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1

Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids and lithium batterymaterials  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion insertion into electrode materials is commonly used in rechargeable battery technology. The insertion implies changes in both the crystal structure and the electronic structure of the electrode material. Side-reactions may occur on the surface of the electrode which is exposed to the electrolyte and form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The understanding of these processes is of great importance for improving battery performance. The chemical and physical properties of water and alcohols are complicated by the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Various experimental techniques have been used to study geometrical structures and different models have been proposed to view the details of how these liquids are geometrically organized by hydrogen bonding. However, very little is known about the electronic structure of these liquids, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools. In this thesis examples of studies of lithium battery electrodes and liquid systems using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy will be presented. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been used to accomplish selective excitation, in terms of energy and polarization. The electronic structure of graphite electrodes has been studied, before and after lithium intercalation. Changes in the electronic structure upon lithiation due to transfer of electrons into the graphite {pi}-bands have been observed. Transfer of electrons in to the 3d states of transition metal oxides upon lithiation have been studied, through low energy excitations as dd- and charge transfer-excitations. A SEI was detected on cycled graphite electrodes. By the use of selective excitation different carbon sites were probed in the SEI. The local electronic structure of water, methanol and mixtures of the two have been examined using a special liquid cell, to separate the liquid from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Results from the study of liquid water showed a strong influence on the 3a1 molecular orbital and orbital mixing between water molecules upon hydrogen bonding. Apart from the four-hydrogen-bonding structure in water, a structure where one hydrogen bond is broken could be separated and identified. The soft x-ray emission study of methanol showed the existence of ring and chain formations in the liquid phase and the dominating structures are formed of 6 and 8 molecules. Upon mixing of the two liquids, a segregation at the molecular level was found and the formation of new structures, which could explain the unexpected low increase of the entropy.

Augustsson, Andreas

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

4

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

5

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

6

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

7

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

8

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

9

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by X-RayAbsorption and Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-resolution x-ray absorption and emission spectra ofliquid water exhibit a strong isotope effect. Further, the emissionspectra show a splitting of the 1b1 emission line, a weak temperatureeffect, and a pronounced excitation-energy dependence. They can bedescribed as a superposition of two independent contributions. Bycomparing with gasphase, ice, and NaOH/NaOD, we propose that the twocomponents are governed by the initial state hydrogen bondingconfiguration and ultrafast dissociation on the time scale of the O 1score hole decay.

Fuchs, O.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Zubavichus, Y.; Bar, M.; Maier, F.; Denlinger, J.D.; Heske, C.; Grunze,M.; Umbach, E.

2007-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

10

Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical.

Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

2008-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

11

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

A setup for resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources  

SciTech Connect

We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak fluences which currently sets a limit to maximum attainable count rate at FELs. The setup presented here opens up new possibilities to study the structure and dynamics in liquids.

Kunnus, Kristjan; Schreck, Simon; Foehlisch, Alexander [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Rajkovic, Ivan; Quevedo, Wilson; Gruebel, Sebastian; Scholz, Mirko [IFG Structural Dynamics of (Bio)chemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37070 Goettingen (Germany); Eckert, Sebastian; Beye, Martin; Suljoti, Edlira; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kalus, Christian [Abteilung Betrieb Beschleuniger BESSYII, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Zhang, Wenkai; Hartsock, Robert W.; Gaffney, Kelly J. [PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kennedy, Brian [MAX-lab, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); and others

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reply to Comment on"Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by X-ray Absorption and Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Ref. [1], we present and analyze experimental high resolution x-ray emission spectra (XES) of liquid water which exhibit a splitting of the 1b1 line into two components. We also suggest a qualitative model to explain the experimental spectra which, even though tentative (as clearly stated in the summary of Ref. [1]), is able to explain ALL available experimental data. In the preceding Comment, Pettersson et al. [3]claim that a spectrum with two similarly sharp 1b1 features both from a dissociated product (d2) and from the intact molecule (d1) would be"unphysical and unsubstantiated" since"the path connecting initial and final structure" is not taken into account. In the meantime, we have collected new data [2], which further support and strengthen our model.

Heske, C.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Zubavichus, Y.; Bar, M.; Maier, F.; Denlinger, J. D.; Fuchs, O.; Grunze, M.; Umbach, E.

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the"map" approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Techniques to study the electronic structure of liquids are rare. Most recently, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been shown to be an extremely versatile spectroscopy to study both occupied and unoccupied electronic states for liquids in thermodynamic equilibrium. However, XES requires high-brilliance soft x-ray synchrotron radiation and poses significant technical challenges to maintain a liquid sample in an ultra-high vacuum environment. Our group has therefore developed and constructed a novel experimental setup for the study of liquids, with the long-term goal of investigating the electronic structure of biological systems in aqueous environments. We have developed a flow-through liquid cell in which the liquid is separated from vacuum by a thin Si3N4 or SiC window and which allows a precise control of temperature. This approach has significant advantages compared to static liquids cells used in the past. Furthermore, we have designed a dedicated high-transmission, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer. The high transmission makes it possible to measure complete resonant XES"maps" in less than an hour, giving unprecedented detailed insight into the electronic structure of the investigated sample. Using this new equipment we have investigated the electronic structure of liquid water. Furthermore, our XES spectra and maps give information about ultra-fast dissociation on the timescale of the O 1s core hole lifetime, which is strongly affected by the initial state hydrogen bonding configuration.

Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Zubavichus, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Grunze, M.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

16

Inelastic x-ray scattering study of supercooled liquid and solid silicon.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique is one of the powerful methods for the study of dynamical properties of a given system even in extreme conditions like high temperature and high pressure. At the same time, experimental studies of physical and structural properties of liquids have multiplied in recent years with the advent of containerless techniques. These methods reduce the possibility of contamination of specimens and remove external nucleation sites. Therefore, by combining the IXS method with the levitation method, the dynamical properties of stable liquids up to 3000 K and supercooled phase of liquids can be studied. Silicon is a basic material in the semiconductor industry and has been the subject of a large amount of experimental and theoretical studies over a long time. In the crystalline phase at ambient conditions, silicon is a diamond-structured semiconductor, but upon melting it undergoes a semiconductor-to-metal transition accompanied by significant changes in the structure and density. The coordination number increases from 4 in the solid to about 6.5 in the liquid, and liquid density is increased by about 10%. The principal purpose of the present study was to determine silicon's elastic modulus from the measurement of averaged sound speed determined from IXS. The experiments were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 3-ID with a high-resolution monochromator consisting of two nested channel-cut crystals and four backscattering analyzer setups in the horizontal scattering plane 6 m from the sample. The requirements for very high energy resolution and the basic principles of such instrumentation are discussed elsewhere as referenced. The levitation apparatus was enclosed in a bell jar specially designed for backscattering geometry with a separation of 10 cm between the sample and the detector. Silicon spheres of 2 to 3 mm in diameter were suspended in an argon gas jet and heated with a 270 W CO{sub 2} laser beam. Temperatures were measured during the experiment with a pyrometer whose operating wavelength was 0.65 {micro}m. The temperature gradient on the sample was estimated to be about +/- 20 K. The energy scans were taken for supercooled-liquid and hot-solid silicon at temperature T=1620 K. Sound velocities were determined from the initial slope of the excitation frequencies. Then, the longitudinal moduli for hotsolid and supercooled-liquid silicon were calculated from L = v{sub L}{sup 2}{rho} using measured velocities. In these calculations, density values were taken from Ohsaka et al. as referenced. Results are presented in Table 1. together with room-temperature, hot-solid single-crystal measurements, and stable-liquid values. Room-temperature longitudinal moduli were calculated from the values of the single-crystal elastic constants. They were measured between 300 K and 870 K. Since there was no phase transition up to temperature 1620 K for hot-solid silicon, it is reasonable to extrapolate these data to 1620 K in order to compare to our results for the hot solid. A significant difference (about 20%) is observed between our measurement and the extrapolated single-crystal value of the longitudinal modulus for solid silicon at temperature 1620K. This reduction of the longitudinal modulus may be an indication of the pre-melting. The factor of more than two change in the elastic modulus between supercooled liquid and hot solid at the same temperature can be attributed to the semiconductor-to-metal transition in silicon associated with melting. Also, the longitudinal modulus of the stable liquid is reported in Table 1. About a 10% difference is observed between the modulus of the supercooled and the stable liquid silicon. This can be interpreted as silicon still maintaining metallic properties with a significant increase in the degree of the directional bonding upon supercooling, as found in the x-ray diffraction and ab initio MD studies. All these results are discussed in reference.

Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Kodituwakku, C.N.; Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; X-Ray Science Division; Western Michigan Univ.; Purdue Univ.; CRMD-CNRS; CRMHT-CNRS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Microscopic linear liquid streams in vacuum: Injection of solvated biological samples into X-ray free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic linear liquid free-streams offer a means of gently delivering biological samples into a probe beam in vacuum while maintaining the sample species in a fully solvated state. By employing gas dynamic forces to form the microscopic liquid stream (as opposed to a conventional solid-walled convergent nozzle), liquid free-streams down to 300 nm diameter have been generated. Such 'Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzles' (GDVN) are ideally suited to injecting complex biological species into an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) to determine the structure of the biological species via Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX). GDVN injector technology developed for this purpose is described.

Doak, R. B.; DePonte, D. P.; Nelson, G.; Camacho-Alanis, F.; Ros, A.; Spence, J. C. H.; Weierstall, U. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

19

Global molecular structure and interfaces : refining an RNA : RNA complex structure using solution x-ray scattering data.  

SciTech Connect

Determining the global architecture of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding biomacromolecular machines. Defining interfaces among components and the global structure of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding the biological interactions on a molecular level. We demonstrate that solution X-ray scattering data can be used to precisely determine intermolecular interfaces from just the subunit structures, in the complete absence of intermolecular NMR restraints using an example of a 30 kDa RNA-RNA complex. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) between structures that are determined using the scattering data and using intermolecular distance restraints is about 0.4 {angstrom}. Further, we refined the global structure of the complex using scattering data as a global restraint. The rmsd in backbone structures that are determined with and without the scattering data refinement is about 3.2 {angstrom}, suggesting the impact of the refinement to the overall structure. Information about the 'global correctness' of solution RNA structures could not be practically obtained otherwise, due to the molecular nature of the RNA molecules, but could only be defined by the scattering data together by residual dipolar couplings. This method provides a powerful new approach for refining global structures of macromolecular complexes whose subunits are elongated.

Zuo, X.; Wang, J.; Foster, T. R.; Schwieters, C. D.; Tiede, D. M.; Butcher, S. E.; Wang, Y.-X.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; NCI-Frederick; Univ. of Wisconin at Madison; NIH

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

20

Dissolution dynamics of the calcite-water interface observed in situ by glancing-incidence X-ray scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Glancing-incidence X-ray scattering measurements made at the National Synchrotron Light Source were used to investigate dissolution dynamics in situ at the calcite-water interface. The relation between calcite saturation state and roughness of the calcite (1014) cleavage surface as a function of time was examined during pH titrations of an initially calcite-saturated solution. Systematic variations in roughness were observed as a function of saturation state as pH was titrated to values below that of calcite saturation. Different steady-state values of roughness were evident at fixed values of {Delta}G{sub r}, and these were correlated with the extent of undersaturation. A significant increase in roughness begins to occur with increasing undersaturation at a {Delta}G{sub r} value of approximately {minus}2.0 kcal/mol. The dissolution rate corresponding to this increase is about 1.5 x 10{sup 7} mmol/cm {center_dot} sec. This increase in roughness is attributed to a transition in the principal rate-determining dissolution mechanism, and is consistent with both powder-reaction studies of dissolution kinetics and single-crystal dissolution studies by atomic force microscopy. These data indicate some important potential applications of GIXS in the study of mineral-water interface geochemistry.

Sturchio, N.C.; Chiarello, R.P.

1995-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

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21

Band alignment of InGaZnO{sub 4}/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Although amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} has intensively been studied for a semiconductor channel material of thin-film transistors in next-generation flat-panel displays, its electronic structure parameters have not been reported. In this work, the electron affinities ({chi}) and the ionization potentials (I{sub p}) of crystalline and amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} (c-IGZO and a-IGZO) were measured using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. First, the {chi} and I{sub p} values of c-IGZO and a-IGZO thin films were estimated by aligning the Zn 2p{sub 3/2} core level energies to a literature value for ZnO, which provided {chi} = 3.90 eV and I{sub p} = 7.58 eV for c-IGZO and 4.31 eV and 7.41 eV for a-IGZO. It was also confirmed that the escape depth of the photoelectrons excited by the photon energy of 5950.2 eV is 3.3 nm for a-IGZO and large enough for directly measuring the interface electronic structure using a-IGZO/c-Si heterojunctions. It provided the valence band offset of {approx}2.3 eV, which agrees well with the above data. The present results substantiate that the a-IGZO/c-Si interface follows well the Schottky-Mott rule.

Lee, Kyeongmi; Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-1, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Yanagi, Hiroshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering Material Science and Technology, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji; Sugiyama, Takeharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [National Institute for Materials Science, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-1, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Phani, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of LAquila, 67040, LAquila (Italy)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Growth sequence and interface formation in the Fe/MgO/Fe(001) tunnel junction analyzed by surface x-ray diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a surface x-ray diffraction study of the interface geometric structure in the Fe/MgO/Fe(001) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). While the lower MgO/Fe(001) interface is characterized by a substoichiometric FeO{sub x} (x=0.6{+-}0.1) layer in agreement with previous studies, growth of Fe on the MgO spacer and the upper Fe/MgO interface structure strongly depends on the preparation method. If 0.4 monolayers of Fe are initially deposited in ambient oxygen atmosphere (p=10{sup -7} mbar) followed by Fe deposition under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, structural coherence across the trilayer junction is observed. In this case, substoichiometric FeO{sub x} layers are present at both Fe/MgO interfaces corresponding to a symmetric MTJ structure. In contrast, lattice registry is not preserved if Fe deposition is carried out solely under UHV conditions. Our results might have important implications for the preparation of magnetic tunnel junctions optimized to achieve giant tunneling-magnetoresistance amplitudes.

Tusche, C.; Meyerheim, H. L.; Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Jedrecy, N. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universites Paris 6 et 7 et CNRS-UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Renaud, G. [CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Tautomerism in liquid 1,2,3-triazole: a combined Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction, Molecular Dynamics and FTIR study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we report a multitechnique (energy-dispersive X-Ray diffraction, computational methods and FT-IR spectroscopy) study of the tautomeric equilibrium of 1,2,3-triazole, one of the few small nitrogen-containing eterocycles liquid at room temperature. The T-2H form (C2v symmetry) is found to be strongly favored in gas and solid phases, whereas the neat liquid gives diffraction patterns that can be interpreted satisfactorily with the structure functions calculated from some molecular dynamics results for both T-2H and T-1H tautomers, although the T-2H form gives a slightly better agreement.

Marco Bellagamba; Luigi Bencivenni; Lorenzo Gontrani; Leonardo Guidoni; Claudia Sadun

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

25

X-Ray Multilayer Database from the LBL Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

An important activity of the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) is research on x-ray mirrors and their use in optical devices to focus and deflect x-ray beams. The two kinds of mirrors most widely used are glancing incidence reflectors and multilayer coatings. The X-Ray Multilayer Database is based on the results of surveys taken at the biennial Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures conferences. It contains measured x-ray reflectances reported for various multilayers. The database is provided as a service to the x-ray and multilayer research communities and is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in multilayer x-ray mirrors. (Specialized Interface)

26

X-ray scattering studies of structure and dynamics of surfaces and interfaces of polymeric liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8-ID at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National8-ID-I at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National

Jiang, Zhang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Applications of High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... data, including concentration profiles from x-ray absorption measurements during ... Dynamic Evolution of Liquid-liquid Phase Separation While Cooling in a

28

Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements of the microstructure of liquid helium mixtures adsorbed in aerogel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to measure the microstructure of isotopic mixtures of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He adsorbed into silica aerogels as a function of temperature and {sup 3}He concentration. The SAXS measurements could be well described by the formation of a nearly pure film of {sup 4}He which separates from the bulk mixture onto the aerogel strands and which thickens with decreasing temperature. Previous observations of a superfluid {sup 3}He-rich phase are consistent with superfluidity existing within this film phase. Observed differences between different density aerogels are explained in terms of the depletion of {sup 4}He from the bulk mixture due to film formation.

