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Sample records for liquid metal battery

  1. COLLOQUIUM: Liquid Metal Batteries for Large-scale Energy Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 22, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Liquid Metal Batteries for Large-scale Energy Storage Dr. Hojong Kim Pennsylvania State ...

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the batterys main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASUs new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than todays Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  4. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  5. The influence of current collectors on Tayler instability and electro-vortex flows in liquid metal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.; Priede, J.

    2015-01-15

    The Tayler instability (TI) is a kink-type flow instability which occurs when the electrical current through a conducting fluid exceeds a certain critical value. Originally studied in the astrophysical context, the instability was recently discussed as a possible limiting factor for the upward scalability of liquid metal batteries. In this paper, we continue our efforts to simulate this instability for liquid metals within the framework of an integro-differential equation approach. The original solver is enhanced by multi-domain support with Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning for the static boundaries. Particular focus is laid on the detailed influence of the axial electrical boundary conditions on the characteristic features of the Tayler instability and, second, on the occurrence of electro-vortex flows and their relevance for liquid metal batteries. Electro-vortex flows might pose a larger risk to the integrity of the battery than the TI.

  6. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of β"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  7. Next Generation Batteries with Metal Anodes - Joint Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 3, 2015, Accomplishments Next Generation Batteries with Metal Anodes Promising electrolytes for the magnesium battery consist of salts dissolved in liquid solvents. Recent ...

  8. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  9. Synthesis of electroactive ionic liquids for flow battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Ingersoll, David; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2015-09-01

    The present disclosure is directed to synthesizing metal ionic liquids with transition metal coordination cations, where such metal ionic liquids can be used in a flow battery. A cation of a metal ionic liquid includes a transition metal and a ligand coordinated to the transition metal.

  10. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity ...

  11. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity June 30, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov PCCPxantheascover Imagine a cell phone battery that lasted a whole week on a single charge. A car battery that worked for months between charges. A massive battery that stores the intermittent electricity from wind turbines and releases it when

  12. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  13. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, DH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-05-01

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized as a promising and economically viable technology for large-scale energy storage on worldwide electrical grids. But because these batteries are entirely liquid, fluid flow and instabilities may affect battery robustness and performance. Here we present estimates of flow magnitude and ultrasound measurements of the flow in a realistic liquid metal electrode. We find that flow does substantially affect mass transport by altering the electrode mixing time. Above a critical electrical current density, the convective flow organizes and gains speed, which promotes transport and would yield improved battery efficiency. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  14. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  15. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  16. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  17. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries - Joint Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries (a) ... Li metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries beyond Li ion The review ...

  18. High-energy metal air batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-energy metal air batteries Title: High-energy metal air batteries Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithiumair batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain ...

  19. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  1. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  2. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details ... Language: English Subject: energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  3. Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley ... it desirable for use in rechargeable batteries, but its tendency to form dendrites has ...

  4. New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search New Electrode Materials for Magnesium Batteries and Metal Anodes Beyond ... Technology Marketing Summary Magnesium ion batteries present a viable alternative to ...

  5. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  6. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  7. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  9. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  10. Method of foaming a liquid metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Albert K.; Johnson, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small quantity of barium to liquid metal NaK or sodium has been found to promote foam formation and improve bubble retention in the liquid metal. A stable liquid metal foam will provide a more homogeneous liquid metal flow through the channel of a two-phase liquid metal MHD power generator to improve operating efficiency.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Happell, J.J.; Thomas, G.R.; Denise, R.P.; Bunts, J.L. Jr.

    1962-01-23

    A liquid metal fuel nuclear fission reactor is designed in which the fissionable material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid metal moderator and coolant. The liquid suspension flows into a chamber in which a critical amount of fissionable material is obtained. The fluid leaves the chamber and the heat of fission is extracted for power or other utilization. The improvement is in the support arrangement for a segrnented graphite core to permit dif ferential thermal expansion, effective sealing between main and blanket liquid metal flows, and avoidance of excessive stress development in the graphite segments. (AEC)

  12. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for

  13. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  14. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  15. Metal-Air Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Air Battery Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology features cathodes for use in open electrochemical cells and devices comprising the cathodes and open electrochemical cells.DescriptionThe open electrochemical cells generally comprise a cathode, an electrolyte, and an anode. One example cathode comprises a catalyst, an electronic conductor and a hydrophobic

  16. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The

  17. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  18. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  20. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-10-07

    The vault of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is lined with thermal insulation. The insulation is in two layers, a first layer cladding the vault surface is of solid ceramic material while a second layer cladding the first layer is of fibrous or metallic material. In the event of a breach of the vessel leakage of liquid metal is absorbed by the second layer providing a conduction path to the first layer thereby enhancing heat loss to the concrete of the vault and maintaining the internal temperature at a safe limit.

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in ...

  2. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  3. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  4. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  5. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  6. Battery intercalation strategy: in-situ electrochemical liquid cell TEM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study and high quality single layer nanosheets preparation | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Battery intercalation strategy: in-situ electrochemical liquid cell TEM study and high quality single layer nanosheets preparation Wednesday, September 7, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Zhiyuan Zeng, LBL Program Description Battery intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into compounds with layered structures, which is

  7. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  8. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of...

  9. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  10. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  11. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.

  12. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.; Bell, Jerry E.; Harlow, Richard A.; Chase, Gordon G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed therebetween. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants therethrough at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed therebetween. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal therebetween. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal.

  13. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  14. Nickel-metal hydride battery development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Rechargeable batteries are used as the power source for a broad range of portable equipment. Key battery selection criteria typically are weight, volume, first cost, life cycle cost, and environmental impact. Rechargeable batteries are favored from a life cycle cost and environmental impact standpoint over primary batteries. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for many applications based on its superior characteristics when judged on the above criteria against other battery types. In most cases commercial Ni-MH batteries are constructed with coiled electrodes in cylindrical metal containers. Electro Energy, Inc. (EEI) has been developing a novel flat bipolar configuration of the Ni-MH system that offers weight, volume, and cost advantages when compared to cylindrical cells. The unique bipolar approach consists of fabricating individual flat wafer cells in conductive, carbon-filled, plastic face plates. The individual cells contain a nonconductive plastic border which is heat sealed around the perimeter to make a totally sealed unit cell. Multi-cell batteries are fabricated by stacking the individual wafer cells in such a way that the positive face of one cell contacts the negative face of the adjacent cell. The stack is then contained in an outer housing with end contacts. The purpose of this program was to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the capabilities of the EEI Ni-MH battery system for consumer applications. The work was directed at the development and evaluation of the compact bipolar construction for its potential advantages of high power and energy density. Experimental investigations were performed on various nickel electrode types, hydride electrode formulations, and alternate separator materials. Studies were also directed at evaluating various oxygen recombination techniques for low pressure operation during charge and overcharge.

  15. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  16. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  17. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  18. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  19. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  20. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  1. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  3. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  4. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  5. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  6. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  7. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  8. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi.

  9. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  10. Advanced Hybrid Batteries with a Magnesium Metal Anode and Spinel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LiMn₂O₄ Cathode - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 11, 2016, Research Highlights Advanced Hybrid Batteries with a Magnesium Metal Anode and Spinel LiMn₂O₄ Cathode Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes were successfully developed and can enable rechargeable Mg-LiMn2O4 batteries Scientific Achievement Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes were developed with excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs Mg/Mg2+) on a aluminum current collector, enabling the

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  12. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  13. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to ...

  14. A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for

  15. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

  16. Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor Developing a reactor-compatible divertor ... Application of Lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power ...

  17. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode

  18. Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to reality > EMC2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to reality February 3rd, 2016 By Tom ... The relative non-conductivity and brittleness of such barriers, however, means the battery ...

  19. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  1. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals

  2. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  3. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  4. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  6. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and

  7. Metallization pattern on solid electrolyte or porous support of sodium battery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yong; Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Lemmon, John P.

    2016-05-31

    A new battery configuration and process are detailed. The battery cell includes a solid electrolyte configured with an engineered metallization layer that distributes sodium across the surface of the electrolyte extending the active area of the cathode in contact with the anode during operation. The metallization layer enhances performance, efficiency, and capacity of sodium batteries at intermediate temperatures at or below about 200.degree. C.

  8. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, E.

    A perforated depressor plate extending across the bottom of the instrument tree of a fast breeder reactor cooperates with a circular cylindrical metal bellows forming a part of the upper adapter of each core assembly and bearing on the bottom of the depressor plate to restrict flow of coolant between core assemblies, thereby reducing significantly the pressure differential between the coolant inside the core assemblies and the coolant outside of the core assemblies. Openings in the depressor plate are slightly smaller than the top of the upper adapter so the depressor plate will serve as a backup mechanical holddown for the core. In addition, coolant mixing devices and locating devices are provided attached to the depressor plate.

  9. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, Ernest

    1982-01-01

    A perforated depressor plate extending across the bottom of the instrument ree of a fast breeder reactor cooperates with a circular cylindrical metal bellows forming a part of the upper adapter of each core assembly and bearing on the bottom of the depressor plate to restrict flow of coolant between core assemblies, thereby reducing significantly the pressure differential between the coolant inside the core assemblies and the coolant outside of the core assemblies. Openings in the depressor plate are slightly smaller than the top of the upper adapter so the depressor plate will serve as a backup mechanical holddown for the core. In addition coolant mixing devices and locating devices are provided attached to the depressor plate.

  10. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  11. Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

    2014-11-25

    The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

  12. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank.

  13. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  14. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  15. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  16. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  17. Making better batteries with metal oxide & graphene composites

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Learn how PNNL and Princeton scientists create better materials for batteries, materials that assemble on their own into durable nanocomposites.

  18. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  19. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  20. Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ... The apparatus provides more efficient heat transfer than existing technologies for ...

  1. A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li{sub 2}S{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg{sup -1} and 190 W h L{sup -1} for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li{sub 2}S{sub 8} catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg{sup -1} and 108 W h L{sup -1} can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO{sub 3} additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g{sup -1}. This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

  2. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  3. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  4. Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1981-01-01

    A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

  5. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  6. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-13

    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  7. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  8. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  9. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-03-29

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  10. CNEEC - Batteries Tutorial by Prof. Cui

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries

  11. Hydrogenation of coal liquid utilizing a metal carbonyl catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1979-01-01

    Coal liquid having a dissolved transition metal, catalyst as a carbonyl complex such as Co.sub.2 (CO.sub.8) is hydrogenated with hydrogen gas or a hydrogen donor. A dissociating solvent contacts the coal liquid during hydrogenation to form an immiscible liquid mixture at a high carbon monoxide pressure. The dissociating solvent, e.g. ethylene glycol, is of moderate coordinating ability, while sufficiently polar to solvate the transition metal as a complex cation along with a transition metal, carbonyl anion in solution at a decreased carbon monoxide pressure. The carbon monoxide pressure is reduced and the liquids are separated to recover the hydrogenated coal liquid as product. The dissociating solvent with the catalyst in ionized form is recycled to the hydrogenation step at the elevated carbon monoxide pressure for reforming the catalyst complex within fresh coal liquid.

  12. Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From consumer electronics to laptops to vehicles, batteries are an important part of our everyday life. Learn about the Energy Department's innovative research and development in different energy storage options.

  13. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  14. REMOVAL OF CERTAIN FISSION PRODUCT METALS FROM LIQUID BISMUTH COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.; Howe, H.E.; Avrutik, E.R.

