Sample records for liquid level conductivity

  1. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  2. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  3. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  4. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  5. LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ÉLECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION ÉLECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS. Sommaire. - I. Electrisation des hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides s'électrisent (négativement) lorsqu'ils s hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides mani- festent trois régimes de conduction : 1° En couches épaisses

  6. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  7. Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

  8. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  9. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  10. Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verner K. Thorsmølle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Björn Lindman; Michael Grätzel; Jacques-E. Moser

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic induction pump in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  12. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic induction pump is described in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  13. A grid-level alkali liquid metal battery recycling process : design, implementation, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Dale Arlington, III

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of liquid metal batteries for large scale grid-level energy storage is being enabled through the development of research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2006. A recycling ...

  14. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinshui [ORNL; Bai, Ying [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Goodenough, John B [University of Texas at Austin; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge is unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (> 1 mS cm-1) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities. In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, such kind of solid-like electrolytes demonstrates a robust performance against Li dendrite problems, well stabilizing the cell system from short circuiting in a long-time operation at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm-2. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na+, Mg2+ or Al3+ as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries.

  15. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

  16. Electrohydrodynamic induction and conduction pumping of dielectric liquid film: theoretical and numerical studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Dini, Salem A. S.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    . The theoretical model is further extended to study the effect of EHD conduction phenomenon for a two-phase flow (i.e. a stratified liquid/ vapor medium). The numerical results presented confirm the concept of liquid film net flow generation with the EHD conduction...

  17. ELECTROSTATICALLY DRIVEN ROTOR ON CONDUCTIVE LIQUID RING BEARINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    avoid dry friction, eliminate wear and enhance reliability; compared with gas bearing [7], liquid]. However, the solid-solid friction, large in microscale, requires high voltage or large current to overcome the friction and often causes serious wear [6]. Gas or air bearing [7], created through electrostatic

  18. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment of EnergyLiquid

  19. An experimental measurement of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a porous solid-liquid system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, James Elliott

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT QF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIFFUSIVITY OF A POROUS SOLID LIQUID SYSTEM By James Elliott Dunn A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the reQuirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1959 Major Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL MEASURFJ1ENT OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIFFUSIVITY OF A POROUS SOLID LIQUID SYSTEM A Thesis James Elliott Dunn...

  20. Analysis of measurements of the thermal conductivity of liquid urania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was performed of the three existing measurements of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of molten uranium dioxide. A transient heat transfer code (THTB) was used for this analysis. A much smaller range of values for thermal conductivity than originally reported was found: the original values ranged from 2.4 to 11 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, with a mean of 7.3 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, whereas the recalculated values ranged from 4.5 to 6.75 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, with a mean of 5.6 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/.

  1. Thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces Scott Huxtable, Zhenbin Ge, David G. Cahill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    on temperature of thetemperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphitegraphite of the conductance? "heat capacity G" vs. "heat conduction G" #12;Comparisons between experiment and simulation capacity to convert time constant to G. For long tubes: [K] CFor long tubes: G = 22 MW m-2 K-1 100-T(liquid

  2. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bonaiuto; A. Fucci; G. Paoluzzi; A. Salamon; G. Salina; E. Santovetti; F. Sargeni; F. M. Scarfi'

    2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  3. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Bonaiuto; Adolfo Fucci; Giovanni Paoluzzi; Andrea Salamon; Gaetano Salina; Emanuele Santovetti; Fausto Sargeni; Francesco M. Scarfi'

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  4. An apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity of liquid neon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Jerald Norman

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN APPARATUS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEON A Thesis By JERALD NORMAN JENSEN Submitted. to the Graduate College of the Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1967 Ma)or Su'bisect: Physics AN APPAHATUS FOH THE J'lEASURENENT OF THEHiiLM CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEOiV A Thesis JEHALD NOLAN JENSEN Approved as to style and content by: tH *i *f D p tm~t (I"ember) , i~ember Nay 1967 !$ ~c g tg...

  5. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid T. Barta, V. Janecek, D. Prazak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bárta, Tomás

    ratio = kL/kS (e.g. for water on metallic heater 10-3 ) for which the perturbation of temperature of authors, see e.g. [13, 11, 3, 6]. Majority of research publications rely on isothermal heater pressure) of the solid heater. Such assumption is justified for vanishing liquid-solid thermal conductivity

  6. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  7. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and technological point of view. For example, it is used as coolant in fast-breeding nuclear reactors, and in heatPHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first on the electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium at 400 K, calculated using density functional theory

  9. Conductivity of ionic liquid-derived polymers with internal gold nanoparticle conduits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Cummins, M. D.; Willing, G. A.; Firestone, M. A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Louisville

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of self-supporting Au nanoparticle-ionic liquid-derived polymer composites were characterized. Topographic AFM images confirm the perforated lamellar composite architecture determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and further show that the in situ synthesized Au nanoparticles are localized within the hydrophilic (water) domains of the structure. At low Au nanoparticle content, the images reveal incomplete packing of spherical particles (i.e., voids) within these columns. The confinement and organization of the Au nanoparticles within the hydrophilic columns give rise to a large manifold of optical resonances in the near-IR region. The bulk composite conductivity, R{sub b}, was determined by ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for samples prepared with increasing Au{sup 3+} content over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. A 100-fold increase was observed in the bulk conductivity at room temperature for composites prepared with the highest amount of Au{sup 3+} (1.58 {+-} 0.065 {micro}mol) versus the no Au composite, with the former reaching a value of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C. The temperature dependence of the conductivity recorded over this range was well-modeled by the Arrhenius equation. EIS studies on samples containing the highest Au nanoparticle content over a broader range of frequencies (2 x 10{sup -2} Hz to 5 x 10{sup 5} Hz) identified a low frequency component ascribed to electronic conduction. Electronic conduction due to aggregated Au nanoparticles was further confirmed by dc conductivity measurements. This work identifies a nanostructured composite that exhibits both ionic transport through the polymeric ionic liquid and electronic conduction from the organized encapsulated columns of Au nanoparticles.

  10. Calibration-free measurement of liquid permittivity and conductivity using electrochemical impedance test cell with servomechanically adjustable cell constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slocum, Alexander H.

    This paper presents a technique and a device for measuring the permittivity and conductivity of liquids and gases that does not require prior calibration by a reference sample. The technique involves precisely controlling ...

  11. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  12. Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with ionic liquid gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Jaesung; Banerjee, Karan; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Lee, Seoung-Ki [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jong-Hyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator field effect transistor is investigated by using ionic liquid as an electric double layer gating material, leading to a conductance modulation of 365% at room temperature. We discuss the role of charged impurities on the transport properties. The conductance modulation with gate bias is due to a change in the carrier concentration, whereas the temperature dependent conductance change is originated from a change in mobility. Large conductance modulation at room temperature along with the transparent optical properties makes topological insulators as an interesting (opto)electronic material.

  13. Studies of photoionization in liquids using a laser two-photon ionization conductivity technique. [Potoionization of pyrene, fluoranthene and TMPD in liquid n-pentane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siomos, K.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One-photon ionization studies of solute molecules in a liquid medium are limited by the absorption of the host medium. A laser two-photon ionization (TPI) technique using a frequency tunable dye laser has been developed, whereby the photoionization threshold of a solute molecule was determined from the induced conductivity in the liquid medium under study due to electron-ion pair formation via two-photon ionization of the solute. The two-photon induced electron-ion current is measured as a function of the laser wavelength, lambda/sub laser/. In this paper, results are reported and discussed on the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), pyrene and fluoranthene in liquid n-pentane (n-Pt).

  14. Natural Circulation and Linear Stability Analysis for Liquid-Metal Reactors with the Effect of Fluid Axial Conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Qiao Wu; James J. Sienicki

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of fluid axial thermal conduction on one-dimensional liquid metal natural circulation and its linear stability was performed through nondimensional analysis, steady-state assessment, and linear perturbation evaluation. The Nyquist criterion and a root-search method were employed to find the linear stability boundary of both forward and backward circulations. The study provided a relatively complete analysis method for one-dimensional natural circulation problems with the consideration of fluid axial heat conduction. The results suggest that fluid axial heat conduction in a natural circulation loop should be considered only when the modified Peclet number is {approx}1 or less, which is significantly smaller than the practical value of a lead liquid metal-cooled reactor.

  15. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  16. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  17. Microsoft Word - SST T111 Liquid Level Decrease FINAL1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT2

  18. High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 July 2008 1 Office ofHigh

  19. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  1. An experimental measurement of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a porous solid-liquid system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, James Elliott

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6. The Relation of to SE for Values of K Calculated by the Heat Neter K SE Nethod 10 13 15 17 22 7. The Relation of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluid Saturated Sandstone to the Thermal Conductivity of the Saturating Fluid 8. The Variation... of pressures and temperatures and at flow and non-flow states (3)~(6), (7), The advent of widespread interest in increasing petroleum recovery from subterranean reservoirs by applying heat to an oil-bearing for- mation (8), (9), (10) has created a need...

  2. Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container having arbitrary dimension and shape. By generating a flexural acoustic wave in the container shell and measuring the phase difference of the detected flexural wave from that of the originally generated wave a small distance from the generated wave, while moving the generation and detection means through the liquid/vapor interface, this interface can be detected. Both the wave generation and wave detection may be achieved by transducers on the surface of the container. A change in the phase difference over the outer surface of the vessel signifies that a liquid/vapor interface has been crossed, while the magnitude of the phase difference can be related to fluid density immediately opposite the measurement position on the surface of the vessel.

  3. Magneto thermal conductivity of superconducting Nb with intermediate level of impurity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.S. Sharath Chandra, M.K. Chattopadhyay, S.B. Roy, V.C. Sahni, G.R. Myneni

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium materials with intermediate purity level are used for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities (SCRF), and thermal conductivity is an important parameter influencing the performance of such SCRF cavities. We report here the temperature and magnetic field dependence of thermal conductivity {kappa} for superconducting niobium (Nb) samples, for which the electron mean free path I{sub e}, the phonon mean free path I{sub g}, and the vortex core diameter 2r{sub C} are of the same order of magnitude. The measured thermal conductivity is analyzed using the effective gap model (developed for I{sub e} >> 2r{sub C} (Dubeck et al 1963 Phys. Rev. Lett. 10 98)) and the normal core model (developed for I{sub e} << 2r{sub C} (Ward and Dew-Hughes 1970 J. Phys. C: Solid St. Phys. 3 2245)). However, it is found that the effective gap model is not suitable for low temperatures when I{sub e} {approx} 2r{sub C}. The normal core model, on the other hand, is able to describe {kappa}(T,H) over the entire temperature range except in the field regime between H{sub C1} and H{sub C2} i.e. in the mixed state. It is shown that to understand the complete behavior of {kappa} in the mixed state, the scattering of quasi-particles from the vortex cores and the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling are to be invoked. The quasi-particle scattering from vortices for the present system is understood in terms of the framework of Sergeenkov and Ausloos (1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 3614) extending their approach to the case of Nb. The intervortex tunneling is understood within the framework of Schmidbauer et al (1970 Z. Phys. 240 30). Analysis of the field dependence of thermal conductivity shows that while the quasi-particle scattering from vortices dominates in the low fields, the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling dominates in high fields. Analysis of the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity shows that while the quasi-particle scattering is dominant at low temperatures, the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling is dominant at high temperatures.

  4. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU{reg_sign} reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition.

  5. Engineering assessment of low-level liquid waste disposal caisson locations at the 618-11 Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.J.; Fischer, D.D.; Crawford, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rising, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rockwell Hanford Operations is currently involved in an extensive effort to perform interim ground surface stabilization activities at retired low-level waste burial grounds located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The principal objective of these activities is to promote increased occupational and radiological safety at burial grounds. Interim stabilization activities include: (1) load testing (traversing burial ground surfaces with heavy equipment to promote incipient collapse of void spaces within the disposal structure and overburden), (2) barrier placement (placement of a {ge} 0.6 m soil barrier over existing overburden), and (3) revegetation (establishment of shallow rooted vegetation on the barrier to mitigate deep rooted plant growth and to reduce erosion). Low-level waste disposal caissons were used in 300 Area Burial Grounds as internment structures for containerized liquid wastes. These caissons, by virtue of their contents, design and methods of closure, require long-term performance evaluation. As an initial activity to evaluate long-term performance, the accurate location of these structures is required. This topical report summarizes engineering activities used to locate caissons in the subsurface environment at the Burial Ground. Activities were conducted to locate caissons during surface stabilization activities. The surface locations were marked, photographed, and recorded on an as built engineering drawing. The recorded location of these caissons will augment long-term observations of confinement structure and engineered surface barrier performance. In addition, accurate caisson location will minimize occupational risk during monitoring and observation activities periodically conducted at the burial ground.