Lurio, L. B.; Mulders, N.; Paetkau, M.; Chan, M. H. W.; Mochrie, S. G. J. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, British Columbia V1Y4X8 (Canada); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

X-Ray Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 17, 2009 ... Stress Mapping Analysis by Ray Tracing (SMART): A New Technique ... technique of synchrotron X-ray topography, where a grid made out of ...

30

X-ray Method Shows How Frog Embryos Could Help Thwart Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanocrystals Grow from Liquid Interface Nanocrystals Grow from Liquid Interface Eleventh Arthur H. Compton Award Announced Borland Awarded ACFA-IPAC'13 Prize for Accelerator Science President Obama at the Advanced Photon Source Von Dreele Receives Hanawalt Award APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed X-ray Method Shows How Frog Embryos Could Help Thwart Disease MAY 20, 2013 Bookmark and Share X-ray phase-contrast tomography: Early frog embryo in cellular resolution (left) and cell and tissue motion captured and visualized using flow analysis (right). Image: Alexey Ershov/KIT From R&D Magazine online: An international team of scientists using a new X-ray method recorded the internal structure and cell movement inside a living frog embryo in greater

31

Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Study of an Unusually Large Phase Coexistance in Smectic Liquid-Crystal Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recent discovery of the new smectic-C{sub d6}* (SmC{sub d6}*) phase [S. Wang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 027801 (2010)] also revealed the existence of a noisy region in the temperature window between the SmC{sub d6}* phase and the smectic-C{sub d4}* (SmC{sub d4}*) phase. Characterized by multiple resonant peaks spanning a wide region in Q{sub Z}, the corresponding structure of this temperature window has been a mystery. In this Letter, through a careful resonant x-ray diffraction study and simulations of the diffraction spectra, we show that this region is in fact an unusually large coexistence region of the SmC{sub d6}* phase and the SmC{sub d4}* phase. The structure of the noisy region is found to be a heterogeneous mixture of local SmC{sub d6}* and SmC{sub d4}* orders on the sub-{micro}m scale.

Pan L.; Pindak R.; Barois, P.; Liu, Z.Q.; McCoy, B.K. & Hyang, C.C.

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

32

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Characterization of a chiral phase in an achiral bent-core liquid crystal by polarization studies of resonant x-ray forbidden reflections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The 'forbidden' reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored 'forbidden' reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub A}P{sub A}) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub S}P{sub A}. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.

Ponsinet, V.; Pindak, R.; Barois, P.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.; Huang, C.C.; Wang, S.T.; Baumeister, U. and Weissflog, W.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/ Reservoir...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to:...

35

X-ray generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

Dawson, John M. (Los Angeles, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A study of the solid-liquid interface in cobalt base alloy (Stellite) coatings deposited by fusion welding (TIG)  

SciTech Connect

Microstructural features present at the interface between a weld deposited Stellite 6 hard facing and an austenitic stainless steel substrate are described. Elemental X-ray maps indicate that diffusion of carbon from the liquid Stellite to the austenitic stainless steel takes place along grain boundaries resulting in the formation of chromium carbide 'arms' that penetrate along the austenite grain boundaries in the interfacial region.

Molleda, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Molleda, F.J. [ESAB Iberica (Spain); Mora, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Carrillo, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Mellor, B.G. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

A highly modular beamline electrostatic levitation facility, optimized for in situ high-energy x-ray scattering studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-energy x-ray diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about structural evolution on the atomic length scale, leading to insights into the origin of the nucleation barrier and the processes of supercooling and glass formation. The containerless processing of the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) facility allows coordinated thermophysical and structural studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids to be made in a contamination-free, high-vacuum ({approx}10{sup -8} Torr) environment. To date, the incorporation of electrostatic levitation facilities into synchrotron beamlines has been difficult due to the large footprint of the apparatus and the difficulties associated with its transportation and implementation. Here, we describe a modular levitation facility that is optimized for diffraction studies of high-temperature liquids at high-energy synchrotron beamlines. The modular approach used in the apparatus design allows it to be easily transported and quickly setup. Unlike most previous electrostatic levitation facilities, BESL can be operated by a single user instead of a user team.

Mauro, N.A.; Kelton, K.F. (WU)

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

39

Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

40

X-ray microtomography  

SciTech Connect

In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

Landis, Eric N., E-mail: landis@maine.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Keane, Denis T., E-mail: dtkeane@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 432/A002, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

42

Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of C60/Copper Phthalocyanine/MoO3 Interfaces: Role of Reduced MoO3 on Energetic Band Alignment and Improved Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interfacial electronic structure of C{sub 60}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin films grown in situ on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates has been studied using synchrotron radiation-excited photoelectron spectroscopy in an attempt to understand the influence of oxide interlayers on the performance of small molecule organic photovoltaic devices. The MoO{sub 3} layer on ITO is found to significantly increase the work function of the substrate and induces large interface dipoles and band bending at the CuPc/MoO{sub 3} interface. The large band bending confirms the formation of an internal potential that assists hole extraction from the CuPc layer to the electrode. The electronic structure of the MoO{sub 3} layer on ITO was also examined using various soft X-ray spectroscopies to probe the conductive nature of the MoO{sub 3} thin film.

S Cho; L Piper; A DeMasi; A Preston; K Smith; K Chauhan; R Hatton; T Jones

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect

The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

X-ray Security Screening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National and International Standards for X-ray Security Screening Applications. Summary: The primary objective of this ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

45

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

46

APS 7-BM Beamline: X-Ray Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Useful Websites Useful Websites X-Ray Interactions with Matter from CRXO at LBNL. Intuitive interface for x-ray transmission and reflectivity for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Data Booklet from LBNL. Slightly outdated in places, but many useful tables of edge energies, fluorescence lines, and crystal lattice spacings. NIST XCOM Database. Powerful database of photoelectric absorption, elastic scattering, and Compton scattering cross-sections for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Server. Maintained by Sergey Stepanov at GMCA at the APS, this website has several powerful calculators for simulating x-ray reflection and diffraction. Software X-Ray Oriented Programs (XOP). This program, written by scientists at the ESRF and APS, is widely used in the synchrotron research community.

47

Scanning x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning x-ray microscope is described including: an x-ray source capable of emitting a beam of x-rays; a collimator positioned to receive the beam of x-rays and to collimate this beam, a focusing cone means to focus the beam of x-rays, directed by the collimator, onto a focal plane, a specimen mount for supporting a specimen in the focal plane to receive the focused beam of x-rays, and x-ray beam scanning means to relatively move the specimen and the focusing cone means and collimator to scan the focused x-ray beam across the specimen. A detector is disposed adjacent the specimen to detect flourescent photons emitted by the specimen upon exposure to the focused beam of x-rays to provide an electrical output representative of this detection. Means are included for displaying and/or recording the information provided by the output from the detector, as are means for providing information to the recording and/or display means representative of the scan rate and position of the focused x-ray beam relative to the specimen whereby the recording and/or display means can correlate the information received to record and/or display quantitive and distributive information as to the quantity and distribution of elements detected in the specimen. Preferably there is provided an x-ray beam modulation means upstream, relative to the direction of emission of the xray beam, of the focusing cone means.

Wang, C.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

X-ray lithography source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Novel Application of X-ray Computed Tomography: Determination of Gas/Liquid Contact Area and Liquid Holdup in Structured Packing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demonstrated that osmotically driven and thermally driven membrane contactor pro- cesses, including forward to membrane fouling. In one of our early investigations, liquids produced during centrifuge dewatering.E. Childress, Removal of natural steroid hormones from wastewater using membrane contactor processes, Environ

Eldridge, R. Bruce

51

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Synchrotron X-ray Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy; (3) variable kinetic energy X-ray ... advanced materials is critical to the development and optimization of products ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

53

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Use of Micro-X-ray Fluorescence in a Scanning Electron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An X-ray gun with focusing capillary fiber optics interfaced with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used for semi-quantitative XRF microanalysis by energy ...

55

X-Ray Interactions with Matter  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented. (Taken from the abstract in OSTI Record 6131765) (Specialized Interface)

Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

56

Investigating the correlation between residual nonwetting phase liquids and pore-scale geometry and topology using synchrotron x-ray tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entrapment of nonwetting phase fluids in unconsolidated porous media systems is strongly dependent on the pore-scale geometry and topology. Synchrotron X-ray tomography allows us to nondestructively obtain high-resolution (on the order of 1-10 micron), three-dimensional images of multiphase porous media systems. Over the past year, a number of multiphase porous media systems have been imaged using the synchrotron X-ray tomography station at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. For each of these systems, we are able to: (1) obtain the physically-representative network structure of the void space including the pore body and throat distribution, coordination number, and aspect ratio; (2) characterize the individual nonwetting phase blobs/ganglia (e.g., volume, sphericity, orientation, surface area); and (3) correlate the porous media and fluid properties. The images, data, and network structure obtained from these experiments provide us with a better understanding of the processes and phenomena associated with the entrapment of nonwetting phase fluids. Results from these experiments will also be extremely useful for researchers interested in interphase mass transfer and those utilizing network models to study the flow of multiphase fluids in porous media systems.

Willson, C.S.; Ham, K.; Thompson, K.A. (LSU)

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

57

Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material that is parallel with the liquid surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on.times. ##EQU00001## where g is the gravitational constant, w is the horizontal width of the liquid, and f is the at least one frequency.

Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA); Clark, Roger F. (Frederick, MD); Kary, Tim (Union Bridge, MD)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray micro-probe. Twelve invited speakers discussed the important scientific applications of these techniques, and also predicted the future scientific directions with the advance of instrumentation and x-ray sources. The workshop was well attended with over fifty registered attendees.

60

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

X-ray Transition Energies Search Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[skip navigation] X-ray Transition Energies Database Main Page Search for X-ray transition energies by element(s), transition ...

62

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

Logan, C.M.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

63

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Compact x-ray source and panel  

SciTech Connect

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

The Role of Surface X-ray Scattering in Electrocatalysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 N. M. Markovi , LBNL and C. A. Lucas, University of Liverpool Ecological and political realities have moved discussions of, and advances in, fuel cell technology into mainstream public awareness. Electrocatalysis, the science of modifying the overall rates of electrochemical reactions so that selectivity, yield and efficiency are maximized, is the work from which those advances spring. Studies in electrocatalysis have resulted in highly selective multicomponent gas mixture sensors, human blood component sensors, new electrocatalysts for oxidation/reduction of inorganic and organic pollutants in air and water, as well as better electrocatalysts for the fuel cell conversion of renewable and fossil fuels to electrical work. Studies of the mechanisms by which these catalysts operate have been advanced through development of in-situ surface x-ray scattering (SXS) techniques. SXS capabilities at SSRL were recently used to investigate the interface structure of an ultrathin COad (adsorbed carbon monoxide) overlayer on platinum. This work has elevated the macroscopic description of the COad state at the solid-liquid interface to a microscopic level and enabled the relation between the reactivity and the interfacial structure of COad/Pt to be understood.

66

[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report details of the coordination environment about Cu(II) in a pure ionic liquid, 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) and in mixtures containing varying amounts of water from 0-100% of the [EMIM]Cl. There are many stages in the ion pairing of the divalent cation, Cu(II) including the contact ion pairing of Cu2+ with multiple Cl- to form various CuCln (2-n) polyanions. Thereis also the subsequent solvation and ion pairing of the polychlorometallate anion with the EMIM+ cation. Using a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations (TDDFT) we are able to follow the detailed structural changes about Cu(II). Ion pair formation is strongly promoted in [EMIM]Cl by the low dielectric constant and by the extensive breakdown of the water hydrogen bond network in [EMIM]Cl/water mixtures. In the [EMIM]Cl solvent the CuCl4 2- species dominates and it’s geometry is quite similar to gas-phase structure. These results are important in understanding catalysis and separation processes involving transition metals in ionic liquid systems.

Li, Guosheng; Camaioni, Donald M.; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Johnson, Timothy J.; Fulton, John L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

67

Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) has emerged as a unique technique allowing the measurement of dynamics in materials on mesoscopic lengthscales. In particular, applications in soft matter physics cover a broad range of topics which include, but are not limited to, nanostructured materials such as colloidal suspensions or polymers, dynamics at liquid surfaces, membranes and interfaces, and the glass or gel transition. One of the most common problems associated with the use of bright X-ray beams with soft materials is beam induced radiation damage, and this is likely to become an even more limiting factor at future synchrotron and free electron laser sources. Flowing the sample during data acquisition is one of the simplest method allowing to limit the radiation damage. In addition to distributing the dose over many different scatterers, the method also enables new functionalities such as time-resolved studies in mixing cells. Here, we further develop an experimental technique that was recently proposed combining XPCS and continuously flowing samples. More specifically, we use a model system to show how the macroscopic advective response to flow and the microscopic dissipative dynamics (diffusion) can be quantified from the X-ray data. The method has many potential applications, e.g. dynamics of glasses and gels under continuous shear/flow, protein aggregations processes, the interplay between dynamics and rheology in complex fluids.

Andrei Fluerasu; Pawel Kwasniewski; Chiara Caronna; Fanny Destremaut; Jean-Baptiste Salmon; Anders Madsen

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

68

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chest x-Rays | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest X-ray B-Reading The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica. The B-reading is considered a special reading because doctors who are certified by NIOSH to perform B-readings use a specific protocol to read and record the findings as developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The ILO's protocol provides rules for systematically examining the x-ray in a step-by-step method and recording certain abnormalities or changes on the chest x-ray that can be attributable to

70

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

X-Ray Diffraction on NIF  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

Eggert, J H; Wark, J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Liquid-liquid interfaces of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers with water, alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The liquid-liquid interface between semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1-(CH2)m-1CH3 and water, protonated alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. A modified version of the OPLS-AA (Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom) force field of Jorgensen et al. has been used to study the interfacial behavior of semifluorinated diblocks. Aqueous interfaces are found to be sharp, with correspondingly large values of the interfacial tension. Due to the reduced hydrophobicity of the protonated block compared to the fluorinated block, hydrogen enhancement is observed at the interface. Water dipoles in the interfacial region are found to be oriented nearly parallel to the liquid-liquid interface. A number of protonated alkanes and perfluorinated alkanes are found to be mutually miscible with the semifluorinated diblocks. For these liquids, interdiffusion follows the expected Fickian behavior, and concentration-dependent diffusivities are determined.

Perahia, Dvora, Dr. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Pierce, Flint (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Tsige, Mesfin (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL); Grest, Gary Stephen, Dr.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material; providing sound energy to the surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on L=(2m-1)v.sub.s/4f, where f is the frequency where the disturbance has an amplitude maximum, v.sub.s is the speed of sound in the material, and m is a positive integer (1, 2, 3, . . . ).

Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA); Clark, Roger F. (Frederick, MD)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, R.B.

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY OF X RAY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NANOMATERIALS – GRAPHENE AND III-V INTERFACES RM Wallace RM Wallace ... Conclusions 29 Page 30. Graphene at a Crossroads ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fast microtomography using bright monochromatic x-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast microtomography system for high-resolution high-speed imaging has been developed using bright monochromatic x-rays at the BL29XU beamline of SPring-8. The shortest scan time for microtomography we attained was 0.25 s in 1.25 {mu}m effective pixel size by combining the bright monochromatic x-rays, a fast rotating sample stage, and a high performance x-ray imaging detector. The feasibility of the tomography system was successfully demonstrated by visualization of rising bubbles in a viscous liquid, an interesting issue in multiphase flow physics. This system also provides a high spatial (a measurable feature size of 300 nm) or a very high temporal (9.8 {mu}s) resolution in radiographs.

