrolysis was methane. This high efficiency, determined by the chemical yield, hardly changed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min at a Ag-impregnated CFE. At a flow rate of 1 mL/min, chloroform was degraded with a decomposition efficiency of almost 100% even in the solution without the supporting electrolyte, whereas at a higher flow rate, the efficiency for the decomposition of chloroform decreased with a decrease in the concentration of the supporting electrolyte. Tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane were also decomposed at a Ag-impregnated CFE with an efficiency of almost 100%.

Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Sakata, Tadayoshi

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Characterization of a spheromak plasma gun: The effect of refractory electrode coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of a spheromak plasma gun: The effect of refractory electrode coatings M. FL Brown, the center electrode of the spheromak plasma gun has been coated with a variety of metals (bare steel, copper in the gun breech was monitored for each of the coated electrodes. Plasma density and temperature

Brown, Michael R.

243

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

244

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

245

Selective metal ion extraction for multiple ion liquid-liquid exchange reactions. Progress report, DE-AS02-79ER 10406. A001  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of selecting a model binary system to study was completed. The system selected is Cu(II), Fe(III) acid sulfate solutions extracted by ..beta..-alkenyl 8-hydroxy quinoline (Kelex 100) in xylene. Maximum copper extraction occurs in less than 5 minutes at 30 to 50/sup 0/C. Thermodynamic chemical equilibrium studies with the Fe(III) ion indicate that the ionic charge of the extracted ion is +3 over a limited pH and concentration range. A simplified equilibrium model did not fit the experimental data. A chemical equilibrium model for the aqueous phase was developed. Kinetic studies on the liquid jet recycle reactor are underway. The model proposed to analyze simultaneous extraction of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in a stirred tank extractor was reduced to a set of two nonlinear algebraic equations for idealized kinetic expressions.

Tavlarides, L.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids and lithium batterymaterials  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion insertion into electrode materials is commonly used in rechargeable battery technology. The insertion implies changes in both the crystal structure and the electronic structure of the electrode material. Side-reactions may occur on the surface of the electrode which is exposed to the electrolyte and form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The understanding of these processes is of great importance for improving battery performance. The chemical and physical properties of water and alcohols are complicated by the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Various experimental techniques have been used to study geometrical structures and different models have been proposed to view the details of how these liquids are geometrically organized by hydrogen bonding. However, very little is known about the electronic structure of these liquids, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools. In this thesis examples of studies of lithium battery electrodes and liquid systems using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy will be presented. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been used to accomplish selective excitation, in terms of energy and polarization. The electronic structure of graphite electrodes has been studied, before and after lithium intercalation. Changes in the electronic structure upon lithiation due to transfer of electrons into the graphite {pi}-bands have been observed. Transfer of electrons in to the 3d states of transition metal oxides upon lithiation have been studied, through low energy excitations as dd- and charge transfer-excitations. A SEI was detected on cycled graphite electrodes. By the use of selective excitation different carbon sites were probed in the SEI. The local electronic structure of water, methanol and mixtures of the two have been examined using a special liquid cell, to separate the liquid from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Results from the study of liquid water showed a strong influence on the 3a1 molecular orbital and orbital mixing between water molecules upon hydrogen bonding. Apart from the four-hydrogen-bonding structure in water, a structure where one hydrogen bond is broken could be separated and identified. The soft x-ray emission study of methanol showed the existence of ring and chain formations in the liquid phase and the dominating structures are formed of 6 and 8 molecules. Upon mixing of the two liquids, a segregation at the molecular level was found and the formation of new structures, which could explain the unexpected low increase of the entropy.

Augustsson, Andreas

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Jaworski Liquid metal PSI science and component development FESAC Meeting, Washington DC July 8-10, 2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

): ­ No permanent damage ­ Increased power loading, relaxed design constraints ­ Enhanced confinement regimes · LM-cooled targets: with thin liquid layers need to demonstrate integrated performance in a high-power device. ­ We Science-driven program will address critical physics unknowns and guide technology 4 Heat Conduction

249

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

250

Layered electrode for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A New Approach to Wastewater Remediation Based on Bifunctional Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Approach to Wastewater Remediation Based on Bifunctional Electrodes ... To illustrate this innovative technique, TiO2/Ti/Ta2O5?IrO2 bifunctional electrodes were prepared using a facile thermal decomposition technique and employed in this study. ... The establishment and enforcement of limits for the discharge and/or disposal of toxic and hazardous materials has required the development of new technologies to effectively remediate a variety of gaseous and liquid effluents, solid waste and sludge. ...

Robert Matthew Asmussen; Min Tian; Aicheng Chen

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

252

Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Study on separation of platinum group metals from high level liquid waste using macroporous (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P silica-based absorbent  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by macroporous silica-based adsorbent, (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P has been developed by impregnating two extractants of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-n-octyl-thio-diglycolamide (MOTDGA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) into a silica/polymer composite support (SiO{sub 2}-P). The adsorption of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) have been investigated in simulated HLLW by batch method. The adsorbent has shown good uptake property for Pd(II). In addition, the combined use of MOTDGA and TOA improved the adsorption of Ru(III) and Rh(III) better than the individual use of them. The usability of adsorbent in radiation fields was further confirmed by irradiation experiments. The adsorbent remained to have the uptake capability for PGMs over the absorbed dose of 100 kGy, corresponding with one really adsorbed by the adsorbent, and showed good retention capability for Pd(II) even at the absorbed dose of 800 kGy. The chromatographic separation of metal ions was demonstrated with the adsorbent packed column, there is no influence of Re(VII) (instead of Tc) on the excellent separation behavior of Pd(II). (authors)

Ito, Tatsuya [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Xu, Yuanlai; Hitomi, Keitaro [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kimura, Takaumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Battery using a metal particle bed electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

Jensen, R.R.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Improved electrodes for BWR in-plant ECP monitoring  

SciTech Connect

In January 1978, NWT Corporation was contracted to obtain electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements of 304 stainless steel during exposure to reactor water at the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). Since existing electrode technology was inadequate for long term BWR ECP monitoring, NWT developed designs of measuring and reference electrodes to facilitate such measurements. The reference electrode is basically a silver/silver chloride electrode enclosed in a solid Teflon chamber filled with saturated silver chloride aqueous solution, and connected to the solution of interest through a liquid junction. The electrodes were qualified in a laboratory test facility to 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Subsequent evaluation at Vermont Yankee demonstrated that the reference electrode was stable, resistant to thermal cycling, reproducible, interchangeable, and durable. One reference electrode performed satisfactorily for over 21 months (19 months at 270/sup 0/C) in the Vermont Yankee reactor water cleanup system. Routine long-term ECP monitoring in BWR reactor water systems is now achievable with the new electrodes.

Leibovitz, J.; Kassen, W.R.; Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes for Dielectrophoresis of DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectrophoresis can potentially be used as an efficient trapping tool in the fabrication of molecular devices. For nanoscale objects, however, the Brownian motion poses a challenge. We show that the use of carbon nanotube electrodes makes it possible to apply relatively low trapping voltages and still achieve high enough field gradients for trapping nanoscale objects, e.g., single molecules. We compare the efficiency and other characteristics of dielectrophoresis between carbon nanotube electrodes and lithographically fabricated metallic electrodes, in the case of trapping nanoscale DNA molecules. The results are analyzed using finite element method simulations and reveal information about the frequency dependent polarizability of DNA.

Sampo Tuukkanen; J. Jussi Toppari; Anton Kuzyk; Lasse Hirviniemi; Vesa P. Hytonen; Teemu Ihalainen; Paivi Torma

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

262

Standard electrode potential, Tafel equation, and the solvation thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equilibrium in the electronic subsystem across the solution-metal interface is considered to connect the standard electrode potential to the statistics of localized electronic states in solution. We argue that a correct derivation of the Nernst equation for the electrode potential requires a careful separation of the relevant time scales. An equation for the standard metal potential is derived linking it to the thermodynamics of solvation. The Anderson–Newns model for electronic delocalization between the solution and the electrode is combined with a bilinear model of solute-solvent coupling introducing nonlinear solvation into the theory of heterogeneous electron transfer. We therefore are capable of addressing the question of how nonlinear solvation affects electrochemical observables. The transfer coefficient of electrode kinetics is shown to be equal to the derivative of the free energy or generalized force required to shift the unoccupied electronic level in the bulk. The transfer coefficient thus directly quantifies the extent of nonlinear solvation of the redox couple. The current model allows the transfer coefficient to deviate from the value of 0.5 of the linear solvation models at zero electrode overpotential. The electrode current curves become asymmetric in respect to the change in the sign of the electrode overpotential.