  6. Bias-dependent molecular-level structure of electrical double layer in ionic liquid on graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Jennifer M [ORNL] [ORNL; Walters, Deron [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Labuda, Aleksander [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Feng, Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA] [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bias-dependent structure of electrochemical double layers at liquid-solid interfaces underpin a multitude of phenomena in virtually all areas of scientific enquiry ranging from energy storage and conversion systems, biology, to geophysics and geochemistry. Here we report the bias-evolution of the electric double layer structure of an ionic liquid on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model system for carbon-based electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors measured by atomic force microscopy. Matching the observed structures to molecular dynamics simulations allows us to resolve steric effects due to cation and anion layers. We observe reconfiguration under applied bias and the orientational transitions in the Stern layer. The synergy between molecular dynamics simulation and experiment provides a comprehensive picture of structural phenomena and long- and short range interactions. This insight will improve understanding of the mechanism of charge storage in electrochemical capacitors on a molecular level which can be used to enhance their electrochemical performance.

  7. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  8. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)] [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  9. Adsorption of Ruthenium, Rhodium and Palladium from Simulated High-Level Liquid Waste by Highly Functional Xerogel - 13286

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Takashi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Koyama, Shin-ichi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)] [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission products are generated by fission reactions in nuclear fuel. Platinum group (Pt-G) elements, such as palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh) and ruthenium (Ru), are also produced. Generally, Pt-G elements play important roles in chemical and electrical industries. Highly functional xerogels have been developed for recovery of these useful Pt-G elements from high - level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). An adsorption experiment from simulated HLLW was done by the column method to study the selective adsorption of Pt-G elements, and it was found that not only Pd, Rh and Ru, but also nickel, zirconium and tellurium were adsorbed. All other elements were not adsorbed. Adsorbed Pd was recovered by washing the xerogel-packed column with thiourea solution and thiourea - nitric acid mixed solution in an elution experiment. Thiourea can be a poison for automotive exhaust emission system catalysts, so it is necessary to consider its removal. Thermal decomposition and an acid digestion treatment were conducted to remove sulfur in the recovered Pd fraction. The relative content of sulfur to Pd was decreased from 858 to 0.02 after the treatment. These results will contribute to design of the Pt-G element separation system. (authors)

  10. Statistical distributions of level widths and conductance peaks in irregularly shaped quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alhassid, Y.; Lewenkopf, C.H. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical expressions for width and conductance peak distributions for quantum dots with multichannel leads in the Coulomb blockade regime are presented for both limits of conserved and broken time-reversal symmetry. The results are valid for any number of nonequivalent and correlated channels, and the distributions are expressed in terms of the channel correlation matrix {ital M} in each lead. The matrix {ital M} is also given in closed form. A chaotic billiard is used as a model to test numerically the theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  11. The use of low-level liquid scintillation spectrometry for rapid measurement and decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenhofer, F. [Federal Inst. for Food Control and Research (Austria)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) has proved over the last fifteen years to be an excellent tool for low-level counting of beta- and alpha-particle emitters. Using low-level instruments the determination of, for instance {sup 90}Sr, could be considerably simplified in the laboratory, saving time and also money for chemicals and manpower. Furthermore, low-level instruments have been successfully used for measurements when fast analysis was required. The four instruments (Quantulus, Wallac Oy), that the author uses, have not only very low background, which cuts measurement time considerably; but from the pulse- height spectra much information about the nature of the radionuclides present and the absence of specific radionuclides can be extracted. From the absence of high-energy beta-particle activity in the pulse-height spectra of precipitation in the first days after the Chernobyl accident the author could draw the conclusion, that practically no {sup 90}Y was present and therefore only small amounts of {sup 90}Sr, if any, could be expected in precipitation and later in food. This enabled them to make the decision not to waste time with a large number of {sup 90}Sr analyses. Large numbers of drinking water samples could be screened for contamination much more sensitively and faster than by gamma-ray spectrometry. More examples will be presented of cases where rapid information was needed; how contamination and nuclear installations can be easily checked and how LSC helped to cut down the time required, the manpower and the costs for radon measurements and environmental surveillance.

  12. Conditioning of Boron-Containing Low and Intermediate Level Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunova, Olga A. [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation); Kamaeva, Tatiana S. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved cementation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW) aided by vortex electromagnetic treatment as well as silica addition was investigated. Positive effects including accelerated curing of boron-containing cement waste forms, improve end product quality, decreased product volume and reduced secondary LRW volume from equipment decontamination were established. These results established the possibility of boron-containing LRW cementation without the use of neutralizing alkaline additives that greatly increase the volume of the final product intended for long-term storage (burial). Physical (electromagnetic) treatment in a vortex mixer can change the state of LRW versus chemical treatment. By treating the liquid phase of cement solution only, instead of the whole solution, and using fine powder and nano-particles of ferric oxides instead of separable ferromagnetic cores for the activating agents the positive effect are obtained. VET for 1 to 3 minutes yields boron-containing LRW cemented products of satisfactory quality. Silica addition at 10 % by weight will accelerate curing and solidification and to decrease radionuclide leaching rates from boron-containing cement products. (authors)

  13. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  14. Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds not only on the sound speed but also on the thermal diffusivity and acoustic damping of the RTILs

  15. Lessons Learned: Using Low Cost, Uncooled Infrared Cameras for the Rapid Liquid Level Assessment of Chemical UXO and Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Kevin Larry

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the fall of 2001, the U.S. Army used low-cost infrared cameras provided by the INEEL to image 3190 aging ton shipping containers to determine if any contained liquid, possibly trace amounts of hazardous mustard agent. The purpose of the scan was to provide quick, "hands-off" assessment of the water-heater-sized containers before moving them with a crane. If the thermal images indicated a possible liquid level, extra safety precautions would be taken prior to moving the container. The technique of using infrared cameras to determine liquid levels in large storage tanks is well documented, but the application of this technique to ton shipping containers (45 to 1036 liters) and even smaller individual chemical munitions (2 to 4 liters) is unique and presents some interesting challenges. This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.

  16. Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks.

  17. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  18. Reconfigurable liquid metal based terahertz metamaterials via selective erasure and refilling to the unit cell level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jinqi; Liu, Shuchang; Nahata, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.nahata@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Guruswamy, Sivaraman [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a technique for selectively erasing and refilling unit cells of terahertz (THz) metamaterials. The structures are formed by injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal at room temperature, into microchannels within a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated using conventional soft lithography techniques. The thin oxide layer that forms on the surface of EGaIn can be locally dissolved via exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) introduced at the surface of the gas permeable PDMS mold. In the absence of the oxide skin, the liquid metal retracts to a position where a stable new oxide layer can be formed, effectively erasing the liquid metal structure in the presence of HCl. After erasing selected structures, EGaIn can be re-injected into microchannels to yield the initial structure. In the case of small unit cells, we show that mechanical pressure can be used to effectively erase individual elements. We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to characterize the distinct transmission properties for each of these different structures.

  19. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  20. MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

  1. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  2. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  3. An Istrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R. A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah O.; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Michael R.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested, which is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the neutrons produced by the transuranics, primarily via (?,n) reactions, in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. Correct operation of the monitor was demonstrated in a hot cell utilizing an actual sample of high-level waste. Results of that demonstration are given, and suggestions for improvements in the next generation system are discussed.

  4. Atomic Level Green-Kubo Stress Correlation Function for a Model Crystal: An Insight into Molecular Dynamics Results on a Model Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Levashov

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to get insight into the connection between the vibrational dynamics and the atomic level Green-Kubo stress correlation function in liquids we consider this connection in a model crystal instead. Of course, vibrational dynamics in liquids and crystals are quite different and it is not expected that the results obtained on a model crystal should be valid for liquids. However, these considerations provide a benchmark to which the results of the previous molecular dynamics simulations can be compared. Thus, assuming that vibrations are plane waves, we derive analytical expressions for the atomic level stress correlation functions in the classical limit and analyze them. These results provide, in particular, a recipe for analysis of the atomic level stress correlation functions in Fourier space and extraction of the wavevector and frequency dependent information. We also evaluate the energies of the atomic level stresses. Obtained energies are significantly smaller than the energies that were obtained in MD simulations of liquids previously. This result suggests that the average energies of the atomic level stresses in liquids and glasses are largely determined by the structural disorder. We discuss this result in the context of equipartition of the atomic level stress energies. Analysis of the previously published data suggests that it is possible to speak about configurational and vibrational contributions to the average energies of the atomic level stresses in a glass state. However, this separation in a liquid state is problematic. We also consider peak broadening in the pair distribution function with increase of distance. We find that peak broadening (by ~40%) occurs due to the transverse vibrational modes, while contribution from the longitudinal modes does not change with distance. Finally, we introduce and consider atomic level transverse current correlation function.

  5. An Instrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah OA; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, D

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested that is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. A multiplicity counter is used in data acquisition to reject the large fraction of coincident and highly variable cosmic-ray-engendered background events and results in a S/N ratio {approx}1.

  6. EIS-0081: Long-Term Management of Liquid High-Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action prepared this environmental impact statement to analyze the environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from the Department’s proposed action to construct and operate facilities necessary to solidify the liquid high-level wastes currently stored in underground tanks at West Valley, New York.

  7. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  8. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abotsi, G.M.K. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  9. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the fourth annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, this document lists FFA activities planned for FY 1997. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service.

  10. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  11. Implementation Plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These commitments were initially submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were submitted in ES/ER-17&Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in this document. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5.

  12. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE LA CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM LA CONDUCTION ÉLECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES EN COUCHES hydrocarbures liquides en couches minces, signalé dans un précédent mémoire. Les expériences, faites dans des

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  14. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [ed.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  15. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  16. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  17. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  18. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  19. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  20. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page5-03 EvaluationStorageSavannah River

  1. External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of Energy 088: FederalEconomicEnergyExportand Review

  2. Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program`s inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II).

  3. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  4. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  7. A study of vapor-liquid flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satik, Cengiz; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer-driven liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component systems in porous media by using pore network models and flow visualization experiments. Experiments using glass micromodels were conducted. The flow visualization allowed us to define the rules for the numerical pore network model. A numerical pore network model is developed for vapor-liquid displacement where fluid flow, heat transfer and capillarity are included at the pore level. We examine the growth process at two different boundary conditions.

  8. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  9. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  10. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  11. Investigation on thermal conductivity and AC impedance of graphite suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianjian, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade, some groups have reported that nanofluids, which are liquids containing suspensions of nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivity than that of the base fluids. However, the reported ...

  12. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is currently underway, and detailed results will be reported in upcoming publications.

  13. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Martin M. (Broken Arrow, OK)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  14. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  15. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  16. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  17. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  19. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  20. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  2. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  3. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  4. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  5. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particles of low conductivity dispersed in a metal matrix of high conductivity. A computer code was developed in order to compute the conductivity of cermet fuels as predicted by existing models and an additional model derived in this work... gas release from the fuel particle and contact resistance at the fuel-matrix interface. A description of the methodology used to construct the model is given in Chapter 3. Comparisons between the analytic predictions and the experimental data...

  6. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  7. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  8. Heat conduction through a trapped solid: effect of structural changes on thermal conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conduction of heat across a narrow solid strip trapped by an external potential and in contact with its own liquid. Structural changes, consisting of addition and deletion of crystal layers in the trapped solid, are produced by altering the depth of the confining potential. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and, wherever possible, simple analytical calculations are used to obtain the thermal resistance in the liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza or contact resistance). We show that these layering transitions are accompanied by sharp jumps in the contact thermal resistance. Dislocations, if present, are shown to increase the thermal resistance of the strip drastically.

  9. Soluble fullerene derivative in liquid crystal: polymer composites and their impact on photorefractive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soluble fullerene derivative in liquid crystal: polymer composites and their impact photorefractive efficiency in polymer­ liquid crystal composites in comparison to previous works on similar) and containing a conducting polymer matrix, such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) doped with N

  10. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Levelized Costs AEO 2013 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive technologies like coal-fired power and coal-to-liquids (CTL) plants without carbon control and sequestration (CCS)....

  12. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  13. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  14. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  15. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  16. Dissecting holographic conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard A. Davison; Blaise Goutéraux

    2015-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.

  17. EA-1115: Liquid Waste Treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to treat low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada...