    1959-11-24

    A method is described for purifying a solution of urarium in liquid bismuth containing at least one metal from the group consisting of selenium, tellurium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, niobium, and zirconium. The solution is contacted with zinc in an inert atmosphere to form a homogeneous melt, a solid zinc phase is formed, and the zinc phase containing the metal is separated from the melt.

  15. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-06-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, {Delta}T, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to {approx}550{degrees}C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to {approx}650{degrees}C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above {approx}600{degrees}C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150{degrees}C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material.

  16. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  17. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  18. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  19. Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takigawa, Doreen Y.

    1992-01-01

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  20. Cured composite materials for reactive metal battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2006-03-07

    A solid molecular composite polymer-based electrolyte is made for batteries, wherein silicate compositing produces a electrolytic polymer with a semi-rigid silicate condensate framework, and then mechanical-stabilization by radiation of the outer surface of the composited material is done to form a durable and non-tacky texture on the electrolyte. The preferred ultraviolet radiation produces this desirable outer surface by creating a thin, shallow skin of crosslinked polymer on the composite material. Preferably, a short-duration of low-medium range ultraviolet radiation is used to crosslink the polymers only a short distance into the polymer, so that the properties of the bulk of the polymer and the bulk of the molecular composite material remain unchanged, but the tough and stable skin formed on the outer surface lends durability and processability to the entire composite material product.

  1. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H. Arcana, I Made Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  3. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  4. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  5. Plasma torch with liquid metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Predtechenskii, M.R.; Tukhto, O.M.

    2006-03-15

    In order to eliminate the negative effect of erosion processes on electrodes in arc plasma generators, a new scheme of arc discharge was proposed in which the surface of a molten metal acts as electrodes. A plasma reactor was designed on the basis of this concept. The electrophysical characteristics of such a discharge in steam and air as plasma gases were studied. Experiments on destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and steam coal gasification were performed.

  6. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, I.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Vissers, D.R.

    1993-03-16

    A method of fabricating an electrode for use in a metal chloride battery and an electrode are provided. The electrode has relatively larger and more uniform pores than those found in typical electrodes. The fabrication method includes the steps of mixing sodium chloride particles selected from a predetermined size range with metal particles selected from a predetermined size range, and then rigidifying the mixture. The electrode exhibits lower resistivity values of approximately 0.5 [Omega]cm[sup 2] than those resistivity values of approximately 1.0-1.5 [Omega]cm[sup 2] exhibited by currently available electrodes.

  7. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Vissers, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of fabricating an electrode for use in a metal chloride battery and an electrode are provided. The electrode has relatively larger and more uniform pores than those found in typical electrodes. The fabrication method includes the steps of mixing sodium chloride particles selected from a predetermined size range with metal particles selected from a predetermined size range, and then rigidifying the mixture. The electrode exhibits lower resistivity values of approximately 0.5 .OMEGA.cm.sup.2 than those resistivity values of approximately 1.0-1.5 .OMEGA.cm.sup.2 exhibited by currently available electrodes.

  8. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  9. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-06-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer.

  10. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growthmore » of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.« less

  11. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  12. Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission Surface Power System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission...

  13. Cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  14. Improved cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1984-03-30

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  15. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a concentrating solar power plant. A successful candidate fluid would allow for the reduction of the levelized cost of energy by increasing the operating temperature for the CSP plant power cycle, which would increase thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency.

  16. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  17. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  18. Lithium Salts for Advanced Lithium Batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  19. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal.

  20. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  1. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; Kelton, K. F.

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (ηo) to that at the glass transition temperature, Tg. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/ηo) as a function of TA/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature TA corresponds to the onset of cooperative motion andmore » is strongly correlated with Tg, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.« less

  2. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; Kelton, K. F.

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (ηo) to that at the glass transition temperature, Tg. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/ηo) as a function of TA/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature TA corresponds to the onset of cooperative motion and is strongly correlated with Tg, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.

  3. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris & lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-12-31

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels.

  4. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction applied to metals separation from Waelz oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almela, A.; Elizalde, M.P.; Danobeitia, I.

    1998-11-01

    Metal recovery from Waelz oxide, the product obtained from steel foundry dusts through a pyrometallurgical process, and the slag obtained in this process has been carried out by liquid-liquid extraction. For this purpose, leaching of the solid samples was attained by microwave digestion with HCl. The extraction of 13 elements in the leachates was studied using the alkylthiophosphinic acid Cyanex 302 in kerosene and varying the acidity conditions and the extractant concentration. The experimental results on the extraction of cadmium, lead, and zinc have been compared with the theoretical behavior obtained by taking into account equilibrium extraction data reported for the extraction of these elements from synthetic individual solutions.

  6. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kondic, Lou; Vincenti, Maria A.; de Ceglia, Domenico; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, asmore » an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.« less

  7. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kondic, Lou; Vincenti, Maria A.; de Ceglia, Domenico; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, as an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.

  8. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; et al

    2016-03-31

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disordermore » transitions in condensed matter systems.« less

  9. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  10. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  11. Equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals in magnetorotational instability experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 644, pp. 257-280. c Cambridge University Press 2010 doi:10.1017/S0022112009992394 257 Equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals in magnetorotational instability experiments I. V. K H A L Z O V 1 †, A. I. S M O L Y A K O V 2 A N D V. I. I L G I S O N I S 3 1 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA 2 University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N5E2, Canada 3

  12. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  14. Metal segregation in hierarchically structured cathode materials for high-energy lithium batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Feng; Xin, Huolin L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Li, Yuyi; Quan, Matthew K.; Cheng, Lei; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Liu, Yijin; Doeff, Marca M.

    2016-01-11

    Controlling surface and interfacial properties of battery materials is key to improving performance in rechargeable Li-ion devices. Surface reconstruction from a layered to a rock salt structure in metal oxide cathode materials is commonly observed and results in poor high-voltage cycling performance, impeding attempts to improve energy density. Hierarchically structured LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC-442) spherical powders, made by spray pyrolysis, exhibit local elemental distribution gradients that deviate from the global NMC-442 composition; specifically, they are Ni-rich and Mn-poor at particle surfaces. These materials demonstrate improved Coulombic efficiencies, discharge capacities, and high-voltage capacity retention in lithium half-cell configurations. The subject powders show superiormore » resistance against surface reconstruction due to the tailored surface chemistry, compared to conventional NMC-442 materials. This paves the way towards the development of a new generation of robust and stable high-energy NMC cathodes for Li-ion batteries.« less

  15. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  16. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  17. Approach to Fast Liquid Metal Flow Up a Magnetic Field Gradient | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Approach to Fast Liquid Metal Flow Up a Magnetic Field Gradient Electrical and magnetic field (J x B) forces can be used to support flowing liquid metal against gravity. In a tokamak, the radial magnetic field gradient implies that JxB decreases inversely as the major radius, for constant current density in the liquid metal. This field gradient produces a pressure gradient along the support wall, which pushes the liquid metal towards the low field side. The invention

  18. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid-electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Jiang, Deen; Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  19. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Jiang, D.; Kent, P.R.C.

    2011-03-31

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  20. Phase Boundary Propagation in Li-Alloying Battery Electrodes Revealed by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Harris, Charles T.

    2016-05-31

    Battery cycle life is directly influenced by the microstructural changes occurring in the electrodes during charge and discharge cycles. In this study, we image in situ the nanoscale phase evolution in negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries using a fully enclosed liquid cell in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to reveal early degradation that is not evident in the charge–discharge curves. To compare the electrochemical phase transformation behavior between three model materials, thin films of amorphous Si, crystalline Al, and crystalline Au were lithiated and delithiated at controlled rates while immersed in a commercial liquid electrolyte. This method allowed formore » the direct observation of lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale negative electrodes, revealing that a simplistic model of a surface-to-interior lithiation front is insufficient. For the crystalline films, a lithiation front spread laterally from a few initial nucleation points, with continued grain nucleation along the growing interface. The intermediate lithiated phases were identified using electron diffraction, and high-resolution postmortem imaging revealed the details of the final microstructure. Lastly, our results show that electrochemically induced solid–solid phase transformations can lead to highly concentrated stresses at the laterally propagating phase boundary which should be considered for future designs of nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries.« less

  1. Metal halogen battery construction with improved technique for producing halogen hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, Walter L.; Catherino, Henry A.; Kotch, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    An improved electrical energy storage system comprising, at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by aqueous electrolyte, a store means wherein halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material having a liquid level near the upper part of the store, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell, conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate forming apparatus associated with the store, said hydrate forming apparatus including, a pump to which there is introduced quantities of the halogen gas and chilled water, said pump being located in the store and an outlet conduit leading from the pump and being substantially straight and generally vertically disposed and having an exit discharge into the gas space above the liquid level in the store, and wherein said hydrate forming apparatus is highly efficient and very resistant to plugging or jamming. The disclosure also relates to an improved method for producing chlorine hydrate in zinc chlorine batteries.

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  4. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  5. Method of shielding a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sayre, Robert K.

    1978-01-01

    The primary heat transport system of a nuclear reactor -- particularly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor -- is shielded and protected from leakage by establishing and maintaining a bed of a powdered oxide closely and completely surrounding all components thereof by passing a gas upwardly therethrough at such a rate as to slightly expand the bed to the extent that the components of the system are able to expand without damage and yet the particles of the bed remain close enough so that the bed acts as a guard vessel for the system. Preferably the gas contains 1 to 10% oxygen and the gas is passed upwardly through the bed at such a rate that the lower portion of the bed is a fixed bed while the upper portion is a fluidized bed, the line of demarcation therebetween being high enough that the fixed bed portion of the bed serves as guard vessel for the system.

  6. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage DeviceEnergy for the Neighborhood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MITs battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt dont mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MITs battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  7. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  8. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  9. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  10. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

    1999-07-13

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

  11. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.; Deeds, W. Edward

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  12. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  13. Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R.; Mehdi, Beata L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Sacci, Robert L.; Xu, Wu; Connell, Justin G.; Xu, Pinghong; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Chen, Xilin; Zhang, Yaohui; Perea, Daniel E.; Evans, James E.; Lauhon, Lincoln; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Cui, Yi; Arslan, Ilke; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-12-11

    Over the last few years, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of lithium ion batteries using an open-cell configuration have helped us to gain fundamental insights into the structural and chemical evolution of the electrode materials in real time. In the standard open-cell configuration, the electrolyte is either solid lithium oxide or an ionic liquid, which is point-contacted with the electrode. This cell design is inherently different from a real battery, where liquid electrolyte forms conformal contact with electrode materials. The knowledge learnt from open cells can deviate significantly from the real battery, calling for operando TEM technique with conformal liquid electrolyte contact. In this paper, we developed an operando TEM electrochemical liquid cell to meet this need, providing the configuration of a real battery and in a relevant liquid electrolyte. To demonstrate this novel technique, we studied the lithiation/delithiation behavior of single Si nanowires. Some of lithiation/delithation behaviors of Si obtained using the liquid-cell are consistent with the results from the open-cell studies. However, we also discovered new insights different from the open cell configuration - the dynamics of the electrolyte and, potentially, a future quantitative characterization of the SEI layer formation and structural and chemical evolution.