Dmitry V. Matyushov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Standard electrode potential, Tafel equation, and the solvation thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium in the electronic subsystem across the solution-metal interface is considered to connect the standard electrode potential to the statistics of localized electronic states in solution. We argue that a correct derivation of the Nernst equation for the electrode potential requires a careful separation of the relevant time scales. An equation for the standard metal potential is derived linking it to the thermodynamics of solvation. The Anderson-Newns model for electronic delocalization between the solution and the electrode is combined with a bilinear model of solute-solvent coupling introducing nonlinear solvation into the theory of heterogeneous electron transfer. We therefore are capable of addressing the question of how nonlinear solvation affects electrochemical observables. The transfer coefficient of electrode kinetics is shown to be equal to the derivative of the free energy, or generalized force, required to shift the unoccupied electronic level in the bulk. The transfer coefficient thus directly quantifies the extent of nonlinear solvation of the redox couple. The current model allows the transfer coefficient to deviate from the value of 0.5 of the linear solvation models at zero electrode overpotential. The electrode current curves become asymmetric in respect to the change in the sign of the electrode overpotential.

Matyushov, Dmitry V. [Center for Biological Physics, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2009-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

264

Kinetics of oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode in alkaline solution  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction is an industrially important electrochemical reaction, for fuel cells, electrochemical caustic concentrators, air depolarized cathodes, metal-air batteries, and oxidant production. Oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrodes fabricated by thermal decomposition was investigated by employing cyclic voltammetry and rotating-disk electrode techniques. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated that oxygen reduction begins during the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) transition on an IrO{sub 2} electrode. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode together with polarization curves, Tafel slopes, and stoichiometric number determinations, a mechanism for oxygen reduction on an IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode is proposed.

Chang, C.C.; Wen, T.C. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Metallization of fluid hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...P. Tunstall Metallization of fluid hydrogen W. J. Nellis 1 A. A. Louis 2 N...The electrical resistivity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic...which structural changes are paramount. hydrogen|metallization of hydrogen|liquid...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Structured Pillar Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the distance charge carriers must travel to encounter an electrode. Description An optoelectronic device comprises a photoactive layer having a heterojunction; and electrode(s)...

268

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Negative void reactivity in a large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor with hydrogenous moderator (ZrH[sub 1. 7]) layers  

SciTech Connect

Placing a thin hydrogenous moderator (ZrH[sub 1.7]) layer between the seed and the blanket is very effective in reducing the sodium void reactivity of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The void reactivity reduction is attributed to the decrease in neutron production and increase in neutron absorption in the blanket at voiding due to the slowing down of fast neutrons in the layer. This dominates the whole core neutron balance. The fixed hydrogenous layer concept is much more effective than the conventional uniform introduction of such moderator in a core. Furthermore, it does not seriously deteriorate the breeding capability. For realizing the negative sodium void reactivity in a large-sized core, the seeds should be divided by blankets with the layers. The conceptual design of a nonflat LMFBR core is presented for demonstrating the effectiveness of the layer. Negative void reactivity is realized in a radially heterogeneous core of 1,000-MW(electric) class output. The active core is 2.9 m high. It is much taller than the conventional LMFBR core, which is [approximately]1 m high. A wide pitch-to-fuel diameter ratio was chosen so as not to increase the pressure drop in the core. The compound system doubling time is 12.5 yr.

Oka, Yoshiaki; Jevremovic, T.; Koshizuka, Seiichi (Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

272

Battery electrode growth accommodation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Liquid membranes. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning liquid membranes (LM) and LM processes. Included are patents for LM formulations and compositions, separation of aqueous and gas mixtures, and LM type electrodes. Applications are discussed, including use in drug release control, water and wastewater treatment, metal recovery, high temperature and high pressure LM processes, artificial LM lung and LM red cells, and LM scale removal from oil and gas production equipment. Citations concerning ion exchange resins are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment  

SciTech Connect

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

Yang, Chan-Shan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tang, Tsung-Ta [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ru-Pin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Yu, Peichen [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ci-Ling, E-mail: clpan@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

An Estimate of the Order of Magnitude of the Explosion During a Core Meltdown-Compaction Accident for Heavy Liquid Metal Fast Reactors: A disquieting result updating the Bethe-Tait model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but lasting over a timescale of milliseconds. The forms of the energy release and of the resulting struc- tural damage differ significantly between a high explosive detonation and a propellant conflagration. Considering the yield of TNT Containment Law... gravitational compaction of the 100 MWth core, the ves- sel could withstand the 60 kg TNT-equivalent explosion from a 100 $/s reactivity insertion if a bare core is as- sumed; however, allowing for the presence of the unboiled heavy liquid metal coolant...

Arias, Francisco J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method Of Characterizing An Electrode Binder  

SciTech Connect

In a method of characterizing a polymer binder for cell electrodes in contact with an electrolyte and including a current collector and a paste containing an electrochemically active material and said binder, a spreading coefficient of the binder on the active material is calculated from the measured angle of contact between standard liquids and the active material and the binder, respectively. An interaction energy of the binder with the electrolyte is calculated from the measured angle of contact between the electrolyte and the binder. The binder is selected such that the spreading coefficient is less than zero and the interaction energy is at least 60 mJ/m.sup.2.

Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Talence, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence, FR)

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

277

Fluidized Bed Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... smoothed the electrolyte flow through the bed. The mesh acted as bed support and electrical contactor to the beads. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide electrode the nickel mesh ... at the top 'of the bed for the hydrogen peroxide electrode and close to the contactor for the methanol electrode. In both cases polarization measurements were carried out at 20 ...

T. BERENT; I. FELLS; R. MASON

1969-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals phase Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal dimers Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

280

Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for Electrocatalytic Detection of Ascorbic Acid. Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications  

SciTech Connect

Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

Daniel A Scherson

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

282

Long life reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays Pierre of electroactive and conducting polymers offers new opportunities for the design of materials for electrochromic the most promising electrochromic (EC) properties. Here, we report the use of highly porous metallized

Tanner, David B.

285

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery electrode material comprises a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

Varma, R.

1983-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics  

SciTech Connect

Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

291

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

292

Definition: Electrode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrode Electrode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Electrode A conductor through which electrons enter or leave an electrolyte. Batteries and fuel cells have a negative electrode (the anode) and a positive electrode (the cathode).[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms Battery, Fuel cell, Electrolyteelectricity generation, fuel cell, electrolyte, electricity generation References ↑ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/glossary.html#e Retrieve LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. d from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Electrode&oldid=493048" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal nitrate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

METAL-ALKALI HALIDE Summary: CONDUCTIVITY OF ALKALI METAL-ALKALI HALIDE SOLUTIONS R. GILBERT and G. J. MORGAN The Physics Department... to liquid alkali metals electrons are...

294

Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian (Newton, MA); Chen, Jinghua (Chestnut Hill, MA); Huang, Zhongping (Belmont, MA); Wang, Dezhi (Wellesley, MA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Advanced Binder for Electrode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in the electrode to increase energy density. *Compatibility with current lithium-ion manufacturing process. 3 Environmental Energy Technologies Division 06082010 4...

296

Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and batteries/fuel cells. Nanostructured electrode materials have demonstrated superior electrochemical of polymethine dyes electronic spectra is crucial for successful design of the new molecules with optimized

Wu, Shin-Tson

297

Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

Meilin Liu, James Gole

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

Neutron Sciences - Electrode Material for Solid-oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode material for solid-oxide fuel cells Research Contact: Ana B. Munoz-Garcia December 2012, Written by Agatha Bardoel Fuel cell technology is one potentially very efficient and environmentally friendly way to convert the chemical energy of fuels into electricity. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert a wide variety of fuels with simpler, cheaper designs than those used in liquid electrolyte cells. Using the Powder Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, researchers experimentally characterized the promising new SOFC electrode material strontium iron molybdenum oxide─Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ (SFMO). Combining the experimental results with insights from theory showed that the crystal structure is distorted from the ideal cubic simple perovskite

299

Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode  

SciTech Connect

In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ranjan, Devesh [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

A comparative evaluation of low-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316LN base metal, 316 weld metal, and 316LN/316 weld joint  

SciTech Connect

A comparative evaluation of the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of type 316LN base metal, carried out at 773 and 873 K. Total strain-controlled LCF tests were conducted at a constant strain rate of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} with strain amplitudes in the range {+-}0.20 to {+-}1.0 pct. Weld pads with single V and double V configuration were prepared by the shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) process using 316 electrodes for weld-metal and weld-joint specimens. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the untested and tested samples were carried out to elucidate the deformation and the fracture behavior. The cyclic stress response of the base metal shows a very rapid hardening to a maximum stress followed by a saturated stress response. Weld metal undergoes a relatively short initial hardening followed by a gradual softening regime. Weld joints exhibit an initial hardening and a subsequent softening regime at all strain amplitudes, except at low strain amplitudes where a saturation regime is noticed. The initial hardening observed in base metal has been attributed to interaction between dislocations and solute atoms/complexes and cyclic saturation to saturation in the number density of slip bands. The 18-8 group of austenitic stainless steels, such as AISI type 316, 304, and their modified grades, finds applications as structural material for various components of the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR).