  18. Liquid soap film generates electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  19. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  20. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaita, Robert; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions. __________________________________________________

  1. The Classical Nature of Thermal Conduction in Nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob Eapen; Roberto Rusconi; Roberto Piazza; Sidney Yip

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several new mechanisms have been hypothesized in the recent years to characterize the thermal conduction behavior in nanofluids. In this paper, we show that a large set of nanofluid thermal conductivity data is enveloped by the well-known Hashin and Shtrikman (HS) mean-field bounds for inhomogeneous systems. The thermal conductivity in nanofluids, therefore, is largely dependent on whether the nanoparticles stays dispersed in the base fluid, form linear chain-like configurations, or assume an intermediate configuration. The experimental data, which is strikingly analogous to those in most solid composites and liquid mixtures, provides a strong evidence for the classical nature of thermal conduction in nanofluids.

  2. Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleicher, Jay C.

    2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly replace. This research has investigated the kinetics and solvent...

  3. Enhanced thermal conductivity through the development of nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J.A.; Choi, U.S.; Li, S.; Thompson, L.J.; Lee, S.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids required in many industrial applications. To overcome this limitation, a new class of heat transfer fluids is being developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids such as water or oil. The resulting nanofluids possess extremely high thermal conductivities compared to the liquids without dispersed nanocrystalline particles. For example, 5 volume % of nanocrystalline copper oxide particles suspended in water results in an improvement in thermal conductivity of almost 60% compared to water without nanoparticles. Excellent suspension properties are also observed, with no significant settling of nanocrystalline oxide particles occurring in stationary fluids over time periods longer than several days. Direct evaporation of Cu nanoparticles into pump oil results in similar improvements in thermal conductivity compared to oxide-in-water systems, but importantly, requires far smaller concentrations of dispersed nanocrystalline powder.

  4. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  5. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, cancels Admin Chg 1.

  6. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  7. eXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    -called "nanofluids" (suspensions in liquids) ­ polymer composites and coatings Fischer (2007) Lehman (2005) #12;Critical aspect ratio for a fiber composite · Isotropic fiber composite with high conductivity fibers (andeXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials David

  8. Variation of hydraulic conductance of some adult conifers under natural conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Variation of hydraulic conductance of some adult conifers under natural conditions A. Granier, N; in the liquid phase, the flow depends upon water potential gradients and hydraulic conductance from the soil present here some evaluations of hydraulic conductance of trees growing under natural conditions. Data

  9. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container. 3 figs.

  10. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  11. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  12. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? ) is expressed by k ( + + ) (3 21) where llg? gap conductance (W/mz-'K) kg? ? conductivity of the gas mixture (W/m-'K) d = actual gap dimension (m) gt gz= temperature jump distances at the fuel and cladding surfaces (cm) The value of d in Equation 3. 21...- ?, )+ ( ") 3 (I- ?, ) - ( ? ) 3 1 yvM trMT b 1+ vF g?T a 1-v?a 1-vF (3. 31) and finally, 2aFBF T 2EMC3M 1 1-2va 1-va 1+vM a (3, 32) 21 Once the constants have been determined, Equation 3. 28 can be solved at the fuel particle outer radius to determine...

  13. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  18. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Embury, John David (Hamilton, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  19. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  20. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  1. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.K.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes: (a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; (b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; (c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and (d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed. 15 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Honeycutt, Thomas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes, a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed.

  4. TRANSPORT INVOLVING CONDUCTING FIBERS IN A NON-CONDUCTING MATRIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    to sev- eral applications including flexible thin-film transistors, PEM fuel cells, and direct energy, particularly Peltier devices, high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity are preferred

  5. Operating Experience Level 3, Importance of Conduct of Operations and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCO OCHCO OverviewFreedom ofDepartment offorOccupied Areas

  6. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  7. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  8. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  9. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  10. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  11. Selected factors influencing GCL hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, R.J. [Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd., Brampton, Ontario (Canada); Rowe, R.K.; Quigley, R.M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of confined swell and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on a needle-punched geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) with water as the hydrating medium and reference permeant. Increases in the static confining stress and the needle-punching both restricted GCL swell and contributed to lower bulk GCL void ratios and hence significantly lower hydraulic conductivity values. A well defined linear-log relationship is found between the bulk void ratio and hydraulic conductivity. The number of pore volumes of permeant flow and consequently the level of chemical equilibrium is shown to have a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity. It is shown that there is a decrease in hydraulic conductivity for small amounts of permeant flow for all ethanol/water mixtures examined. At or near chemical equilibrium, low concentration mixtures (25 and 50% ethanol) continued to produce relative decreases in GCL hydraulic conductivity due to the increased viscosity of the permeant; however, highly concentrated mixtures (75 and 100% ethanol) produced relative increases in GCL hydraulic conductivity arising from double layer contraction. The implications are discussed.

  12. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  13. Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Model with Axial Conduction and Variable Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, B.J.; White, M.J.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Future superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, as part of Project X at Fermilab, will be cooled to superfluid helium temperatures by a cryogenic distribution system supplying cold supercritical helium. To reduce vapor fraction during the final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion into the superfluid helium cooling bath, counter-flow, plate-fin heat exchangers will be utilized. Due to their compact size and ease of fabrication, plate-fin heat exchangers are an effective option. However, the design of compact and high-effectiveness cryogenic heat exchangers operating at liquid helium temperatures requires consideration of axial heat conduction along the direction of flow, in addition to variable fluid properties. Here we present a numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger. The model is used to guide design decisions on heat exchanger material choice and geometry. In addition, the J-T expansion process is modeled with the heat exchanger to analyze the effect of heat load and cryogenic supply parameters. A numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger was developed and the effect of various design parameters on overall heat exchanger size was investigated. It was found that highly conductive metals should be avoided in the design of compact JT heat exchangers. For the geometry considered, the optimal conductivity is around 3.5 W/m-K and can range from 0.3-10 W/m-K without a large loss in performance. The model was implemented with an isenthalpic expansion process. Increasing the cold side inlet temperature from 2K to 2.2 K decreased the liquid fraction from 0.856 to 0.839 which corresponds to a 0.12 g/s increase in supercritical helium supply needed to maintain liquid level in the cooling bath. Lastly, it was found that the effectiveness increased when the heat load was below the design value. Therefore, the heat exchanger should be sized on the high end of the required heat load.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Liquid-Solid, Solid-Liquid Phase Change Using Finite Element Method in h,p,k Framework with Space-Time Variationally Consistent Integral Forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truex, Michael

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase cps Specific Heat in Solid Phase cl Specific Heat in Liquid Phase cpl Specific Heat in Liquid Phase k Thermal Conductivity ks Thermal Conductivity in Solid Phase kl Thermal Conductivity in Liquid Phase L Latent Heat of Fusion Lf Latent Heat... models and the computational infrastructure employed for obtaining numerical solutions of the associated IVPs. 1.1 Mathematical Models First, we consider the mathematical models that are currently used for phase change phenomena. These essentially fall...

  15. Abstract--To study the lung water clearance in vivo at the time of the birth, MR experiments were conducted on newborn lamb immediately after uterine incision deliverance. Images obtained with a fast spin echo sequence enable to quantify lung liquid each

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract-- To study the lung water clearance in vivo at the time of the birth, MR experiments were echo sequence enable to quantify lung liquid each 5 minutes during 30 minutes then each 10 minutes for 1.5 hour. From the lung contours, pulmonary volume, pulmonary water, and spatial gradient

  16. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  17. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  18. Standards of Conduct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900 Special Report:Spotlight:

  19. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  20. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  1. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  2. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  3. JLF Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Sandia National Laboratories conducts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  5. Rules of Conduct Definitions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15Rotary Firing inRotaryRui Liu Rui

  6. Code of Conduct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCH CAPABILITIES ThematerialsAbout » Leadership,

  7. {sup 99}Tc bioassay: A direct comparison of liquid scintillation radiation detection and ICP-MS mass detection of the {sup 99}Tc isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, L.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Analytical Services Organization; Schweitzer, G.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max.} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard manual quench correction and an automatic quench curve correction method are compared with results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results; however, the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results.

  8. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  9. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  13. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

  14. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  16. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)May£661.DataNov-14Liquids

  17. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  18. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  19. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  20. Thermoelectric Conductivities at Finite Magnetic Field and the Nernst Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keun-Young Kim; Kyung Kiu Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of magnetic field by gauge/gravity duality. We consider a general class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. Analytic general formulas for DC conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study we analyse in detail the dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation. In this model, the Nernst signal shows a typical vortex-liquid effect when momentum relaxation effect is comparable to chemical potential. We compute all AC electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirms that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effect on conductivities including cyclotron resonance poles.

  1. Thermoelectric Conductivities at Finite Magnetic Field and the Nernst Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Keun-Young; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of magnetic field by gauge/gravity duality. We consider a general class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. Analytic general formulas for DC conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study we analyse in detail the Dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation effect. In this model, the Nernst signal shows a typical vortex-liquid effect when momentum relaxation effect is comparable to chemical potential. We compute all AC electric, thermal, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirms that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effect on conductivities including cyclotron frequencies.

  2. Laboratory Experiments and Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Bed Leveler Used to Level the Bottom of Ship Channels after Dredging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Ephraim Udo

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to ascertain the impacts of bed leveling, following ship channel dredging operations, and to also investigate the hydrodynamic flow field around box bed levelers. Laboratory experiments were conducted with bed levelers...

  3. Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  5. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  6. Optical Conductivity with Holographic Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Jorge E. Santos; David Tong

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We add a gravitational background lattice to the simplest holographic model of matter at finite density and calculate the optical conductivity. With the lattice, the zero frequency delta function found in previous calculations (resulting from translation invariance) is broadened and the DC conductivity is finite. The optical conductivity exhibits a Drude peak with a cross-over to power-law behavior at higher frequencies. Surprisingly, these results bear a strong resemblance to the properties of some of the cuprates.

  7. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  8. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  9. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  10. Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducted with superficial gas velocities ranging trom approximately 0. 100 to 4. 500 m/s, liquid viscosity from 1 to 124 cps and inclination angle from 90 to 50'. These tests yielded ZNLF liquid holdup measurements in the range of 0. 800 to 0. 040. A... is increased from horizontal, which leads to a higher slippage and liquid holdup. 38 0 900 Hte 0 800 0. 700 0 600 0 500 0 400 0 300 0. 200 + 0 100 0 000 20 80 120 140 Vtseosttt, eps e0103 ~ 0207 40413 x0827 x 1240 ~ 1654 +2067 -2894 -3720 44547...

  11. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  12. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  13. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite, Liquid Waste Contract Savannah River Site- February 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Liquid Waste Contract Savannah River Site is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  14. Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Xinxin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction AEnhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction byTopological Insulator

  15. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinert, N.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Riley, D. [Walla Walla College of Engineering, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Wells, A.H. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  16. Ultrasonic, Non-Invasive Classification/Discrimination of Liquid Explosives (LEs) and Threat Liquids from Non-Threat Liquids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Tucker, Brian J.; Samuel, Todd J.; Morales, Romarie

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Government agencies and homeland security organizations are searching for more effective approaches for dealing with the increasing demand for inspections involving potential threat liquids and hazardous chemicals, including liquid explosives (LEs). The quantity and variability of hand-held and cargo-sized containers being shipped worldwide drives the need for rapid and effective ways for conducting non-intrusive inspections of liquid-filled containers of a diverse range of types, shapes and sizes. Such inspections need to quickly classify/discriminate between liquids within containers and also ascertain the presence of unexpected objects within a container. The science base, methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination between classes of liquids has been developed. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination of a wide variety of liquids (including threat liquids and their precursors), providing noninvasive liquid classification/discrimination capabilities using a nondestructive ultrasonic measurement approach for inspecting sealed containers. The Container Screening Device (CSD) employs frequency-modulated (FM) chirp excitation and pulse-compression signal processing techniques to measure ultrasonic velocity and a relative attenuation value for liquids within a container, and is capable of determining other acoustic properties from through-transmission, contact measurements over a wide frequency range. Recent algorithm developments are beginning to address the issues of container wall variations and thickness. A description of the basic science, measurement approach and sources of variability in the measurement will be presented and laboratory measurements acquired from a suite of commercial products and precursor liquids used in the manufacturing of Homemade Explosives (HMEs) will be given.