Jung, J. W.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. J.; Chang, S.; Pyo, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, N.; Kim, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kohmura, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

X-ray data booklet. Revision  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

Vaughan, D. (ed.)

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

Johnson, Charles C. (Fairfield, OH); Taylor, Larry T. (Blacksburg, VA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

83

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with the International System of measurement ... titled "X-ray transition energies: new approach ... and by NIST's Systems Integration for Manufacturing ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

84

X-ray Line Profile Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic Composite Materials · X-Ray Studies of Structural Effects Induced by Pulsed (30 Tesla), High Magnetic Fields at the Advanced Photon Source ...

85

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST reserves the right to charge for these data in the ... ?/? and the mass energy-absorption coefficient ... The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray...

87

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator  

Technology Development and Commercialization Division One of the best ways to obtain small?size x?ray beams for structural biology research is to ...

88

Microsoft PowerPoint - S05-05_Zapp_Liquid Air Interface.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Studies at SRS Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Studies at SRS EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Philip E. Zapp Savannah River National Laboratory November 17, 2010 SRNL-STI-2010-00695 Print Close 2 Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Studies at SRS SRNL-STI-2010-00695 Introduction Pitting Corrosion in Carbon Steel Waste Tanks Pitting Induced by Dilute Waste Solutions Dilution for feed preparation for vitrification; waste removal Focus: Pitting Susceptibility at Liquid-Air Interface Service Experience Hydroxide Depletion Model Type III tanks under constr. Tank with ventilation & cooling equip. Print Close 3 Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Studies at SRS SRNL-STI-2010-00695 Background Pitting in carbon steel at and above liquid-air interface in dilute wastes ([Nitrate] < 1 M)

89

X?ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X?rays is dependent on the laser power

Syed F. Naeem; Khalid Chouffani; Douglas P. Wells

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Materials Analysis by Soft x-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

92

TransForum v8n1 - New X-ray Technique May Lead to Better Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The liquid breakup of a high-density stream from a fuel injector as imaged with ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging The liquid breakup of a high-density...

93

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

94

Thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces Scott Huxtable, Zhenbin Ge, David G. Cahill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-liquid interfaces: Two approaches · Transient optical absorption of nanoparticles and nanotubes in liquid substrate. #12;Nanotubes in surfactant in water: Transient absorption · Optical absorption depends · Cooling rate (RC time constant) gives interface conductance G = 12 MW m-2 K-1G = 12 MW m K #12;Application

Braun, Paul

95

Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy: A new ``looking glass`` into coal chemical structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the use of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy to spatially map the chemistry of aromatic and aliphatic carbon functionalities in coal to a resolution of less than 0.1 {mu}m. Localized x-ray absorption spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K absorption edge was also used to facilitate analysis of variations in fundamental chemistry at maceral interfaces and within maceral boundaries.

Botto, R.E.; Cody, G.D.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. Here, we introduce an ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray CT method based on electron beam scanning, which achieves volume rates of 500 s{sup -1}. Primary experiments revealed the capability of this method to recover the structure of phase boundaries in gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flows, which undergo three-dimensional structural changes in the millisecond scale.

Bieberle, Martina; Barthel, Frank; Hampel, Uwe [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Menz, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Hans-Georg [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

97

High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In support of these efforts, we also maintain laboratory x-ray sources from 1 keV to 300 keV, energy and intensity calibration facilities, and a vacuum ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

X-ray grid-detector apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

99

World's First Hard X-ray Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCLS is the world's most powerful X-ray laser. Its highly focused beam, which arrives in staccato bursts a few quadrillionths of a second long, allows researchers to probe complex,...

100

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

X-ray image intensifier phosphor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

D' Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Kaonic Atom X?ray Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In kaonic atoms energy displacement and broadening of states result from the strong interaction. The most simple kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium open the possibility to measure this strong interaction induced shift and width by x?ray spectroscopy. In the SIDDHARTA experiment al LNF (Frascati) the DA?NE electron?positron collider delivers nearly mono?energetic negatively charged kaons from ? meson decay. This unique kaon source is used to form kaonic atoms. New high performance x?ray detectors (silicon drift detectors) arranged in an array allow x?ray spectroscopy with high energy resolution combined with timing capability. High precision x?ray measurements like SIDDHARTA at LNF will open the way to study the low energy regime of the strong force in the antikaon?nucleon interaction. The experiment and its current status is presented in this talk.

J. Marton; on behalf of the SIDDHARTA Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

APS Bending Magnet X-rays and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with APS Bending Magnet X-rays and 60 Co γ-rays J. Alderman and P.K. Job APS Operations Division Advanced Photon Source J. Puhl Ionizing Radiation Division National Institute of Standards and Technology June 2000 Table of Contents Introduction Radiation-Induced Demagnetization of Permanent Magnets Resources Required γ-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of γ-ray Irradiation X-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of X-ray Irradiation Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References Tables and Figures Introduction The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific

104

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY Beamline X1A2 - Soft x-ray diffraction and nano-imaging Beamline X17 - X-ray powder diffraction Beamline X22C - Resonant x-ray...

105

X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

Cominsky, L

2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

107

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

108

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

111

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

112

Note: Experiments in hard x-ray chemistry: In situ production of molecular hydrogen and x-ray induced combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have successfully loaded H{sub 2} into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. In a second set of studies, radiation-assisted release of O{sub 2} from KCLO{sub 3}, H{sub 2} release from NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}, and reaction of these gases in a mixture of the reactants to form liquid water using x-rays at ambient conditions was observed. Similar observations were made using a KCLO{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} mixture. Depending on reaction conditions, an explosive or far slower reaction producing water was observed.

Pravica, Michael; Bai Ligang; Liu Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center (HiPSEC) and Department of Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4002 (United States); Park, Changyong [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60437 (United States); Hatchett, David [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Note: Experiments in hard x-ray chemistry: In situ production of molecular hydrogen and x-ray induced combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have successfully loaded H{sub 2} into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. In a second set of studies, radiation-assisted release of O{sub 2} from KCLO{sub 3}, H{sub 2} release from NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}, and reaction of these gases in a mixture of the reactants to form liquid water using x-rays at ambient conditions was observed. Similar observations were made using a KCLO{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} mixture. Depending on reaction conditions, an explosive or far slower reaction producing water was observed.

Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Hatchett, David (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development and characterization of a novel compact x-ray source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For elemental analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a rapid and simple method of analysis, which provides both quantitative and qualitative information. In general, most XRF instruments are not suited for use as portable field instruments. Most commercial XRF spectrometers require cooling units for the anode, large power supplies and, in some cases, liquid nitrogen to cool the x-ray detectors. Alternative x-ray sources using radioactive isotopes have been considered for portable XRF, but safety regulations and public concerns have hampered their usage. An x-ray source has been developed which uses a solid state electron multiplier to enhance the electron gain from a simple filament. The overall gain from the electron multiplier is sufficient to generate x-rays. However, the novel source produces less heating of the anode, eliminating the cooling unit requirement. This feature along with the small size of the electron multiplier, allows for a compact design, which lends itself to portability. An additional feature is that the power consumption of the system is lower than a typical xray tube system. Initial studies have shown that the system behaves similar to a conventional x-ray tube. Increasing anode voltage (electron energy) causes improved yield of the higher energy x-rays. Also, increasing the electron multiplier voltage (electron intensity) increases overall intensity of the x-ray output. Using the new source for XRF studies, the limits of detection were comparable with values reported in the literature. It was necessary, however, to prepare the samples using single elements to reduce matrix affects and lessen effects of overlapping peaks. In general the x-ray source shows potential as a portable x-ray source that may be used in the field.

Woo, Ronald Yut

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beamlines Divisions Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group...

116

Sandia National Laboratories X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron ...  

... for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National ... high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency through ...

117

Copper Ridges Nearly Double X-ray Sensor Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Physics Letters,* can measure X-ray energies with an ... X-rays and measure the energy based on ... by NASA and the NIST Office of Microelectronics ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Simulated X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Water Dimer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability of an individual H{sub 2}O molecule to form multiple hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules makes it an ideal substance for the study of hydrogen bonding. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used to study what intermolecular structures the hydrogen-bonded water molecules form. XAS excites core electrons from the oxygen 1 s atomic orbital to an unoccupied orbital. The resulting absorption spectrum shows the energy levels of the unoccupied orbitals, which in turn is dependent on the intermolecular structure of the H{sub 2}O system. Previous studies using molecular dynamics computer simulations have concluded that the intermolecular structure of liquid water is a distorted tetrahedron. Yet x-ray absorption spectra show discrepancies between liquid water and ice Ih, which is already known to have a rigid tetrahedral structure. The research group, which is based in the University of Sweden in Stockholm and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, has studied the possible presence of broken hydrogen bonds in the liquid water intermolecular structure to explain these deviations. Computer simulations are used to construct theoretical absorption spectra for models of liquid water including broken hydrogen bonds. Creating such models requires controlling variables. The simplest method of isolating individual variables, such as hydrogen bond length and angles, is to study the water dimer. Here, the water dimer is used to study how the absorption spectra change with the way the water molecules are positioned and oriented relative to each other.

Wung, A

2004-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

122

Frontiers in X-Ray Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

Linda Young

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

123

Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity  

SciTech Connect

We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

[Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces]. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

(Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

X-ray Science Division: Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division: Groups Division: Groups Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMO) Primary Contact: Stephen Southworth Work focuses on understanding how strong optical and x-ray fields interact with matter, with an emphasis on photonic control of electronic, atomic and molecular motion. Chemical and Materials Science (CMS) Primary Contact: Randy Winans Research Disciplines: Chemistry, Materials Science Detectors (DET) Primary Contact: Antonino Miceli GMCA Structural Biology Facility (MX) Primary Contact: Robert Fischetti Research Disciplines: Biology, Life Sciences Imaging (IMG) Primary Contact: Francesco DeCarlo Research Disciplines: Materials Science, Biology, Physics, Life Sciences Inelastic X-ray & Nuclear Resonant Scattering (IXN) Primary Contact: Thomas Gog Research Disciplines: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics, Materials

127

Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Soft-X-Ray Spectral Shape of X-Ray-Weak Seyferts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(I) We observed eight Seyfert~2s and two X--ray--weak Seyfert~1/QSOs with the ROSAT PSPC, and one Seyfert~2 with the ROSAT HRI. These targets were selected from the Extended 12\\um\\ Galaxy Sample. (II) Both Seyfert~1/QSOs vary by factors of 1.5---2. The photon indices steepen in the more luminous state, consistent with the variability being mainly due to the softest X--rays, which are confined to a size of less than a parsec. (III) Both the Seyfert~2s and Seyfert~1/QSOs are best fit with a photon index of $\\Gamma\\sim3$, which is steeper than the canonical value of $\\Gamma\\sim1.7$ measured for X--ray--strong Seyferts by ROSAT and at higher energies. Several physical explanations are suggested for the steeper slopes of X--ray--weak objects. (IV) We observed one Seyfert~2, NGC~5005, with the ROSAT HRI, finding about 13\\% of the soft X--rays to come from an extended component. This and other observations suggest that different components to the soft X--ray spectrum of some, if not all, X--ray--weak Seyferts may come from spatially distinct regions.

Brian Rush; Matthew A. Malkan

1995-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

129

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays FROM: Physics News Update Number 773 #1, April 12, 2006, by Phil Schewe and Ben Stein Note: This text has been slightly modified from the original. Sharper focusing of hard x-rays has been achieved with a device developed at Argonne National Lab. Because of their high energy, x-rays are hard to focus: they can be reflected from a surface but only at a glancing angle (less than a tenth of a degree); they can be refracted but the index of refraction is very close to 1, so that making efficient lenses becomes a problem; and they can be diffracted, but the relatively thick, variable pitch grating required for focusing is tricky to achieve. The Argonne device is of the diffraction type, and it consists of a stack of alternating layers of metal and silicon, made by depositing progressively thicker layers. When the x-rays fall on such a structure, nearly edge-on, what they see is a grating (called a linear zone plate) consisting of a sort of bar-code pattern.

130

Massively parallel X-ray scattering simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although present X-ray scattering techniques can provide tremendous information on the nano-structural properties of materials that are valuable in the design and fabrication of energy-relevant nano-devices, a primary challenge remains in the analyses ...

Abhinav Sarje; Xiaoye S. Li; Slim Chourou; Elaine R. Chan; Alexander Hexemer

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Advanced X-Ray Scattering Techniques for Multi-Length Scale ... ?-Ti using the 3DXRD station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. ... Research at APS 34-ID-E, partly funded by BES/DOE.

134

Soft x-ray laser microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Agenda Location Visitor Information Transportation Tourism & Dining SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application June 2-5, 2009 Group photo of the attendees at the SSRL School on X-ray Spectropscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application held June 2-5, 2009 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. » View photos from XAS 2009 Overview: Modern synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS) techniques offer the ability to probe local molecular scale physical and electronic structures that govern key properties of technological and environmental materials and molecular complexes. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals, soils, interfaces, and dissolved species.

137

Solute Redistribution, Liquid/Solid Interface Instability, and Initial ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Coupled CFD-Thermodynamic-Kinetic Model to Simulate a Gas Stirred Ladle ... Exercise on Thermal and Thermosolutal Natural Convection in Liquid Alloys.

138

Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

139

Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

140

X-ray flashes and X-ray rich gamma ray bursts. Memorie della Societa’ Astronomica Italiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. X-ray flashes are detected in the Wide Field Cameras on BeppoSAX in the energy range 2-25 keV as bright X-ray sources lasting of the order of minutes, but remaining undetected in the Gamma Ray Bursts Monitor on BeppoSAX. They have properties very similar to the x-ray counterparts of GRBs and account for some of the Fast X-ray Transient events seen in almost every x-ray satellite. We review their X-ray properties and show that x-ray flashes are in fact very soft, x-ray rich, untriggered gamma ray bursts, in which the peak energy in 2-10 keV x-rays could be up to a factor of 100 larger than the peak energy in the 50-300 keV gamma ray range. The frequency is ? 100 yr ?1. 1 Fast X-ray Transients/High-latitude X-ray Transients Fast X-ray Transients have been observed with many x-ray satellites. In particular they are seen with x-ray instruments that scan the entire sky on a regular basis. Such events are detected in one sky scan and disappeared in the next, typically limiting the duration to be longer than a minute and shorter than a few hours. For this reason they are called Fast Transients. The first transients

John Heise; Jean In ’t Z; Peter M. Woods

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ultrahigh vacuum sample mount for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy up to very high temperature (150-1400 K)  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic studies are rarely performed at very high temperature, especially when combined with light from a synchrotron source. Demanding conditions of maintaining ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) during heating, together with the typically brief access to beam time at multiuser synchrotron end stations, may contribute to some of the reasons for the difficulty of such experiments. Consequently, a large number of materials with interesting properties and industrial applications at high temperature remain unexplored. The authors describe here a simple portable sample mount assembly that can be easily utilized at a beamline, with potential utility for a variety of spectroscopic measurements requiring elevated temperatures and an UHV environment. In the specific application described here, the authors use a resistive cartridge heater interfaced with a standard manipulator previously designed for cooling by liquid nitrogen with an UHV chamber and a cylindrical mirror analyzer for x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) [also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA)] at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI. The heater cartridge required only modest power to reach target temperatures using an open-loop temperature control. Finally, the authors describe the measurements of XPS (ESCA) and total-electron yield x-ray absorption spectroscopy on nanopowders and on single crystals grown by them. They emphasize the simplicity of the setup, which they believe would be of interest to groups performing measurements at large facilities, where access and time are both limited.