Valsan, M.; Sundararaman, D.; Sankara Rao, K.B.; Mannan, S.L. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Tamil Nadu (India)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane/metal–organic framework coated stir bars coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs, Al-MIL-53-NH2) were synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and novel polydimethylsiloxane/metal–organic framework (PDMS/MOFs, PDMS/Al-MIL-53-NH2)-coated stir bars were prepared by the sol–gel technique. The preparation reproducibility of the PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.8% to 14.9% (n = 7) within one batch and from 6.2% to 16.9% (n = 6) among different batches. Based on this fact, a new method of PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and ultrasonic-assisted liquid desorption (UALD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. To obtain the best extraction performance for PAHs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and extraction temperature, were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges and good \\{RSDs\\} (n = 7) were obtained. With enrichment factors (EFs) of 16.1- to 88.9-fold (theoretical EF, 142-fold), the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of the developed method for the target \\{PAHs\\} were found to be in the range of 0.05–2.94 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of \\{PAHs\\} in Yangtze River and East Lake water samples.

Cong Hu; Man He; Beibei Chen; Cheng Zhong; Bin Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Extensive Interstitial Solid Solutions of Metals in Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of metallic solid solution has been prepared in which <~12.5 at.% of comparatively small metal atoms (Cu) fill interstitial sites in a host metal composed of larger atoms (Y). At higher solute concentrations, both interstitial and substitutional sites are occupied. These solid solutions are metastable; they were formed by ultrarapid quenching from the liquid.

B. C. Giessen; R. Ray; S. H. Hahn

1971-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Electron Tunneling in Normal Metal-Insulator-Metal Junctions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structure in the conductance of normal metal-insulator-metal junctions at very low bias is explained through a nonequilibrium treatment of the tunneling process. In particular, the related peak in the derivative d?(V)dV is quantitatively accounted for by the blocking of otherwise available electron tunneling states due to the finite electron relaxation rates in the metal electrodes.

P. N. Trofimenkoff; H. J. Kreuzer; W. J. Wattamaniuk; J. G. Adler

1972-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Spintronic transport of a non-magnetic molecule between magnetic electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The spintronic transport properties of a junction system composed of a non-magnetic molecule sandwiched between ferromagnetic metal electrodes are investigated theoretically using a non-equilibrium Green's function method based on density functional theory. It is revealed that in such a system, the molecular magnetic properties induced by hybridization with the magnetic electrodes play a crucial role. Alignment of the induced molecular spin-split levels is strongly related to the spin injection and tunneling magneto-resistance effects. It is found that in the system with weaker molecule-electrode interaction, stronger spintronic effects of the spin injection and tunneling magneto-resistance are observed.

Kondo, Hisashi, E-mail: kondo@tokyo.rist.or.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ohno, Takahisa, E-mail: OHNO.Takahisa@nims.go.jp [Computational Materials Science Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan) [Computational Materials Science Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

309

Oxygen electrodes for energy conversion and storage. Annual report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978  

SciTech Connect

Research on the development of high performance, long life O/sub 2/ cathodes for both alkaline and acid electrolytes for a spectrum of applications including industrial electrolysis, fuel cells, and metal-air batteries is described. Oxygen electrocatalysts studied include platinum, silver, underpotential deposited layers and alloy metal layers on noble metal substrates, intercalated graphite, transition metal macrocyclic complexes, and transition metal oxides. Research on gas fed electrodes is also described. Results are presented and discussed in detail. An appendix on the electrodeposition of platinum crystallites on graphite substrates is included. (WHK)

None

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Model electrode structures for studies of electrocatalyst degradation.  

SciTech Connect

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are being extensively studied as power sources because of their technological advantages such as high energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. The most effective catalyst in these systems consists of nanoparticles of Pt or Pt-based alloys on carbon supports. Understanding the role of the nanoparticle size and structure on the catalytic activity and degradation is needed to optimize the fuel cell performance and reduce the noble metal loading. One of the more significant causes of fuel cell performance degradation is the cathode catalyst deactivation. There are four mechanisms considered relevant to the loss of electrochemically active surface area of Pt in the fuel cell electrodes that contribute to cathode catalyst degradation including: catalyst particle sintering such as Ostwald ripening, migration and coalescence, carbon corrosion and catalyst dissolution. Most approaches to study this catalyst degradation utilize membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), which results in a complex system where it is difficult to deconvolute the effects of the metal nanoparticles. Our research addresses catalyst degradation by taking a fundamental approach to study electrocatalyst using model supports. Nanostructured particle arrays are engineered directly onto planar glassy carbon electrodes. These model electrocatalyst structures are applied to electrochemical activity measurements using a rotating disk electrode and surface characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Sample transfer between these measurement techniques enables examination of the same catalyst area before and after electrochemical cycling. This is useful to probe relationships between electrochemical activity and catalyst structure such as particle size and spacing. These model systems are applied to accelerated aging studies of activity degradation. We will present our work demonstrating the mechanistic aspects of catalyst degradation using this simplified geometric system. The active surface area loss observed in repeated cyclic voltammetry is explained through characterization and imaging of the same RDE electrode structures throughout the aging process.

St. Pierre, Jean (University of South Carolina); Atanassov, Plamen Borissov (University of New Mexico); Datye, Abhaya K. (University of New Mexico); Goeke, Ronald S. (University of New Mexico)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The single-electrode Peltier heats of Li-Al alloy electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the single-electrode Peltier heat of cathodic (or anodic) reaction of Li-Al alloy electrode in a coexisting phase state, or an intermetallic compound phase state estimated by thermoelectric-power measurement. The thermoelectric-power measurements of Li-Al alloys in various coexisting phase states were carried out with both potentiometric and potential-sweep methods in the LiCl-KCl eutectic system between 673 and 843 K. The values of the thermoelectric power of Li-Al alloys calculated by using thermodynamic literature data were in good agreement with those obtained by experiment. The single-electrode Peltier heat changes drastically with change of its phase state, and it was found that the formation reactions of [beta] (Li[sub 0.5]Al[sub 0.5]) and [gamma] (Li[sub 0.6]Al[sub 0.4]) phases are exothermic, and those of liquid phase from [beta] and [gamma] phase are endothermic. The single-electrode Peltier heat for the cathodic formation reaction of Li-Al alloy in intermetallic compound [gamma] phase is estimated to be exothermic by using the measured values of thermoelectric powers of Li-Al alloys in ([beta] + [gamma]) and ([gamma] + liq.) regions.

Amezawa, Koji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tomii, Yoichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Atomically flat La-silicate/Si interface using tungsten carbide gate electrode with nano-sized grain  

SciTech Connect

Interface properties of La-silicate gate dielectrics on Si substrates with W or nano-sized grain W{sub 2}C gate electrodes have been investigated. A low interface state density of 2.5?×?10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}/eV has been achieved with W{sub 2}C gate electrodes, which is one third of those with W gate electrode. An interface roughness of 0.33?nm with spatial frequency comparable to the grain size of W gate electrode has been observed. Besides, an atomically flat interface of 0.12?nm has been obtained with W{sub 2}C gate electrode. The origin of flat interface may be attributed to the elimination of inhomogeneous stress by grains in metal electrode.

Tuokedaerhan, K.; Natori, K.; Iwai, H. [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kakushima, K., E-mail: kakushima@ep.titech.ac.jp; Kataoka, Y.; Nishiyama, A.; Sugii, N.; Wakabayashi, H.; Tsutsui, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cryogenic Ion Trapping Systems with Surface-Electrode Traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present two simple cryogenic RF ion trap systems in which cryogenic temperatures and ultra high vacuum pressures can be reached in as little as 12 hours. The ion traps are operated either in a liquid helium bath cryostat or in a low vibration closed cycle cryostat. The fast turn around time and availability of buffer gas cooling made the systems ideal for testing surface-electrode ion traps. The vibration amplitude of the closed cycled cryostat was found to be below 106 nm. We evaluated the systems by loading surface-electrode ion traps with $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions using laser ablation, which is compatible with the cryogenic environment. Using Doppler cooling we observed small ion crystals in which optically resolved ions have a trapped lifetime over 2500 minutes.