  17. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  18. Proton Electrodynamics in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Volkov; V. G. Artemov; A. V. Pronin

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric spectrum of liquid water, $10^{4} - 10^{11}$ Hz, is interpreted in terms of diffusion of charges, formed as a result of self-ionization of H$_{2}$O molecules. This approach explains the Debye relaxation and the dc conductivity as two manifestations of this diffusion. The Debye relaxation is due to the charge diffusion with a fast recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{2}$, while the dc conductivity is a manifestation of the diffusion with a much slower recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{1}$. Applying a simple model based on Brownian-like diffusion, we find $\\tau_{2} \\simeq 10^{-11}$ s and $\\tau_{1} \\simeq 10^{-6}$ s, and the concentrations of the charge carriers, involved in each of the two processes, $N_{2} \\simeq 5 \\times 10^{26}$ m$^{-3}$ and $N_{1} \\simeq 10^{14}$ m$^{-3}$. Further, we relate $N_{2}$ and $N_{1}$ to the total concentration of H$_{3}$O$^{+}$--OH$^{-}$ pairs and to the pH index, respectively, and find the lifetime of a single water molecule, $\\tau_{0} \\simeq 10^{-9}$ s. Finally, we show that the high permittivity of water results mostly from flickering of separated charges, rather than from reorientations of intact molecular dipoles.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  20. Renormalization group flow for noncommutative Fermi liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrada-Jimenez, Sendic [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Calle 4a Oriente Norte 1428 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, Hugo [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wu Yongshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent studies of the AdS/CFT correspondence for condensed matter systems involve the Fermi liquid theory as a boundary field theory. Adding B-flux to the boundary D-branes leads in a certain limit to the noncommutative Fermi liquid, which calls for a field theory description of its critical behavior. As a preliminary step to more general consideration, the modification of the Landau's Fermi liquid theory due to noncommutativity of spatial coordinates is studied in this paper. We carry out the renormalization of interactions at tree level and one loop in a weakly coupled fermion system in two spatial dimensions. Channels ZS, ZS' and BCS are discussed in detail. It is shown that while the Gaussian fixed-point remains unchanged, the BCS instability is modified due to the space noncommutativity.

  1. Club Sports Coach/Volunteer Code of Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Club Sports Coach/Volunteer Code of Conduct Agreement Form I that this position holds a high level of responsibility and I agree to the following Code for Club Sports, and other University officials as may be required. · I

  2. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  3. Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marian Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite fiber organic matrix composites were reviewed ics. for potential heat sink applications in the electronics packaging determined the effective transverse and longitudinal thermal industry. This experimental investigation conductivity...

  4. Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marian Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite fiber organic matrix composites were reviewed ics. for potential heat sink applications in the electronics packaging determined the effective transverse and longitudinal thermal industry. This experimental investigation conductivity...

  5. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  6. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  7. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  8. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

  9. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  10. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  11. Combustion of Nano-Aluminum and Liquid Water G.A. Risha, S.F. Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Vigor

    1 Combustion of Nano-Aluminum and Liquid Water G.A. Risha, S.F. Son , R.A. Yetter, V. Yang, and B: Supplemental materials submitted #12;2 Combustion of Nano-Aluminum and Liquid Water G.A. Risha, S.F. Son, R of nano-aluminum (nAl) and liquid water has been conducted. In particular, linear and mass-burning rates

  12. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  13. Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

  14. CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    -beam lithography or small metallic grains,[1] semiconductor quantum dots,[2] or a single large molecule of an atomic-size bridge that forms in the break,[3] or even measure the conductance of a single hydrogen

  15. Continuous production of conducting polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

  16. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Re

  17. Evaluation of a New Liquid Breaker for Polymer Based In-Situ Gelled Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksoy, Gamze

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    resulting in a less than desirable productivity. Therefore, an effective liquid breaker that is based on tetrafluoroboric acid was developed. This study was conducted to evaluate this new breaker system under the following conditions: breaker...

  18. Synchronized molecular-dynamics simulation for the thermal lubrication of a polymeric liquid between parallel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuda, Shugo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Synchronized Molecular-Dynamics simulation which was recently proposed by authors [Phys. Rev. X {\\bf 4}, 041011 (2014)] is applied to the analysis of polymer lubrication between parallel plates. The rheological properties, conformational change of polymer chains, and temperature rise due to the viscous heating are investigated with changing the values of thermal conductivity of the polymeric liquid. It is found that at a small applied shear stress on the plate, the temperature of polymeric liquid only slightly increases in inverse proportion to the thermal conductivity and the apparent viscosity of polymeric liquid is not much affected by changing the thermal conductivity. However, at a large shear stress, the transitional behaviors of the polymeric liquid occur due to the interplay of the shear deformation and viscous heating by changing the thermal conductivity. This transition is characterized by the Nahme-Griffith number $Na$ which is defined as the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conducti...

  19. Apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid in a region, including an electrically passive sensor adapted for contacting the liquid, and an electrically active detector. The sensor is a circuit with a pair of spaced-apart terminals connected to a switch that closes in the presence of the liquid. The detector carries an alternating current with a resonant frequency. When the sensor is placed in a region and liquid is present, the circuit of the sensor is closed. By bringing the detector close to the sensor, an alternating current is induced in the sensor that will, in turn, alter the resonant frequency of the detector. This change is signaled by a transducer. The switch can operate by a change in conductivity of a material between the terminals of the sensor or by expansion of a liquid absorber that pushes the two terminals together, or by a change in the conductivity of the space between the terminals as a result of the liquid. The detector generates an audible or visible signal, or both, in response to the current change.

  20. Apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid in a region, including an electrically passive sensor adapted for contacting the liquid, and an electrically active detector. The sensor is a circuit with a pair of spaced-apart terminals connected to a switch that closes in the presence of the liquid. The detector carries an alternating current with a resonant frequency. When the sensor is placed in a region and liquid is present in the region, the circuit of the sensor is closed. By bringing the detector close to the sensor, an alternating current is induced in the sensor that will, in turn, alter the resonant frequency of the detector. The change in the resonant frequency is signaled by a transducer. The switch can operate by a change in conductivity of a material between the terminals of the sensor or by expansion of a liquid absorber that pushes the two terminals together, or by a change in the conductivity of the space between the terminals as a result of the presence of the liquid. The detector generates an audible or visible signal, or both, in response to the change in current.

  1. Apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for detecting the presence of a liquid in a region, including an electrically passive sensor adapted for contacting the liquid, and an electrically active detector. The sensor is a circuit with a pair of spaced-apart terminals connected to a switch that closes in the presence of the liquid. The detector carries an alternating current with a resonant frequency. When the sensor is placed in a region and liquid is present in the region, the circuit of the sensor is closed. By bringing the detector close to the sensor, an alternating current is induced in the sensor that will, in turn, alter the resonant frequency of the detector. The change in the resonant frequency is signaled by a transducer. The switch can operate by a change in conductivity of a material between the terminals of the sensor or by expansion of a liquid absorber that pushes the two terminals together, or by a change in the conductivity of the space between the terminals as a result of the presence of the liquid. The detector generates an audible or visible signal, or both, in response to the change in current. 12 figs.

  2. The recoiling of liquid droplets upon collision with solid surfaces H.-Y. Kima)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon oxide . The droplet dynamics are experimentally studied using of different liquid droplets water, ink, and silicone oil on different solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon. Fukai et al.14,15 conducted a theoretical study on the spreading and recoiling of a liquid droplet upon

  3. FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narain, Amitabh

    /analyzed the incident reflected waves to identify and measure the total transit time of the sound wave (of known wave-speed1 FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS T. W. Ng/disadvantages of many known liquid film thickness sensing devices (viz. conductivity probes, reflectance based fiber

  4. Reference Correlations for Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Water Jaroslav Ptek, Jan Hrub,a...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    of sound , viscosity, thermal con- ductivity, and static dielectric constant of liquid water as a function capacity; speed of sound; thermal conductivity; ther- modynamic properties; viscosity; water. CONTENTS 1Reference Correlations for Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Water at 0.1 MPa Jaroslav Pátek, Jan

  5. Plasma conductivity at finite coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker Hassanain; Martin Schvellinger

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking into account the full order(\\alpha'^3) type IIB string theory corrections to the supergravity action, we compute the leading finite 't Hooft coupling order(\\lambda^{-3/2}) corrections to the conductivity of strongly-coupled SU(N) {\\cal {N}}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma in the large N limit. We find that the conductivity is enhanced by the corrections, in agreement with the trend expected from previous perturbative weak-coupling computations.

  6. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conduction  in  Rare-­Earth  Phosphates   by   Hannah  Conduction  in  Rare-­?Earth  Phosphates   by   Hannah  conduction  in  rare  earth  phosphates.  Specifically,  

  7. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids : a renovated Hamilton-Crosser model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton-Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity.

  8. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  9. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  10. Breakup of Liquid Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including the dispersion of liquid drugs into res- pirable droplets, microfluidics, crop- and paint-spraying, and ink-jet printing [2–4]. There are also biological sys- tems in which either long filaments remain intact, or many droplets are formed [5, 6...

  11. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  12. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions are free to occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Strong evidence is provided that the Sun is a high density/high energy liquid plasma. This evidence is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics are invoked as the proper vehicle for the understanding od stellar convection and structure. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  13. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  14. Code of Conduct Regarding Holiday Gifts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,Cobalt discoveryCode of Conduct

  15. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  16. Optical conductivity of curved graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Chaves; T. Frederico; O. Oliveira; W. de Paula; M. C. Santos

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far and mid infrared frequencies for periodicities $\\sim100\\,$nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthemore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type.

  17. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

  18. Electroosmosis in conducting nanofluidic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Cunlu

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical modeling of electroosmosis through conducting (ideally polarizable) nanochannels is reported. Based on the theory of induced charge electrokinetics, a novel nanofluidic system which possesses both adjustable ion selective characteristics and flexible flow control is proposed. Such nanofluidic devices operate only with very low gate control voltage applied on the conductive walls of nanochannels, and thus even can be energized by normal batteries. We believe that it is possible to use such metal-electrolyte configurations to overcome the difficulties met with conventional metal-isolator-electrolyte systems for nanofluidic applications.

  19. AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. Clipper Creek AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level...

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  1. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  2. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Abstract:...

  3. Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmatad, Yael Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

  4. Epistemic levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Daniel (Daniel Louis)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation I defend some controversial "level-bridging" principles in epistemology. In the first chapter, I defend the KK principle-the principle that if one knows that P, then one knows that one knows that P. I ...

  5. Structural Effects in the Protonic/Electronic Conductivity of Dion-Jacobson Phase Niobate and Tantalate Layered Perovskites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conducting polymers are chemically unstable in the intermediate temperature regime. A number of polymer-inorganic composites and polymers combined with nonaqueous liquid proton conductors have been studied for use betweenStructural Effects in the Protonic/Electronic Conductivity of Dion-Jacobson Phase Niobate

  6. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  7. Conducting Your Own Energy Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why should you or anyone be interested in conducting a time intensive energy audit. What equipment is needed? When should you get started? Who should do it? The answer to Why is that energy costs are cutting into a company’s profit every minute...

  8. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  9. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  10. Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

  11. Help cut pollution with vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woinsky, S.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are common in chemical process industries plants. In addition to separating phases, these devices can aid in reducing pollution in the plant. Two-phase separators achieve pollution prevention via recycling of intermediates and final products. It is doubtful that most vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are used specifically for pollution prevention projects. They may have another purpose yet provide pollution prevention as a bonus. The first step in achieving pollution prevention by design is for operating companies to be aware of vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators as potential pollution prevention devices. Then, likely applications need to be investigated. Since the quantities of material recovered are relatively small, higher value products are the most likely targets, especially for liquid/liquid separators. However, for vapor/liquid separators, the costs involved are usually relatively low since only the cost of a separator pad is normally involved, and more moderately valued products can be targets.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer Composites Containing Aligned Conducting Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manda, Swathi

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Field effect transistor Ge Germanium HOMO Highest occupied molecular orbital I-V Current vs. Voltage ? Total thermal conductivity ?e Electronic contribution of thermal conductivity L Length xiv LC Liquid Crystal LED Light emitting diode LUMO... feasible for applications in organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaics6 and more recently, thermoelectric devices. Traditional inorganic semi-conductor materials like Bismuth (Bi), Te and Selenium (Se) deliver high thermoelectric power and deliver...

  13. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  14. Schrodinger Fermi Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Juven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a class of strongly interacting many-body fermionic systems in 2+1D non-relativistic conformal field theory via holography. The 5D charged black hole with asymptotic Schrodinger isometry in the bulk gravity side introduces parameters of background density and finite particle number into the boundary field theory. We propose the holographic dictionary, and realize a quantum phase transition of this fermionic liquid with fixed particle number by tuning the background density $\\beta$ at zero temperature. On the larger $\\beta$ side, we find the signal of a sharp quasiparticle pole on the spectral function A(k,w), indicating a well-defined Fermi surface. On the smaller $\\beta$ side, we find only a hump with no sharp peak for A(k,w), indicating the disappearance of Fermi surface. The dynamical exponent $z$ of quasiparticle dispersion goes from being Fermi-liquid-like $z\\simeq1$ scaling at larger $\\beta$ to a non-Fermi-liquid scaling $z\\simeq 3/2$ at smaller $\\beta$. By comparing the structure of Green's fu...