  14. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  15. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  16. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  17. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Robert, Rosa; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pereira, Nathalie; Omenya, Fredrick; Badway, Fadwa; Hua, Xiao; Ruotolo, Michael; Zhang, Ruigang; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Su, Dong; Key, Baris; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Grey, Clare P.; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Zhu, Yimei; Graetz, Jason

    2015-10-15

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF{sub 2}: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF{sub 2}) while others are not (e.g., CuF{sub 2}). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2}, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2} react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li{sup +} with FeF{sub 2}, small metallic iron nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) nucleate in close proximity to the converted LiF phase, as a result of the low diffusivity of iron. The iron nanoparticles are interconnected and form a bicontinuous network, which provides a pathway for local electron transport through the insulating LiF phase. In addition, the massive interface formed between nanoscale solid phases provides a pathway for ionic transport during the conversion process. These results offer the first experimental evidence explaining the origins of the high lithium reversibility in FeF{sub 2}. In contrast

  18. Lewis Acid–Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Tian, Jian; Wu, Dangxin; Gu, Meng; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chongmin; Gao, Fei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-05-14

    Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity of 1675 mAh g–1 based on sulfur. However, the rapid capacity degradation, mainly caused by polysulfide dissolution, remains a significant challenge prior to practical applications. This work demonstrates that a novel Ni-based metal organic framework (Ni-MOF), Ni6(BTB)4(BP)3 (BTB = benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate and BP = 4,4'-bipyridyl), can remarkably immobilize polysulfides within the cathode structure through physical and chemical interactions at molecular level. The capacity retention achieves up to 89% after 100 cycles at 0.1 C. Finally, the excellent performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of the interwoven mesopores (~2.8 nm) and micropores (~1.4 nm) of Ni-MOF, which first provide an ideal matrix to confine polysulfides, and the strong interactions between Lewis acidic Ni(II) center and the polysulfide base, which significantly slow down the migration of soluble polysulfides out of the pores, leading to the excellent cycling performance of Ni-MOF/S composite.

  19. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup ?1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup ?1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  20. An investigation of corrosion in liquid-metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Andraka, C.E.; Showalter, S.K.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Cordiero, P.G.

    1998-08-01

    Research is underway to develop a 75-kW heat pipe to transfer solar energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The high flux levels and high total power level encountered in this application have made it necessary to use a high-performance wick structure with fibers on the order of 4 to 8 microns in diameter. This fine wick structure is highly susceptible to corrosion damage and plugging, as dissolved contaminants plate out on the evaporator surface. Normal operation of the heat pipe also tends to concentrate contaminants in localized areas of the evaporator surface where heat fluxes are the highest. Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a systematic study to identify procedures that reduce corrosion and contamination problems in liquid-metal heat pipes. A series of heat pipes are being tested to explore different options for cleaning heat-pipe systems. Models are being developed to help understand the overall importance of operating parameters on the life of heat-pipe systems. In this paper, the authors present their efforts to reduce corrosion damage.

  1. Alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowcliffe, Arthur F.; Bleiberg, Melvin L.; Diamond, Sidney; Bajaj, Ram

    1979-01-01

    An essentially gamma-prime precipitation-hardened iron-chromium-nickel alloy has been designed with emphasis on minimum nickel and chromium contents to reduce the swelling tendencies of these alloys when used in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The precipitation-hardening components have been designed for phase stability and such residual elements as silicon and boron, also have been selected to minimize swelling. Using the properties of these alloys in one design would result in an increased breeding ratio over 20% cold worked stainless steel, a reference material, of 1.239 to 1.310 and a reduced doubling time from 15.8 to 11.4 years. The gross stoichiometry of the alloying composition comprises from about 0.04% to about 0.06% carbon, from about 0.05% to about 1.0% silicon, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.5% vanadium, from about 24% to about 31% nickel, from 8% to about 11% chromium, from about 1.7% to about 3.5% titanium, from about 1.0% to about 1.8% aluminum, from about 0.9% to about 3.7% molybdenum, from about 0.04% to about 0.8% boron, and the balance iron with incidental impurities.

  2. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  3. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, J.

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable

  4. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  5. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes ...

  6. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  7. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  8. Bio-Imaging With Liquid-Metal-Jet X-ray Sources | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bio-Imaging With Liquid-Metal-Jet X-ray Sources Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Daniel Larsson, Stanford Program Description...

  9. RARE-EARTH METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM LIQUID U-Bi

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    Fission product metals can be removed from solution in liquid bismuth without removal of an appreciable quantity of uranium by contacting the liquid metal solution with fused halides, as for example, the halides of sodium, potassium, and lithium and by adding to the contacted phases a quantity of a halide which is unstable relative to the halides of the fission products, a specific unstable halide being MgCl/sub 3/.

  10. EIS-0085-S: Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, Supplemental

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this supplemental statement to examine the reduced scope of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and the environmental impacts associated therewith, including a re-examination of the purpose, need and timing of the program, the present program structure, including reasonable program alternatives, and alternative electricity production technologies anticipated to be available within the same timeframe as the LMFBR technology option. This statement supplements ERDA-1535, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program.

  11. Irradiation performance of U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, H.; Cohen, A.B.; Billone, M.C.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses a fuel system utilizing metallic U-Pu-Zr alloys which has been developed for advanced liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMRs). Result`s from extensive irradiation testing conducted in EBR-II show a design having the following key features can achieve both high reliability and high burnup capability: a cast nominally U-20wt %Pu-10wt %Zr slug with the diameter sized to yield a fuel smear density of {approx}75% theoretical density, low-swelling tempered martensitic stainless steel cladding, sodium bond filling the initial fuel/cladding gap, and an as-built plenum/fuel volume ratio of {approx}1.5. The robust performance capability of this design stems primarily from the negligible loading on the cladding from either fuel/cladding mechanical interaction or fission-gas pressure during the irradiation. The effects of these individual design parameters, e.g., fuel smear density, zirconium content in fuel, plenum volume, and cladding types, on fuel element performance were investigated in a systematic irradiation experiment in EBR-II. The results show that, at the discharge burnup of {approx}11 at. %, variations on zirconium content or plenum volume in the ranges tested have no substantial effects on performance. Fuel smear density, on the other hand, has pronounced but countervailing effects: increased density results in greater cladding strain, but lesser cladding wastage from fuel/cladding chemical interaction.

  12. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  14. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  15. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  16. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  17. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  18. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  19. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the worlds first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithiumbased negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the batterys reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  20. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Renjie E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Zhao, Teng; Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Cao, Shuai; Coxon, Paul R.; Xi, Kai E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Vasant Kumar, R.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8), a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF), which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/C{sub ZIF8-D} sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D} composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  1. Method and apparatus for regenerating cold traps within liquid-metal systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Jr., John M.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide and hydride impurities of a liquid metal such as sodium are removed from a cold trap by heating to a temperature at which the metal hydroxide is stable in a molten state. The partial pressure of hydrogen within the system is measured to determine if excess hydride or oxide is present. Excess hydride is removed by venting hydrogen gas while excess oxide can be converted to molten hydroxide through the addition of hydrogen. The resulting, molten hydroxide is drained from the trap which is then returned to service at cold trap temperatures within the liquid-metal system.

  2. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  3. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  4. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  5. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  6. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  7. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  8. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Shuai E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Stolpe, Moritz E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf; Evenson, Zach; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  9. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  10. Multiphysics analysis of liquid metal annular linear induction pumps: A project overview

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maidana, Carlos Omar; Nieminen, Juha E.

    2016-03-14

    Liquid metal-cooled fission reactors are both moderated and cooled by a liquid metal solution. These reactors are typically very compact and they can be used in regular electric power production, for naval and space propulsion systems or in fission surface power systems for planetary exploration. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena observed in liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for nuclear and space applications gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics and numerical problems. It is known that electromagnetic pumps have a number of advantages over rotating mechanisms: absence of moving parts, low noise and vibration level, simplicity of flowmore » rate regulation, easy maintenance and so on. However, while developing annular linear induction pumps, we are faced with a significant problem of magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in the device. The complex flow behavior in this type of devices includes a time-varying Lorentz force and pressure pulsation due to the time-varying electromagnetic fields and the induced convective currents that originates from the liquid metal flow, leading to instability problems along the device geometry. The determinations of the geometry and electrical configuration of liquid metal thermo-magnetic devices give rise to a complex inverse magnetohydrodynamic field problem were techniques for global optimization should be used, magnetohydrodynamics instabilities understood –or quantified- and multiphysics models developed and analyzed. Lastly, we present a project overview as well as a few computational models developed to study liquid metal annular linear induction pumps using first principles and the a few results of our multi-physics analysis.« less

  11. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some batteries can ... Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show ...

  12. Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1987-01-13

    A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink. 5 figs.

  13. Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink.

  14. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  15. X-ray grating interferometry with a liquid-metal-jet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thüring, T.; Rutishauser, S.; Stampanoni, M.; Zhou, T.; Lundström, U.; Burvall, A.; Hertz, H. M.; David, C.

    2013-08-26

    A liquid-metal-jet X-ray tube is used in an X-ray phase-contrast microscope based on a Talbot type grating interferometer. With a focal spot size in the range of a few microns and a photon flux of ∼10{sup 12} photons/s×sr, the brightness of such a source is approximately one order of magnitude higher than for a conventional microfocus source. For comparison, a standard microfocus source was used with the same grating interferometer, showing significantly increased visibility for the liquid-metal-jet arrangement. Together with the increased flux, this results in improved signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C.; Evans, James W.; Salas-Morales, Juan

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  17. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  18. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  19. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with partners at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, under the 2012 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids funding opportunity, is investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800°C. By allowing higher temperature operation, CSP systems can achieve greater efficiencies and thereby reduce the overall cost of electricity production.

  20. Nanostructured metal carbides for aprotic Li-O2 batteries. New insights into interfacial reactions and cathode stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kundu, Dipan; Black, Robert; Adams, Brian; Harrison, Katharine; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nazar, Linda F.

    2015-05-01

    The development of nonaqueous Li–oxygen batteries, which relies on the reversible reaction of Li + O2 to give lithium peroxide (Li2O2), is challenged by several factors, not the least being the high charging voltage that results when carbon is typically employed as the cathode host. We report here on the remarkably low 3.2 V potential for Li2O2 oxidation on a passivated nanostructured metallic carbide (Mo2C), carbon-free cathode host. Furthermore, online mass spectrometry coupled with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy unequivocally demonstrates that lithium peroxide is simultaneously oxidized together with the LixMoO3-passivated conductive interface formed on the carbide, owing to their close redoxmore » potentials. We found that the process rejuvenates the surface on each cycle upon electrochemical charge by releasing LixMoO3 into the electrolyte, explaining the low charging potential.« less

  1. Transition-Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sougrati, Moulay T.; Darwiche, Ali; Liu, Xiaohiu; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphael P.; Jouen, Samuel; Monconduit, Laure; Dronskowski, Richard; Stievano, Lorenzo

    2016-03-16

    Here we report evidence for the electrochemical activity of transition-metal carbodiimides versus lithium and sodium. In particular, iron carbodiimide, FeNCN, can be efficiently used as a negative electrode material for alkali-metal-ion batteries, similar to its oxide analogue FeO. Based on 57Fe M ssbauer and infrared spectroscopy (IR) data, the electrochemical reaction mechanism can be explained by the reversible transformation of the Fe NCN into Li/Na NCN bonds during discharge and charge. These new electrode materials exhibit higher capacity compared to well-established negative electrode references such as graphite or hard carbon. Contrary to its oxide analogue, iron carbodiimide does not requiremore » heavy treatments (nanoscale tailoring, sophisticated textures, coating etc.) to obtain long cycle life with density current as high as 9 A/g-1 for hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. Similar to the iron compound, several other transition-metal carbodiimides Mx(NCN)y with M = Mn, Cr, Zn can cycle successfully versus lithium and sodium. Ultimately, their electrochemical activity and performances open the way to the design of a novel family of anode materials.« less