P. B. Antohi; D. Schuster; G. M. Akselrod; J. Labaziewicz; Y. Ge; Z. Lin; W. S. Bakr; I. L. Chuang

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the intrinsic material properties of carbon, functionalized films can be produced through chemical modification fabrication method capable of producing large area (%100 s cm2 ) submicrometer porous carbon films. In our methodology. The palladium-modified electrodes exhibit a catalytic response for methanol oxidation

New Mexico, University of

316

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical origins of the anomalously large enhancement of the Raman scattering cross section for molecules adsorbed on silver electrodes in an electrochemical cell were investigated. The effect of the chemical reactions which occur during the anodization/activation procedure were studied using the Ag-CN system. It was shown that the function of the anodization process is to roughen the electrode surface and create an activated site for bonding to the cyanide. A new nonelectrochemical technique for activating the silver surface, along with a study of the enhanced cyanide Raman scattering in different background electrolytes, showed that the Raman active entity on the surface must be a silver-cyanide complex. In order to study the physical mechanism of the enhancement, the angular dependence of the scattered radiation was measured from pyridine adsorbed on an evaporated silver electrode. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline silver films were used. The angular dependence of the scattered radiation from these films showed that the metal surface was controlling the directional properties of the scattered radiation, and not the polarizability tensor of the adsorbate. Based on these experimental results, it was concluded that for weakly roughened silver electrodes the source of the anomalous enhancement is due to a resonant Raman scattering process.

Trott, G.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CMPO-functionalized C{sub 3}-symmetric tripodal ligands in liquid/liquid extractions : efficient, selective recognition of Pu(IV) with low affinity for 3+ metal ions.  

SciTech Connect

Structural modifications of carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CPMO)-functionalized triphenoxymethane platforms are described, and the influence of these changes on the ability of the ligand to extract actinides from simulated acidic nuclear waste streams has been evaluated. The ligand system has been shown to have excellent binding efficiency and a selectivity for An(IV) in comparison to the a simple monomeric CMPO ligand under analogous conditions. Both the extraction efficiency and selectivity are strongly dependent on the flexibility and electronic properties of the ligating units in the triphenoxymethane construct. The Tb(III) and Bi(III) nitrate complexes of tris-CMPO derivatives have been isolated, and their structures were elucidated by NMR, ESI FT-ICR MS, and X-ray analysis, providing information on the interactions between metal ions and the tris-CMPO molecules.

Matloka, K.; Sah, A. K.; Peters, M. W.; Srinivasan, P.; Gelis, A. V.; Regalbuto, M.; Scott, M. J.; Univ. of Florida

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

318

Multiple input electrode gap controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows. 17 figs.

Hysinger, C.L.; Beaman, J.J.; Melgaard, D.K.; Williamson, R.L.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Continuity and Performance in Composite Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C Figure 6 Au coating Cathode composite C coating - Currentof as-received LiFePCv composite electrodes: a) top and b)paths in A u coated composite electrode. The spheres

Chen, Guoying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - active filler metal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. The dissolution of the base metal in the liquid filler metal could eventually shift the eutectic point, however... -temperature brazing with nickel-based filler ... Source:...

322

Liquid soap film generates electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electron transport through a metal-molecule-metal junction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecules of bisthiolterthiophene have been adsorbed on the two facing gold electrodes of a mechanically controllable break junction in order to form metal-molecule(s)-metal junctions. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have been recorded at room temperature. Zero bias conductances were measured in the 10–100 nS range and different kinds of nonlinear I-V curves with steplike features were reproducibly obtained. Switching between different kinds of I-V curves could be induced by varying the distance between the two metallic electrodes. The experimental results are discussed within the framework of tunneling transport models explicitly taking into account the discrete nature of the electronic spectrum of the molecule.

C. Kergueris; J.-P. Bourgoin; S. Palacin; D. Esteve; C. Urbina; M. Magoga; C. Joachim

1999-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low-particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of applications that require both transparency and high electrical conductivity. We are also applying these fab

Constant, Kristen

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Radio-frequency-excited carbon dioxide metal waveguide laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of waveguide laser is described in which a single-surface concave metal waveguide also doubles as the grounded electrode in a radio-frequency-excited gaseous discharge. The...

Grossman, Jonathan G; Casperson, Lee W; Stafsudd, Oscar M

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

1987-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

329

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes’ equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

330

MODELING OF CHANGING ELECTRODE PROFILES  

SciTech Connect

A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

Prentice, Geoffrey Allen

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Formation of zirconium metallic glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over ... a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary ...

Jianzhong Zhang; Yusheng Zhao

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic transition metals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... , copper,...

333

EMSL - liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

334

3D MHD lead–lithium liquid metal flow analysis and experiments in a Test-Section of multiple rectangular bends at moderate to high Hartmann numbers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experiments with liquid lead–lithium (Pb–Li) were carried out in a stainless steel (SS) Test Section (TS) consisting of multiple 90° bends for various flow rates and applied magnetic fields of up to 4 T. Characteristic MHD flow parameter Hartmann number, Ha ( = B 0 a ? / ? , Ha2 is the ratio of electromagnetic force to viscous force) and interaction parameter, N ( = ? a B 0 2 / ? U , N is the ratio of electromagnetic force to inertial force) of these experiments were varied from Ha = 515 to 2060 and N = 25 to 270 by changing the applied magnetic field and flow rates respectively. Three dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using MHD module of FLUENT code. The measured Hartmann and side wall electric potential distribution at various locations of the Test Section have been compared with the numerical simulation results for different Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters (Ha = 1030, N = 25, 40, 67 for B = 2 T and Ha = 2060, N = 129, 161, 270 for B = 4 T). The numerical predictions based on laminar flow model are matching well with the measured values at all locations including bend regions for high magnetic field and low flow rates. However, at higher flow rates and lower magnetic fields (smaller Ha/Re values), the agreement was not good near the bend regions. This may be attributed to the significant presence of turbulence that was not accounted in the present simulation. The core velocity, estimated from the measured Hartmann wall potential at the locations far away from the bends, matched well with the numerical results. The analysis indicates that the flow distribution becomes rapidly symmetric when it turns at the bend where both the legs are perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. In contrast, flow distribution remains asymmetric for a longer distance when it turns from parallel to perpendicular direction of the applied field. The code is predicting reasonably well for MHD parameters relevant to Blanket Modules for single channel flows with bends.

P.K. Swain; P. Satyamurthy; R. Bhattacharyay; A. Patel; A. Shishko; E. Platacis; A. Ziks; S. Ivanov; A.V. Despande

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Assembly and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanometer-Scale Electrode|Solid Electrolyte Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is herein described for the assembly and characterization of nanometer-scale metal electrode|solid electrolyte interfaces of variable dimensions. The specific system examined in this work involves a sharp Pt tip attached to the piezo-driven ...

Matthias Loster; K. Andreas Friedrich; Daniel A. Scherson

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes ... Impedance spectra were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits with resistances, capacitances, and so-called “constant phase elements”. ... resists in directing the selective deposition of metal and ceramic thin films by MOCVD and sol-gel methods, resp. ...

Heiko Hillebrandt; Gerald Wiegand; Motomu Tanaka; Erich Sackmann

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Study of Liquid Dynamics by Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the information about the collective motions of atoms in liquids which can be obtained from neutron scattering experiments with particular attention to the rare gases and liquid metals. The current status of the theoretical interpretation is examined. Coherent neutron scattering from a monatomic liquid gives directly the spectrum of the correlation function for density fluctuations in the system for wavelengths in the range 1–10 Å. The results have a dual interpretation. On the one hand they may be understood in terms of a viscoelastic theory which takes into account the microscopic structure of the liquid; on the other hand fluctuations at these wavelengths may be interpreted in terms of vibrational modes as in an amorphous solid. The paper attempts to reconcile these two points of view. Qualitative differences between liquidargon and the liquid metals are discussed with reference to the connection between the neutron results and the microscopic properties of these liquids.

P. Schofield

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electrode materials for the electrolysis of metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon, tungsten, platinum, and iridium were examined as candidate anode materials for an electrolytic cell. The materials were pre-selected to endure high process temperatures and were characterized for inertness and high ...

Cooper, Benjamin D

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Thermo-mechanical analysis of metallized stereolithography EDM electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??EDM is widely accepted in tool and die industries for its versatility in machining hardened steels. Its ability to machine heat treated hardened steels eliminates… (more)

Mathew, Jeeson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Engineering study on TiSnSb-based composite negative electrode for Li-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Micrometric TiSnSb is a promising negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries when formulated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder and a mixture of carbon black and carbon nanofibers, and cycled in a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-containing electrolyte. Here, other binder systems were evaluated, polyacrylic acid (PAAH) mixed with CMC, CMC in buffered solution at pH 3 and amylopectin. However CMC showed the better performance in terms of cycle life of the electrode. Whatever the binder, cycle life decreases with increasing the active mass loading, which is attributed to both the precipitation of liquid electrolyte degradation products and to the loss of electrical contacts within the composite electrode and with the current collector as a consequence of the active particles volume variations. Furthermore, calendaring the electrode unfortunately decreases the cycle life. The rate performance was studied as a function of the active mass loading and was shown to be determined by the electrode polarization resistance. Finally, full cells cycling tests with Li1Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at the positive electrode were done. 60% of the capacity is retained after 200 cycles at the surface capacity of 2.7 mAh cm?2.