  15. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  16. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. Liquid Vortex Shielding for Fusion Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardet, Philippe M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Supiot, Boris F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Peterson, Per F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Savas, Oemer [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Swirling liquid vortices can be used in fusion chambers to protect their first walls and critical elements from the harmful conditions resulting from fusion reactions. The beam tube structures in heavy ion fusion (HIF) must be shielded from high energy particles, such as neutrons, x-rays and vaporized coolant, that will cause damage. Here an annular wall jet, or vortex tube, is proposed for shielding and is generated by injecting liquid tangent to the inner surface of the tube both azimuthally and axially. Its effectiveness is closely related to the vortex tube flow properties. 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is being conducted to precisely characterize its turbulent structure. The concept of annular vortex flow can be extended to a larger scale to serve as a liquid blanket for other inertial fusion and even magnetic fusion systems. For this purpose a periodic arrangement of injection and suction holes around the chamber circumference are used, generating the layer. Because it is important to match the index of refraction of the fluid with the tube material for optical measurement like PIV, a low viscosity mineral oil was identified and used that can also be employed to do scaled experiments of molten salts at high temperature.

  18. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung-Guen; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly,more »in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  19. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Malashevich, Andrei [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Disa, Ankit S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Han, Myung-Guen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Hanghui [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, Frederick J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ahn, Charles H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States);

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  20. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  1. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  3. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  4. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  5. Silylene-diethynyl-arylene polymers having liquid crystalline properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Yiwei Ding.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including diethynyl-(substituted)arylene units, and a process for their preparation. These novel polymers possess useful properties including electrical conductivity, liquid crystallinity, and/or photoluminescence. These polymers possess good solubility in organic solvents. A preferred example is produced according to the following reaction scheme. ##STR1## These polymers can be solvent-cast to yield excellent films and can also be pulled into fibers from concentrated solutions. All possess substantial crystallinity as revealed by DSC analysis and observation through a polarizing microscope, and possess liquid crystalline properties.

  6. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  7. Photorefractivity in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer-stabilized liquid crystals, consisting of low concentrations of a polymeric electron acceptor, are shown to exhibit significantly enhanced photorefractive properties. The charge generation and transport properties of these composite systems are strongly modified from nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donors and acceptors. The new composites are produced by polymerizing a small quantity of a 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide electron acceptor functionalized with an acrylate group in an aligned nematic liquid crystal. Photopolymerization creates an anisotropic gel-like medium in which the liquid crystal is free to reorient in the presence of a space charge field, while maintaining charge trapping sites in the polymerized regions of the material. The presence of these trapping sites results in the observation of longer lived, higher resolution holographic gratings in the polymer-stabilized liquid crystals than observed in nematic liquid crystals alone. These gratings display Bragg regime diffraction. Asymmetric beam coupling, photo-conductivity, and four-wave mixing experiments are performed to characterize the photophysics of these novel materials.

  8. Nonequilibrium Spintronic Transport through an Artificial Kondo Impurity: Conductance, Magnetoresistance, and Shot Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, David

    Nonequilibrium Spintronic Transport through an Artificial Kondo Impurity: Conductance processes lift the level degeneracy, yielding "0 R, where R is a phenomenological spin flip scatter- ing

  9. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

  10. Synchronized molecular-dynamics simulation for the thermal lubrication of a polymeric liquid between parallel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shugo Yasuda; Ryoichi Yamamoto

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Synchronized Molecular-Dynamics simulation which was recently proposed by authors [Phys. Rev. X {\\bf 4}, 041011 (2014)] is applied to the analysis of polymer lubrication between parallel plates. The rheological properties, conformational change of polymer chains, and temperature rise due to the viscous heating are investigated with changing the values of thermal conductivity of the polymeric liquid. It is found that at a small applied shear stress on the plate, the temperature of polymeric liquid only slightly increases in inverse proportion to the thermal conductivity and the apparent viscosity of polymeric liquid is not much affected by changing the thermal conductivity. However, at a large shear stress, the transitional behaviors of the polymeric liquid occur due to the interplay of the shear deformation and viscous heating by changing the thermal conductivity. This transition is characterized by the Nahme-Griffith number $Na$ which is defined as the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conduction at a characteristic temperature. When the Nahme-Griffith number exceeds the unity, the temperature of polymeric liquid increases rapidly and the apparent viscosity also exponentially decreases as the thermal conductivity decreases. The conformation of polymer chains is stretched and aligned by the shear flow for $Na1$.

  11. 45Fuel Level in a Spherical Tank Spherical tanks are found in many

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    45Fuel Level in a Spherical Tank Spherical tanks are found in many different situations, from the storage of cryogenic liquids, to fuel tanks. Under the influence of gravity, or acceleration, the liquid then be designed to measure where the surface of the liquid is, and from this derive h. Problem 1 - Slice the fluid

  12. Use of shear-stress-sensitive, temperature-insensitive liquid crystals for hypersonic boundary-layer transition detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Croll, R.H.; Kuntz, D.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of shear-stress-sensitive, temperature-insensitive (SSS/TI) liquid crystals (LCs) has been evaluated as a boundary-layer transition detection technique for hypersonic flows. Experiments were conducted at Mach 8 in the Sandia National Laboratories Hypersonic Wind Tunnel using a flat plate model at near zero-degree angle of attack over the freestream unit Reynolds number range 1.2-5.8x10{sup 6}/ft. Standard 35mm color photography and Super VHS color video were used to record LC color changes due to varying surface shear stress during the transition process for a range of commercial SSS liquid crystals. Visual transition data were compared to an established method using calorimetric surface heat-transfer measurements to evaluate the LC technique. It is concluded that the use of SSS/TI LCs can be an inexpensive, safe, and easy to use boundary-layer transition detection method for hypersonic flows. However, a valid interpretation of the visual records requires careful attention to illumination intensity levels and uniformity, lighting and viewing angles, some prior understanding of the general character of the flow, and the selection of the appropriate liquid crystal for the particular flow conditions.

  13. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  14. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  15. Ionic liquids and electrochemistry: from proteins to electrochromic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Baker, G. A. (Gary A.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Baker, S. N. (Sheila N.); Warner, B. P. (Benjamin P.); Hall, S. B. (Simon B.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We will report on a wide range of activities within the chemistry division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results on basic and applied research involving electrochemistry will be discussed. Topics will include electrochemistry of proteins, sensors based on electrochemical signals, temperature sensors, electrochromic devices in ionic liquids and the characterization of organic cation radicals. We have recently developed several applications in ionic liquids that include electrochromic devices, temperature sensors and chemical sensors. The electrochromic windows are being marketed as selftinting automotive mirrors. The ionic liquid based temperature sensor is stable and accurate over a wide range and has the potential to provide high-resolution temperature imaging. Chemical sensors have been developed that use electrochemistry to detect low levels of potential chemical agents in air. We have also studied the basic chemistry of charge transfer complexes and proteins in ionic liquids. Charge transfer complexes display unique behavior in ionic liquid compare to traditional solvents. Proteins can be solubilized at high levels that make it possible to probe electrochemistry in the proper ionic liquid.

  16. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  17. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  18. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO)...

  19. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  20. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  1. Advances in inherently conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of polyacetylene as the prototype material led to extensive research on its synythesis and characterization. The techniques that emerged as the most important and promising ones are those that dealt with molecular orientation and that resulted in conductivities almost as high as that of copper. The study of dozens of other materials followed. Interest in conducting polymers stems from their nonclassical optical and electronic properties as well as their potential technological applications. However, some of the factors currently limiting their use are the lack of long-term stability and the need to develop conventional low-cost techniques for easy processing. Therefore, research was extended toward solving these problems, and progress has been recently made in that direction. The synthesis of new materials such as stable and easily processable alkylthiophenes, water-soluble polymers, and multicomponent systems, including copolymers and composites, constitutes an important step forward in the area of synthetic metals. However, a full understanding of materials chemistry and properties requires more work in the years to come. Although, few small-scale applications have proven to be successful, long-term stability and applicability tests are needed before their commercial use becomes reality.

  2. Energy Levels

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  3. Energy Levels

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  4. Energy Levels

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  5. Energy Levels

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  6. Energy Levels

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  7. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  8. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2BBe

  10. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2BBeNe

  11. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li

  12. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  13. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe

  15. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe9

  16. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe9C

  17. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB

  18. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from

  19. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5 H

  20. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5 H6

  1. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5

  2. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from58 C

  3. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from58

  4. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  5. A Low Hysteresis NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloy Based Thermal Conduction Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemanski, J. L.; Krishnan, V. B.; Manjeri, R. Mahadevan; Vaidyanathan, R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (United States); Notardonato, W. U. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 32899 (United States)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shape memory alloys possess the ability to return to a preset shape by undergoing a solid state phase transformation at a particular temperature. This work reports on the development and testing of a low temperature thermal conduction switch that incorporates a NiTiFe shape memory element for actuation. The switch was developed to provide a variable conductive pathway between liquid methane and liquid oxygen dewars in order to passively regulate the temperature of methane. The shape memory element in the switch undergoes a rhombohedral or R-phase transformation that is associated with a small hysteresis (typically 1-2 deg. C) and offers the advantage of precision control over a set temperature range. For the NiTiFe alloy used, its thermomechanical processing, subsequent characterization using dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry and implementation in the conduction switch configuration are addressed.

  6. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  7. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  8. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid...

  9. Laboratory simulation of geosynthetic clay liner application in contaminated liquids evacuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlynarek, J.; Vermeersch, O.G. [Geosynthetics Analysis Service, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada); Lemelin, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To prevent a contamination of soil and underground water by leaking mineral oil, recovery basins are designed and constructed in Quebec, Canada. The functions of such basins are to collect and to evacuate oil to a drainage and then to a recycled and treatment station. The material presently used for such an application is a concrete. However, due to difficult access to some of the transformers, and to the difficult low temperature conditions, engineers are looking for a new, alternate design idea. In order to evaluate the geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) hydraulic behavior in such applications, a laboratory demonstration test has been conducted. A full-scale model was designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the rate of water flow through different layers of the proposed system. Mineral oil leaks as well as precipitation were simulated during the research program. The testing consisted of the measurements of mineral oil and water (precipitation) volumes at four levels of the demonstration model, during a period of two months. The results showed that only one percent of precipitated water and leaked mineral oil was collected underneath the geosynthetic clay liner. Further research is recommended on: techniques of seaming of GCLs joints and connections; the minimum acceptance rate of hydration of GCLs for different liquids; an influence of water content of soils on GCLs hydration; and a long term hydraulic compatibility of GCLs with different liquids and leachates.

  10. Single-magnet rotary flowmeter for liquid metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priede, J?nis; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the theory of single-magnet flowmeter for liquid metals and compare it with experimental results. The flowmeter consists of a freely rotating permanent magnet, which is magnetized perpendicularly to the axle it is mounted on. When such a magnet is placed close to a tube carrying liquid metal flow, it rotates so that the driving torque due to the eddy currents induced by the flow is balanced by the braking torque induced by the rotation itself. The equilibrium rotation rate depends directly on the flow rate but not on the electrical conductivity of the metal or the magnet strength. We obtain simple analytical solutions for the force and torque on slowly moving and rotating magnets due to eddy currents in a layer of infinite horizontal extent. The predicted equilibrium rotation rate for a dipole agrees well with the magnet rotation rate measured at a stainless steel duct with a liquid sodium flow.

  11. Importance of glassy fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sippel; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Krohns; E. Thoms; A. Loidl

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid close to room temperature. Their possible applications are numerous, e.g., as solvents for green chemistry in various electrochemical devices, and even for such "exotic" purposes as spinning-liquid mirrors for lunar telescopes. Here we concentrate on their use for new advancements in energy-storage and -conversion devices: Batteries, supercapacitors or fuel cells using ILs as electrolytes could be important building blocks for the sustainable energy supply of tomorrow. Interestingly, ILs show glassy freezing and the universal, but until now only poorly understood dynamic properties of glassy matter, dominate many of their physical properties. We show that the conductivity of ILs, an essential figure of merit for any electrochemical application, depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility.