  2. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  3. Carbyne fiber synthesis within evaporating metallic liquid carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cannella, Christopher B.; Goldman, Nir

    2015-07-09

    Carbyne (e.g., linear chains of sp-bonded carbon) has been the subject of intense research focus due to its presence in astrophysical bodies, as well as its potential for use as a nanoelectronic device and superhard material. In this work, we discuss the formation of carbyne fiber bundles over a nanosecond time scale in laser pulse melting studies, using a previously determined density functional tight binding model for carbon coupled with a new correction for the dispersion energy. We determine our dispersion energy model by optimizing a modified Lennard-Jones potential to an experimentally determined equation of state for graphite, yielding excellentmore » results for the bulk modulus and density under ambient conditions. We then simulate previous experiments by heating graphite to high temperature, followed by expanding the ensuing liquid phase to low density. Our results indicate that the initial, hot liquid phase mainly consists of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, which form a system of sp-bonded strands bound together via dispersion interactions upon achieving low density and temperature. Lastly, the high computational efficiency of our approach allows for direct comparison with experiments that span a wide range of thermodynamic conditions and can help determine parameters for synthesis of carbon-based materials with potentially exotic properties.« less

  4. Utilizing Metalized Fabrics for Liquid and Rip Detection and Localization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, Stephen; Mahan, Cody; Kuhn, Michael J; Rowe, Nathan C

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique for utilizing conductive textiles as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing liquids (e.g., blood), rips (e.g., bullet holes), and potentially biosignals. The proposed technique is verified through both simulation and experimental measurements. Circuit theory is utilized to depict conductive fabric as a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. Solutions to the well-known infinite resistance grid problem are used to confirm the accuracy and validity of this modeling approach. Simulations allow for discontinuities to be placed within the resistor matrix to illustrate the effects of bullet holes within the fabric. A real-time experimental system was developed that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge approach to reconstruct the resistor grid across the conductive fabric and detect liquids and rips. The resistor grid model is validated through a comparison of simulated and experimental results. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of discontinuities in conductive fabric samples. Future work is focused on refining the experimental system to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events as well as developing a complete prototype that can be deployed for field testing. Potential applications include intelligent clothing, flexible, lightweight sensing systems, and combat wound detection.

  5. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  6. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  7. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-05-11

    An electromagnetic induction pump is described in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  8. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    An electromagnetic induction pump in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  9. Characterization of Arc Generated Plasma Interactions with a Liquid Metal Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Gregory C.; Martin, Elijah H.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2005-05-15

    Plasma interaction with first wall and interior reactor chamber components is an influencing factor in the design of inertial fusion facilities. The concept of a liquid metal wall, in which a circulating lithium curtain would be used, has been considered in many studies. The interaction of plasmas with moving liquid metals is a complex subject due to the influence of hydrodynamics, evaporation and droplet formation, nucleation and agglomeration of condensed particulates. To gain an understanding of some of the specific details of this interaction an experimental setup of an arc-generated plasma interacting with a liquid lead pool has been designed, constructed and operated. This simulation of the plasma-liquid interaction focuses on the particle condensation of the liquid metal after plasma interaction. The experiment generates transient high-density plasma over 50 {mu}s pulse duration. Plasma characteristics are determined by various diagnostics. A set of collection substrates are arranged to collect nucleated particulates condensing from the evolving plume. Particulate size and distribution are analyzed numerically using digital images.

  10. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Busboom, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  11. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  12. Instability of nano- and microscale liquid metal filaments: Transition from single droplet collapse to multidroplet breakup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnett, Chris A.; Mahady, Kyle; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Afkhami, Shahriar; Rack, P. D.; Kondic, L.

    2015-11-23

    We carry out experimental and numerical studies to investigate the collapse and breakup of finite size, nano- and microscale, liquid metal filaments supported on a substrate. We find the critical dimensions below which filaments do not break up but rather collapse to a single droplet. The transition from collapse to breakup can be described as a competition between two fluid dynamic phenomena: the capillary driven end retraction and the Rayleigh–Plateau type instability mechanism that drives the breakup. We focus on the unique spatial and temporal transition region between these two phenomena using patterned metallic thin film strips and pulsed-laser-induced dewetting. The experimental results are compared to an analytical model proposed by Driessen et al. and modified to include substrate interactions. Additionally, we report the results of numerical simulations based on a volume-of-fluid method to provide additional insight and highlight the importance of liquid metal resolidification, which reduces inertial effects.

  13. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  14. High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for In-Service Inspection of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-12-31

    In-service inspection of liquid metal (sodium) fast reactors requires the use of ultrasonic transducers capable of operating at high temperatures (>200°C), high gamma radiation fields, and the chemically reactive liquid sodium environment. In the early- to mid-1970s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission supported development of high-temperature, submersible single-element transducers, used for scanning and under-sodium imaging in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Current work is building on this technology to develop the next generation of high-temperature linear ultrasonic transducer arrays for under-sodium viewing and in-service inspections.

  15. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-07

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: Pm3¯m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic “Na” potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observedmore » in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of “Na” potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Thus, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.« less

  16. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-07

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: Pm3m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic Na potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of Na potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Thus, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  17. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-07

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: Pm3¯m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic “Na” potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of “Na” potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Thus, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  18. Screening study of mixed transition-metal oxides for use as cathodes in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    Over 100 candidates were examined, including commercial materials and many that were synthesized in house. The mixed oxides were based on Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu doped with other transition metals. A number of individual (single-metal) oxides were included for comparison. The candidates were tested in single cells with Li(Si) anodes and separators based on LiCl-KCl eutectic. Screening was done under constant-current conditions at current densities of 125 me/cm{sup 2} and, to a lesser extent, 50 me/cm{sup 2} at 500 C. Relative performance and limitations of the oxide cathodes are discussed.

  19. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  20. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  1. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Charles E.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  2. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2009-09-14

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.

  3. Second-Nearest-Neighbor Correlations from Connection of Atomic Packing Motifs in Metallic Glasses and Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Jun; Ma, Evan; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-11-30

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the atomic correlations characterizing the second peak in the radial distribution function (RDF) of metallic glasses and liquids. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of different connection schemes of atomic packing motifs, based on the number of shared atoms between two linked coordination polyhedra. The results demonstrate that the cluster connections by face-sharing, specifically with three common atoms, are most favored when transitioning from the liquid to glassy state, and exhibit the stiffest elastic response during shear deformation. These properties of the connections and the resultant atomic correlations are generally the same for different types of packing motifs in different alloys. Splitting of the second RDF peak was observed for the inherent structure of the equilibrium liquid, originating solely from cluster connections; this trait can then be inherited in the metallic glass formed via subsequent quenching of the parent liquid through the glass transition, in the absence of any additional type of local structural order. In conclusion, increasing ordering and cluster connection during cooling, however, may tune the position and intensity of the split peaks.

  4. Second-Nearest-Neighbor Correlations from Connection of Atomic Packing Motifs in Metallic Glasses and Liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ding, Jun; Ma, Evan; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-11-30

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the atomic correlations characterizing the second peak in the radial distribution function (RDF) of metallic glasses and liquids. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of different connection schemes of atomic packing motifs, based on the number of shared atoms between two linked coordination polyhedra. The results demonstrate that the cluster connections by face-sharing, specifically with three common atoms, are most favored when transitioning from the liquid to glassy state, and exhibit the stiffest elastic response during shear deformation. These properties of the connections and the resultant atomic correlations are generally the samemore » for different types of packing motifs in different alloys. Splitting of the second RDF peak was observed for the inherent structure of the equilibrium liquid, originating solely from cluster connections; this trait can then be inherited in the metallic glass formed via subsequent quenching of the parent liquid through the glass transition, in the absence of any additional type of local structural order. In conclusion, increasing ordering and cluster connection during cooling, however, may tune the position and intensity of the split peaks.« less

  5. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  6. Nanostructured Metal Carbides for Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries. New Insights into Interfacial Reactions and Cathode Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, Dipan; Black, Robert; Adams, Brian; Harrison, Katharine; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nazar, Linda F.

    2015-05-01

    The development of nonaqueous Li–oxygen batteries, which relies on the reversible reaction of Li + O2 to give lithium peroxide (Li2O2), is challenged by several factors, not the least being the high charging voltage that results when carbon is typically employed as the cathode host. We report here on the remarkably low 3.2 V potential for Li2O2 oxidation on a passivated nanostructured metallic carbide (Mo2C), carbon-free cathode host. Furthermore, online mass spectrometry coupled with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy unequivocally demonstrates that lithium peroxide is simultaneously oxidized together with the LixMoO3-passivated conductive interface formed on the carbide, owing to their close redox potentials. We found that the process rejuvenates the surface on each cycle upon electrochemical charge by releasing LixMoO3 into the electrolyte, explaining the low charging potential.

  7. Effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors of metal lithium anode in lithium–sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yamiao; Duan, Xiaobo; Li, Yanbing; Huang, Liwu; Zhu, Ding; Chen, Yungui

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors were investigated systematically. • The corrosion became severer with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. • The corrosion films are porous and loose and cannot prevent further reaction between lithium and polysulfides. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviors in rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries come from the reactions between polysulfides and metal lithium anode, and they are significantly influenced by the sulfur loading. While there are limited papers reported on the effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors. In this paper, the effects have been investigated systematically. The corrosion films consisted of insulating lithium ion conductors are loose and porous, so that the corrosive reactions cannot be hindered. The thickness of the corrosion layers, consequently, increased along with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. For instance, the thickness of corrosion layers after 50 cycles was 98 μm in the cell with 5 mg sulfur while it reached up to 518 μm when the loading increased to 15 mg. The continuous deposition of corrosion products gave rise to low active materials utilization and poor cycling performance.

  8. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  9. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; et al

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimentalmore » and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.« less

  10. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimental and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.

  11. An analytical model for studying effects of gas release from a failed fuel pin of a liquid-metal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    A analytical model for describing dynamics of a gas bubble in the liquid sodium of a liquid-metal reactor as the result of failed fuel pins is discussed. A model to describe the coupled response of the liquid sodium surrounding the gas bubble is also discussed. The analysis method is programmed in a computer code and used to analyze some available experimental data, and the results are discussed.

  12. Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

    2006-05-23

    A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

  13. Hydrodynamic and shock heating instabilities of liquid metal strippers for RIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2013-05-24

    Stripping of accelerated ions is a key problem for the design of RIA to obtain high efficiency. Thin liquid Lithium film flow is currently considered as stripper for RIA ion beams to obtain higher Z for following acceleration: in extreme case of Uranium from Z=29 to Z=60-70 (first stripper) and from Z=70 till full stripping Z=92 (second stripper). Ionization of ion occurs due to the interaction of the ion with electrons of target material (Lithium) with the loss of parts of the energy due to ionization, Q{sub U}, which is also accompanied with ionization energy losses, Q{sub Li} of the lithium. The resulting heat is so high that can be removed not by heat conduction but mainly by convection, i.e., flowing of liquid metal across beam spot area. The interaction of the beam with the liquid metal generates shock wave propagating along direction perpendicular to the beam as well as excites oscillations along beam direction. We studied the dynamics of these excited waves to determine conditions for film stability at the required velocities for heat removal. It will allow optimizing jet nozzle shapes and flow parameters to prevent film fragmentation and to ensure stable device operation.