H.A. Wilhelm; C. Marino; A. Darwiche; P. Soudan; M. Morcrette; L. Monconduit; B. Lestriez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures etc. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the appearance of the last Communication dealing with liquid helium temperatures (December 1910) liquid helium has been succesfully transferred from the apparatus in which it was liquefied to another ves...

H. Kamerlingh Onnes

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

Frank, A.J.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electric filter with movable belt electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

Bergman, W.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

346

Air Electrode Design for Sustained High Power Operation of Li/air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development of portable electronic devices increasingly requires much more energy to support advanced functions. However, currently available batteries do not meet the high energy requirement of these devices. Metal/air batteries, especially Li/air batteries, have a much higher specific energy than most other available batteries, but their power rate is limited by the accumulation of reaction products in the air electrode. Several approaches to improve the power rate of Li/air batteries have been analyzed in this work, including adjustment of air electrode porosity and catalyst reactivity distributions to minimize diffusion limitations and maximize air electrode material utilization. An interconnected dual pore system (one catalyzed and one noncatalyzed) is proposed to improve oxygen transport into the inner regions of the air electrode, but this approach alone cannot supply high power for long term applications. A time-release multiple catalyst approach is analyzed to provide temporal release of reactivity in the air electrode. When coupled with the dual pore configuration and catalysts with high reactivities, the time-release catalyst concept can extend the duration of higher powers to longer times, and result in maximum utilization of air electrode materials.

Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

An investigation of the transfer of alkali metal chlorides from dimethyl sulfoxide to water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-to-back' with water as the solvent in one cell and a non- aqueous solvent in the other. The two cells used in this investigation were each composed of silver-silver chloride electrodes in the same solution with dropping alkali metal amalgam electrodes. The solute.... The dropping amalgam electrodes are written only once since they were connected by a common amalgam reservoir. When the external circuit between the two silver-silver chloride electrodes was closed a current flowed and the net result oi the electrode...

Williams, Roger

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications for radioactivity in the Earth's core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications Measurable uranium (U) is found in metal sulfide liquids in equilibrium with molten silicate at conditions shows that K is depleted in the Earth by $50%, while U and Th are slightly enriched (Palme and O

Minarik, William

349

Fabrication of carbon nanotube nanogap electrodes by helium ion sputtering for molecular contacts  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanotube nanogaps have been used to contact individual organic molecules. However, the reliable fabrication of a truly nanometer-sized gap remains a challenge. We use helium ion beam lithography to sputter nanogaps of only (2.8 ± 0.6) nm size into single metallic carbon nanotubes embedded in a device geometry. The high reproducibility of the gap size formation provides a reliable nanogap electrode testbed for contacting small organic molecules. To demonstrate the functionality of these nanogap electrodes, we integrate oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecular rods, and measure resistance before and after gap formation and with and without contacted molecules.

Thiele, Cornelius, E-mail: Cornelius.Thiele@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany) [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), 76028 Karlsruhe (Germany); Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Flavel, Benjamin S.; Hennrich, Frank [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Muñoz Torres, David; Eaton, Thomas R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mayor, Marcel [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany) [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), 76028 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Kappes, Manfred M. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany) [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), 76028 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Löhneysen, Hilbert v. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany) [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), 76028 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

350

Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

Frank, A.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Continuous transitions between composite Fermi liquid and Landau Fermi liquid: A route to fractionalized Mott insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most successful theories of a non-Fermi-liquid metallic state is the composite Fermi-liquid (CFL) theory of the half-filled Landau level. In this paper, we study continuous quantum phase transitions out of the ...

Barkeshli, Maissam

354

Electrochemical Roughening of Au(110) Single Crystal Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface roughness of a Au(110) electrode was studied as a function of electrode potential. The electrode potential was cycled between the double layer region and the oxide and hydrogen regions. Measurement...

K. M. Robinson; W. E. O’Grady; I. K. Robinson

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Management, United States (2008)" #12;2 1 Introduction Industrial aqueous pollution (heavy metals) accounts sludge (MHS) during the treatment of their liquid effluents charged with heavy metals. Generally, a small for 30 to 40% of industrial pollution. Metal finishing is one of the sectors which contributes mostly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Metal Aminoboranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

357

Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common...

359

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries, April 2013 Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air,...

360

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Abstract: Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors. Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical...

362

Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and glucose sensing. Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and...

363

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent Attachment of Electrochemically Active Species to an Azide The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free...

364

Automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes ... A modification of an earlier described apparatus allows for the automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes. ...

Eugene D. Olsen; Roger D. Walton

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins...

366

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

367

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

368

Memristor using a transition metal nitride insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus is disclosed in which at least one resistive switching element is interposed between at least a first and a second conducting electrode element. The resistive switching element comprises a metal oxynitride. A method for making such a resistive switching element is also disclosed.

Stevens, James E; Marinella, Matthew; Lohn, Andrew John

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Carbon nanotube-clamped metal atomic chain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...previous investigations on elementary (Au) (24, 26) and...manipulated by a piezo-electric tube to touch the metal-filled...which is used as the resistance for correction, when...1970 ) Electrical resistance of disordered one-dimensional...Carbon | Anisotropy Electric Conductivity Electrodes...

Dai-Ming Tang; Li-Chang Yin; Feng Li; Chang Liu; Wan-Jing Yu; Peng-Xiang Hou; Bo Wu; Young-Hee Lee; Xiu-Liang Ma; Hui-Ming Cheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliogralphy includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2.

Raleigh, H.D. (ed.) [ed.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography includes 5465 selected citations on LMFBR development. The citations were compiled from the DOE Energy Data Base covering the period January 1978 (EDB File No. 78R1087) through August 1980 (EDB File No. 80C79142). The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. Report citations are arranged alphanumerically by report number; nonreport literature citations are arranged chronologically. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number Indexes are provided in Volume 2.

Raleigh, H.D. (ed.) [ed.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell functionally graded electrodes and a feasibility study of fabrication techniques for functionally graded electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) electrodes have not been explored for optimization of graded electrodes and nonlinear functional grading. In this work, a complete… (more)

Flesner, Reuben

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Determining electrochemical parameters with dual electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Use of the two-electrode method for determining corrosion rates and Tafel constants is described. The method involves polarization resistance measurements, as well as polarization data further from the corrosion potential. Combined treatment of these data enables the determination of Tafel constants and corrosion rates. It is also shown that values for corrosion potentials can be obtained with good accuracy when exchange current densities of anodic and cathodic reactions are known. This method overcomes some of the earlier drawbacks of the two-electrode technique, such as the need for separate, three-electrode Tafel constant determinations.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Oxygen reduction on a graphite paste and a catalyst loaded graphite paste electrode  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction was studied in basic solution at a graphite paste electrode (GPE). The GPE was used as the disk of a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) and experiments were done using the voltage scan technique. The enhancements afforded by catalysts applied to the GPE were also studied. Oxygen reduction on a GPE was shown to be a two-electron process resulting in the formation of peroxide. The Tafel slope (plotted as potential versus log(i/sub l/ x i/(i/sub l/ - i))) was 180 mV. The presence of gold, silver, or platinum on the GPE shifted the oxygen reduction wave approximately 800 mV in the anodic direction. Comparison of the data on a metal catalyzed GPE to the solid metal electrode showed that the former electrode produced a greater fraction of peroxide as product than did the latter. Silver and gold catalyzed GPEs gave Tagel slopes of about 120 mV. The intermediate catalysis of iron and cobalt porphyrin was also examined. While the cobalt porphyrin catalyzed oxygen reduction at a more anodic potential than the iron porphyrin, the latter appeared more active in reacting the peroxide formed as the product of the disk reaction.

DiMarco, D.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

377

Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

378

Self-weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes Hui Yang a , Xu Huang a , Wentao Liang a , Adri C.T. van Duin b, , Muralikrishna Raju b , Sulin Zhang a, a Department of...

379

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode pockels cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating. pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal.

Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Subtask 5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials All papers by year Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K.(2014)Concomitant...

383

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

Keqin Huang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery templates produced uniform metal coatings up to 40 nm in thickness. Within a nickel-zinc battery system have uses in an array of applications including electrodes, catalyst supports, thermal barriers, sensor

Rubloff, Gary W.