  12. Evaluation of bubbler/diaphragm techniques to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.J.; Hickman, B.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if a bubbler technique can be used to determine the surface level in the waste tanks. Two techniques were evaluated. The first technique is a standard bubbler system in which a tube is placed below the surface of the liquid to be measured and air pressure inside a tube is increased until bubbles begin to become emitted from the tube. The air pressure then is a function of the pressure at the bottom of the tube. The second technique involves a system similar to the standard bubbler technique, but instead of bubbles being released into the material to be gauged, air pressure is increased against a diaphragm until enough pressure is applied to overcome the pressure of the liquid at the given depth, at which time the air then flows in a return loop back to a vent. The advantage of the diaphragm system is that it is a sealed system; thus no air is released into the waste tank materials, and it is not possible for the waste tank materials to get into the air flow. Based on the results of the tests conducted in this program, it appears that the bubbler and diaphragm systems that were tested could not be used for accurate measurements of the level in the waste tanks. Both exhibited deposits of simulated waste tank material at the end of the devices which affected the ability of the gauge to accurately determine changes in the surface level even though the measured value of the level was inaccurate. Further investigations into the cause of this inaccuracy may be warranted. Alternate diaphragm materials may improve the performance of this gauge.

  13. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  14. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  15. Experimental investigation of onboard storage and refueling systems for liquid-hydrogen-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, W.F.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-1/2-year baseline experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive vehicle project was conducted to evaluate and document state-of-the-art capabilities in engine conversion for hydrogen operation, liquid-hydrogen onboard storage, and liquid-hydrogen refueling. The engine conversion, onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tank, and liquid-hydrogen refueling system used in the project represented readily available equipment or technology when the project began. The project information documented herein can serve as a basis of comparison with which to evaluate future vehicles that are powered by hydrogen or other alternative fuels, with different engines, and different fuel-storage methods. The results of the project indicate that liquid-hydrogen storage observed an operating vehicle and routine refueling of the vehicle can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulty. Two different liquid-hydrogen vehicle onboard storage tanks designed for vehicular applications were tested in actual road operation: the first was an aluminum dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 l; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper, vapor-cooled thermal-radiation shields, and a stainless-steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 l. The car was refueled with liquid hydrogen at least 65 times involving more than 8.1 kl of liquid hydrogen during the 17 months that the car was operated on liquid hydrogen. The vehicle, a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-l-displacement turbocharged V6 engine, was driven for 3633 km over the road on hydrogen. The vehicle had a range without refueling of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second tank. The vehicle achieved 2.4 km/l of liquid hydrogen which corresponds to 9.4 km/l gasoline on an equivalent energy basis.

  16. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  17. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  18. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  19. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  20. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  1. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  2. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Laplace

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-situ commissioning of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter is taking place since three years. During this period, it has been fully tested by means of frequent calibration runs, and the analysis of the large cosmic muon data samples and of the few beam splash events that occurred on September 10th, 2008. This has allowed to obtain a stable set of calibration constants for the first collisions, and to measure the in-situ calorimeter performances that were found to be at the expected level.

  3. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  4. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  5. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J. A., E-mail: jschwart@pppl.gov; Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 k? trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  6. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  7. Novel Fluctuations at a Constrained Liquid-Solid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri; Debasish Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the interface between a solid trapped within a bath of liquid by a suitably shaped non-uniform external potential. Such a potential may be constructed using lasers, external electric or magnetic fields or a surface template. We study a two dimensional case where a thin strip of solid, created in this way, is surrounded on either side by a bath of liquid with which it can easily exchange particles. Since height fluctuations of the interface cost energy, this interface is constrained to remain flat at all length scales. However, when such a solid is stressed by altering the depth of the potential; beyond a certain limit, it responds by relieving stress by novel interfacial fluctuations which involve addition or deletion of entire lattice layers of the crystal. This ``layering'' transition is a generic feature of the system regardless of the details of the interaction potential. We show how such interfacial fluctuations influence mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface. Tiny momentum impulses produce weak shock waves which travel through the interface and cause the spallation of crystal layers into the liquid. Kinetic and energetic constraints prevent spallation of partial layers from the crystal, a fact which may be of some practical use. We also study heat transport through the liquid-solid interface and obtain the resistances in liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza resistance) as the solid undergoes such layering transitions. Heat conduction, which shows strong signatures of the structural transformations, can be understood using a free volume calculation.

  8. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe joints

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwartz, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451, USA; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451, USA; Mehl, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451, USA; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451, USA; Mozulay, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451, USA

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 k#2; trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  9. An apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity of liquid neon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Jerald Norman

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    past the max1mum recommended storage temperature of 100 C. The hot plate, Pl, and guard ring, P2, are heated. by nicrome heater wires, whose respective resistances are 50 ohms and. 150 ohms. An additional heater of 5 ohms was placed near the cupro-nickel.... to the heater. They were coiled around the top of the guard. ring once before being soldered to the number 36 copper wires leading to the top plate. The number 36 wires go to the top plate by means of a 1/8 in. cupro-nickel tube and were sealed from...

  10. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  11. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface...

  12. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  13. Standards of Ethical Conduct Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900 Special Report:Spotlight:California  Standards of

  14. Planning and Conducting Readiness Reviews

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judgea.Work Plan for FY 2013 A list of3006-2010

  15. Optical Modulation of Molecular Conductance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and EvaluationOperationalOpportunities forOptical

  16. Procedure for Planning and Conducting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority FirmTech Transfer SuccessLift

  17. High energy-density water: density functional theory calculations of structure and electrical conductivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the properties of water is essential for correctly describing the physics of shock waves in water as well as the behavior of giant planets. By using finite temperature density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/super-ionic/electronic liquid). There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm{sup 3} while electronic conduction dominates at temperatures above 6000 K. We predict that the fluid bordering the super-ionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Earlier work instead has the super-ionic phase bordering an insulating fluid, with a transition to metallic fluid not until 7000 K and 250 GPa. The tools and expertise developed during the project can be applied to other molecular systems, for example, methane, ammonia, and CH foam. We are now well positioned to treat also complex molecular systems in the HEDP regime of phase-space.

  18. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin; John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

  19. Durable Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

  20. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

  1. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  2. Electronically conductive polymer composites and microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, L.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites of electronically conductive polymers with insulating host materials are investigated. A template synthesis method was developed for the production of electronically conductive polymer microstructures. In template synthesis the pores of a porous host membrane act as templates for the polymerization of a conductive polymer. The template synthetic method can be used to form either solid microfibrils or hollow microtubules. The electrochemical properties of conductive polymers produced via the template synthesis method are superior to those of conventionally synthesized conductive polymers. Electronically conductive polymers are used to impart conductivity to non-conductive materials. Two different approaches are used. First, thin film composites of conductive polymers with fluoropolymers are made by the polymerization of conductive polymers onto fluoropolymer films. Modification of the fluoropolymer surface prior to conductive polymer polymerization is necessary to obtain good adhesion between the two materials. The difference in adhesion of the conductive polymer to the modified and unmodified fluoropolymer surfaces can be used to pattern the conductive polymer coating. Patterning of the conductive polymer coating can alternatively be done via UV laser ablation of the conductive polymer. The second method by which conductive polymers were used to impart conductivity to an insulating polymer was via the formation of a graft copolymer. In this approach, heterocyclic monomers grafted to an insulating polyphosphazene backbone were polymerized to yield semiconductive materials. Finally the measurement of electrolyte concentration in polypyrrole and the effects of hydroxide anion on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polypyrrole are described. It is shown that treatment of polypyrrole with hydroxide anion increases the potential window over which polypyrrole is a good electronic conductor.

  3. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  4. CONDUCTIVE POLYCARBONATE NANOCOMPOSITES with HYBRID NANOFILLERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    CONDUCTIVE POLYCARBONATE NANOCOMPOSITES with HYBRID NANOFILLERS Catherine Smith, Brooks Lively, Wei of polymers. Emerging technologies have demonstrated the crucial need for highly conductive polymer combination between polycarbonate (PC) and hybrid concentrations of CNT and GNP nanofillers was investigated

  5. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  6. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  7. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  8. Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

  9. WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS: The UK Threat Level is decided by the Government's Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC). It is the system to assess the threat to the UK from Threat Levels: Low - an attack is unlikely Moderate - an attack is possible, but not likely Substantial

  10. Liquid measurement - Techniques and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, B.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews a few liquid measurement techniques and their associated problems. In measuring liquid petroleum gas, the first obstacle to overcome is accomodating some form of volumetric measurement. This is usually accomplished by orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meters. Each of the three established methods is covered extensively by industry standards in the API Manual of Petroleum Standards. If the operator follows these standards, very accurate results can be achieved.

  11. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  12. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  13. Primary Atomization of a Liquid Jet in Crossflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Sandeep

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present a visualization of the primary atomization of a turbulent liquid jet injected into a turbulent gaseous crossflow. It is based on a detailed numerical simulation of the primary atomization region of the jet using a finite volume, balanced force, incompressible LES/DNS flow solver coupled to a Refined Level Set Grid (RLSG) solver to track the phase interface position. The visualization highlights the two distinct breakup modes of the jet: the column breakup mode of the main liquid column and the ligament breakup mode on the sides of the jet and highlights the complex evolution of the phase interface geometry.

  14. Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

  15. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kelley, Dennis [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States)] [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States); Cochaud, Chantal [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)] [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Serrano, Roger [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)] [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW) in France, two options can be considered: the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the disposal facility on ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these radwaste routes is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the radwaste route specifications. If the waste characteristics are incompatible with the radwaste route specifications (presence of significant quantities of chlorine, fluorine, organic component etc or/and high activity limits), it is necessary to find an alternative solution that consists of a waste pre-treatment process. In the context of the problematic Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. The first one is composed of organic liquids at 13.1 % (diphenyloxazol, mesitylene, TBP, xylene) and water at 86.9 %. The second one is composed of TBP at 8.6 % and water at 91.4 %. They contain chlorine, fluorine and sulphate and have got alpha/beta/gamma spectra with mass activities equal to some kBq.g{sup -1}. Therefore, tritium is present and creates the second problematic waste stream. As a consequence, in order for disposal acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. The NOCHAR polymers as an aqueous and organic liquid solidification process seem to be an adequate solution. Indeed, these polymers constitute an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing etc) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and immobilise the liquid. Then as the polymer-organic cure, over time, the polymer continues to collapse on the organic to create a permanent bond. The N960 has the ability to absorb aqueous waste up to 100 times its own weight. It creates a strong mechanical bond which permanently traps the contamination imbedded in the aqueous liquids. As a consequence, these two polymers seem to be able to constitute a suitable solidification matrix for a final acceptance in storage on ANDRA sites. In order to validate the polymers as an acceptable aqueous and organic solidification process for Cadarache LOR, some solidification tests realized with N910 and N960, have been carried out for different Waste/Polymer ratios. The determination of the best Waste/Polymer ratio and of the optimal experimental parameters has been made through an exudation test. Indeed, the process prevents leaching and it results in the absence of residual free organic or aqueous liquid which is forbidden in storage by ANDRA specifications. With these test results, we generated scientific data which are fundamental to obtain an ANDRA agreement. As a conclusion, the aim of this study is to demonstrate that the solidification by polymers can constitute a pre-treatment solution for Cadarache LOR and more generally, for various organic and mixed organic/aqueous waste which can not be directly acceptable at CENTRACO facility or at ANDRA storage sites. This work is, therefore, a solid background to demonstrate the feasibility of the waste pre-treatment by solidification with polymers and to encourage the development of this process. (authors)

  16. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  17. An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  19. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  20. Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Tony [SUNY-SB; Chen, Jiuhua [SUNY-SB; Ehm, Lars [SUNY-SB; Guo, Quanzhong [SUNY-SB; Parise, John [SUNY-SB

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  2. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  3. Tailored Ink For Piston-Driven Electrostatic Liquid Drop Modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Raymond W. (Mississauga, CA); Breton, Marcel P. (Mississauga, CA); Bedford, Christine E. (Toronto, CA); Carreira, Leonard M. (Penfield, NY); Gooray, Arthur M. (Penfield, NY); Roller, George J. (Penfield, NY); Zavadil, Kevin (Benalillo, NM); Galambos, Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Crowley, Joseph (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an ink composition including water, a solvent, a solvent-soluble dye, and a surfactant, where the ink exhibits a stable liquid microemulsion phase at a first temperature and a second temperature higher than the first temperature and has a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60, and methods of making such ink compositions. The present invention also relates to a method of making an ink composition for use in a microelectromechanical system-based fluid ejector. The method involves providing a solution or dispersion including a dye or a pigment and adding to the solution or dispersion an additive which includes a material that enhances dielectric permittivity and/or reduces conductivity under conditions effective to produce an ink composition having a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60.