  14. Instability of nano- and microscale liquid metal filaments: Transition from single droplet collapse to multidroplet breakup

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartnett, Chris A.; Mahady, Kyle; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Afkhami, Shahriar; Rack, P. D.; Kondic, L.

    2015-11-23

    We carry out experimental and numerical studies to investigate the collapse and breakup of finite size, nano- and microscale, liquid metal filaments supported on a substrate. We find the critical dimensions below which filaments do not break up but rather collapse to a single droplet. The transition from collapse to breakup can be described as a competition between two fluid dynamic phenomena: the capillary driven end retraction and the Rayleigh–Plateau type instability mechanism that drives the breakup. We focus on the unique spatial and temporal transition region between these two phenomena using patterned metallic thin film strips and pulsed-laser-induced dewetting.more » The experimental results are compared to an analytical model proposed by Driessen et al. and modified to include substrate interactions. Additionally, we report the results of numerical simulations based on a volume-of-fluid method to provide additional insight and highlight the importance of liquid metal resolidification, which reduces inertial effects.« less

  15. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  16. Thermal battery with composite anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, L.R.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a thermal battery for generating electrical energy. It comprises: a sodium composite electrode comprising sodium metal and a protective metal; a cathode; and a separator located between the sodium composite electrode and the cathode.

  17. Influence of stress concentrators on the temperature dependence of the liquid metal embrittlement of Armco iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmukhovs`ka, I.H.; Popovych, V.V.

    1994-03-01

    We study temperature dependences of the effects of liquid indium and lead-bismuth eutectics on the ultimate strength and tensile elongation of Armco iron. Tests were performed on Armco iron cylindrical specimens with stress concentrators and with square cross section under active strain with a rate of 8.3 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. It was found that, under identical test conditions, the decrease in the ultimate strength of the specimens with concentrators caused by the effect of melts occurs in a broader temperature range than the embrittlement of specimens without concentrators. The effect of liquid metals also depends on the size of the grains in iron (26-110 {mu}m) but its character is different for specimens with and without concentrators.

  18. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-03-27

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  19. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  20. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  1. High Cyclability of Ionic Liquid-Produced TiO2 Nanotube Arrays As an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaqing; Martha, Surendra K; Unocic, Raymond R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) are considered as a potential SEI-free anode material for Li-ion batteries to offer enhanced safety. Organic solutions, dominatingly ethylene glycol (EG)-based, have widely been used for synthesizing TiO{sub 2} NTs via anodization because of their ability to generate long tubes and well-aligned structures. However, it has been revealed that the EG-produced NTs are composited with carbonaceous decomposition products of EG, release of which during the tube crystallization process inevitably causes nano-scale porosity and cracks. These microstructural defects significantly deteriorate the NTs charge transport efficiency and mechanical strength/toughness. Here we report using ionic liquids (ILs) to anodize titanium to grow low-defect TiO{sub 2} NTs by reducing the electrolyte decomposition rate (less IR drop due to higher electrical conductivity) as well as the chance of the decomposition products mixing into the TiO{sub 2} matrix (organic cations repelled away). Promising electrochemical results have been achieved when using the IL-produced TiO{sub 2} NTs as an anode for Li-ion batteries. The ILNTs demonstrated excellent capacity retention without microstructural damage for nearly 1200 cycles of charge-discharge, while the NTs grown in a conventional EG solution totally pulverized in cycling, resulting in significant capacity fade.

  2. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidationreduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chlorideethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  3. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  4. Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page technical brochure about Argonne's high-density rechargeable liquid fuel PDF icon esnanoelectrofuels-broch-tech...

  5. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  6. High energy density battery with cathode composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajek, D.; Eibeck, R. E.; Sukornick, B.

    1985-10-22

    A cell which employs an active metal anode such as lithium and a liquid organic electrolyte that is improved by the use of a cathode comprised of carbon fluoride chloride is described. The cathode comprises a carbon fluoride chloride of the general formula (C /SUB y/ F /SUB x/ Cl /SUB z/ ) /SUB n/ wherein y is 1 to 2, x is greater than 0 to 1.2, z is less than or equal to0.1 and n defines the number of repeating units occurring in the carbon fluoride chloride molecule of high molecular weight. The resulting battery has improved discharge and shelf-life characteristics.

  7. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  8. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  9. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  10. Dielectric response of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/two-dimensional electron liquid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-08-17

    Maximizing the effective dielectric constant of the gate dielectric stack is important for electrostatically controlling high carrier densities inherent to strongly correlated materials. SrTiO{sub 3} is uniquely suited for this purpose, given its extremely high dielectric constant, which can reach 10{sup 4}. Here, we present a systematic study of the thickness dependence of the dielectric response and leakage of SrTiO{sub 3} that is incorporated into a vertical structure on a high-carrier-density two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL). A simple model can be used to interpret the data. The results show a need for improved interface control in the design of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/2DEL devices.

  11. Application of pyroelectric crystal and ionic liquid to the production of metal compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Imanishi, Akira; Kawai, Jun

    2013-04-19

    Zinc fluoride (ZnF{sub 2}) was deposited on a silicon substrate by changing temperature of a pyroelectric crystal of LiTaO{sub 3} on which ionic liquid (EMI-Tf{sub 2}N) containing zinc ions was dripped at 1 Pa. ZnF{sub 2} was also obtained by bombarding argon ions on EMI-Tf{sub 2}N containing zinc ions. From these results, it is concluded that EMI-Tf{sub 2}N containing zinc ions on the LiTaO{sub 3} crystal was evaporated on the silicon substrate by changing temperature of the LiTaO{sub 3} crystal in vacuum and that the evaporated EMI-Tf{sub 2}N containing metal zinc ions was decomposed to ZnF{sub 2} by the bombardment of electrons accelerated by the electric field between the LiTaO{sub 3} crystal and the silicon substrate.

  12. The Small Modular Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor: A New Approach to Proliferation Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C F; Crawford, D; Cappiello, M; Minato, A; Herczeg, J W

    2003-11-12

    There is an ongoing need to supply energy to small markets and remote locations with limited fossil fuel infrastructures. The Small, Modular, Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactor, also referred to as SSTAR (Small, Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor), can provide reliable and cost-effective electricity, heat, fresh water, and potentially hydrogen transportation fuels for these markets. An evaluation of a variety of reactor designs indicates that SSTAR, with its secure, long-life core, has many advantages for deployment into a variety of national and international markets. In this paper, we describe the SSTAR concept and its approach to safety, security, environmental and non-proliferation. The system would be design-certified using a new license-by-test approach, and demonstrated for commercial deployment anywhere in the world. The project addresses a technology development need (i.e., a small secure modular system for remote sites) that is not otherwise addressed in other currently planned research programs.

  13. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Wysocki, Joseph A.; Storms, Edmund K.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Behrens, Robert G.; Swanson, Lynwood W.; Bell, Anthony E.

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  14. Method of detecting leakage of reactor core components of liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Fred E.; Cash, Robert J.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of detecting the failure of a sealed non-fueled core component of a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor having an inert cover gas. A gas mixture is incorporated in the component which includes Xenon-124; under neutron irradiation, Xenon-124 is converted to radioactive Xenon-125. The cover gas is scanned by a radiation detector. The occurrence of 188 Kev gamma radiation and/or other identifying gamma radiation-energy level indicates the presence of Xenon-125 and therefore leakage of a component. Similarly, Xe-126, which transmutes to Xe-127 and Kr-84, which produces Kr-85.sup.m can be used for detection of leakage. Different components are charged with mixtures including different ratios of isotopes other than Xenon-124. On detection of the identifying radiation, the cover gas is subjected to mass spectroscopic analysis to locate the leaking component.

  15. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  16. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  17. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  19. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Multiple lead seal assembly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, Ernest; Pardini, John A.

    1977-03-15

    A reusable multiple lead seal assembly provides leak-free passage of stainless-steel-clad instrument leads through the cover on the primary tank of a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder nuclear reactor. The seal isolates radioactive argon cover gas and sodium vapor within the primary tank from the exterior atmosphere and permits reuse of the assembly and the stainless-steel-clad instrument leads. Leads are placed in flutes in a seal body, and a seal shell is then placed around the seal body. Circumferential channels in the body and inner surface of the shell are contiguous and together form a conduit which intersects each of the flutes, placing them in communication with a port through the wall of the seal shell. Liquid silicone rubber sealant is injected into the flutes through the port and conduit; the sealant fills the space in the flutes not occupied by the leads themselves and dries to a rubbery hardness. A nut, threaded onto a portion of the seal body not covered by the seal shell, jacks the body out of the shell and shears the sealant without damage to the body, shell, or leads. The leads may then be removed from the body. The sheared sealant is cleaned from the body, leads, and shell and the assembly may then be reused with the same or different leads.

  1. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-29

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Erguns equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  2. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery Title: Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery A method of ...

  3. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  4. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  5. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Liquid-Solid and Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Metals and Alloys, Grant DE-FG02-06ER46321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Stuart

    2012-09-27

    The research supported by ER46321 was designed to understand in microscopic detail the structures of the interfaces between liquid metals and alloys and solid media. The system chosen for study, because of detailed knowledge of the structure of the corresponding liquid alloy-vapor interface, was the interface between a Si crystal and a dilute alloy of Pb in Ga. Experimental study of the Si:PbGa interface was anticipated to be very difficult; it requires preparation of an interface between a liquid metal and a solid surface that is flat to better than a nanometer on the scale length of the x-ray coherence, alignment of the x-ray beam and the surface in the sub-micro radian regime, and the use of high energy x-rays to penetrate the window and reach the interface without disastrous loss of intensity. The experimental design was subject to compromises forced by the limit to the highest x-ray energy available at the ChemMatCARS beam-line, namely 30 keV, which reduced the scattered signal relative to what can be obtained with higher x-ray energy. Although considerable progress was achieved during the support period and its no-cost extension, the difficulties encountered prevented completion of the studies and the data collected are incomplete. These data hint at the existence of unexpected structural features of the interface, in particular that Pb dimers play an important role in the interfacial structure. These data provide a different picture of the interface from the pentagonal structure inferred to be present in the interface between pure Pb and Si 001 (Nature 408, 839 (2000)), but much like the Ga dimers in the interface between liquid Ga and the 100 face of diamond (Nature 390, 379 (1997), J. Chem. Phys. 123, 104703 (2005)). However, during the latter part of the support period significant progress was made in the theoretical description of the liquid metal-crystal interface. In particular, stimulated by the results of an experimental study of the interface

  7. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquidmore » cell.« less

  8. Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y.; Wu, H. A.; Luo, S. N.

    2014-06-07

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (∼0.9 J m{sup −2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33−34} s{sup −1} m{sup −3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

  9. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  10. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  11. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  12. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  13. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information about thin-film lithium batteries is available in full-text and on the Web. ... Additional Web Pages: Thin Films for Advanced Batteries Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium, ...