Williamsen, Mark S.; Ray, Shishir K.; Zou Ying; Dudek, John A.; Sen, Somaditya; Bissen, Mark; Kretsch, Laura; Palkar, Vaijayanti R.; Onellion, Marshall F.; Guptasarma, Prasenjit [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Blvd., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Synchrotron Radiation Center, 3731 Schneider Dr., Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Blvd., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links: Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of Mechanical Theorems, one of Archimedes' most important works, which was probably copied out by a scribe in the tenth century. The parchment on which it was written was later scraped down and reused as pages in a twelfth century prayer book, producing a document known as a palimpsest (which comes from the Greek,

143

High resolution x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

HIGH BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR  

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BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR LIFE SCIENCES (LIX) Group Leader: Lin Yang Proposal Team: O. Bilsel 1 , B. Hsiao 2 , H. Huang 3 , T. Irving 4 , A. Menzel 5 , L. Pollack 6 , C. Riekel 7 , J. Rubert 8 , H. Tsuruta 9 , L. Yang 10 1 University of Massachusetts, 2 Stony Brook University, 3 Rice University, 4 IIT, 5SLS, 6 Cornell University, 7 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 8 NEU, 9 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 10 Brookhaven National Laboratory TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Energy range 2-20keV using undulator source. Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS to cover 0.003-3Å -1 at 12keV with 1 micron spot size * Time-resolved solution scattering with resolution of (1) microseconds to milliseconds using continuous-flow mixing (5µm x 10µm spot size) and (2) milliseconds using stopped-

145

Sample holder for x-ray diffractometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sample holder for use with x-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

Hesch, V.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION  

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TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TES) Project Team: S. Bare 1,2 , J. Brandes 3 , T. Buonassisi 4 , J. Chen 5,2 , M. Croft 6 , E. DiMasi 7 , A. Frenkel 8,2 , D. Hesterberg 9 , S. Hulbert 7,2 , S. Khalid 7 , S. Myneni 10 , P. Northrup 7,11 , E.T. Rasbury 11 , B. Ravel 12 , R. Reeder 11 , J. Rodriguez 7,2 , D. Sparks 5,13 , V. Stojanoff 7 , G. Waychunas 14 1 UOP LLC, 2 Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, 3 Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, 4 MIT Laboratory for Photovoltaics Research, 5 Univ. of Delaware, 6 Rutgers Univ., 7 Brookhaven National Lab, 8 Yeshiva Univ., 9 North Carolina State Univ., 10 Princeton Univ., 11 Stony Brook Univ., 12 NIST, 13 Delaware Environmental Inst., 14 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab TECHNIQUES: High performance and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially-resolved XAS of

147

Hard X-ray Variability of AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function. Results: Probing different time scales, it appears that the absorbed AGN are more variable than the unabsorbed ones. The same applies for the comparison of Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 objects. As expected the blazars show stronger variability. 15% of the non-blazar AGN show variability of >20% compared to the average flux on time scales of 20 days, and 30% show at least 10% flux variation. All the non-blazar AGN which show strong variability are low-luminosity objects with L(14-195 keV) < 1E44 erg/sec. Conclusions: Concerning the variability pattern, there is a tendency of unabsorbed or type 1 galaxies being less variable than the absorbed or type 2 objects at hardest X-rays. A more solid anti-correlation is found between variability and luminosity, which has been previously observed in soft X-rays, in the UV, and in the optical domain.

V. Beckmann; S. D. Barthelmy; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; N. Gehrels; S. Soldi; J. Tueller; G. Wendt

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

148

Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Ultra fast x-ray streak camera for ten inch manipulator based platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E. V. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Fulkerson, S.; James, L.; Emig, J.; Norman, D. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

151

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC X-rays Help Discover...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which pulses 120 times a second. In the instant before the intense X-rays destroy a nanocrystal, detectors record a flash of X-ray diffraction information. Finally, scientists use...

152

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light...

153

Microstructural Mapping Using High-Energy X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Advanced characterization methods at the APS permit unique in- situ ... The combination of an undulator source, brilliance preserving optics and focusing .... Ultra-Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering—X-Ray Photon Correlation ...

154

Energy Determination of X-Ray Transition Energies Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We chose to measure x-ray transition energies from NIST ... This resulted in the production of x-ray emission ... would yield not only an energy scale for ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

155

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC's X-ray Laser Explores...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Laser Explores Big Data Frontier By Glenn Roberts Jr. June 12, 2013 It's no surprise that the data systems for SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser have drawn...

156

Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... Recent Advances in Structural Characterization of Materials: Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of Nanoscale ...

158

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their efficiency and low risk of environmental pollution. These materials are important to solar cells as a result of their remarkable combination of optical and electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency in the spectrum of visible light. TCs provide a transparent window, which allows sunlight to pass through while also allowing electricity to conduct out of the cell. Spinel materials have the chemical form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and are made of a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice of oxygen anions and cations in specific interstitial sites. A normal spinel has all A cations on tetrahedral sites and B cations on octahedral sites. In contrast; an inverse spinel has the A and half of the B cations on octahedral sites and the other half of the B cations on tetrahedral sites; a mixed spinel lies between. In the spinel structure, 8 of 64 possible tetrahedral sites and 16 of 32 possible octahedral sites are filled. Normal spinels have particularly high conduction as the linear octahedral chains of B cations likely serve as conduction paths. In this paper we present how the data obtained with AXRD is used to analyze TCs properties as they apply to photovoltaic applications. One of the materials used for this analysis is zinc oxide. It has been loaded with 5% and 10% of Ga, which has an absorption edge of 10367 eV. The peak (100) was measured for the zinc oxide loaded with 10% Ga. In the case of 5% Ga, we measured peaks (100) and (101). With the information provided by the AXRD we can identify if Ga is being incorporated in the ZnO crystal structure. The analysis of 311 plane in the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel shows if Co is in tetrahedral or octahedral site.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

159

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: 2-BM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BM BM Introduction The 2-BM beamline offers measurement capabilities for x-ray microtomography, x-ray topography and x-ray microdiffraction. X-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction instruments are installed on separate optical tables for independent operation with fast switch over time. Optically-coupled high-resolution CCD system is used for microtomography and topography with up to 1 micron spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction setup consists of KB microfocussing mirrors (~3 micron minimum spot), four-circle Huber diffractometer, high-precision translation sample stage, two orthogonally-mounted video cameras for viewing sample, fluorescence detector (Si-drift diode) and diffraction detector (a scintillation detector or a CCD). Three different levels of monochromaticity are available. Conventional monochromatic x-rays from a double-bounced Si (111) crystal monochromator (DCM, D E/E=1E-4), wide band-pass monochromatic x-rays from a double multilayer monochromator (DMM, D E/E=1~4E-2) and pink beam. The available x-ray range is from 5 keV to 30 keV. The lower limit is due to the x-ray windows and the upper limit is due to the critical angle of the x-ray mirror. Two different coatings (Cr and Pt) for the x-ray mirror allow either 20 keV or 30 keV energy cutoff.

160

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calibration ­ Uses up part of dynamic range · Solution: ­ Soft x-rays: Back side Illumination ­ Hard xPhase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector Benjamin Hornberger ­ Phase Contrast 101 · A Segmented Detector for Hard X-ray Microprobes ­ Segmented Silicon Chip ­ Charge

Homes, Christopher C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Microsoft PowerPoint - S05-07_Varona_Solid-Liquid Waste Interface.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Interface Monitor Liquid Interface Monitor (SLIM) Jose Varona D. Roelant, A. Awwad, D. McDaniel Florida International University's Applied Research Center EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange November 17, 2010 Print Close Disclaimer This presentation was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government (Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, under Grant No. DE-FG01-05EW07033). Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of its contractors, subcontractors, nor their employees makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness,

162

SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences. A large, printable version of this group image is available via clicking on the image. Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and environmental materials. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals,

163

Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

Fischer, D.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moodenbaugh, A.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

Fischer, D.A. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Moodenbaugh, A.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

Friebel, Daniel

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Microscale X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the GSECARS Sector 13 at the APS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotrons radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotrons light source. The research conducted at this facility will advance our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials, the processes they control and the processes that produce them. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems: (1) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell; (2) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography using the large-volume press; (3) powder, single crystal and interface diffraction; (4) x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy; (5) x-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis and microspectroscopy; and (6) mic...

Stephen-Sutto

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Quantitative Analysis of Mt. St. Helens Ash by X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative study by x-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of fallout and ambient ash from three Mt. St. Helens eruptions has revealed a consistent picture of the mineralogical and elemental ...

Briant L. Davis; L. Ronald Johnson; Dana T. Griffen; William Revell Phillips; Robert K. Stevens; David Maughan

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

Timothy Chainer

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

X-Ray Shines Light on Water Mystery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is the key compound for our existence on this planet and it is involved in many important physical, chemical, biological and geological processes. Although water is the most common molecular substance it is also most unusual with many anomalies in its thermodynamic properties such as compressibility, density variation and heat capacity. The question of the structure of the hydrogen bonding network in water has been discussed intensively for over 100 years and has not yet been resolved. This talk will describe recent x-ray spectroscopy and scattering measurements showing that the liquid can be described as fluctuations between two types of local hydrogen bonded structures driven by in commensurate requirements for minimizing enthalpy and maximizing entropy.

Nilsson, Anders (SLAC)

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Apparatus for monitoring x-ray beam alignment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an x-ray beam in an instrument employing an x-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of x-ray beam intensities from the x-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low x-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high x-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of x-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to x-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the x-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the x-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

173

X-ray scattering intensities of water at extreme pressure and temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water at 1500 and 2000 K under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our calculations span the molecular liquid, ice VII, and superionic solid phases, including the recently predicted symmetrically hydrogen bonded region of the superionic phase. We show that wide angle x-ray scattering intensity could be used to determine phase boundaries between these high pressure phases, and we compare the results for ice VII and superionic water. We compute simulated spectra and provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We show that our modifed atomic form factors allow for a nearly exact comaprison to the total x-ray scattering intensities calculated from DFT. Finally, we analyze the effect our new form factors have on determination of the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline and endstation instruments (HXN) will be designed and constructed to explore new frontiers of hard x-ray microscopy applications with the highest achievable spatial resolution. Currently the available spatial resolution for scientific applications, provided by scanning x-ray microscopes in the hard x-ray regime, is limited to ~50nm, which is still insufficient for probing the nanoscale interfacial structures critical in determining properties and functionalities of material and biological systems. The HXN beamline aims to enable x-ray experiments at spatial resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm with an ultimate goal of ~1 nm. Beamline Description

175

Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Studies of Thin Scattering Studies of Thin Polymer Films Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Sunil K. Sinha UCSD/LANL Acknowledgements: Prof. R.Pynn( Indiana U.) Prof. M.Tolan (U. Dortmund) Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1845-1923 1895: Discovery of X-Rays 1901 W. C. Röntgen in Physics for the discovery of x-rays. 1914 M. von Laue in Physics for x-ray diffraction from crystals. 1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg in Physics for crystal structure determination. 1917 C. G. Barkla in Physics for characteristic radiation of elements. 1924 K. M. G. Siegbahn in Physics for x-ray spectroscopy. 1927 A. H. Compton in Physics for scattering of x-rays by electrons. 1936 P. Debye in Chemistry for diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.

176

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction o f the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce an image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Interface Width and Bulk Stability: requirements for the simulation of Deeply Quenched Liquid-Gas Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations of liquid-gas systems with extended interfaces are observed to fail to give accurate results for two reasons: the interface can get ``stuck'' on the lattice or a density overshoot develops around the interface. In the first case the bulk densities can take a range of values, dependent on the initial conditions. In the second case inaccurate bulk densities are found. In this communication we derive the minimum interface width required for the accurate simulation of liquid gas systems with a diffuse interface. We demonstrate this criterion for lattice Boltzmann simulations of a van der Waals gas. When combining this criterion with predictions for the bulk stability we can predict the parameter range that leads to stable and accurate simulation results. This allows us to identify parameter ranges leading to high density ratios of over 1000. This is despite the fact that lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid-gas systems were believed to be restricted to modest density ratios of less than 20.

A. J. Wagner; C. M. Pooley

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

NANO-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF LIQUID INTERFACES DURING COALESCENCE AND RAPTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NANO-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF LIQUID INTERFACES DURING COALESCENCE AND RAPTURE Experiments by Jacob viscosity and interfacial tension) and experimental conditions (shear rate or approach velocity), and nano such as fingering and cavitation, both occurring at the nano- or submicron-scales. The two figures below ­ the first

Akhmedov, Azer

179

X-ray chemistry in envelopes around young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present chemical models of the envelope of a young stellar object (YSO) exposed to a central X-ray source. The models are applied to the massive star-forming region AFGL 2591 for different X-ray fluxes. The total X-ray ionization rate is dominated by the `secondary' ionization rate of H2 resulting from fast electrons. The carbon, sulphur and nitrogen chemistries are discussed. It is found that He+ and H3+ are enhanced and trigger a peculiar chemistry. Several molecular X-ray tracers are found and compared to tracers of the far ultraviolet (FUV) field. Like ultraviolet radiation fields, X-rays enhance simple hydrides, ions and radicals. In contrast to ultraviolet photons, X-rays can penetrate deep into the envelope and affect the chemistry even at large distances from the source. Whereas the FUV enhanced species cover a region of 200-300 AU, the region enhanced by X-rays is >1000 AU. Best-fit models for AFGL 2591 predict an X-ray luminosity LX > 1e+31 ergs/s with a hard X-ray spectrum TX > 3e+07 K. Furthermore, we find LX/Lbol ~ 1e-6. The chemistry of the bulk of the envelope mass is dominated by cosmic-ray induced reactions rather than by X-ray induced ionization for X-ray luminosities LX < 1e+33 ergs/s. The calculated line intensities of HCO+ and HCS+ show that high-J lines are more affected than lower J lines by the presence of X-rays due to their higher critical densities, and that such differences are detectable even with large aperture single-dish telescopes. Future instruments such as Herschel-HIFI or SOFIA will be able to observe X-ray enhanced hydrides whereas the sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA is well-suited to measure the size and geometry of the region affected by X-rays.

P. Staeuber; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; A. O. Benz

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically vibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a flat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes. Typical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce "Faraday ripples", modest-amplitude nonlinear standing waves. Later experiments by Hashimoto and Sudo (1980) and Jameson (1966) as well as those performed in the present study show that much more dramatic disturbances can be generated at the gas-liquid free surface under certain ranges of vibration conditions. This breakup mechanism was examined experimentally using deep layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone oils over a range of viscosity and sinusoidal, primarily axial vibration conditions that can produce dramatic disturbances at the gas-liquid free surface. Large-amplitude vibrations produce liquid jets into the gas, droplets pinching off from the jets, gas cavities in the liquid from droplet impact, and bubble transp...

O'Hern, T J; Brooks, C F; Shelden, B; Torczynski, J R; Kraynik, A M; Romero, L A; Benavides, G L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

Paumel, K.; Baque, F. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Corneloup, G. [Laboratoire de Caracterisation Non Destructive, Universite de la Mediterranee, IUT Aix-en-Provence, Avenue Gaston Berger, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Chatain, D. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, CINAM-UPR3118, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille cedex 09 (France)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

Sokaras, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch. [PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Karydas, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Structure of gas-liquid interface and hydrophobic interface for urea aqueous solution: a computer simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urea aqueous solution is ubiquitously used to denature protein. Regardless of its extensive use, the mechanism is still unclear and remains an active field of study. There have been two proposed mechanisms, the direct and indirect. The indirect mechanism, which attributes the ability of urea of changing water structure, is susceptible since many research works show that there is little effect of urea on water structure. The current study provided evidence for the indirect mechanism by demonstrating that the introduction of urea slightly changes the water structure in the hydrophobic interfacial areas. In the current study, the urea aqueous solution systems with either gas-liquid or hydrophobic interface are studied by MD simulations, and the structures of water near the interfacial areas are analyzed in terms of density, orientation and number of hydrogen bonds. For each kind of interface, systems with four different urea concentrations are included, ranging from 0M to 8M. The results show slight change of water structure by the urea solute on the hydrophobic interface in terms of the orientation and number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule.

Yu, Meng

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface, and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory that is capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces.