  4. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    devices, such as liquid crystal displays, light emitting diodes, solar cells and touch panels [1 diodes [21­23] and solar cells [24, 25], and have attracted significant interest. However, their pe of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated. (Some figures

  5. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  6. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  7. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  8. Are polar liquids less simple?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fragiadakis; C. M. Roland

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong correlation between equilibrium fluctuations of the potential energy, U, and the virial, W, is a characteristic of a liquid that implies the presence of certain dynamic properties, such as density scaling of the relaxation times and isochronal superpositioning of the relaxation function. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations (mds) on methanol and two variations, lacking hydrogen bonds and a dipole moment, to assess the connection between the correlation of U and W and these dynamic properties. We show, in accord with prior results of others [T.S. Ingebrigtsen, T.B. Schroder, J.C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. X 2, 011011 (2012).], that simple van der Waals liquids exhibit both strong correlations and the expected dynamic behavior. However, for polar liquids this correspondence breaks down - weaker correlation between U and W is not associated with worse conformance to density scaling or isochronal superpositioning. The reason for this is that strong correlation between U and W only requires their proportionality, whereas the expected dynamic behavior depends primarily on constancy of the proportionality constant for all state points. For hydrogen-bonded liquids, neither strong correlation nor adherence to the dynamic properties is observed; however, this nonconformance is not directly related to the concentration of hydrogen bonds, but rather to the greater deviation of the intermolecular potential from an inverse power law (IPL). Only (hypothetical) liquids having interactions governed strictly by an IPL are perfectly correlating and exhibit the consequent dynamic properties over all thermodynamic conditions.

  9. Holographic conductivity of zero temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature.

  10. Liquid Fuels Market Module

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting UsefulLiquefied

  11. HV in Noble Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonic EngineHIV and evolutionSite H-Area Tankin Noble

  12. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: electronic conducting transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronic conducting transition metal oxides Joint Hire Increases Materials Science Collaboration for Sandia, UNM On September 16, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory,...

  14. Conducting polymer actuator enhancement through microstructuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroactive conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophenes are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanisms in these materials are based on the diffusion ...

  15. Fabrication and characterization of conducting polymer microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible microwires fabricated from conducting polymers have a wide range of potential applications, including smart textiles that incorporate sensing, actuation, and data processing. The development of garments that ...

  16. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Payzant, Edward A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Speakman, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Greenblatt, Martha (Highland Park, NJ)

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  17. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Electronically Conductive Polymer Nanostructures,” Acc.et al. , “Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for3. Y. Berdichevsky, Y. -H. Lo, “Polymer Microvalve Based on

  18. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industry Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: china.lbl.govsiteschina.lbl.govfilesLBNL-3991E.Industrial%20Energy Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

  19. EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act EPA -- Addressing Children's Health...

  20. ,"Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,Liquids

  1. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  2. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  3. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVolpi, Alexander (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  4. New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New airport liquid analysis system New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque International Sunport A new tool that distinguishes potential-threat liquids...

  5. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

  6. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Several Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area have tested positive for Francisella tularensis and there is a need to determine whether natural occurring Francisella-related microorganism(s) may be responsible for these observed positive reactions. The collection, culturing and characterization of Francisella-related natural microorganisms will provide the knowledge base to improve the future selectivity of Biowatch monitoring for Francisella. The aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction system (ALPES) is a high-efficiency, dual mechanism collection system that utilizes a liquid collection medium for capture of airborne microorganisms. Since the viability of microorganisms is preserved better in liquid medium than on air filters, this project was undertaken to determine whether Francisella philomiragia and Francisella tularensis LVS maintain acceptable viability in the continuous liquid recirculation, high direct current voltage and residual ozone concentrations which occur during ALPES operation. Throughout a series of preliminary trial runs with representative gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, several design modifications and improvements to the ALPES optimized liquid handling, electrical stability, sampling and overall performance for biological sampling. Initial testing with Francisella philomiragia showed viability was preserved better in PBS buffer than HBSS buffer. Trial runs at starting cell concentrations of 1.8 x 10{sup 6} and 2.5 x 10{sup 4} CFU/L showed less than a 1-log decrease in viability for F. philomiragia after 24 h in the ALPES. Francisella tularensis LVS (live vaccine strain) was used as a surrogate for virulent F. tularensis in ALPES trial runs conducted at starting cell concentrations of 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/L. F. tularensis LVS was slow-growing and required highly selective growth media to prevent overgrowth by collected airborne microorganisms. In addition, one ALPES unit intake was HEPA filtered during the final trial runs with F. tularensis LVS to further reduce the levels of microbial background. Results from trials with F. tularensis LVS showed about a 1-log loss decrease in CFUs after 24 h, but maintained final cell concentrations in the range of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} CFU/L. These results indicate that the ALPES maintains acceptable viability of Francisella sp. in PBS buffer for up to 24 h and is a promising technology for the collection of viable airborne Francisella or Francisella-related cultures which may be observed at Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area and elsewhere.

  7. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  8. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  9. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  10. NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . For the purposes of this Code, the term "University Official" is inclusive of "Faculty Member" as defined in IV 1530 1 NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct APPROVED: August 27, 1970; Revised June 14, 2012 I. BASIS AND RATIONALE FOR A CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT Old Dominion University

  11. The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction Isaac Zafrany1 1 Technical Support Avant modeling and simulation of PWM converters was extended to include conduction losses. The method covers losses due to the inductor's resistance and due to the voltage drops across the switch and the diode

  12. Carbon dioxide separation through supported ionic liquids membranes in polymeric matrixes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As compared to other gas separation techniques, membranes have several advantages which can include low capital cost, relatively low energy usage and scalability. While it could be possible to synthesize the ideal polymer for membrane separation of carbon dioxide from fuel gas, it would be very intensive in terms of money and time. Supported liquid membranes allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties. Ionic liquids, which can be useful in capturing CO2 from fuel gas because they posses high CO2 solubility in the ionic liquid relative to H2, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane. Ionic liquids are not susceptible to evaporation due to their negligible vapor pressure and thus eliminate the main problem typically seen with supported liquid membranes. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, the ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized at the University of Notre Dame, incorporated into a polymeric matrix, and tested at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Initial results have been very promising with calculated CO2 permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in CO2/H2 selectivity over the unmodified polymer at 37 oC along with promising results at elevated temperatures. In addition to performance, the study included examining the choice of polymeric supports on performance and membrane stability in more realistic operating conditions. Also included in this study was an evaluation of novel approaches to incorporate the ionic liquid into polymer matrices to optimize the performance and stability of the membranes.

  13. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  14. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  15. Graphene terahertz modulators by ionic liquid gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yang; Qiu, Xuepeng; Liu, Jingbo; Deorani, Praveen; Banerjee, Karan; Son, Jaesung; Chen, Yuanfu; Chia, Elbert E M; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene based THz modulators are promising due to the conical band structure and high carrier mobility of graphene. Here, we tune the Fermi level of graphene via electrical gating with the help of ionic liquid to control the THz transmittance. It is found that, in the THz range, both the absorbance and reflectance of the device increase proportionately to the available density of states due to intraband transitions. Compact, stable, and repeatable THz transmittance modulation up to 93% (or 99%) for a single (or stacked) device has been demonstrated in a broad frequency range from 0.1 to 2.5 THz, with an applied voltage of only 3 V at room temperature.

  16. Effective thermal conductivity measurements relevant to deep borehole nuclear waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh, Samina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a number of materials (particle beds, and fluids) proposed for use in and around canisters for disposal of high level nuclear waste in deep ...

  17. Numerical study of liquid metal film flows in a varying spanwise magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    coordinate may lead to large difference of flow behavior, and an increase in back wall electrical conductance design concept being proposed by Nelson[2] in the APEX project is to use large drain duct that does dual services as a liquid drain and particle pumping port. The flow must go through a very strong toroidal

  18. Liquid RF Antennas, Electronics and Sensors: A Modeling Challenge Anya Traille and Manos M. Tentzeris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    of metal [3]. While metallic antennas are quite effective in the air, they exhibit a sharp dielectric], while inkjet-printable batteries require the deposition of semi-liquid conductive gels. Plus, many efficiency. A conventional metal antenna placed flush into human skin will induce a surface wave within

  19. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  20. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  1. Work at FNAL to achieve long electron drift lifetime in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, D.; Jaskierny, W.; Kendziora, C.; Krider, J.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note records some of the work done between July 2005 and July 2006 to achieve long (many milliseconds) electron drift lifetimes in liquid argon at Fermilab. The work is part of a process to develop some experience at Fermilab with the technology required to construct a large liquid argon TPC. This technology has been largely developed by the ICARUS collaboration in Europe and this process can be seen as technology transfer. The capability to produce liquid argon in which electrons have drift lifetimes of several milliseconds is crucial to a successful device. Liquid argon calorimeters have been successfully operated at Fermilab; their electro-negative contaminants are at the level of 10{sup -7} while the TPC we are considering requires a contamination level at the level of 10{sup -11}, tens of parts per trillion (ppt). As well as demonstrating the ability to produce liquid argon at this level of purity, the work is part of a program to test the effect on the electron drift time of candidate materials for the construction of a TPC in liquid argon.

  2. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  3. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  4. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  5. ELECTRONS ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, David Kay

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert (Ph. D.ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert Materialsthe potential well near a helium surface, The charge density

  6. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  7. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, M. T. (Michael T.); Edgemon, G. L. (Glenn L.); Mickalonis, J. I. (John I.); Mizia, R. E. (Ronald E.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  8. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  9. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  10. Plasma/liquid metal interactions during tokamak operation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, A.; Allain, J. P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I.; Energy Technology

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin. Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

  11. Plasma/Liquid-Metal Interactions During Tokamak Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, A.; Allain, J.P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin.Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

  12. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  13. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

  14. Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Bakai

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

  15. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

  16. Cooperative motions in supercooled liquids and glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Jacob D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Heat capacity and entropy of an equilibrium liquid fromliquids should correlate inversely with the con?gurational heat capacity,

  17. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  18. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearAdditionsLiquids Production (Million

  19. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  20. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  1. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  2. Response functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    speci¿c heat capacity CP and the isothermal compressibility KT . We use two different methods: (i) fromResponse functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water Erik Lascaris , T. A, and for four different system sizes, N = 63, 73, 83, and 93. We locate the liquid-liquid phase transition line

  3. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    compressibility KT and the isobaric heat capacity CP . In the LLCP hypothesis, the density anomalies of waterErasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral, Sapienza, Universit´a di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185, Roma, Italy. EFFECTS OF THE LIQUID-LIQUID

  4. Characterization of macro-length conducting polymers and the development of a conducting polymer rotary motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bryan D. (Bryan David), 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a subset of materials within the electroactive polymer class that exhibit active mechanical deformations. These deformations induce stresses and strains that allow for conducting polymers to be used ...

  5. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  6. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social Impacts Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels DOE LDV Workshop 7-26-10 Mike Ramage and Jim

  7. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated carbon?to?liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub?bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal?Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat?camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger?scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

  8. ,"Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids, ExpectedLiquidsLiquids

  9. ,"Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,Liquids LeaseCoalbedLiquids

  10. ,"Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquids Lease

  11. ,"Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquids LeasePlant

  12. ,"Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquids

  13. ,"Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids,LiquidsLiquidsPlant

  14. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Steady Heat Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of the material. In the limiting case where x0, the equation above reduces to the differential form: W dx dT k is the only energy interaction; the energy balance for the wall can be expressed: dt dE QQ wall outin). Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity k [W/mK] is a measure of a material's ability to conduct heat

  16. Modeling tensorial conductivity of particle suspension networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler Olsen; Ken Kamrin

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant microstructural anisotropy is known to develop during shearing flow of attractive particle suspensions. These suspensions, and their capacity to form conductive networks, play a key role in flow-battery technology, among other applications. Herein, we present and test an analytical model for the tensorial conductivity of attractive particle suspensions. The model utilizes the mean fabric of the network to characterize the structure, and the relationship to the conductivity is inspired by a lattice argument. We test the accuracy of our model against a large number of computer-generated suspension networks, based on multiple in-house generation protocols, giving rise to particle networks that emulate the physical system. The model is shown to adequately capture the tensorial conductivity, both in terms of its invariants and its mean directionality.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandesteeg, Nathan A. (Nathan Alan)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are known to mechanically respond to electrochemical stimuli and have been utilized as linear actuators. To date, the most successful mechanism for actuation is ionic ingress and egress, though mechanisms ...

  18. November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    1 November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents #12;2 Agenda 1. Basics of copyright 2. Necessary information for citing materials 3. Citation Manager #12;1.Basics of copyright 3 #12;Definitions

  19. Large displacement fast conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a promising class of electroactive materials that undergo volumetric changes under applied potentials, which make them particularly useful for many actuation applications. Polypyrrole , is one of ...