  14. The role of SASSYS-1 in LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, F.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis computer code is currently being used as the principal tool for analysis of reactor plant transients in LMR development projects. These include the IFR and EBR-II Projects at Argonne National Laboratory, the FFTF project at Westinghouse-Hanford, the PRISM project at General Electric, the SAFR project at Rockwell International, and the LSPB project at EPRI. The SASSYS-1 code features a multiple-channel thermal-hydraulics core representation coupled with a point kinetics neutronics model with reactivity feedback, all combined with detailed one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic models of the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, including pipes, pumps, plena, valves, heat exchangers and steam generators. In addition, SASSYS-1 contains detailed models for active and passive shutdown and emergency heat rejection systems and a generalized plant control system model. With these models, SASSYS-1 provides the capability to analyze a wide range of transients, including normal operational transients, shutdown heat removal transients, and anticipated transients without scram events. 26 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Formation of a new archetypal Metal-Organic Framework from a simple monatomic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metere, Alfredo Oleynikov, Peter; Dzugutov, Mikhail; O’Keeffe, Michael

    2014-12-21

    We report a molecular-dynamics simulation of a single-component system of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential that is found to form, upon cooling from a liquid state, a low-density porous crystalline phase. Its structure analysis demonstrates that the crystal can be described by a net with a topology that belongs to the class of topologies characteristic of the Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). The observed net is new, and it is now included in the Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource database. The observation that a net topology characteristic of MOF crystals, which are known to be formed by a coordination-driven self-assembly process, can be reproduced by a thermodynamically stable configuration of a simple single-component system of particles opens a possibility of using these models in studies of MOF nets. It also indicates that structures with MOF topology, as well as other low-density porous crystalline structures can possibly be produced in colloidal systems of spherical particles, with an appropriate tuning of interparticle interaction.

  16. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space.

  17. Response of a pool-type LMR (liquid metal reactor) to seismic loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic analysis of a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3 g SSE ground excitations. It also assess the ultimate inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design-basis seismic events. Calculation is focused on a new design configuration where the vessel thickness is reduced considerably compared to the previous design (Ma and Gvildys, 1987). In the analysis, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of the reactor vessel, guard vessel, and support skirt are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the horizontal excitation in which large stress is generated. The possibility of impact between the reactor and guard vessels is examined. In the reactor vessel analysis, the effect of fluid-structure interaction is included. Attention is further given to the maximum horizontal acceleration of the reactor core as well as the relative displacement between the reactor core and the upper internal structure. The Argonne National Laboratory augmented three-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction program, FLUSTR-ANL is utilized for performing the base calculation where ground excitation is assumed to be 0.3 g SSE. The Newmark-Hall Ductility modification method was used for the beyond-design-basis seismic events. In both calculations, stress fields generated from the horizontal and vertical excitations are evaluated separately. The resultant stresses due to combined actions of these events are computed by the SRSS method. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Seismic analysis of a large pool-type LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic study of a 450-MWe liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3-g SSE ground excitation. Two calculations were performed using the new design configuration. They deal with the seismic response of the reactor vessel, the guard vessel and support skirt, respectively. In both calculations, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of those components are investigated. Assessments are also made on the elastic and inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design basis seismic loads. Results of the reactor vessel analysis reveal that the maximum equivalent stress is only about half of the material yield stress. For the guard vessel and support skirt, the stress level is very small. Regarding the analysis if inelastic structural capability, solutions of the Newmark-Hall ductility modification method show that the reactor vessel can withstand seismics with ground ZPAs ranging from 1.015 to 1.31 g, which corresponds to 3.37 to 4.37 times the basic 0.3-g SSE. Thus, the reactor vessel and guard vessel are strong enough to resist seismic loads. 4 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Thermohydraulic behavior of the liquid metal target of a spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author presents work done on three main problems. (1) Natural circulation in double coaxial cylindircal container: The thermohydraulic behaviour of the liquid metal target of the spallation neutron source at PSI has been investigated. The configuration is a natural-circulation loop in a concentric double-tube-type container. The results show that the natural-circulation loop concept is valid for the design phase of the target construction, and the current specified design criteria will be fulfilled with the proposed parameter values. (2) Flow around the window: Water experiments were performed for geometry optimisation of the window shape of the SINQ container for avoiding generating recirculation zones at peripheral area and the optimal cooling of the central part of the beam entrance window. Flow visualisation technique was mainly used for various window shapes, gap distance between the window and the guide tube edge. (3) Flow in window cooling channels: Flows in narrow gaps of cooling channels of two different types of windows were studied by flow visualisation techniques. One type is a slightly curved round cooling channel and the other is hemispherical shape, both of which have only 2 mm gap distance and the water inlet is located on one side and flows out from the opposite side. In both cases, the central part of the flow area has lower velocity than peripheral area.

  20. Eddy current position indicating apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Clifford K.; Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor by means of an eddy current probe. The active portion of the probe is located within a dry thimble which is supported on a stationary portion of the reactor core support structure. Split rings of metal, having a resistivity significantly different than sodium, are fixedly mounted on the core component to be monitored. The split rings are slidably positioned around, concentric with the probe and symmetrically situated along the axis of the probe so that motion of the ring along the axis of the probe produces a proportional change in the probes electrical output.

  1. Mixed-Metal, Structural, and Substitution Effects of Polyoxometalates on Electrochemical Behavior in a Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Harry D; Pratt, William R; Fang, Xikui; Hudak, Nicholas S; Anderson, Travis M

    2014-08-01

    A pair of redox flow batteries containing polyoxometalates was tested as part of an ongoing program in stationary energy storage. The iron-containing dimer, (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)311−, cycled between (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)311−/(SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)314−and (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)317−/(SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)314− for the positive and negative electrode, respectively. This compound demonstrated a coulombic efficiency of 83% after 20 cycles with an electrochemical yield (measured discharge capacity as a percentage of theoretical capacity) of 55%. Cyclic voltammetry on the Lindqvist ion, cis-V2W4O194−, showed quasi-reversible vanadium electrochemistry, but tungsten reduction was mostly irreversible. In a flow cell configuration, cis-V2W4O194−had a coulombic efficiency of 45% (for a two-electron process) and an electrochemical yield of 16% after 20 cycles. The poor performance of cis-V2W4O194−was attributed primarily to its higher charge density. Collectively, the results showed that both polyoxometalate size and charge density are both important parameters to consider in battery material performance.

  2. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  3. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. ...

  4. Understanding batteries on the micro- and nanometer scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-22

    In order to understand performance limitations and failure mechanisms of batteries, one has to investigate processes on the micro- and nanometer scale. A typical failure mechanism in lithium metal batteries is dendritic growth. During discharge, lithium is stripped of the anode surface and migrates to the cathode. During charge, lithium is deposited back on the anode. Repeated cycling can result in stripping and re-deposition that roughens the surface. The roughening of the surface changes the electric field and draws more metal to spikes that are beginning to grow. These can grow with tremendous mechanical force, puncture the separator, and directly connect the anode with the cathode which can create an internal short circuit. This can lead to an uncontrolled discharge reaction, which heats the cell and causes additional exothermic reactions leading to what is called thermal runaway. ORNL has developed a new technology called liquid electron microscopy. In a specially designed sample holder micro-chamber with electron-transparent windows, researchers can hold a liquid and take images of structures and particles at nanometer size. It's the first microscope holder of its kind used to investigate the inside of a battery while cycled.

  5. Understanding batteries on the micro- and nanometer scale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-03

    In order to understand performance limitations and failure mechanisms of batteries, one has to investigate processes on the micro- and nanometer scale. A typical failure mechanism in lithium metal batteries is dendritic growth. During discharge, lithium is stripped of the anode surface and migrates to the cathode. During charge, lithium is deposited back on the anode. Repeated cycling can result in stripping and re-deposition that roughens the surface. The roughening of the surface changes the electric field and draws more metal to spikes that are beginning to grow. These can grow with tremendous mechanical force, puncture the separator, and directly connect the anode with the cathode which can create an internal short circuit. This can lead to an uncontrolled discharge reaction, which heats the cell and causes additional exothermic reactions leading to what is called thermal runaway. ORNL has developed a new technology called liquid electron microscopy. In a specially designed sample holder micro-chamber with electron-transparent windows, researchers can hold a liquid and take images of structures and particles at nanometer size. It's the first microscope holder of its kind used to investigate the inside of a battery while cycled.

  6. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature ismore » roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.« less

  7. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  8. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  9. Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

    2014-05-20

    The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  10. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  11. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. This is not the case in Marine and RV applications. * The battery charger manufacturer has no influence on the selection of batteries. * The battery charger could be used to charge a single battery, single battery bank, multiple batteries or multiple

  12. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  13. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable ...

  14. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This greatly expands the potential medical uses of the batteries, including transdermal applications for heart regulation.' -Edited excerpt from Medical Applications of Non-medical ...

  15. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  16. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  17. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  18. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  19. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Mixing Sulfone and Ionic Liquid as Safe...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as Safe Electrolytes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries a) Structures of the ionic liquid (IL) ... A strategy of mixing both an ionic liquid and sulfone is applied in Li-S batteries to give ...

  1. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  2. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.

  3. Assessment of the performance potential of the martensitic alloy HT-9 for liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straalsund, J.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1983-05-01

    Martensitic stainless steels appear to provide attractive alternatives to austenitic stainless steels for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). The United States National Cladding/Duct (NCD) Materials Development Program has selected Sandvik alloy HT-9 (12CrMoW) as one of six prime candidate alloys for advanced in-core structural materials having very high peak burnup capabilities. The NCD program, since 1974, has been accumulating engineering data for HT-9. Properties include swelling, irradiation creep and microstructure as a function of fluence, postirradiation mechanical properties, thermal creep, sodium compatibility and hardware fabrication technology. Tests results are presented.

  4. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  5. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  6. In-Situ Liquid (ec)-TEM Cell Shows Dendrite Formation, Providing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Providing New Insights into Lithium Batteries (Top) In-situ liquid electrochemical ... changing our view of dendrite formation and the safety of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  7. A computational study of diffusion in a glass-forming metallic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, L.; Fang, X. W.; Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2015-06-09

    In this study, liquid phase diffusion plays a critical role in phase transformations (e.g. glass transformation and devitrification) observed in marginal glass forming systems such as Al-Sm. Controlling transformation pathways in such cases requires a comprehensive description of diffusivity, including the associated composition and temperature dependencies. In our computational study, we examine atomic diffusion in Al-Sm liquids using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and determine the diffusivities of Al and Sm for selected alloy compositions. Non-Arrhenius diffusion behavior is observed in the undercooled liquids with an enhanced local structural ordering. Through assessment of our AIMD result, we construct a general formulation for Al-Sm liquid, involving a diffusion mobility database that includes composition and temperature dependence. A Volmer-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is adopted for describing the non-Arrhenius behavior observed in the undercooled liquid. Furthermore, the composition dependence of diffusivity is found quite strong, even for the Al-rich region contrary to the sole previous report on this binary system. The model is used in combination with the available thermodynamic database to predict specific diffusivities and compares well with reported experimental data for 0.6 at.% and 5.6 at.% Sm in Al-Sm alloys.