Douglas J. Tobias; Abraham C. Stern; Marcel D. Baer; Yan Levin; Christopher J. Mundy

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

Gray scale x-ray mask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Many hot topics related to the high frequency dynamics of condensed matter require both a narrower and steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than what are currently available. This represents a sort of "no man's land" that falls right in the dynamic gap lying between the high frequency spectroscopies, such as inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), and the low frequency ones. New IXS spectrometers with improved energy and momentum resolutions would be required to fill this gap. To achieve this goal, a new x-ray optics concept for both the monochromatization and energy analysis of x-rays will be implemented at the NSLS-II Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline. This solution exploits the

187

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): X-Ray Fluorescence is a lab-based technique used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, sediment, and fluid samples. The technique depends on the fundamental principles of x-ray interactions with solid materials, similar

188

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

189

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

190

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

191

Definition: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to obtain specific information about the crystalline material under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances (typically in less than 20 minutes). A pure, finely ground, and homogenized sample is required for determination of the bulk composition. Additional uses include detailed

192

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

193

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to

194

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction,

195

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

198

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

199

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

200

Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

202

Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

NIST X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... year, month day with database access date.) Hubbell, JH and Seltzer, SM (2004), Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy- ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

204

4D Functional Materials Science with X-ray Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Studies of Lattice Dynamics in Thin Bismuth Films · Understanding Fatigue and Corrosion-Fatigue Behavior by In Situ 3D X-ray ...

205

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast X-ray and 2-dimensional UV Spectroscopy of TiO2 Nanoparticles: Majed Chergui1; 1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Mesoporous titanium ...

206

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Strain Determination in Nanoscale Microelectronic Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction: Conal Murray1; 1IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

207

X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy ...  

The high average power large area X-ray tube provides ... Solar Photovoltaic; Solar ... Description This invention consists of a cathode and anode ...

208

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Phase Sensitive X-ray Imager for More Accurate Digital ...  

Livermore Lab Report. News Archive. News ... use of higher energy X-rays which would result in a lower amount of absorbed radiation to the ... testing ...

210

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proceedings of the 12th International Clay Conference, Bahia Blanca, Argentina, July 22-28, 2001. Gibbs, D. X-ray magnetic scattering. Synchrotron Radiation News...

211

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Investigations of Microscopic Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Case Study in Future Energy Challenges: Towards In Situ Hard X-ray Microscopy of ... of Crystal Structure and Domain Character in Lead Free Piezoceramics.

212

APS X-ray Optics Fabrication and Characterization Facility  

SciTech Connect

The APS is in the process of assembling an X-ray Optics Fabrication and characterization Facility. This report will describe its current (as of February 1993) design.

Davey, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Bibliography of NRL Works on X-Ray Fluorescence Authored ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LS Birks, and EJ Brooks, "Grain-Boundary Diffusion of Zinc in Copper ... 111 J. Gilfrich, "X-Ray Diffraction Studies on the Titanium-Nickel System," in ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

214

Particle Accelerator & X-Ray Optics | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator Facilitates Microcrystallography Experiments Isotopic Abundance in Atom Trap Trace Analysis Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope...

215

X RAY TU E WITH MAGNETI ELE TRON STEERING  

Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range ... escape the anode and cause electron h ...

216

Temporal multiplexing radiography for dynamic x-ray imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All current x-ray imaging devices acquire images sequentially, one at a time. Using a spatially distributed multibeam x-ray source we recently demonstrated the feasibility for multiplexing x-ray imaging, which can significantly increase the data collection speed. Here we present a general methodology for dynamic x-ray imaging of an object in cyclic motion with temporal multiplexing. Compared to the conventional sequential imaging technique, where 2N-1 phase images are required and N exposures are needed for a single phase image, a temporal multiplexing of dimension 2N-1 can reduce the imaging time by a factor of N while maintaining the temporal resolution.

Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto; Lu Jianping [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Characterization of Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Conical Beam X-Ray Tomography to Multi-Phase Materials ... Digital Construction and Characterization of Reticulated Porous Microstructures ...

218

dosimetry of x-rays, gamma rays and electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST and BIPM Standards for Air Kerma in Medium-Energy X-rays ... of the codes are available from the Government Printing Office, Washington, DC ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

219

In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to accurately characterize the dynamic electrochemical processes at the nanometer and atomic level, we have employed a set of complementary, in situ X-ray characterization...

220

For Prospective Users: Learn about x-ray research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research in the fields of materials science; biological science; physics; chemistry; environmental, geophysical, and planetary science; and innovative x-ray instrumentation....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Staff at sector 30, inelastic x-ray scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Status and Schedule Safety and Training Divisions APS Engineering Support Division AES Groups Accelerator Systems Division ASD Groups X-ray Science Division XSD Groups...

222

Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E. [Institute for Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A. [Microresist Technology, Koepenikerstrasse 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

223

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy technologies. SLAC's unique X-ray facilities - the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) - attract thousands of...

224

New Directions in X-ray Scattering - SSRL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

associated with chemically and radioactively contaminated ground-water. Ability to probe weak scattering from single crystals as function of energy (resonance) and x-ray...

225

Improved Treatment of X-ray Resistant & Inoperable Cancers ...  

If the electron beam can be transported to the internal cancer without exposure to tissue, ... This figure shows a comparison of X-ray radiation ...

226

Spatially-Resolved X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies Inside Individual ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will describe recent advances including increased scanning speed, and will describe the use of this x-ray microscope to study mesoscale structural ...

227

Development of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials III. Presentation Title, 2010 ...

228

Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Grain Boundary Deformation Analyzed Via X-Ray Diffraction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling the Influence of the Second Phase Particle Spatial Distribution on Recrystallization of AA 7050 · Near-Field High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy ...

230

Determining the Uncertainty of X-Ray Absorption ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The apparatus uses a tungsten filament and a tungsten target to generate x rays and the detector contains a CZT crystal. ...

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

231

X-ray Detection with Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The primary photon detector was a 12-element ... The overall energy range for the experiment was ... to directly detect X-rays with energies between 0.3 ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

232

Spectrometry of X-Ray Beams Used for Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and used to calibrate a wavelength-dispersive crystal x-ray spectrograph used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to diagnose ...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

233

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to organize a seven-session Symposium on Neutron and X-Ray ... the advent of new powerful neutron sources such as the Spallation Neutron ...

234

Available Technologies: High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ...  

High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ... Six hexapole infrared lamps focus inside the sample chamber onto a ceramic material sample with a spherical ...

235

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties of Molten Aluminum Oxide The transport properties of high-temperature oxide melts are of considerable interest...

237

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Pulses in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SLAC researchers have demonstrated for the first time how to produce pairs of X-ray laser pulses in slightly different wavelengths, or colors, with finely adjustable intervals...

238

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Jr., P. Indelicato, L. de Billy, E. Lindroth, and J. Anton, "X-ray transition energies: new approach to a ... [Type of medium] Available: URL [Access date]. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

239

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in the Fingerprint Region · In Situ X-ray ... Opportunities for Multimodal CARS Microscopy in Materials Science · Photoemission ...

240

Angular Correlations of the X-Ray Background and Clustering of Extragalactic X-Ray Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The information content of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of intensity fluctuations of the X-ray background (XRB) is analyzed. The tight upper limits set by ROSAT deep survey data on the ACF at arcmin scales imply strong constraints on clustering properties of X-ray sources at cosmological distances and on their contribution to the soft XRB. If quasars have a clustering radius r_0=12-20 Mpc (H_0=50), and their two point correlation function, is constant in comoving coordinates as indicated by optical data, they cannot make up more 40-50% of the soft XRB (the maximum contribution may reach 80% in the case of stable clustering, epsilon=0). Active Star-forming (ASF) galaxies clustered like normal galaxies, with r_0=10-12 Mpc can yield up to 20% or up to 40% of the soft XRB for epsilon=-1.2 or epsilon=0, respectively. The ACF on degree scales essentially reflects the clustering properties of local sources and is proportional to their volume emissivity. The upper limits on scales of a few degrees imply that hard X-ray selected AGNs have r_06 deg, if real, may be due to AGNs with r_0=20 Mpc; the contribution from clusters of galaxies with r_0~50 Mpc is a factor 2 lower.

L. Danese; L. Toffolatti; A. Franceschini; J. M. Martin-Mirones; G. De Zotti

1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

X-ray Methods in High-Intensity Discharges and Metal-Halide Lamps: X-ray Induced Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of x-ray induced fluorescence to study metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps and to measure equilibrium vapor pressures of metal-halide salts. The physical principles of metal-halide lamps, relevant aspects of x-ray-atom interactions, the experimental method using synchrotron radiation, and x-ray induced fluorescence measurements relevant to metal-halide lamps are covered.

Curry, John J.; Lapatovich, Walter P.; Henins, Albert (NIST)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

243

X-ray detection system development for tandem mirror experiment upgrade (TMX-U): hardware and software  

SciTech Connect

This x-ray detection system measures the electron Bremsstrahlung spectrum from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). From this spectrum, we can calculate the electron temperature. The low energy portion of the spectrum (0.5 to 40 keV) is measured by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, lithium-drifted silicon detector. The higher energy spectrometer uses an intrinsic germanium detector to accommodate the 100 to 200 keV spectra. The system proceeds as follows. The preamplified detector signals are digitized by a high-speed A-to-D converter located in a Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) crate. The data is then stored in a histogramming memory via a data router. The CAMAC crate interfaces with a local desktop computer or the main data acquisition computer that stores the data. The software sets up the modules, acquires the energy spectra (with sample times as short as 2 ms) and plots it. Up to 40 time-resolved spectra are available during one plasma cycle. The actual module configuration, CAMAC interfacing and software that runs the system are the subjects of this paper.

Jones, R.M.; Failor, B.H.; Coutts, G.W.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Theoretical Model and Interpretation of Dense Plasma X-Ray Thomson Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present analytical expressions for the dynamic structure factor, or form factor S(k,{omega}), which is the quantity describing the inelastic x-ray cross section from a dense plasma or a simple liquid. The results, based on the random phase approximation (RPA) for the treatment on the charged particle coupling, can be applied to describe scattering from either weakly coupled classical plasmas or degenerate electron liquids. The form factor correctly reproduces the Compton energy downshift and the usual Fermi-Dirac electron velocity distribution for S(k,{omega}) in the case of a cold degenerate plasma. the usual concept of scattering parameter is also reinterpreted for the degenerate case in order to include the effect of the Thomas-Fermi screening. The results shown in this work can be applied to interpreting x-ray scattering in warm dense plasmas occurring in inertial confinement fusion experiments or inside the interior of planets.

Gregori, G; Landen, O; Hicks, D; Pasley, J; Collins, G; Celliers, P; Bastea, M; Glenzer, S

2002-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

X-ray spectral states of microquasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the origin of the dramatically different X-ray spectral shapes observed in the Low Hard State (LHS: dominated by thermal comptonisation) and the High Soft State (HSS: dominated by the accretion disc thermal emission and non-thermal comptonisation in the corona). We present numerical simulations using a new code accounting for the so-called synchrotron boiler effect. These numerical simulations when compared to the data allow us to constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona. For the hard state of Cygnus X-1 we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.

Julien Malzac; Renaud Belmont

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention of pyroelectric x-ray generator technology has enabled researchers to develop ultraportable, low-power x-ray sources for use in imaging, materials analysis, and other applications. For many applications, the usefulness of an x-ray source is determined by its yield and endpoint energy. In x-ray fluorescence, for example, high-energy sources enable the excitation of the K-shell x-ray peaks for high-Z materials as well as the lower-energy L-shell peaks, allowing more positive sample identification. This report shows how a paired-crystal pyroelectric source can be used to approximately double the endpoint x-ray energy, in addition to doubling the x-ray yield, versus a single-crystal source. As an example of the advantage of a paired-crystal system, we present a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of thorium using a pyroelectric source, as well as a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of lead. Also shown is an x-ray spectrum with an endpoint energy of 215 keV.

Geuther, Jeffrey A.; Danon, Yaron [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

96 ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING References [1] C. Antoniak, J to original phenomena. These effects are observed in charge-density wave (CDW) materials. Upon cooling of the screw like dislocation shown in Figure 121b. #12;97 HIGHLIGHTS 2005 ESRF X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

249

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast -Techniques and Applications -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques and Applications - A Dissertation Presented of the Graduate School ii #12;Abstract of the Dissertation Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.2.4 Reconstruction Example for Integration Method . . . . 59 3.2.5 The Imaginary Part

250

A statistical field theory approach applied to the liquid vapor interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Last years, there has been a renewed interest in the utilization of statistical field theory methods for the description of systems at equilibrium both in the vicinity and away from critical points, in particular in the field of liquid state physics. These works deal in general with homogeneous systems, although recently the study of liquids in the vicinity of hard walls has also been considered in this way. On the other hand, effective Hamiltonian pertaining to the $\\phi^4$ theory family have been written and extensively used for the description of inhomogeneous systems either at the simple interface between equilibrium phases or for the description of wetting. In the present work, we focus on a field theoretical description of the liquid vapor interface of simple fluids. We start from the representation of the grand partition function obtained from the Hubbard-Stratonovich transform leading to an exact formulation of the problem, namely neither introducing an effective Hamiltonian nor associating the field to the one-body density of the liquid. Using as a reference system the hard sphere fluid and imposing the coexistence condition, the expansion of the Hamiltonian obtained yields a usual $\\phi^4$ theory without unknown parameter. An important point is that the so-called capillary wave theory appears as an approximation of the one-loop theory in the functional expansion of the Hamiltonian, without any need to an underlying phenomenology.

Vincent Russier; Jean-Michel Caillol

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

Geometric classification of open-cell metal foams using X-ray micro-computed tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The geometry of foams has long been an area of interest, and a number of idealized geometric descriptions have been proposed. In order to acquire detailed, quantitative, geometric data for aluminum open-cell metal foams, X-ray {mu}CT is employed. The X-ray {mu}CT images are analyzed using specialized software, FoamView Registered-Sign , from which geometric information including strut length and pore shapes are extracted. The X-ray {mu}CT analysis allows comparison of the ideal geometric models to the actual geometric characteristics of the metal foam samples. The results reveal a high variability in ligament length, as well as features supporting the ideal geometry known as the Weaire-Phelan unit cell. The geometric findings provide information useful for improving current models of open-cell metal foam. Applications can range from predicting heat transfer or load failure to predicting liquid retention. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum open-cell metal foams are geometrically classified Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray micro-computed tomography and specialized software are used to gather geometric data Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The foams are shown to have a high variability in strut length Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Weaire-Phelan unit cell is shown to be a better representative of these foams.

Bock, Jessica, E-mail: bock6@illinois.edu; Jacobi, Anthony M., E-mail: a-jacobi@illinois.edu

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to determine structures due to their incapability to crystallize or change of configuration during crystallization. In this talk, I will present the application of X-ray reflectivity and a newly developed fluctuation X-ray scattering technique to study the structures of lipid membranes and randomly oriented nanoparticles. Three different types of domain registrations occurring with

253

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure of materials. Resonant absorption edges in the soft x-ray regime are especially interesting as they allow the study of the lighter elements, such as in organic or organo-metallic substances, as well as important L-edges of the 3d transition metals important in magnetic and oxide systems. Measurements of soft x-ray absorption spectra are inherently surface sensitive, and are plagued by issues such as extinction (in electron yield measurements) or self absorption (in fluorescence yield

254

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays

255

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observational status of the X-ray afterglow emission, its mean properties (detection rate, continuum spectra, line features, and light curves), and the X-ray constraints on theoretical models of gamma-ray bursters and their progenitors. I also discuss the early onset afterglow emission, the remaining questions, and the role of future X-ray afterglow observations.

Filippo Frontera

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

In situ synchrotron x-ray studies of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes are now used in most commercial lithium ion batteries. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is an attractive low cost alternative. However, it is difficult to make reproducibly. At Brookhaven National Laboratory two in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques, that are available at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), have been used to investigate LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The techniques are x-ray absorption and high resolution x-ray diffraction. With x-ray absorption it is possible to follow the changes in the Mn oxidation state and the changes in the Mn-O and Mn-Mn bond lengths on cycling. Also it is possible to detect amorphous phases. The high energy x-rays at the diffraction Beam Lines at the NSLS (up to 24 KeV) permit in situ x-ray diffraction, in the transmission mode, in thin lithium and lithium ion cells. The evolution of the structural chances that occur on cycling can be followed. These in situ measurements were done on Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with a liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF{sub 6} in a 1:1:3 PC:EC:DMC solvent).

McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S.; Yang, X.Q. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 x 2 detector binning, the projection resolution along the scanning direction increased from 4.0 cycles/mm [at 10% modulation-transfer-function (MTF)] in DBT to 5.1 cycles/mm in s-DBT at magnification factor of 1.08. The improvement is more pronounced for faster scanning speeds, wider angular coverage, and smaller detector pixel sizes. The scanning speed depends on the detector, the number of views, and the imaging dose. With 240 ms detector readout time, the s-DBT system scanning time is 6.3 s for a 15-view, 100 mAs scan regardless of the angular coverage. The scanning speed can be reduced to less than 4 s when detectors become faster. Initial phantom studies showed good quality reconstructed images. Conclusions: A prototype s-DBT scanner has been developed and evaluated by retrofitting the Selenia rotating gantry DBT scanner with a spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array. Preliminary results show that it improves system spatial resolution substantially by eliminating image blur due to x-ray focal spot motion. The scanner speed of s-DBT system is independent of angular coverage and can be increased with faster detector without image degration. The accelerated lifetime measurement demonstrated the long term stability of CNT x-ray source array with typical clinical operation lifetime over 3 years.

Qian Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan Jing; Yang Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing Zhenxue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); XinRay Systems, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Hologic, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Shape-Selectivity with Liquid Crystal and Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymer SAW Sensor Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A liquid crystal (LC) and a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were tested as surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensor coatings for discriminating between pairs of isomeric organic vapors. Both exhibit room temperature smectic mesophases. Temperature, electric-field, and pretreatment with self-assembled monolayers comprising either a methyl-terminated or carboxylic acid-terminated alkane thiol anchored to a gold layer in the delay path of the sensor were explored as means of affecting the alignment and selectivity of the LC and SCLCP films. Results for the LC were mixed, while those for the SCLCP showed a consistent preference for the more rod-like isomer of each isomer pair examined.

FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; OBORNY,MICHAEL C.; PUGH,COLEEN; RICCO,ANTONIO; THOMAS,ROSS C.; ZELLERS,EDWARD T.; ZHANG,GUO-ZHENG

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Time-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

partly controlled by the rate of heat transfer across the interface. Heat moving from the metal film is heated by 10 K using an ultrafast optical pump pulse; the subsequent changes of the phase differenceTime-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces

Granick, Steve

262

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Research and Design Magazine "The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has been kept busy of late." That's the first sentence of R&D Magazine's recent overview of research results from the APS. The article highlights "a new ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging technique and used it to reveal

263

SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.

Miara, Lincoln J.; Piper, L.F.J.; Davis, Jacob N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra; Smith, K. E.; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

265

Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Delay X-ray Holography Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow penetration into materials and the ability to probe structure at and below the nanometer scale. Their ultra-short duration gives information about this structure at the fundamental time-scales of atoms and molecules. The extreme intensity of the pulses will allow this information to be acquired in a single shot, so that these studies can be carried out on non-repeatable processes or on weakly-scattering objects that will be modified by the pulse. A fourth property of XFEL pulses is their high transverse coherence, which brings the promise of decades of innovation in visible optics to the X-ray regime, such as holography, interferometry, and laser-based imaging. Making an effective use of XFEL pulses, however, will benefit from innovations that are new to both X-ray science and coherent optics. One such innovation is the new method of time-delay X-ray holography [i], recently demonstrated at the FLASH FEL at DESY in Hamburg, to measure the evolution of objects irradiated by intense pulses.

266

Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

Rohringer, N; Santra, R

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

267

X-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The intensity and spectral characteristics of x-ray emitted from laser-produced plasmas have been investigated computatinoally and experimentally. a two-dimensional implosi code was used successfully to calculate laser-plasma radiation characteristics and to aid in the design of laser targets for high-yield x-ray production. Other computer codes, in use or under development predict lime strengths and energies for laser-plasma x-ray emission. An experimental effort is aimed at reliable measurements of x-ray yields and spectra. a wide variety of x-ray detection methods have been evaluated, and x-ray yields have been measured from plasmas produced with two dissimilar laser systems. The high energy x-ray spectrum, from about 10 to 140 keV, has been studied using high-gain scintillatino detectors and thick K-edge filters. Various supplementary measurements have provided information concerning characteristics of the target-reflected laser light, the ion energies, and the laser intensity patterns.

Violet, C.E. [ed.

1974-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu/Ni (8 keV), Mo/Zr (18 keV), and Ag/Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L. [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Alfred Building 2-409, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction. (LEW)

Howells, M.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

X-ray irradiation-induced ionization of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanocrystals embedded in borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

Optical absorption spectra of x-ray irradiated CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanocrystals embedded in a borosilicate glass matrix are studied. The observed transformation of the confinement-related features in the spectra is related to the x-ray-induced negative ionization of the nanocrystals with charge transfer across the nanocrystal/matrix interface. The radiation-induced changes and their relaxation upon postirradiation storage as a function of nanocrystal size and composition are discussed.

Azhniuk, Yu. M.; Prymak, M. V.; Lopushansky, V. V.; Solomon, A. M.; Hutych, Yu. I.; Gomonnai, A. V. [Institute of Electron Physics, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Universytetska St. 21, Uzhhorod, 88017 (Ukraine); Zahn, D. R. T. [Department of Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

X-ray afterglows from gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider possible interpretations of the recently detected X- ray afterglow from the gamma-ray burst source GRB 970228. Cosmological and Galactic models of gamma-ray bursts predict different flux and spectral evolution of X-ray afterglows. We show that models based on adiabatic expansion of relativistic forward shocks require very efficient particle energization or post-burst re-acceleration during the expansion. Cooling neutron star models predict a very distinctive spectral and flux evolution that can be tested in current X-ray data.

M. Tavani

1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ten years of Vela x-ray observations  

SciTech Connect

The Vela spacecraft, particularly Vela 5B, produced all-sky X-ray data of unprecedented length and completeness. The data led to the discovery of X-ray bursts and numerous transient outbursts. Recent re-analysis has put the data in the form of 10-day skymaps covering a 7-year period, which have led to the discovery or confirmation of a number of long-term periodicities, and have made possible a time-lapse movie of the X-ray sky.

Terrell, J.; Priedhorsky, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Sixth International Conference on X-ray Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

More than 180 participants from around the world crowded the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from August 1-6, 1999 for the Sixth International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM99). Held every three years since 1983, the XRM conferences have become the primary international forum for the presentation and discussion of advances in high-spatial-resolution x-ray imaging and applications (including the use of x-ray spectroscopic and analytical techniques) in biological and medical sciences, environmental and soil sciences, and materials and surface sciences.

Robinson, Arthur L.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

274

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Kirill Glavatskiy; Dick Bedeaux

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Glavatskiy, Kirill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Kästner, J H; Vrtilek, S D; Dgani, R; Kastner, Joel H.; Soker, Noam; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Dgani, Ruth

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Joel H. Kastner; Noam Soker; Saeqa Vrtilek; Ruth Dgani

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

278

Wiggler-base Hard X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline at CLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CLS 06ID-1 Hard X-ray Micro-Analysis Beamline (HXMA) is a general purpose hard X-ray spectroscopy beamline (5 to 40 keV) designed to serve users in XAFS, diffraction and microprobe communities. The beamline uses the synchrotron radiation from a superconducting wiggler. The primary beamline optics include a 1.2 m water-cooled silicon collimating mirror (separate Rh and Pt coating stripes), a liquid nitrogen cooled double crystal monochromator (Kohzu CMJ-1) housing two crystal pairs (Si 111 and 220), and a 1.15 m long water-cooled silicon toroidal focusing mirror (separate Rh and Pt coating stripes). All mirrors are equipped with dynamical meridian benders. The experimental hutch hosts three experimental setups for XAFS, diffraction and microprobe, respectively. Primary design considerations and some commissioning results are discussed.

Jiang, D. T. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chen, N. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Geological Sciences Department, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sheng, W. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

279

Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances. Portable XRD analysis allows for simpler sample preparation, faster analytical times than traditional methods (less than 2 minutes), and can be performed at the sampling site in the field. A pure, finely ground

280

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Scientific communities such as environmental sciences, life sciences, and material sciences have identified the need to develop analytical resources to advance the understanding of complex natural and engineered systems that are heterogeneous on the micron to nanometer scale. These needs for high intensity x-ray nanoprobes resulted in the commitment of the NSLS-II Project to build the Submicron Resolution X-ray (SRX) Spectroscopy beamline showing a unique combination of high spectral resolution over a very broad energy range and very high beam intensity in a sub-micrometer spot. NSLS-II will provide one of the best sources in the world for such an instrument.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Active pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active pixel sensor array, APS-1, has been fabricated for the purpose of scientific x-ray detection. This thesis presents the results of testing the device. Alternate design architectures are explored. Recommendations ...

Cohen, Matthew (Matthew L.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray)...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for General Radiation Safety Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MEV, ANSI Standard N43.3, American National Standards...

283

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of Soft X Rays...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Soft X-Rays and Ions Irradiation in a Model of V79 Mammalian Cell Authors: B. Ginovska, J.H. Miller, D. J. Lynch and W. E. Wilson Institutions: School of Electrical...

284

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rupted full-Sun coverage of major solar X-ray ?are activity.of Ulysses from the Sun in AU, and its solar longitude andof the solar disk shows the view of the Sun from Earth,

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Linda Young Named to Head X-ray Science Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the APS Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Earns an R&D 100 Award Winans of XSD Elected to ACS Fellowship Gluskin of Photon Sciences named Argonne Distinguished Fellow UChicago...

286

Material Characterization with X-ray and Optical Techniques I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells: Mariana Bertoni1; ... a strong modeling tool for predicting and optimizing solar cell efficiency. ... levels (11 steps up to 55%) in order to understand the sequential damage process.

287

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D.F. Inelastic x-ray scattering investigations of lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO1-xFy superconductors. Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spectroscopies in Novel...

288

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Capture Electron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-rays Capture Electron 'Dance' By Glenn Roberts Jr. January 30, 2013 The way electrons move within and between molecules, transferring energy as they go, plays an important role...

289

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Fifth X-ray Instrument...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and more.) The technique has been used for years to probe materials with visible-light lasers, and more recently with X-ray light from synchrotrons. But the LCLS is the first...

290

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Vision Exposes Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

up exciting possibilities in the study of aerosol dynamics using highly focused X-ray lasers, such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). "Our study shows that LCLS can...

291

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems....

292

Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of...

293

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocko, B.M., Wen, K., Maoz, R., Cohen, H., and Sagiv, J. Non-destructive chemical modification of a preassembled silane multilayer: structural study by combined FTIR, x-ray...

294

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

its Solar X-ray/Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment (GRB) hasInstrument The Ulysses Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) instrument, hasrate due to a cosmic gamma-ray burst or a solar ?are, but we

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

297

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free-electron Laser Wednesday, October 2, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Kavli 3rd Floor Conference Room Robert Schoenlein, Lawrence...

298

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Research Ranks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

selected science "Breakthrough of the Year": the discovery of what appears to be the Higgs boson. Scientists aimed the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser at thousands of tiny...

299

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Reveal How Soil...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Researchers working at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have used powerful X-rays to help decipher how certain...

300

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Heat conduction in X-ray clusters: Spitzer over 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective heat conduction in a random variable magnetic field should be equal to one third of the Spitzer's value. Recent observations indicate that this heat conduction is sufficient to account for the bremsstrahlung in cooling X-ray clusters.

Andrei Gruzinov

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

302

Calibration of High-Resolution X-Ray Tomography With ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The x-ray attenuation of the sample at this energy was close to the ... J. Coal Geol. ... G. Xu, DE Eastman, I. McNulty, SP Frigo, Y. Wang, CC Retsch, IC ...

2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

303

Argonne TDC: Large Area CCD X-Ray Detector  

Large-Area CCD X-Ray Detector Opening Up New Horizons in the Study of Cellular and Metabolic Processes, Genetics, and Drug Development 2000 R&D 100 Award Winner!

304

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

305

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Takes Aim...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Takes Aim at Cosmic Mystery December 12, 2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Scientists have used powerful X-rays from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the U.S. Department of...

306

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Sees Photosynthesis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new window on the way plants generate the oxygen we breathe, researchers used an X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to...

307

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Brings Cellular...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a March experiment indicates it has, for the first time, used an X-ray free-electron laser - SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source - to reconstitute the structure of a G...

308

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. R. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy: A newwith the scanning transmission X-ray microscope at BESSY II.T. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging of

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Argonne CNM Highlight: World?s Most Precise ?Hard X-Ray?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

World's Most Precise "Hard X-Ray" Nanoprobe Activated X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the front end window of the nanoprobe beamline. X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the...

310

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals The mission of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) is to enable and perform world class research using x-rays. This mission is accomplished...

311

Apparatus for obtaining an X-ray image  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A computed tomography apparatus in which a fan-shaped X-ray beam is caused to pass through a section of an object, enabling absorption detection on the opposite side of the object by a detector comprising a plurality of discrete detector elements. An electron beam generating the X-ray beam by impacting upon a target is caused to rotate over the target.

Watanabe, Eiji (Tokyo, JP)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

X-ray streak and framing camera techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews recent developments and applications of ultrafast diagnostic techniques for x-ray measurements. These techniques, based on applications of image converter devices, are already capable of significantly important resolution capabilities. Techniques capable of time resolution in the sub-nanosecond regime are being considered. Mechanical cameras are excluded from considerations as are devices using phosphors or fluors as x-ray converters.

Coleman, L.W.; Attwood, D.T.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

313

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that the soft X-ray excesses observed in many Seyfert galaxies may be composed of similar emission features. Modelling the RGS spectra in terms of emission from photoionized and photoexcited gas in an ionization cone reproduces all of the hydrogen-like and helium-like emission features observed in the soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 in detail and confirms the correspondence between the soft X-ray emission in NGC 4151 and NGC 1068.

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

314

Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation specroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

Sandy, A.R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Narayanan, S.; Sprung, M.; Su, J.D; Isakovic, A.F.; Stein, A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

316

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

317

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

318

X-ray emission from colliding laser plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Colliding Au, CD and Ti-Cr plasmas have been generated by illuminating two opposing foils each with a {approximately} 100J, 0.5 nsec, 2{omega} Nd-glass laser beam from the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos. The plasmas are being used to study plasma interactions which span the parameter regime from interpenetrating to collisional stagnation. X-ray emission during the laser target interaction and the subsequent collision is used to diagnose the initial plasma conditions and the colliding plasma properties. X-ray instrumentation consists of a 100 ps gated x-ray pinhole imager, a time-integratcd bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrograph and a gated x-ray spectrograph used to record isoelectronic spectra from the Ti-Cr plasmas. The imager has obtained multi-frame images of the collision and therefore, a measure of the stagnation length which is a function of the ion charge state and density and a strong function of the electron temperature. Other instrumentation includes a Thomson scattering spectrometer with probe beam, neutron detectors used to monitor the CD coated foil collisions and an ion spectrometer. We will describe the current status of the experiments and current results with emphasis on the x-ray emission diagnostics. We will also briefly describe the modeling using Lasnex and ISIS, a particle-in-cell code with massless fluid electrons and inter particle (classical) collisions.