  20. Electrical conductivity of segregated network polymer nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yeon Seok

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    . The composites made using the emulsion with higher modulus show lower percolation threshold and higher conductivity. Higher modulus causes tighter packing of carbon black between the polymer particles. When the drying temperature was increased to 80°C...

  1. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis and characterization of conducting copolymer nanofibrils of pyrrolepolypyrrole synthesis was 0.1 M pyrrole monomer dissolved insynthesis Polypyrrole was electropolymerized from a solution of 0.1 M pyrrole (

  2. Development and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanism of these materials depends upon the motion of ions in and out ...

  3. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 10:17am Addthis Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a...

  4. Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzel, Tamar

    We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

  5. Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduce kids to liquid nitrogen. Explain that it is a liquid and is very cold (kids will be excited

  6. Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing

    2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model.

  7. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  8. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  9. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  10. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A. (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. Effect of an organic molecular coating on control over the conductance of carbon nanotube channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrinetskiy, I. I.; Emelianov, A. V.; Nevolin, V. K., E-mail: vkn@miee.ru; Romashkin, A. V. [National Research University “Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology” (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the coating of carbon nanotubes with molecules with a constant dipole moment changes the conductance of the tubes due to a variation in the structure of energy levels that participate in charge transport. The I–V characteristics of the investigated structures exhibit significant dependence of the channel conductance on the gate potential. The observed memory effect of conductance level can be explained by the rearrangement of polar groups and molecules as a whole in an electric field. The higher the dipole moment per unit length and the weaker the intermolecular interaction, the faster the rearrangement process is.

  12. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

  13. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNG StorageConsumptionPlant Liquids, Expected

  14. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNGCoalbed Methane Proved ReservesLiquids Lease

  15. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNGCoalbed Methane ProvedNetGas,Liquids

  16. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (MillionPriceLiquids

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million

  18. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+Liquids LeaseAnnual",2014

  19. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,Dry NaturalConsumptionLiquids Lease

  20. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,DryPlant Liquids, Expected Future

  1. Air-Stable, High-Conduction Solid Electrolytes of Arsenic-Substituted Li4SnS4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolytes show promise for enabling high-energy secondary battery chemistries and solving safety issues associated with conventional lithium batteries. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and outstanding chemical stability in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of solid electrolytes. Herein we report the design of aliovalent substitution of Li4SnS4 to achieve high conduction and excellent air stability based on the hard and soft acids and bases theory. The composition of Li3.833Sn0.833As 0.166S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.39 mS/cm 1 at 25 C. Considering the high Li+ transference number, this phase conducts Li+ as well as carbonate-based liquid electrolytes. This research also addresses the compatibility of the sulfide-based solid electrolytes through chemical passivation.

  2. TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

  3. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  4. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting ceramic membranes for hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Calcar, Pamela (Superior, CO); Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to mixed phase materials for the preparation of catalytic membranes which exhibit ionic and electronic conduction and which exhibit improved mechanical strength compared to single phase ionic and electronic conducting materials. The mixed phase materials are useful for forming gas impermeable membranes either as dense ceramic membranes or as dense thin films coated onto porous substrates. The membranes and materials of this invention are useful in catalytic membrane reactors in a variety of applications including synthesis gas production. One or more crystalline second phases are present in the mixed phase material at a level sufficient to enhance the mechanical strength of the mixture to provide membranes for practical application in CMRs.

  5. Intersecting Philosophies: A Qualitative Study of Student Conduct Administrators and Their Decision Making Utilizing the Concepts of Justice and Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Jennifer

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , and federal laws and their impact on the institution. Student conduct administrators (SCA) are charged by colleges and universities to make decisions about whether students have violated university rules and policies, which are sometimes simultaneously... range in position level from a Dean of Students to an entry-level SCA. The report is read and evaluated to determine whether there may have been a violation of the student code of conduct. Based on the conduct process at the institution, the SCA may...

  6. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey et al. [Langmuir, 22, 4315 (2006)] and Leach et al. [Chaos, 15, 047506 (2005)] show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study [J. Fluid Mech., 631, 255 (2009)] which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  7. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore »field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  9. Electron Liquids in Semiconductor Quantum Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aron Pinczuk

    2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The groups led by Stormer and Pinczuk have focused this project on goals that seek the elucidation of novel many-particle effects that emerge in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) as the result from fundamental quantum interactions. This experimental research is conducted under extreme conditions of temperature and magnetic field. From the materials point of view, the ultra-high mobility systems in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum structures continue to be at the forefront of this research. The newcomer materials are based on graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. The graphene research is attracting enormous attention from many communities involved in condensed matter research. The investigated many-particle phenomena include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, composite fermions, and Dirac fermions, and a diverse group of electron solid and liquid crystal phases. The Stormer group performed magneto-transport experiments and far-infrared spectroscopy, while the Pinczuk group explores manifestations of such phases in optical spectra.

  10. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  11. Duality of the Interfacial Thermal Conductance in Graphene-based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying [Clemson University] [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Bao [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductance of graphene-matrix interfaces plays a key role in controlling the thermal transport properties of graphene-based nanocomposites. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the interfacial thermal conductance depends strongly on the mode of heat transfer at the graphene-matrix interfaces: if heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and immediately leaves the graphene through the other side, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(across), is large; if heat enters graphene from both sides of its basal plane and leaves the graphene at a position far away on its basal plane, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(non-across), is small. For a single-layer graphene immersed in liquid octane, G(across) is ~150 MW/m2K while Gnon-across is ~5 MW/m2K. G(across) decreases with increasing multi-layer graphene thickness (i.e., number of layers in graphene) and approaches an asymptotic value of 100 MW/m2K for 7-layer graphenes. G(non-across) increases only marginally as the graphene sheet thickness increases. Such a duality of the interface thermal conductance for different probing methods and its dependence on graphene sheet thickness can be traced ultimately to the unique physical and chemical structure of graphene materials. The ramifications of these results in areas such as experimental measurement of thermal conductivity of graphene and the design of graphene-based thermal nanocomposites are discussed.

  12. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  13. Plasma-Surface Interactions on Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Bastasz; W. Eckstein

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid plasma-facing surfaces have been suggested as an option for advanced fusion devices, particularly in regions where solid materials may not survive over long operating periods. Because liquid surfaces can be replenished, they offer the possibility of tolerating intense particle bombardment and of recovering from off-normal events. As a preliminary step in understanding the nature of plasma-surface interactions on liquids, the authors consider some of the surface processes occurring in liquids undergoing irradiation by energetic particles. These include (1) sputtering, (2) segregation of liquid component species and impurities, (3) evaporation, and (4) trapping and release of incident particles. Aspects of these processes are examined for several candidate liquids, which represent three types of low-Z liquids: pure metals (Li), metallic alloys (Sn-Li), and compound insulators (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}).

  14. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  15. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  16. Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

  17. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, L.K. Jr. (comp.)

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Guaranteed Verification of Finite Element Solutions of Heat Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Delin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering iii ABSTRACT Guaranteed Verification of Finite Element Solutions of Heat Conduction. (May 2011) Delin Wang, B.E., Qingdao University of Science & Technology, China; M.S., Jilin University, China; M.E., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory... level and ? ky kx is the characteristic thickness of the boundary layer. . . . . 37 3.5 Model problem with interface layer. The relative value of the energy norm of the error ErelU = ||eSp?h ||U / ||uEX||U? 100% versus #15; for n = 1, 2, 3...

  19. LANL Conducts Watusi Experiment | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTubahq.na.gov OfficeAdministration Field Officerelocates||01-17Conducts

  20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a five-year (1997-2002) grant (Mohan and Shoham, DE-FG26-97BC15024, 1997) to The University of Tulsa, to develop compact multiphase separation components for 3-phase flow. The research activities of this project have been conducted through cost sharing by the member companies of the Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) research consortium and the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology (OCAST). As part of this project, several individual compact separation components have been developed for onshore and offshore applications. These include gas-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLCC{copyright}), liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (LLCC{copyright}), and the gas-liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLLCC{copyright}). A detailed study has also been completed for the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones (LLHC). Appropriate control strategies have been developed for proper operation of the GLCC{copyright} and LLCC{copyright}. Testing of GLCC{copyright} at high pressure and real crude conditions for field applications is also completed. Limited studies have been conducted on flow conditioning devices to be used upstream of the compact separators for performance improvement. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the 5-year project period, October 1, 1997-March 31, 2003 (including the no-cost extended period of 6 months). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the 5-year budget periods. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section, followed by relevant references. The publications resulting from this study in the form of MS Theses, Ph.D. Dissertation, Journal Papers and Conference Presentations are provided at the end of this report.

  1. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  2. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyan Li; Shengfu Mei; Lei Wang; Yunxia Gao; Jing Liu

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Ordered Molecular Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W Evans; J Fish; P Keblinski

    2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate thermal transport characteristics of water with various degree of orientational and translational order induced by the application of an electric field. We observe that orientational ordering of the water dipole moments has a minor effect on the thermal conductivity. However, electric-field induced crystallization and associated translational order results in approximately a 3-fold increase of thermal conductivity with respect to the base water, i.e., to values comparable with those characterizing ice crystal structures.

  4. Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

  5. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  6. New type of thermoelectric conversion of energy by semiconducting liquid anisotropic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey I. Trashkeev; Alexey N. Kudryavtsev

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes preliminary investigations of a new effect in conducting anisotropic liquids, which leads to thermoelectric conversion of energy. Nematic liquid crystals with semiconducting dopes are used. A thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 0.2 is obtained in experiments. The effect can be explained by assuming that the thermocurrent in semiconducting nematics, in contrast to the Seebeck effect, is a nonlinear function of the temperature gradient and of the temperature itself. Though the discovered effect has to be further investigated, the data obtained suggest that it can be effectively used in alternative energy engineering.

  7. Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink. 5 figs.

  8. Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink.

  9. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source guidelines for the conduct of operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the quality and uniformity of operations at the Department of Energy`s facilities, the DOE issued Order 5480.19 ``Conduct of Operations Requirements at DOE facilities.`` This order recognizes that the success of a facilities mission critically depends upon a high level of performance by its personnel and equipment. This performance can be severely impaired if the facility`s Conduct of Operations pays inadequate attention to issues of organization, safety, health, and the environment. These guidelines are Brookhaven National Laboratory`s and the National Synchrotron Light Source`s acknowledgement of the principles of Conduct of Operations and the response to DOE Order 5480.19. These guidelines cover the following areas: (1) operations organization and administration; (2) shift routines and operating practices; (3) control area activities; (4) communications; (5) control of on-shift training; (6) investigation of abnormal events; (7) notifications; (8) control of equipment and system studies; (9) lockouts and tagouts; (10) independent verification; (11) log-keeping; (12) operations turnover; (13) operations aspects of facility process control (14) required reading; (15) timely orders to operators; (16) operations procedures; (17) operator aid posting; and (18) equipment sizing and labeling.

  11. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  12. Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1990-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    "To provide requirements and guidelines for Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to use in developing directives, plans, and/or procedures relating to the conduct of operations at DOE facilities. The implementation of these requirements and guidelines should result in improved quality and uniformity of operations. Change 2, 10-23-2001. Canceled by DOE O 422.1.

  13. Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University What principles underpin our behaviour of Utrecht University. The Code describes the values that govern the way people work and study for sanctions. How is Utrecht University different from other universities? What do we wish to achieve? MISSION

  14. How to Conduct an Energy Efficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biles, J. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how to organize a team of specialists in order to conduct an energy efficiency study in a totally unfamiliar plant. In-plant data gathering techniques are presented as well as methods for obtaining ideas and information from...

  15. Faculty and Staff Commute Report Conducted by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Faculty and Staff Commute Report July 2008 Conducted by #12;Executive Summary The price of gasoline at Austin is $91.35 per month. With no relief in sight to rising gasoline prices, employees are increasingly there was no correlation between average work commute and salary, considering the price of gas, getting to work can

  16. Heat conductivity of a pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

  17. Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1 James F. Palmer 2/ 1/ Submitted to the National of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Abstract: This paper describes a procedure for system- atically inventorying- tion and description of each inventoried scene are recorded on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

  18. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  19. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  20. Fig. 1 A 1 2 Conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    were direct electrical conductivity measurements with monolithic microscopic four-point probes and four. The probe spacing (a side of the square) was 60 µm. Experimental data are fitted by a function described of monolithic MFPP measurements with 8-µm spacing probes (A) on a step-bunching region and (B) a step-free re