385

Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Low energy milling method, low crystallinity alloy, and negative electrode composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making nanostructured alloy particles includes milling a millbase in a pebble mill containing milling media. The millbase comprises: (i) silicon, and (ii) at least one of carbon or a transition metal, and wherein the nanostructured alloy particles are substantially free of crystalline domains greater than 50 nanometers in size. A method of making a negative electrode composition for a lithium ion battery including the nanostructured alloy particles is also disclosed.

Le, Dihn B; Obrovac, Mark N; Kube, Robert Y; Landucci, James R

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

Ruoff, Rodney S. [PI; Alam, Todd M. [co-PI; Bielawski, Christopher W. [co-PI; Chabal, Yves [co-PI; Hwang, Gyeong [co-PI; Ishii, Yoshitaka [co-PI; Rogers, Robin [co-PI

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

390

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Porphyrin electrode films prepared by electrooxidation of metalloprotoporphyrins  

SciTech Connect

Electrooxidation in organic solvents of the dimethyl esters of several metalloprotoporphyrins (PP) (Ni/sup II/PP, Zn/sup II/PP, Co/sup II/PP, (Fe/sup III/PP)Cl, (Fe/sup III/PP)/sub 2/O, and (Cr/sup III/PP)/sub 2/O) leads to the deposition of thick (approx. 1000 monolayer equivalents), electroactive porphyrin films, which have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and absorption spectroscopy on transparent SnO/sub 2/ electrodes. The films are stable toward organic solvents and aqueous acids and bases, but are removed by treatment with hot concentrated acids. The resonance Raman spectrum of the NiPP film indicates that one of the two vinyl groups is saturated on most of the porphyrin units. Deposition continues for some minutes after the current is interrupted. This evidence is consistent with a mechanism involving electroinitiated cationic vinyl polymerization. No film is formed if the metal, rather than the ring, is oxidized. Thus the first oxidation step of Co/sup II/PP, to (Co/sup III/PP)/sup +/, does not support film formation (although the potential is as high as for ring oxidation in ZnPP), but the second step, to (Co/sup III/PP)/sup 2 +/, does. Lack of film formation for (Mn/sup III/PP)Cl and (Cr/sup IV/PP)O suggests metal, rather than ring oxidation, to Mn/sup IV/ and Cr/sup V/. However, (CrPP)/sub 2/O oxidation does produce a film, suggesting ring oxidation, analogous to (FePP)/sub 2/O, which also produces a film. However, while (CrPP)/sub 2/O is incorporated intact into the film, the (FePP)/sub 2/O film contains monomer units. Incorporation of other metal ions can be accomplished by soaking a ZnPP-coated electrode in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ followed by contact wtih a solution of the metal dihalide in refluxing DMF. The porphyrin sites are accessible to small ions, as shown by chloride coordination of ZnPP film upon soaking in chloride solution. 49 references, 13 figures, 1 table.

Macor, K.A.; Spiro, T.G.

1983-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

392

Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

393

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

394

Electron Spin Resonance in Metals and Metal-Ammonia Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron spin resonance measurements have been made at 300 Mc/sec on frozen metal ammonia solutions, liquid metal ammonia solutions, and liquid metals. The experiments on frozen solutions have shown that the metal is precipitated out in small particles. Nuclear resonance experiments have corroborated this finding. The frozen solutions are used as a convenient source of small particles, and observations have been made of relaxation times in Na, Li, K, and Cs. Resonances in the liquid ammonia solutions of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Ca, and also in a solution of Li in methylamine were observed. The data are consistent with the theoretical model of Kraus, Ogg, and Kaplan and Kittel. Bulk metal resonances were observed to temperatures above the melting points on lithium and sodium. The results for sodium corroborate the Elliott theory of relaxation, and the lithium results indicate resistivity-dependent relaxation time. No resonance was observed in bulk K, Rb, and Cs carried to temperatures above their melting points.

R. A. Levy

1956-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fermi liquid theory for high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

In this article the Fermi liquid theory of metals is discussed starting from Luttinger's theorem. The content of Luttinger's Theorem and its implications for microscopic theories of high temperature superconductors are discussed. A simple quasi-2d Fermi liquid theory is introduced and some of its properties are calculated. It is argued that a number of experiments on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6+x/, x > 0.5, strongly suggest the existence of a Fermi surface and thereby a Fermi liquid normal state. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Bedell, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

Sodium/metal chloride (MCl{sub 2}) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high-capacity density electrodes and inexpensive {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace {beta}{double prime}-alumina and (2) the development of models to project MCl{sub 2} system performances. In our NiCl{sub 2} electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}S/cm at 250{degree}C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl{sub 2} electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either {beta}{double prime}-alumina or of the composite material would result in high-performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Vissers, D.R.; Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C.L.; Dees, D.W.; Nelson, P.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wright, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

Sharp, D.J.; Vernon, M.E.; Wright, S.A.

1988-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

402

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

403

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

404

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

405

System of fabricating a flexible electrode array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

406

Flexible electrode array for artifical vision  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

System of fabricating a flexible electrode array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

2012-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

408

MHD electrode development. Quarterly report, April-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis within this program is now being directed towards the engineering development of cold metallic electrodes, and in particular the identification and evaluation of alternatives to platinum for use as anodes. A literature search, concentrating on hot corrosion resistant alloys, has been undertaken and results are presented. In addition, results of platinum-copper diffusion studies and a preliminary evaluation of sputter coated specimens of TiB/sub 2/ clad copper are reported. Laboratory anode arc erosion studies have continued. A number of modifications incorporated in the test setup are described. This modified test arrangement has been used to obtain comparative data on a number of potential anode metal alloys. Further work is required to refine the test, particularly to provide a reliable method of applying corrodent to the specimens under test. No significant laboratory electrochemical corrosion tests were completed during this reporting period. Facility test operations were suspended upon completion of WESTF Test 49 during the prior quarter to permit basic facility modifications in support of the addition of a 3 Tesla magnet. The status of design, procurement and modification activities is presented.

Sadler, J W; Dietrick, D L; Frantti, E W

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 ?Sv yr?1, always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr?1. The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

M Herranz; S Rozas; C Pérez; R Idoeta; R Núñez-Lagos; F Legarda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Operation of a planar-electrode ion trap array with adjustable RF electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One path to scaling-up trapped atomic ions for large-scale quantum computing and simulation is to create a two-dimensional array of ion traps in close proximity to each other. A method to control the interactions between nearest neighboring ions is demonstrated and characterized here, using an adjustable radio-frequency (RF) electrode between trapping sites. A printed circuit board planar-electrode ion trap is demonstrated, trapping laser-cooled $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. RF shuttling and secular-frequency adjustment are shown as a function of the power applied to the addressed RF electrode. The trapped ion's heating rate is measured via a fluorescence recooling method.

Muir Kumph; Philip Holz; Kirsten Langer; Michael Niedermayr; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

411

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

Fish, R.H.

1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

416

Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

Coco, Isabelle (Talence Cedex, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence Cedex, FR)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries....

418

Interfacial Interactions between Implant Electrode and Biological Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interactions to the charge transport. The interfacial interactions of an implanted electrode with neural system will be studied in two types of electrodes: silver and graphene coated. The interfacial impedance of both samples will be studied using EIS...

Chiu, Cheng-Wei 1979-

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

419

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

NO.sub.x sensing devices having conductive oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NO.sub.x sensing device includes at least one pair of spaced electrodes, at least one of which is made of a conductive oxide, and an oxygen-ion conducting material in bridging electrical communication with the electrodes.

Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

422

In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. Abstract: A portable vacuum...

423

Heart Monitoring Garments Using Textile Electrodes for Healthcare Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, we developed a set of dry-type electrodes contacting the skin directly and non-...1). Dry-type electrodes enabled us to acquire vital signals...2...in total size. To figure out the position of the modified...

Hyun-Seung Cho; Su-Min Koo; Joohyeon Lee; Hakyung Cho…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

425

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Hydro-Québec at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

427

Electrode and method of interconnection sintering on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode structure is made by applying a base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles on a portion of an electrode and then coating the particles with a top layer composition such as CaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], or BaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and then heating the composition for a time effective to melt the composition and allow it to fill any open porosity in the base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] to form an interconnection, after which solid oxide electrolyte can be applied to the remaining portion of the electrode and the electrolyte can be covered with a cermet exterior electrode. 2 figures.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.J.H.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

Chaiko, D.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

431

Electrical properties of the amorphous interfacial layer between Al electrodes and epitaxial NiO films  

SciTech Connect

The amorphous interfacial layer (a-IL) between Al electrode and epitaxial NiO films were studied using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct properties were found in the a-IL, i.e., a lower metallic and an upper insulating layer. EELS results revealed that the metallic Ni atoms were responsible for the conducting nature of the lower oxide amorphous layer. The resistance behavior of Al/a-IL/epi-NiO was changed from a high to a low resistance state after forming process. The resistance change could be explained by the formation of a nanocrystalline metal alloy in the insulating amorphous layer.