Wilke, M.; Obst, A.W.; Winske, D. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Quiet Sun X-rays as Signature for New Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied published data from the Yohkoh solar X-ray mission, with the purpose of searching for signals from radiative decays of new, as yet undiscovered massive neutral particles. This search is based on the prediction that solar axions of the Kaluza-Klein type should result in the emission of X-rays from the Sun direction beyond the limb with a characteristic radial distribution. These X-rays should be observed more easily during periods of quiet Sun. An additional signature is the observed emission of hard X-rays by SMM, NEAR and RHESSI. The recent observation made by RHESSI of a continuous emission from the non-flaring Sun of X-rays in the 3 to ~15 keV range fits the generic axion scenario. This work also suggests new analyses of existing data, in order to exclude instrumental effects; it provides the rationale for targeted observations with present and upcoming (solar) X-ray telescopes, which can provide the final answer on the nature of the signals considered here. Such measurements become more promising during the forthcoming solar cycle minimum with an increased number of quiet Sun periods.

K. Zioutas; K. Dennerl; L. DiLella; D. H. H. Hoffmann; J. Jacoby; Th. Papaevangelou

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF  

SciTech Connect

As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Nagel, S. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Felker, B.; Smith, R. F.; Collins, G. W.; Jones, O. S.; Piston, K.; Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Title Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Publication Type...

322

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

323

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

324

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

325

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

326

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

327

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

328

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

329

Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Water destruction by X-rays in young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the H2O chemistry in star-forming environments under the influence of a central X-ray source and a central far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The gas-phase water chemistry is modeled as a function of time, hydrogen density and X-ray flux. To cover a wide range of physical environments, densities between n_H = 10^4-10^9 cm^-3 and temperatures between T = 10-1000 K are studied. Three different regimes are found: For T water abundance is of order 10^-7-10^-6 and can be somewhat enhanced or reduced due to X-rays, depending on time and density. For 100 K 10^-3 ergs s-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^4 yrs) and for F_X > 10^-4 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^5 yrs). At higher temperatures (T > 250 K) and hydrogen densities, water can persist with x(H2O) ~ 10^-4 even for high X-ray fluxes. The X-ray and FUV models are applied to envelopes around low-mass Class 0 and I young stellar objects (YSOs). Water is destroyed in both Class 0 and I envelopes on relatively short timescales (t ~ 5000 yrs) for realistic X-ray fluxes, although the effect is less prominent in Class 0 envelopes due to the higher X-ray absorbing densities there. FUV photons from the central source are not effective in destroying water. The average water abundance in Class I sources for L_X > 10^27 ergs s^-1 is predicted to be x(H2O) < 10^-6.

P. Stauber; J. K. Jorgensen; E. F. van Dishoeck; S. D. Doty; A. O. Benz

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

331

X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from shock-compressed deuterium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray Thomson scattering has recently been shown to be an effective method of diagnosing a variety of high energy density plasma conditions. We apply this powerful technique to the widely studied problem of shock-compressed liquid deuterium. The behavior of deuterium under extreme conditions has received considerable attention due to its central role in models of giant planets and the importance of the high-pressure insulator-metal transition. We have used spectrally resolved x-ray scattering from electron-plasma waves to perform microscopic observations of ionization during compression. In these experiments, a single shock was launched in cryogenic deuterium reaching compressions of 3x. The 2 keV Ly-{alpha} line in silicon was used as an x-ray source in a forward scattering geometry. In addition to elastic scattering from tightly bound electrons, this low probe energy accessed the collective plasmon oscillations of delocalized electrons. Inelastic scattering from the plasmons allowed accurate measurements of the free electron density through the spectral position of the resonance and provided an estimate of the temperature through its ratio with the elastic feature. Combined with velocity interferometry from the reflective shock front, this lead to a direct determination of the ionization state. We compare the measured ionization conditions with computational models. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using this technique to determine electrical conductivity and to directly observe pressure-induced molecular dissociation along the Hugoniot.

Davis, P.; Doeppner, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Fortmann, C.; Unites, W.; Salmonson, J.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H. [University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements.

Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Contact Angle of the Colloidal Liquid-Gas Interface and a Hard Wall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij model of hard sphere colloids and ideal polymer coils in contact with a planar hard wall at (colloidal) liquid-gas coexistence. Using extensive numerical density functional calculations, the liquid-gas, wall-liquid and wall-gas interfacial free energies are calculated. The results are inserted into Young's equation to obtain the contact angle between the liquid-gas interface and the wall. As a function of polymer fugacity this angle exhibits discontinuities of slope (``kinks'') upon crossing first-order surface phase transitions located on the gas branch of the bulk binodal. Each kink corresponds to a transition from n-1 to $n$ colloid layers adsorbed at the wall, referred to as the n'th layering transition. The corresponding adsorption spinodal points from n-1 to n layers upon reducing the polymer fugacity along the bulk binodal were found in a previous study (J. M. Brader et al. J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 14: L1, 2002; Mol. Phys., 101: 3349, 2003). Remarkably, we find desorption spinodal points from n to n-1 layers to be absent upon increasing polymer fugacity at bulk coexistence, and many branches (containing up to 7 colloid layers) remain metastable. Results for the first layering binodal and both spinodal branches off-bulk coexistence hint at a topology of the surface phase diagram consistent with these findings. Both the order of the transition to complete wetting and whether it is preceded by a finite or an infinite number of layering transitions remain open questions. We compare the locations of the first layering binodal line and of the second layering binodal point at bulk coexistence with recent computer simulation results by Dijkstra and van Roij (Phys. Rev. Lett., 89: 208303, 2002) and discuss our results for the contact angle in the light of recent experiments.

Paul P. F. Wessels; Matthias Schmidt; Hartmut Lowen

2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

334

Neutron and X-Ray Scattering - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering Science Recent advances in neutron and x-ray scattering instrumentation at major DOE facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source and Advanced Photon Source provide unprecedented insights into complex phenomena in bulk and interfacial materials. The vision of our group is to harness the complementarity of neutrons and x-rays to study how materials respond on a range of length and time scales to phase competition, so that we can learn to control emergent behavior and generate functional properties in energy-related materials. We use neutrons and x-rays to investigate the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial materials with properties that are useful for energy applications, such as superconductivity, magnetism and thermoelectricity. Phase competition can generate or enhance such properties, but it is extremely challenging to characterize fluctuations in the competing order, whether in bulk disordered materials, or artificial heterostructures. Our goal is to utilize efficient techniques that we have been developing for measuring nanoscale phase fluctuations, both static and dynamic, to enable the rational design of new materials for energy within MSD.

335

Formation and destruction of jets in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state and history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, steady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state, the jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. On the other hand, jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Significant phenomenology has been accumulated so far regarding the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. Our aim is to investigate whether the phenomenology regarding the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put...

Kylafis, N D; Kazanas, D; Christodoulou, D M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment marks the basic unit for magnetic properties of matter. Magnetism, in particular ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism is described by a collective order of these spins, where the interaction between individual spins reflects a competition between exchange, anisotropy and dipolar energy terms. As a result the energetically favored ground state of a ferromagnetic system is a rather complex spin configuration, the magnetic domain structure. Magnetism is one of the eldest scientific phenomena, yet it is one of the most powerful and versatile utilized physical effects in modern technologies, such as in magnetic storage and sensor devices. To achieve highest storage density, the relevant length scales, such as the bit size in disk drives is now approaching the nanoscale and as such further developments have to deal with nanoscience phenomena. Advanced characterization tools are required to fully understand the underlying physical principles. Magnetic microscopes using polarized soft X-rays offer a close-up view into magnetism with unique features, these include elemental sensitivity due to X-ray magnetic dichroism effects as contrast mechanism, high spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art X-ray optics and fast time resolution limited by the inherent time structure of current X-ray sources, which will be overcome with the introduction of ultrafast and high brilliant X-ray sources.

Fischer, Peter

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

339

YOHKOH remnants: partially occulted flares in hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flares being partially occulted by the solar limb, are the best reservoir of our knowledge about hard X-ray loop-top sources. Recently, the survey of partially occulted flares observed by the RHESSI has been published (Krucker & Lin 2008). The extensive YOHKOH database still awaits such activities. This work is an attempt to fill this gap. Among from 1286 flares in the YOHKOH Hard X-ray Telescope Flare Catalogue, for which the hard X-ray images had been enclosed, we identified 98 events that occurred behind the solar limb. We investigated their hard X-ray spectra and spatial structure. We found that in most cases the hard X-ray spectrum of partially occulted flares consists of two components, non-thermal and thermal, which are co-spatial. The photon energy spectra of the partially occulted flares are systematically steeper than spectra of the non-occulted flares. Such a difference we explain as a consequence of intrinsically dissimilar conditions ruling in coronal parts of flares, in comparison with the f...

Tomczak, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive hard x-ray spectrometer with high-energy resolution and large solid angle collection is described. The instrument is specifically designed for time-resolved applications of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) at X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. It also simplifies resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) studies of the whole 2d RIXS plane. The spectrometer is based on the Von Hamos geometry. This dispersive setup enables an XES or XRS spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode, overcoming the scanning needs of the Rowland circle spectrometers. In conjunction with the XFEL temporal profile and high-flux, it is a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of time-dependent systems. Photo-induced processes and fast catalytic reaction kinetics, ranging from femtoseconds to milliseconds, will be resolvable in a wide array of systems circumventing radiation damage.

Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Montanez, Paul; Delor, James; Bergmann, Uwe [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States); Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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341

The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

Ultrafast x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Temporally, spectrally, and spatially resolved x-ray emission diagnostics are important tools in the study of the heating and compression of laser fusion targets by sub-nanosecond laser pulses. The use of the Livermore 15 psec resolution x-ray streak camera to make such measurements is reviewed. Temporal histories of spectrally resolved x-ray emission in the 1 to 10 keV range have been obtained. These data have served to further define the x-ray streak camera as a quantative diagnostic tool and have also provided data relating to the absorption and compression phases of laser heating. The x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with a specially designed pinhole imaging system to temporally record images of laser compressed targets with a spatial resolution of approximately 6 ..mu..m. Implosion characteristics are presented for experiments with glass microshell targets. The concept, development, and testing of an ultrafast framing camera for full two-dimensional time resolved imaging is discussed. A prototype camera, based on the image dissection-restoration concept, has achieved an approximately 200 psec frame period with a resolution of 50 ..mu..m.

Coleman, L.W.

1976-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

343

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ?100-1000 km s ?1, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV spectrum of NGC 4151 (Kriss et al. 1995), suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics from the observed helium-like triplets, imply a range of electron temperatures of ?1-5×10 4 K and electron densities of between 10 8-10 10 cm ?3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, both in terms of the atomic species present and in terms of the relative strengths

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that th...

Schurch, N J; Griffiths, R E; Kahn, S M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BioCAT BioCAT X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion Photo credit: Michael Dickinson Watching flies fly may not seem like high-tech science, but for researchers using the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant X-rays, from the Advanced Photon Source located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, it not only helps explain how insects fly but also may someday aid in understanding human heart function. The researchers, from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Caltech and the University of Vermont, merged two distinct technologies, intense X-ray beams and electronic flight simulators, to study how insect muscles can generate such extraordinary levels of power. The results are published in the the January 20,. 2005, issue of the journal Nature.

348

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging (XMI) Imaging (XMI) About XMI Science and Research Beamlines Highlights Software and Tools Intranet Search APS... Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Contacts FAQs Beamlines News Publications APS Email Portal APS Intranet APS Phonebook APS Quick Links for Users APS Safety and Training Welcome to the X-ray Microscopy and Imaging group (XMI)! X-ray Microscopy and Imaging is part of the X-ray Science Division at the Advanced Photon Source. We develop and support a diverse and multidisciplinary user research program at Sectors 2 and 32 of the APS, with the overall goal to image and study materials structures at spatial and temporal resolutions that are most scientifically relevant to the cutting-edge advances in materials, biological, environmental, and biomedical sciences. To achieve this goal, we actively engage in various research activities including

349

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS WORLD-LEADING MICROFOCUSED EXAFS SPECTROSCOPY * XFM is an optimized three-pole wiggler beamline for the characterization of materials in an "as-is" state that are chemically heterogeneous at the micrometer scale via synchrotron induced X-ray fluorescence. * XFM includes instrumentation for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (µXRF), diffraction (µXRD) and fluorescence computed microtomography (FCMT) . However, it is optimized to provide users state-of-the-art microfocused Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (µEXAFS) spectroscopy between 4 to 20 keV. * XFM will trade-off beam size and flux for sample configuration flexibility. This includes more readily achievable stability

350

Experiment Hazard Class 8.3 - X-Ray Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 - X-Ray Generators 3 - X-Ray Generators Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving the use of X-Ray Generators (other than the APS storage ring). As specified in LMS-PROC-109 a Radiation Generating Device (RGD) must be registered with the Argonne RGD Safety Officer using the ANL-847 form. The RGD will be assigned an inventory number, hazard class, RWP requirement, and inspection and survey frequencies. Experiment Category Experiments the Experiment Hazard Class are always categorized as High Risk. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements Engineered Controls - As determined in LMS-PROC-109. Samples chambers and all beam paths are fully enclosed by barriers. Class 2 and higher RGDs require an interlock to fail-safe beam shutter/beam stop or radiation

351

Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.

Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E.; Anderson, E.H.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

An X-ray photometry system I: Chandra ACIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a system of X-ray photometry for the Chandra satellite. X-ray photometry can be a powerful tool to obtain flux estimates, hardness ratios, and colors unbiased by assumptions about spectral shape and independent of temporal and spatial changes in instrument characteristics. The system we have developed relies on our knowledge of effective area and the energy-to-channel conversion to construct filters similar to photometric filters in the optical bandpass. We show that the filters are well behaved functions of energy and that this X-ray photometric system is able to reconstruct fluxes to within about 20%, without color corrections, for non-pathological spectra. Even in the worst cases it is better than 50%. Our method also treats errors in a consistent manner, both statistical as well as systematic.

Grimm, H -J; Fabbiano, G; Elvis, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bonded multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard x-rays.  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi{sub 2} and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 {micro}m wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays.

Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.; Advanced Photonics Research Institute; Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

354

X-ray and Optical Filaments in M87  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare a very deep X-ray image of M87, at the center of the Virgo Cluster, to high-quality optical images of the low excitation emission-line gas in the same region. There are striking coincidences of detail between the two. We explore the possiblity that this represents a thermal interaction between hot gas at 10^7 K and warm gas at 10^4 K. We find two temperatures are present in the X-ray gas, with the lower more prevelant in the vicinity of the optical filaments. Electron conduction from the hot phase to the cooler one provides a quantitatively acceptable energy source for the optical filaments, and we show additionally that it can do so for the brightest X-ray cluster, Perseus. If operative, conduction in the presence of gas-rich galaxy mergers, may explain the presence of "cool cores" in clusters of galaxies.

William B. Sparks; Megan Donahue; Andres Jordan; Laura Ferrarese; Patrick Cote

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

355

Composite structure development decisions using X-ray CT measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides measurement data useful for making composite manufacturing development decisions. X-ray CT measurements of material characteristics are quantitative in terms of the dimensions, density, and composition. The CT data on internal conditions, such as consolidation, gaps, delaminations, cracks, porosity and detail placement can be applied to the refinement of production techniques for composite manufacture. The key item of interest is the effect of variations in pressure loading, temperature, mold shape, material surface preparation, and bond layer thickness on the resulting consolidation or bondline quality in new composite manufacturing processes. X-ray CT measurements of densification and defect presence as a function of technique parameters are of critical importance to processes such as resin transfer molding, injection molding, composite welding, composite layup and advanced bonding methods.

Bossi, R.H.; Georgeson, G.E. [Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Use of X-Ray Microbeams in Materials Science  

SciTech Connect

Most materials are heterogeneous on mesoscopic length scales (tenths-to-tens of microns), and materials properties depend critically on mesoscopic structures such as grain sizes, texture, and impurities. The recent availability of intense, focused x-ray microbeams at synchrotron facilities has enabled new techniques for mesoscale materials characterization. We describe instrumentation and experiments on the MHATT-CAT and UNICAT undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source which use micron and submicron-size x-ray beams to investigate the grain orientation, local strain and defect content in a variety of materials of technological interest. Results from a combinatorial study on epitaxial growth of oxide films on textured metal substrates will be described to illustrate x-ray microbeam capabilities.