  8. A computational study of diffusion in a glass-forming metallic liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, L.; Fang, X. W.; Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2015-06-09

    In this study, liquid phase diffusion plays a critical role in phase transformations (e.g. glass transformation and devitrification) observed in marginal glass forming systems such as Al-Sm. Controlling transformation pathways in such cases requires a comprehensive description of diffusivity, including the associated composition and temperature dependencies. In our computational study, we examine atomic diffusion in Al-Sm liquids using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and determine the diffusivities of Al and Sm for selected alloy compositions. Non-Arrhenius diffusion behavior is observed in the undercooled liquids with an enhanced local structural ordering. Through assessment of our AIMD result, we construct a generalmore » formulation for Al-Sm liquid, involving a diffusion mobility database that includes composition and temperature dependence. A Volmer-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is adopted for describing the non-Arrhenius behavior observed in the undercooled liquid. Furthermore, the composition dependence of diffusivity is found quite strong, even for the Al-rich region contrary to the sole previous report on this binary system. The model is used in combination with the available thermodynamic database to predict specific diffusivities and compares well with reported experimental data for 0.6 at.% and 5.6 at.% Sm in Al-Sm alloys.« less

  9. A computational study of diffusion in a glass-forming metallic liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, L.; Fang, X. W.; Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2015-06-09

    Liquid phase diffusion plays a critical role in phase transformations (e.g. glass transformation and devitrification) observed in marginal glass forming systems such as Al-Sm. Controlling transformation pathways in such cases requires a comprehensive description of diffusivity, including the associated composition and temperature dependencies. In the computational study reported here, we examine atomic diffusion in Al-Sm liquids using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and determine the diffusivities of Al and Sm for selected alloy compositions. Non-Arrhenius diffusion behavior is observed in the undercooled liquids with an enhanced local structural ordering. Through assessment of our AIMD result, we construct a general formulationmorefor Al-Sm liquid, involving a diffusion mobility database that includes composition and temperature dependence. A Volmer-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is adopted for describing the non-Arrhenius behavior observed in the undercooled liquid. The composition dependence of diffusivity is found quite strong, even for the Al-rich region contrary to the sole previous report on this binary system. The model is used in combination with the available thermodynamic database to predict specific diffusivities and compares well with reported experimental data for 0.6 at.% and 5.6 at.% Sm in Al-Sm alloys.less

  10. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries are superior to other rechargeable batteries due to their ability to store more energy per unit size and weight and to operate at higher voltages. The performance of lithium ion batteries available today, however, has been compromised by their tendency to overheat during operation. This condition, called “thermal runaway,” can melt the battery’s lithium metal and, in the most serious cases, result in explosive chemical reactions....

  11. Pyrite cathode material for a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, J.P.; Litchfield, J.K.

    1991-02-07

    The present invention relates in general to a synthetic cathode material for a molten salt battery and, more particularly, to a process of providing and using synthetic pyrite for use as a cathode in a thermal battery. These batteries, which have been successfully used in a number of military applications, include iron disulfide cathode material obtained as benefacted or from natural occurring pyrite deposits, or as a byproduct of flotation concentrate from the processing of base or noble metal ores.

  12. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  13. NREL: Awards and Honors - Electroexploded Metal Nanopowders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Nanopowders include catalysis, batteries, microelectronic contacts, lubrication, sinteringwelding, coating substrates for wear or corrosion resistance, and more...

  14. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters Prev Next Title: Nanoscale ...

  15. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. ...

  16. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers cost to ...

  17. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  18. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  19. Bipolar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  20. Comments on the possibility of cavitation in liquid metal targets for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter J.M.

    1996-06-01

    When short pulses of protons strike the volume of a liquid target, the rapid heating produces a pressurized region which relaxes as the pressure wave propagates outward. Skala and Bauer have modeled the effects of the pressure wave impinging on the container walls of a liquid mercury target under ESS conditions. They find that high pressures and high wall stresses result if the medium is uniform, nearly incompressible liquid. The pressure and the stresses are much reduced if the liquid contains bubbles of helium, due to their high compressibility. However, according to the calculation, the pressure still reaches an atmosphere or so at the surface, which reflects the compressive wave as a rarefaction wave of the same magnitude. Even such modest underpressures can lead to the growth of bubbles (cavitation) at or near the surface, which can collapse violently and erode the container surface. It is necessary to avoid this. Leighton provides a wide ranging discussion of pressure waves in bubbly media, which may provide insights into the nature and control of cavitation phenomena. The paper surveys some of the relevant information from that source.

  1. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  2. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  3. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  4. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  5. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  6. An optimization study for the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system of a pool liquid-metal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Tessier, H.; Pedersen, D.R. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of design parameters on the performance of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) of a pool liquid-metal reactor (LMR). These parameters include stack height, size of the airflow gap, system pressure loss, fins on the guard vessel or the baffle wall, and repeated ribs on the airflow channel walls. As a measure of performance , the peak sodium pool temperature during transient following a reactor scram from full power was used. Horizontal ribs with a 0.003-m height and a 0.015-m pitch gave the best performance, i.e., the lowest peak sodium pool temperature during the scram transient. For a 3500-MW(thermal) LMR, they gave peak hot pool and peak cladding temperatures that were 52{degrees}C lower than those obtained with a reference RVACS having smooth airflow channel walls.

  7. Alan MacDiarmid, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan MacDiarmid, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Batteries Resources with Additional Information * Patents Alan MacDiarmid ©Alan MacDiarmid/ University of Pennsylvania Photo by Felice Macera Until 1987, the billions of batteries that had been marketed in myriad sizes and shapes all had one thing in common. To make electricity, they depended exclusively upon chemical reactions involving metal components of the battery. But today a revolutionary new type of battery is available commercially. It

  8. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites")

  9. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W.

    2014-03-31

    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  10. Liquid metal heat exchanger for efficient heating of soils and geologic formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN; Wesolowski, David J [Kingston, TN

    2010-02-23

    Apparatus for efficient heating of subterranean earth includes a well-casing that has an inner wall and an outer wall. A heater is disposed within the inner wall and is operable within a preselected operating temperature range. A heat transfer metal is disposed within the outer wall and without the inner wall, and is characterized by a melting point temperature lower than the preselected operating temperature range and a boiling point temperature higher than the preselected operating temperature range.

  11. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  12. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  13. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  14. Planar high density sodium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  15. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  16. Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes: Reactive Scavenging in Turbulent Thermal Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Linak

    2004-12-16

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, non-radioactive aqueous cesium acetate or strontium acetate was atomized down the center of a natural gas flame supported on a variable-swirl burner in a refractory-lined laboratory-scale combustion facility. Kaolinite powder was injected at a post-flame location in the combustor. Cesium readily vaporizes in the high temperature regions of the combustor, but was reactively scavenged onto dispersed kaolinite. Global sorption mechanisms of cesium vapor on kaolinite were quantified, and are related to those available in the literature for sodium and lead. Both metal adsorption and substrate deactivation steps are important, and so there is an optimum temperature, between 1400 and 1500 K, at which maximum sorption occurs. The presence of chlorine inhibits cesium sorption. In contrast to cesium, and in the absence of chlorine, strontium was only partially vaporized and was, therefore, only partially scavengeable. The strontium data did not allow quantification of global kinetic mechanisms of interaction, although equilibrium arguments provided insight into the effects of chlorine on strontium sorption. These results have implications for the use of sorbents to control cesium and strontium emissions during high temperature waste processing including incineration and vitrification.

  17. Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes: Reactive Scavenging in Turbulent Thermal Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Alan R. Kerstein; Alexander Scheeline; Arne Pearlstein; William Linak

    2003-08-06

    The Overall project demonstrated that toxic metals (cesium Cs and strontium Sr) in aqueous and organic wastes can be isolated from the environment through reaction with kaolinite based sorbent substrates in high temperature reactor environments. In addition, a state-of-the art laser diagnostic tool to measure droplet characteristic in practical 'dirty' laboratory environments was developed, and was featured on the cover of a recent edition of the scientific journal ''applied Spectroscopy''. Furthermore, great strides have been made in developing a theoretical model that has the potential to allow prediction of the position and life history of every particle of waste in a high temperature, turbulent flow field, a very challenging problem involving as it does, the fundamentals of two phase turbulence and of particle drag physics.

  18. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  19. Battery electrolytes. December 1982-June 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for December 1982-June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning solid, liquid, and gaseous battery electrolytes. Battery design, use, and construction are discussed, and battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also considered. Lithium, lead, nickel-cadmium, and thermal battery systems are covered in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 241 citations, 190 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Kelvin K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations.

  1. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  2. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  3. Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F) as cathode materials for lithium ion battery from atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sanghun Park, Sung Soo

    2013-08-15

    Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) have been investigated from atomistic simulation. In order to predict the characteristics of these materials as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, structural property, defect chemistry, and Li{sup +} ion transportation property are characterized. The coreshell model with empirical force fields is employed to reproduce the unit-cell parameters of crystal structure, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the formation energies of intrinsic defects (Frenkel and antisite) are determined by energetics calculation. From migration energy calculations, it is found that these flurophosphates have a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network forecasting good Li{sup +} ion conducting performances. Accordingly, we expect that this study provides an atomic scale insight as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F). Display Omitted - Highlights: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) are investigated from classical atomistic simulation. The unit-cell parameters from experimental studies are reproduced by the coreshell model. Li{sup +} ion conducting Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F has a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network. It is predicted that Li/Co or Li/Ni antisite defects are well-formed at a substantial concentration level.

  4. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. ... Signature 2. Joint Entry with High Power Battery Systems Company 5 Silkin Street, Apt. 40 ...

  5. Analytical studies on the impact of using repeated-rib roughness in LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) decay heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Tessier, J.H.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to determine the effects of roughness on the thermal performance of Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) decay heat removal systems for a range of possible design configurations and operating conditions. The ranges covered for relative rib height (e/D/sub h/), relative pitch (p/e) and flow attack angle were 0.026--0.103, 5--20 and 0--90 degrees, successively. The heat flux was varied between 1.1 and 21.5 kW/m/sup 2/ (0.1 and 2.0 kW/ft/sup 2/). Calculations were made for three cases: smooth duct with no ribs, ribs on both the guard vessel and collector wall, and ribs on the collector wall only. The results indicate that significant benefits, amounting to nearly two-fold reductions in guard vessel and collector wall temperatures, can be realized by placing repeated ribs on both the guard vessel and the collector wall. The magnitudes of the reduction in the reactor vessel temperature are considerably smaller. In general, the level of improvement, be it with respect to temperature or heat flux, is only mildly affected by changes in rib height or pitch but exhibits greater sensitivity to the assumed value for the system form loss. When the ribs are placed only on the collector wall, the heat removal capability is substantially reduced.

  6. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  7. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  8. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  9. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui; Geng, Lin; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  10. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  11. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  12. battery electrode percolating network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  13. Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed.

  14. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  15. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  16. Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disordered materials hold promise for better batteries Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries February 21, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov disorderedMAT.jpg Conventional layered lithium and transition metal cathode material (top) and the new disordered material studied by researchers at MIT (bottom) as seen through a scanning transmission electron microscope. Inset images show diagrams of the different structures in these materials. (In the disordered

  17. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  18. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  19. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  20. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, D.J.; Hubaud, A.A.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  1. Electric Vehicle Battery Testing: It's Hot Stuff! | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... the latest technologies: "...the LVBC is the only calorimeter designed to test the liquid-cooled batteries found in the Ford Electric Focus, the Chevy Volt and the Tesla Roadster. ...

  2. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  3. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites") form on the surface of the lithium electrode and spread across the electrolyte until they reach

  4. Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries The invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated

  5. Device and technique for in-process sampling and analysis of molten metals and other liquids presenting harsh sampling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Joseph L.; Watson, Lloyd D.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuously analyzing liquids by creating a supersonic spray which is shaped and sized prior to delivery of the spray to a analysis apparatus. The gas and liquid are mixed in a converging-diverging nozzle where the liquid is sheared into small particles which are of a size and uniformly to form a spray which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. The spray is shaped by a concentric supplemental flow of gas.

  6. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optima Batteries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Optima Batteries Place: Milwaukee, WI Website: www.optimabatteries.com References: Optima Batteries1 Information About...

  7. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  8. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  9. Better batteries to break dependence on fossil fuels > EMC2 News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMC2 News Latest News Prof. Hctor Abrua wins Electrochimica Acta Gold Medal award Pastore wins Bauer Scholarship Award Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to ...