Hyuck Jang, Jae; Kwon, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Miyoung [Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ran Lee, Seung; Char, Kookrin [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

432

Surface layering of liquids: The role of surface tension Oleg Shpyrko,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface layering of liquids: The role of surface tension Oleg Shpyrko,1 Masafumi Fukuto,1 Peter and alloys are always layered, regardless of composition and surface tension; a result supported by three, for the liquid-vapor interface it is tempting to think that the large surface tension of liquid metals such as Hg

Ocko, Ben

433

Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

Zelena, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Bashyam, Rajesh (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

434

Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

435

Anodic oxygen-transfer electrocatalysis at iron-doped lead dioxide electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The research illustrated in this thesis was performed under the guidance of Professor Dennis C. Johnson beginning in March 1987. Chapter 2 concentrates on the development and electrocatalytic properties of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on noble-metal substrates. Chapter 3 focuses attention on the preparation and characterization of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on titanium substrates (Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti). Chapter 4 discusses anodic evolution of ozone at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. Chapter 5 describes electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone (BQ) at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. In addition, the Appendix includes another published paper which is a detailed study of {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} films deposited on various types of stainless steel substrates.

Feng, Jianren

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

437

Surface Crystallization in a Liquid AuSi Alloy  

SciTech Connect

X-ray measurements reveal a crystalline monolayer at the surface of the eutectic liquid Au{sub 82}Si{sub 18}, at temperatures above the alloy's melting point. Surface-induced atomic layering, the hallmark of liquid metals, is also found below the crystalline monolayer. The layering depth, however, is threefold greater than that of all liquid metals studied to date. The crystallinity of the surface monolayer is notable, considering that AuSi does not form stable bulk crystalline phases at any concentration and temperature and that no crystalline surface phase has been detected thus far in any pure liquid metal or nondilute alloy. These results are discussed in relation to recently suggested models of amorphous alloys.

Shpyrko,O.; Streitel, R.; Balagurusamy, V.; Grigoriev, A.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.; Meron, M.; Lin, B.; Pershan, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Talinfiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

442

High speed shadowgraphy for the study of liquid drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the separation and size of the electrodes and the surrounding medium. Many of the commercially available systems use argon gas, and produce pulse durations of the order of 5 to 20 ns, 9 to 25 mJ of electric flash ener- gy, and utilize 3- 5 kV power supplies... Sciences Ltd A-series single nozzle CIJ printer with a re- ported nozzle diameter of 60 µm. Essentially, in CIJ mode the liquid is pumped continuously into the head, generating an internal pressure which drives the liquid through the nozzle and creates a...

Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Castrejon-Garcia, R.; Hutchings, I.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

444

Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Luke, J.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Adrian, J.M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies/Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico87131 (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements.

Luke, James R.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Adrian, John M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies/Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

446

Durability of metals from archaeological objects, metal meteorites, and native metals  

SciTech Connect

Metal durability is an important consideration in the multi-barrier nuclear waste storage concept. This study summarizes the ancient metals, the environments, and factors which appear to have contributed to metal longevity. Archaeological and radiochemical dating suggest that human use of metals began in the period 6000 to 7000 BC. Gold is clearly the most durable, but many objects fashioned from silver, copper, bronze, iron, lead, and tin have survived for several thousand years. Dry environments, such as tombs, appear to be optimum for metal preservation, but some metals have survived in shipwrecks for over a thousand years. The metal meteorites are Fe-base alloys with 5 to 60 wt% Ni and minor amounts of Co, I, and S. Some meteoritic masses with ages estimated to be 5,000 to 20,000 years have weathered very little, while other masses from the same meteorites are in advanced stages of weathering. Native metals are natural metallic ores. Approximately five million tonnes were mined from native copper deposits in Michigan. Copper masses from the Michigan deposits were transported by the Pleistocene glaciers. Areas on the copper surfaces which appear to represent glacial abrasion show minimal corrosion. Dry cooling tower technology has demonstrated that in pollution-free moist environments, metals fare better at temperatures above than below the dewpoint. Thus, in moderate temperature regimes, elevated temperatures may be useful rather than detrimental for exposures of metal to air. In liquid environments, relatively complex radiolysis reactions can occur, particularly where multiple species are present. A dry environment largely obviates radiolysis effects.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Francis, B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Imaging Lithium Air Electrodes | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Agatha Bardoel - January 01, 2013 Image produced by neutron-computed tomography. The next step in revolutionizing electric vehicle capacity Research Contacts: Hassina Bilheux, Jagjit Nanda, and S. Pannala Using neutron-computed tomography, researchers at the CG-1D neutron imaging instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have successfully mapped the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithium products in electrochemically discharged lithium-air cathodes. Lithium-air chemistry promises very high-energy density that, if successful, would revolutionize the world of electric vehicles by extending their range to 500 miles or more. The high-energy density comes from

448

HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design  

SciTech Connect

This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

Holt, R.J. [NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States); Dabkowski, J. [Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States); Hauth, R.L. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Local Effects of Biased Electrodes in the Divertor of NSTX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to characterize the effects of small non-axisymmetric divertor plate electrodes on the local scrape-off layer plasma. Four small rectangular electrodes were installed into the outer divertor plates of NSTX. When the electrodes were located near the outer divertor strike point and biased positively, there was an increase in the nearby probe currents and probe potentials and an increase in the LiI light emission at the large major radius end of these electrodes. When an electrode located farther outward from the outer divertor strike point was biased positively, there was sometimes a significant decrease in the LiI light emission at the small major radius end of this electrode, but there were no clear effects on the nearby probes. No non-local effects were observed with the biasing of these electrodes.

: S. Zweben, M.D. Campanell, B.C. Lyons, R.J. Maqueda, Y. Raitses, A.L. Roquemore and F. Scotti

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

ELECTRODE DEVELOPMENT FOR REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The reversibility of the electrodes for a solid oxide fuel cell with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current interrupt methods. The fuel electrodes were nickel/zirconia cermet and lanthanum-doped strontium titanate/doped ceria composites. The air electrodes were lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF) and lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF). Under the experimental conditions studied all four electrodes were able to operate in both the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes. The titanate/ceria fuel electrode performed substantially better in the electrolyzer mode than state-of-art Ni-YSZ. Moreover, it showed slightly higher activity for water electrolysis as compared to hydrogen oxidation. Air electrodes were less active in the electrolyzer than fuel cell modes. LSF typically provided higher overpotential losses in both modes than copper-substituted LSF. Changes in the defect chemistry of electrode materials under cathodic and anodic polarization are discussed.

Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rieke, Peter C.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Williams, Mark C.

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

452

Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

Broadhurst, John H. (Golden Valley, MN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire and electrolyte composition remains the same. The resulting design maximizes the use of commercial components and can be fabricated with commonly available skills. This has resulted in a significant reduction of effort and cost to fabricate replacements. The piece count requiring assembly in a high purity glove box atmosphere has been reduced by over half and all specialized joints have been eliminated. The new design has been tested in a lab scale electrorefiner and has also been successfully scaled up and installed in the engineering scale electrorefiners.

Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Diffusion in biofilms respiring on electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed for noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that (1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; (2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; (3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and (4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms.

Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effect of different kinds of aprotic organic solvents on the discharge performance and discharge products in Li-O2 batteries was systematically investigated. The discharge products deposited in air cathodes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that a significant amount of Li2O2 can be formed in glyme-based electrolytes during the discharge process, while only small amount of Li2O2 is produced in electrolytes of phosphate, nitrile, ionic liquid and sulfoxide. However, in all the seven types of solvent systems we studied, Li2CO3 and LiF were still formed as byproducts whose compositions are strongly related to the solvents. Li2CO3 is produced not from the carbon air electrode but from oxidation and decomposition of the solvent as we verified by using a 13C-labeled carbon electrode and the solid-state 13C-MAS NMR technique. The formation of Li2CO3 and LiF during discharge will greatly reduce the Coulombic efficiency and cycle life of the Li-air batteries. Therefore, better electrolytes that can ensure the formation of Li2O2 but minimize other reaction products formed on air electrodes of Li-air batteries need to be further investigated.

Xu, Wu; Hu, Jian Z.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Fei; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

Yeager, E. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Shapes of Spectral Lines of Nonuniform Plasma of Electric Arc Discharge Between Copper Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The radial profiles of the temperature and electron density in the plasma of the free burning electric arc between copper electrodes are studied by optical spectroscopy techniques. The electron density and the temperature in plasma as initial parameters were used in the calculation of the plasma composition in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. We used the Saha's equation for copper, nitrogen and oxygen, dissociation equation for nitrogen and oxygen, the equation of plasma electrical neutrality and Dalton's law as well. So, it would be possible to determine the amounts of metal vapours in plasma.

Babich, Ida L.; Boretskij, Viacheslav F.; Veklich, Anatoly N. [Radiophysics Faculty, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, 64, Volodymyrs'ka Str., Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine)

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

459

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid metal electrodes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

462

Atomization of metal (Materials Preparation Center)  

SciTech Connect

Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a color video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov WARNING - AUDIO IS LOUD.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

High Seebeck effects from conducting polymer: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) based thin-film device with hybrid metal/polymer/metal architecture  

SciTech Connect

Conductive polymers are of particular interest for thermoelectric applications due to their low thermal conductivity and relatively high electrical conductivity. In this study, commercially available conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) was used in a hybrid metal/polymer/metal thin film design in order to achieve a high Seebeck coefficient with the value of 252lV/k on a relatively low temperature scale. Polymer film thickness was varied in order to investigate its influence on the Seebeck effect. The high Seebeck coefficient indicates that the metal/polymer/metal design can develop a large entropy difference in internal energy of charge carriers between high and low-temperature metal electrodes to develop electrical potential due to charge transport in conducting polymer film through metal/polymer interface. Therefore, the metal/polymer/metal structure presents a new design to combine inorganic metals and organic polymers in thin-film form to develop Seebeck devices

Stanford, Michael G [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Hu, Bin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Metal Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems posed to plants by metal toxicity in the soils of the world are basically of two kinds. The first kind are of natural origin. These arise either as a consequence of the nature of the parent material f...

T. McNeilly

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Characterization of a spheromak plasma gun: The effect of refractory electrode coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to investigate the proposition that high?Z impurities are responsible for the anomalously short lifetime of the Caltech spheromak the center electrode of the spheromakplasma gun has been coated with a variety of metals (bare steel copper nickel chromium rhodium and tungsten). Visible light (230–890 nm) emitted directly from the plasma in the gun breech was monitored for each of the coatedelectrodes.Plasma density and temperature and spheromak lifetime were compared for each electrode. Results indicate little difference in gun performance or macroscopic plasma parameters. The chromium and tungstenelectrodes performed marginally better in that a previously reported helicity injection effect [Phys. Rev. Lett. 6 4 2144 (1990)] is only observed in discharges using these electrodecoatings. There are subtle differences in the detailed line emission spectra from the different electrodes but the spectra are remarkably similar. The fact that (1) contrary to expectations attempts to reduce high?Z impurities had only marginal effect on the spheromak lifetime coupled with (2) an estimate of Z effspheromaks. We will discuss the general characteristics of the spheromak gun as well as effects due to the coatings.

M. R. Brown; A. D. Bailey III; P. M. Bellan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Dendritic metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

467

Environmental and geographical aspects in HVdc electrode design  

SciTech Connect

An essential element in HVdc electrode design is to minimize all environmental stresses in order to meet and verify conformance to the laws and regulations associated with the concessions granted by the authorities. The environmental disturbance caused in anode or cathode operation is more or less entirely dependent on the materials used, the geographical location and the electrode size. The electrode materials and the related electrochemical process in the surrounding medium are discussed in the paper in order to shed further light on the chemical properties of different materials in an electrolyte process. The geographical location of an electrode is described, taking into account new aspects such as the impact of the earth`s magnetic field and the interaction with existing HVdc electrodes. The experiences described in this paper are based on the design, tests and operation of the electrodes in the Baltic Cable HVdc link and other Scandinavian HVdc links.

Tykeson, K. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)] [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, A. [Baltic Cable AB, Malmoe (Sweden)] [Baltic Cable AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Carlsson, H. [Permascand AB, Ljungaverk (Sweden)] [Permascand AB, Ljungaverk (Sweden)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Self-weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes.  

SciTech Connect

We present a molecular dynamics study of the fracture mechanisms of lithiated graphene. Our modeli ng results reveal that lithium diffusion toward the crack tip is both energetically and kinetically favored owing to the crack-tip stress gradient. The stress-driven lithium diffusion results in lithium aggregation around the crack tip, chemically weakening the crack-tip bond and at the same time causing stress relax ation. Our simulations show that the chemical weakening effect is the dominant factor, which manifests a self-weakening mechanism in lithiated graphene. The atomistic understanding of the degradation mech anism provides guidance for the lifetime extension in the design of graphene-based electrodes.

Yang, Hui [Pennsylvania State University; Huang, Xu [Pennsylvania State University; Liang, Wentao [Pennsylvania State University; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Raju, Muralikrishna [ORNL; Zhang, Sulin [Pennsylvania State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 23-24, 2008 January 23-24, 2008 Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Jim Goldbach Arkema, Inc. Kev Adjemian Nissan Motor Co. Eric Funkenbusch 3M John Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Jonathan Sharman Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Jean St-Pierre University of South Carolina Huyen Dinh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Bryan Pivovar Los Alamos National Laboratory Jim Martin Lockheed Martin Sami Mardini Superprotonic Reg Tyler U.S. Department of Energy/Golden Field Office Craig Gittleman General Motors Don Gervasio Arizona State University Eric Shrader Palo Alto Research Center Robert Miller MTI Micro Kathi Epping (Facilitator) U.S. Department of Energy

471

Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support  

SciTech Connect

Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

472

Dependence of solid-liquid interface free energy on liquid structure  

SciTech Connect

The Turnbull relation is widely believed to enable prediction of solid–liquid interface (SLI) free energies from measurements of the latent heat and the solid density. Ewing proposed an additional contribution to the SLI free energy to account for variations in liquid structure near the interface. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate whether SLI free energy depends on liquid structure. Analysis of the MD simulation data for 11 fcc metals demonstrated that the Turnbull relation is only a rough approximation for highly ordered liquids, whereas much better agreement is observed with Ewing’s theory. A modification to Ewing’s relation is proposed in this study that was found to provide excellent agreement with MD simulation data.

Wilson, S R [Ames Laboratory; Mendelev, M I [Ames Laboratory

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Increasing ion sorption and desorption rates of conductive electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte system includes a reactor having a pair of electrodes that may sorb ions from an electrolyte. The electrolyte system also includes at least one power supply in electrical communication with the reactor. The at least one power supply may supply a DC signal and an AC signal to the pair of electrodes during sorption of the ions. In addition, the power supply may supply only the AC signal to the pair of electrodes during desorption of the ions.

DePaoli, David William; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Tsouris, Costas; Bourcier, William; Campbell, Robert; Mayes, Richard T

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

475

Study of ring and ring-disk electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Rotating ring and ring-disk electrodes were modeled. The primary, secondary, and below-the-limiting current distributions for ring electrodes were computed. The ring-disk system was modeled for secondary and below-the-limiting current distributions. Mass transfer measurements in laminar, transition, and turbulent flows were made for thin rotating rings. The effect of cell walls on the potential distribution of disk electrodes was computed.

Pierini, P.E.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a model within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. 8 figs.

Hull, J.R.

1987-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

477

Chemical solution deposition of ferroelectric yttrium-doped hafnium oxide films on platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Ferroelectric hafnium oxide films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition with a remnant polarization of >13 ?C/cm{sup 2}. The samples were prepared with 5.2?mol.?% yttrium-doping and the thickness varied from 18?nm to 70?nm. The hafnium oxide layer was integrated into a metal-insulator-metal capacitor using platinum electrodes. Due to the processing procedure, no thickness dependence of the ferroelectric properties was observed. To confirm the ferroelectric nature of the deposited samples, polarization, capacitance, and piezoelectric displacement measurements were performed. However, no evidence of the orthorhombic phase was found which has been proposed to be the non-centrosymmetric, ferroelectric phase in HfO{sub 2}.

Starschich, S.; Griesche, D.; Schneller, T.; Böttger, U. [Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik 2, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstraße 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Waser, R. [Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik 2, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstraße 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institut 7, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

478

Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bryan Pivovar (PI) Bryan Pivovar (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sept 30, 2009 Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of Electrocatalysts and MEAs. Approach: Novel Synthesis and Electrode Studies Pt nanotubes (UC-R) Pt coated carbon nanotubes Synthesis of novel catalysts based on extended surfaces due to 3M's demonstrated improvements in specific activity and durability using similar systems. Electrode architecture design, based on novel catalyst structures that allow thick (~10 µm), dispersed electrodes to

479

Progress on nanopatterned front electrodes for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present our recent progress in the development of nanophotonic front electrodes for improved light management in organic solar cell. Experimental results and 3D electromagnetic...

Paetzold, Ulrich W; Smeets, Michael; Hadipour, Afshin; Cheyns, David

480

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the...

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481

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

482

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact...

483

Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

Hovarongkura, A. David (Arlington, VA); Henry, Jr., Joseph D. (Morgantown, WV)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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