  10. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  11. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  12. Inhibiting voltage suppression in lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Nalewajek, D.; Pyszczek, M.F.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a lithium/fluorinated carbon battery having a reduced initial voltage suppression which comprises the incorporation in the battery cathode of fluorinated carbon which has been reacted with a compound selected from the group consisting of a Group IA metal-alkyl compound and a Group IA metal-aryl compound, which Group IA metal-aryl compound has at least 10 carbon atoms, until surface fluorine on the fluorinated carbon has been stripped and alkyl or aryl groups from the Group IA metal-alkyl compound or Group IA metal-aryl compound are substituted for surface fluorine atoms.

  13. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  14. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  15. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  16. Battery Cathodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Cathodes Figure 1. Acceleration of DMcT Oxidation and Reduction at PEDOT-Modified Electrode Research on new cathodes for lithium-ion batteries has long been directed towards crystalline metal oxide-based materials, with charge stored by lithium insertion into the material matrix. Research in the Energy Frontier Research Center is pursuing an alternate approach to battery cathodes based on the reaction of lithium with naturally abundant, light-weight, and amorphous organic

  17. Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Powder (SLMP) Doping of Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of ...

  18. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1984-01-01

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  19. LIQUID TARGET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  20. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-29

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  1. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-17

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  2. Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries The lithium metal anode (bottom) ... Significance and Impact Identified one reason behind Li-S batteries failing to hold a ...

  3. Device and technique for in-process sampling and analysis of molten metals and other liquids presenting harsh sampling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method for continuously analyzing liquids by creating a supersonic spray which is shaped and sized prior to delivery of the spray to a analysis apparatus. The gas and liquid is sheared into small particles which are of a size and uniformity to form a spray which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. The spray is shaped by a concentric supplemental flow of gas. 5 figs.

  4. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  5. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  6. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  7. Anodes for Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss, "constructive corrosion" as it occurs in power generated devices, specifically batteries.

  8. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  10. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  11. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries - Joint Center for Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Research 0, 2015, Research Highlights Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Recent developments on the protection of the Li metal anode in Li-S batteries are reviewed. Scientific Achievement Recent developments on the protection of the Li metal anode in Li-S batteries are reviewed. The degradation mechanism of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries were analyzed and discussed. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of the Li anode and to mitigate the effect of the

  12. Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K. A.; Schmidt, F. A.; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, K. A.

    2013-08-20

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La1-xRx)(Ni1-yMy)(Siz), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  13. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  14. Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Berkeley Lab Study Reveals Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes October 23, 2014 Contact: Rachel Berkowitz, 510-486-7254, rberkowitz@lbl.gov When a solid material is immersed in a liquid, the liquid immediately next to its surface differs from that of the bulk liquid at the molecular level. This interfacial layer is critical to our understanding of a diverse set of phenomena from

  15. Batteries and energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantell, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A historical review of the galvanic concept and a brief description of the theory of operation of batteries are followed by chapters on specific types of batteries and energy systems. Chapters contain a section on basic theory, performance and applications. Secondary cells discussed are: SLI batteries, lead-acid storage batteries, lead secondary cells, alkaline secondary cells, nickel and silver-cadmium systems and solid electrolyte systems. Other chapters discuss battery charging, regenerative electrochemical systems, solar cells, fuel cells, electric vehicles and windmills. (KAW)

  16. Electrochemical Stability Window of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids as

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research June 6, 2016, Research Highlights Electrochemical Stability Window of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries The electrochemical stability windows and redox limits of the ionic liquids examined in this work. 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids with [PF6]- anion ([CnMIM]+[PF6]-) are the most electrochemically stable ionic liquids among the ones studied in this research.

  17. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  18. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  19. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  20. In-Situ Liquid (ec)-TEM Cell Shows Dendrite Formation, Providing New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights into Lithium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research March 3, 2014, Research Highlights In-Situ Liquid (ec)-TEM Cell Shows Dendrite Formation, Providing New Insights into Lithium Batteries (Top) In-situ liquid electrochemical (ec)-TEM cell uses two silicon microchips to create a three-electrode electrochemical cell with silicon nitride membranes that seal battery electrolytes. This enables charge/discharge cycling of the battery inside the high vacuum of a transmission

  1. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  2. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform todays technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envias batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  3. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  4. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  5. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  6. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Bai, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yunchao; Guo, Bingkun; Chen, Jihua; Veith, Gabriel M; Hensley, Dale K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goodenough, John B; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge is unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (> 1 mS cm-1) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities. In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, such kind of solid-like electrolytes demonstrates a robust performance against Li dendrite problems, well stabilizing the cell system from short circuiting in a long-time operation at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm-2. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na+, Mg2+ or Al3+ as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries.

  7. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh

  8. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  9. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  10. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  12. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  13. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  14. GBP Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GBP Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: GBP Battery Place: China Product: Shenzhen-China-based maker of Li-Poly and Li-ion batteries suitable for EVs and other applications....

  15. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture ... Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A ...

  16. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  17. Literature search for the non-aqueous separation of zinc from fuel rod cladding. [After dissolution in liquid metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandvig, R. L.; Dyer, S. J.; Lambert, G. A.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1980-06-21

    This report reviews the literature of processes for the nonaqueous separation of zinc from dissolved fuel assembly cladding. The processes considered were distillation, pyrochemical processing, and electrorefining. The last two techniques were only qualitatively surveyed while the first, distillation, was surveyed in detail. A survey of available literature from 1908 through 1978 on the distillation of zinc was performed. The literature search indicated that a zinc recovery rate in excess of 95% is possible; however, technical problems exist because of the high temperatures required and the corrosive nature of liquid zinc. The report includes a bibliography of the surveyed literature and a computer simulation of vapor pressures in binary systems. 129 references.

  18. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  19. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  20. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  1. Coating of porous carbon for use in lithium air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Lei, Yu; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-14

    A cathode includes a carbon material having a surface, the surface having a first thin layer of an inert material and a first catalyst overlaying the first thin layer, the first catalyst including metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the cathode is configured for use as the cathode of a lithium-air battery.

  2. Battery SEAB Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation (1.43 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Battery R&D Activities Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  3. Phylion Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phylion Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phylion Battery Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Sector: Vehicles Product: Jiangsu-province-based producer of...

  4. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Ventures (Boston) Name: Battery Ventures (Boston) Address: 930 Winter Street, Suite 2500 Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02451 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  5. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  6. Consortium for Advanced Battery Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Simulation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  7. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  8. Battery separator assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, M.A.; Suchanski, M.R.; Osterhoudt, H.W.

    1988-05-03

    A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

  9. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  10. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  11. NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feature | NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries October 30, 2015 A man holds a sheet of copper discs. NREL Senior Engineer Mathew Keyser holds a sheet of copper discs, one of the metal components that comprise the NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device, capable of emulating latent defects that can cause escalating temperatures in lithium ion batteries and lead to thermal runaway. Industry can use the NREL ISC device to evaluate solutions intended to address this

  12. Batteries May Fade, But Research Can Revitalize | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries May Fade, But Research Can Revitalize Batteries May Fade, But Research Can Revitalize November 9, 2012 - 4:04pm Addthis The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to image metals, ceramics, minerals, nanostructured materials, and biological-related materials and tissues at atomic-bond-length resolution. | Photo of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The

  13. Methods for Preparing Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Methods for Preparing Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Process for the preparation of transition metal particles with a gradient concentration from core to the outer layers As applied to Lithium Ion batteries gradient cathode material allows for high energy and improved safety Enables high capacity Ni center with Mn outer layer for improved safety and stability IN-10-036 US 8591774B2 Availability: Technology available for license to

  14. Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable metallic sodium batteries have application in large-scale energy storage applications such as electric power generation and distribution, in motive applications such as electric vehicles, hybrids, and plug-in hybrids, and for aerospace applications such as powering satellites. So

  15. Silver particles improve performance of battery material | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Silver particles improve performance of battery material December 16, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory are working to create an electric car battery that is smaller, cheaper and allows drivers to go farther on a charge. Materials scientist Larry Curtiss is part of an Argonne team working on a new battery architecture that uses lithium-oxygen bonds as it stores and releases energy, and silver as the metal catalyst that

  16. Technology available for license: Charging of liquid energy storage media

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through radiolysis (ANL-IN-14-036) | Argonne National Laboratory Technology available for license: Charging of liquid energy storage media through radiolysis (ANL-IN-14-036) January 23, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint This technology utilizes radiolysis to charge liquid energy storage media including nanoelectrofuels. Charged liquid can be used in flow batteries for transportation and stationary energy-storage applications. Radiolysis charging can be conducted on aqueous and non-aqueous battery

  17. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  18. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  19. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  20. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  1. Secondary battery material and synthesis method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongjian; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Wang, Yu

    2013-10-22

    A composite Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material stabilized by treatment with a second transition metal oxide phase that is highly suitable for use in high power and energy density Li-ion cells and batteries. A method for treating a Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material utilizing a dry mixing and firing process.

  2. Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane The lithium-sulfur battery has higher energy storage capacity and lower cost than lithium ion. But there is a serious stumbling block. Polysulfides form in the cathode during battery cycling and pass through the membrane to contaminate the lithium metal anode. This results in a rapid decline in performance. JCESR researchers appear to have found a solution to the problem - the

  3. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  4. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  5. RPM Flywheel Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RPM Flywheel Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: RPM Flywheel Battery Place: California Product: Start-up planning to develop, produce, and market flywheel batteries for...

  6. Ford Electric Battery Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Battery Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Electric Battery Group Place: Dearborn, MI References: Ford Battery1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  7. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  8. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  9. Intellect Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intellect Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intellect Battery Co Ltd Place: Guangdong Province, China Product: Producer of NiMH rechargeable batteries and...

  10. Advanced Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Factory Place: Shen Zhen City, Guangdong Province, China Product: Producers of lithium polymer batteries, established in 1958. References: Advanced Battery Factory1 This...

  11. Ningbo Veken Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ningbo Veken Battery Company Place: China Product: Ningbo-based maker of Lithium polymer, aluminum-shell and lithium power batteries. References: Ningbo Veken Battery...

  12. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make ...

  13. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  15. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  16. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  17. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  18. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December ...

  19. Laor Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laor Batteries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Laor Batteries Ltd. Place: Upper Nazareth, Israel Zip: 17105 Product: develops and distributes lead-acid batteries for variety...

  20. Aerospatiale Batteries ASB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aerospatiale Batteries ASB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aerospatiale Batteries (ASB) Place: France Product: Research, design and manufacture of Thermal Batteries. References:...

  1. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-12-31

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  2. Battery Electrode Materials with High Cycle Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. Brent Fultz

    2001-06-29

    In an effort to understand the capacity fade of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, we performed a systematic study of the effects of solute additions on the cycle life of metal hydride electrodes. We also performed a series of measurements on hydrogen absorption capacities of novel carbon and graphite-based materials including graphite nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Towards the end of this project we turned our attention to work on Li-ion cells with a focus on anode materials.

  3. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  4. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  7. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  8. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  9. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM USA 87158-1033 Randy A. Normann (505) 845-9675, (505) 844-3952 (fax), ranorma@sandia.gov Affi rmation I affi rm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is fair and accurate representation of this product. ________________________________________________________________ Submitter Signature

  10. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  11. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  12. Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  14. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  15. Limiting factors to advancing thermal-battery technology for naval applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, P.B.; Winchester, C.S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and Power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  16. Category:Battery makers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery makers Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Battery makers" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. B Battery Ventures F Ford Electric Battery...

  17. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  18. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.; Knapp, Gordon S.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Forster, George A.

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  19. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  20. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Kane, Marie; Au, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.