Budai, J.D.; Chung, J.-S.; Ice, G.E.; Larson, B.C.; Lowe, W.P.; Norton, D.P.; Tamura, N.; Tischler, J.Z.; Williams, E.L.; Yoon, M.; Zschack, P.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

357

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

358

Laser assisted Compton scattering of X-ray photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compton scattering of X-ray photons, assisted by a short intense optical laser pulse is discussed. The differential scattering cross section reveals the interesting feature that the main Klein-Nishina line is accompanied by a series of side-lines forming a broad plateau where up to ${\\cal O} (10^3)$ laser photons participate simultaneously in a single scattering event. Due to the non-linear mixing of X-ray and laser photons a frequency dependent rotation of the polarization of the final state photons relative to the scattering plane emerges. A consistent description of the scattering process with short laser pulses requires to work with X-ray pulses. An experimental investigation can be accomplished, e.g., at LCLS or the European XFEL in the near future.

D. Seipt; B. Kampfer

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

359

Explosive hydrogen burning during type I X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive hydrogen burning in type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) comprise charged particle reactions creating isotopes with masses up to A~100. Since charged particle reactions in a stellar environment are very temperature sensitive, we use a realistic time-dependent general relativistic and self-consistent model of type I x-ray bursts to provide accurate values of the burst temperatures and densities. This allows a detailed and accurate time-dependent identification of the reaction flow from the surface layers through the convective region and the ignition region to the neutron star ocean. Using this, we determine the relative importance of specific nuclear reactions in the X-ray burst.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Hendrik Schatz; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

On burning regimes and long duration X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and helium accreted onto a neutron star undergo thermonuclear burning. Explosive burning is observed as a type I X-ray burst. We describe the different burning regimes and focus on some of the current inconsistencies between theory and observations. Of special interest are the rare kinds of X-ray bursts such as carbon-fueled superbursts and helium-fueled intermediately long X-ray bursts. These bursts are thought to originate deeper in the neutron star envelope, such that they are probes of the thermal properties of the crust. We investigate the possibility of observing superbursts with the wide-field instruments INTEGRAL-ISGRI and Swift-BAT. We find that only the brightest bursts are detectable.

L. Keek; J. J. M. in 't Zand

2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract “Rotating RAdio Transients ” (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

Bryan M. Gaensler; Maura Mclaughlin; Stephen Reynolds Kazik; Borkowski N; Burgay Fern; Andrew Lyne; Ingrid Stairs; B. M. Gaensler; S. Chatterjee; M. Mclaughlin; S. Reynolds; K. Borkowski; N. Rea; A. Possenti; M. Burgay; Osservatorio Astronomico Di Roma; F. Camilo; M. Kramer; A. Lyne

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope XPD is a tunable facility with the ability to collect diffraction data at high x-ray energies (40keV-80keV), offering rapid acquisition (millisecond) and high angular resolution capabilities on the same instrument. XPD addresses future scientific challenges in, for example, hydrogen storage, CO2 sequestration, advanced structural ceramics, catalysis, and materials processing. Such materials of high technological value often are complex, nanostructured and heterogeneous. The scientific grand challenge is to obtain robust and quantitative (micro)structural information, not only in the ground state at ambient conditions, but also in situ or in operando with varying temperature, pressure, magnetic/electric/stress

363

Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Beamlines Time-Resolved Beamlines Advisory Committee Workshop Home Workshop Chairs: Lin Chen (Argonne National Laboratory) Steve Milton (Advanced Photon Source) David Reis (University of Michigan) Linda Young (Argonne National Laboratory) Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques August 29 September 1, 2004, The Abbey, Fontana, Lake Geneva Area, Wisconsin A workshop on "Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques" was held from August 29 September 1, 2004 , welcoming both experts and beginners in the field. This is one of the concurrently held workshops in the series on "Future Scientific Directions for the Advanced Photon Source." The goal of the workshop was to identify future directions in scientific research using time resolved x-ray techniques and to address possiblities to produce ps

364

X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

Dane V. Morgan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector A Dissertation Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector by Benjamin Hornberger Doctor. In the hard x-ray range (multi-keV), the main focus lies on trace ele- ment mapping by x-ray fluorescence

366

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu, we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtained the time derivative of soft X-rays and 14­20 keV hard X-rays, i.e., the Neupert effect, in about one

367

X-ray Diagnostics of Broad Absorption Line Quasar Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new generation of sensitive X-ray measurements are indicating that the existence of X-ray attenuation column densities, $N_{H}>10^{24}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ is quite common amongst broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). This is significant to the geometry of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow. In particular, such an X-ray shield also shields equatorial accretion disk winds from the UV, thereby preventing high velocity equatorial outflows from being launched. By contrast, bipolar winds initiated by continuum radiation pressure from the funnel of a slim accretion disk flare outward (like a trumpet) and offer vastly different absorbing columns to the X-ray and UV emission which are emitted from distinct regions of the disk, $\\sim 6M$ and $\\sim 10M-40M$, respectively (where $M$ is the radius of the black hole). Recent numerical work indicates that it is also possible to launch bipolar outflows from the inner regions of a thin disk. The recent discovery with VLBI that the Galactic analog of a BALQSO, the X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (with high velocity P Cygni X-ray absorption lines) is viewed virtually along the radio jet axis (and therefore along the spin axis of the black hole and the normal to the accretion disk) has rekindled interest in the bipolar models of BALQSOs. We explore this possibility by studying the nearest BAL QSO, MRK 231. High resolution 2-D optical spectroscopy and VLBI mappings of the radio jet axis indicates that the BAL outflow is parallel to the parsec scale radio jet.

Brian Punsly; Sebastian Lipari

2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

368

Concave Accretion Discs and X-ray Reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly a fraction of the cosmological X-ray background. There is some observational motivation to at least consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $\\gsim 1/2$ in some Seyferts and possibly in the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons, but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by Doppler and gravitational effects. If the X-ray source is isotropic, the reprocessed fraction is directly determined by the concavity. If the X-ray source is anisotropic, the location of iron line peak can still be determined by concavity but the total reflected fraction need not be as large as for the isotropic emitter case. The geometric calculations herein are applicable to general accretion disc systems illuminated from the center.

Eric G. Blackman

1999-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electronic Structure of Dense Plasmas by X-Ray Scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an improved analytical expression for the x-ray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret x-ray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equation-of-state models for carbon plasmas.

Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rogers, F J; Pollaine, S M; Froula, D H; Blancard, C; Faussurier, G; Renaudin, P; Kuhlbrodt, S; Redmer, R; Landen, O L

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

X-ray Time Lags in TeV Blazars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck simulations to study the X-ray time lags. Our results show that soft lags will be observed as long as the decay of the flare is dominated by radiative cooling, even when acceleration and cooling timescales are similar. Hard lags can be produced in presence of a competitive achromatic particle energy loss mechanism if the acceleration process operates on a timescale such that particles are slowly moved towards higher energy while the flare evolves. In this type of scenario, the {\\gamma} -ray/X-ray quadratic relation is also reproduced.

Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Böttcher, Markus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

Galayda, John; /SLAC

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

373

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

Logan, C.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Opportunities for X-ray Science in Future Computing Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world of computing continues to evolve rapidly. In just the past 10 years, we have seen the emergence of petascale supercomputing, cloud computing that provides on-demand computing and storage with considerable economies of scale, software-as-a-service methods that permit outsourcing of complex processes, and grid computing that enables federation of resources across institutional boundaries. These trends show no sign of slowing down. The next 10 years will surely see exascale, new cloud offerings, and other terabit networks. This talk reviews various of these developments and discusses their potential implications for x-ray science and x-ray facilities.

Foster, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars.

Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF CDZNTE CRYSTALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be used for the room temperature-based detection of {gamma}-radiation. Structural/morphological heterogeneities within CZT, such as twinning, inclusions, and polycrystallinity can affect detector performance. We used a synchrotron-based X-ray technique, specifically extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, to determine whether there are differences on a local structural level between intact CZT of high and low radiation detector performance. These studies were complemented by data on radiation detector performance and transmission IR imaging. The EXAFS studies revealed no detectable local structural differences between the two types of CZT materials.

Duff, M

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

X-ray absorption signatures of the molecular environment in water and ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, including the small effects of temperature change in the liquid, are quantitatively reproduced from molecular configurations generated by ab-initio molecular dynamics. The spectral difference between the solid and the liquid is due to two major short range order effects. One, due to breaking of hydrogen bonds, enhances the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other, due to a non-bonded molecular fraction in the first coordination shell, affects the main spectral edge in the conversion of ice to water. This effect may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice.

Wei Chen; Xifan Wu; Roberto Car

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

379

Supporting Material for: Capillary-like Fluctuations of a Solid-Liquid Interface in a Non-Cohesive Granular System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this supplementary paper we present some details on the solid-liquid interface detection, the deduction of the non-equilibrium free energy, the analysis of the granular temperature and energy per mode, a validation of the small slope approximation, a description of the Langevin dynamics, and the error analysis.

Li-Hua Luu; Gustavo Castillo; Nicolás Mujica; Rodrigo Soto

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

380

Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper K{alpha} and K{beta} lines by using a flat {alpha}-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd [Photonic Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karami, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for sub-cellular metal quantification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for subSurface Science Laboratory at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France Abstract Hard X of the details of cells are undetectable in hard X-ray microscopy due to the weak absorption contrast between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Restoration of X-ray fluorescence images of hidden paintings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes our methods for repairing and restoring images of hidden paintings (paintings that have been painted over and are now covered by a new surface painting) that have been obtained via noninvasive X-ray fluorescence imaging of their ... Keywords: Art restoration, Artifact correction, Image restoration, Underdetermined source separation

Anila Anitha; Andrei Brasoveanu; Marco Duarte; Shannon Hughes; Ingrid Daubechies; Joris Dik; Koen Janssens; Matthias Alfeld

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique over the last 50 years is traced. The fundamentals of this technique and ways to implement it experimentally are considered, and its potential for studying the real structure of crystals is analyzed in detail.

Lider, V. V., E-mail: lider@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

387

Calibration of X-ray absorption in our Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction of the soft X-ray absorption along lines of sight through our Galaxy is crucial for understanding the spectra of extragalactic sources, but requires a good estimate of the foreground column density of photoelectric absorbing species. Assuming uniform elemental abundances this reduces to having a good estimate of the total hydrogen column density, N(Htot)=N(HI)+2N(H2). The atomic component, N(HI), is reliably provided using the mapped 21 cm radio emission but estimating the molecular hydrogen column density, N(H2), expected for any particular direction, is difficult. The X-ray afterglows of GRBs are ideal sources to probe X-ray absorption in our Galaxy because they are extragalactic, numerous, bright, have simple spectra and occur randomly across the entire sky. We describe an empirical method, utilizing 493 afterglows detected by the Swift XRT, to determine N(Htot) through the Milky Way which provides an improved estimate of the X-ray absorption in our Galaxy and thereby leads to more reliable meas...

Willingale, R; Beardmore, A P; Tanvir, N R; O'Brien, P T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Concave accretion discs and X-ray reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly of the cosmological X-ray background. However, there is observational motivation to consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $> 1$ in individual Seyferts and the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a strong dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by D...

Blackman, E G

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Shaping X-rays by diffractive coded nano-optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report results obtained in the fabrication and use of novel coded diffractive nano-optics that, beyond focusing, can perform new optical functions. In particular, the intensity of light in the space beyond the optical elements can be ... Keywords: X-ray beamshaping, coded diffractive optical element, nano-optics

E. Di Fabrizio; S. Cabrini; D. Cojoc; F. Romanato; L. Businaro; M. Altissimo; B. Kaulich; T. Wilhein; J. Susini; M. De Vittorio; E. Vitale; G. Gigli; R. Cingolani

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines  

SciTech Connect

A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.  

SciTech Connect

Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C. (L-3 Pulse Sciences)

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

Nilsen, J.

1991-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

393

High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy Microstructure Mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P1-04: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear ... P1-15: Gating System Optimisation Design Study of a Cast Automobile ... P2-27: Characterization of Carbonate Rocks through X-ray Microtomography.

394

Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode  

SciTech Connect

The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

K. Sun, L. MacNeil

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

X-ray astronomy in the new Millenium. A Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent X-ray observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from protostars to cosmology. They have also drawn attention to important and general physical processes that currently limit our understanding of thermal and nonthermal X-ray sources. These include unmeasured atomic astrophysics data (wavelengths, oscillator strengths etc.), basic hydromagnetic processes (e.g. shock structure, reconnection), plasma processes (such as electron-ion equipartition and heat conduction) and radiative transfer (in disks and accretion columns). Progress on these problems will probably come from integrative studies that draw upon observations, throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, of different classes of source. X-ray observations are also giving a new perspective on astronomical subjects, like the nature of galactic nuclei and the evolution of stellar populations. They are contributing to answering central cosmological questions including the measurement of the matter content of the universe, understanding its overall luminosity density, describing its chemical evolution and locating the first luminous objects. X-ray astronomy has a healthy future with several international space missions under construction and in development.

Roger Blandford

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

397

X-ray Diffraction Crystal Calibration and Characterization  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies’ X-ray Laboratory is comprised of a multi-anode Manson type source and a Henke type source that incorporates a dual goniometer and XYZ translation stage. The first goniometer is used to isolate a particular spectral band. The Manson operates up to 10 kV and the Henke up to 20 kV. The Henke rotation stages and translation stages are automated. Procedures have been developed to characterize and calibrate various NIF diagnostics and their components. The diagnostics include X-ray cameras, gated imagers, streak cameras, and other X-ray imaging systems. Components that have been analyzed include filters, filter arrays, grazing incidence mirrors, and various crystals, both flat and curved. Recent efforts on the Henke system are aimed at characterizing and calibrating imaging crystals and curved crystals used as the major component of an X-ray spectrometer. The presentation will concentrate on these results. The work has been done at energies ranging from 3 keV to 16 keV. The major goal was to evaluate the performance quality of the crystal for its intended application. For the imaging crystals we measured the laser beam reflection offset from the X-ray beam and the reflectivity curves. For the curved spectrometer crystal, which was a natural crystal, resolving power was critical. It was first necessary to find sources of crystals that had sufficiently narrow reflectivity curves. It was then necessary to determine which crystals retained their resolving power after being thinned and glued to a curved substrate.

Michael J. Haugh; Richard Stewart; Nathan Kugland

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics along with novel methodology has made it possible to extract information that is related to different interactions between the X-rays and the specimen at very fine spatial resolution. The energy tunability of the X-rays has made it possible to combine the energy scan with imaging technique. And the brilliance of the X-ray source has made it practical for many sophisticated

399

Gas Bubbles and Gas Pancakes at Liquid/Solid Interface: A Continuum Theory Incorporated with Molecular Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The states of gas accumulated at the liquid-solid interface are analyzed based on the continuum theory where the Hamaker constant is used to describe the long-range interaction at the microscopic scale. The Hamaker constant is always negative, whereas the gas spreading coefficient can be either sign. Despite the complexity of gas, including that the density profile may not be uniform due to absorption on both solid and liquid surfaces, we predict three possible gas states at the liquid-solid interface, i.e. complete wetting, partial wetting and pseudopartial wetting. These possible gas states correspond respectively to a gas pancake (or film) surrounded by a wet solid, a gas bubble with a finite contact angle, and a gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas pancake. Typical thickness of the gas pancakes is at the nanoscale within the force range of the long-range interaction, whereas the radius of the gas bubbles can be large. The state of gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas film is predicted theoretically for the first time. Our theoretical results can contribute to the development of a unified picture of gas nucleation at the liquid-solid interface.

Zhaoxia Li; Xuehua Zhang; Lijuan Zhang; Xiaocheng Zeng; Jun Hu; Haiping Fang

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

Blumberg, L.N.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Engesser Strasse 15, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely that such a device can be constructed. The output radiation predicted for this type of source will be characterized by full transverse coherence, extreme pulse brevity (~50-100 fs), high peak power (10-100 GW), and very high unfocused peak power density (0.4-4.1013

403

X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism MAY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share By observing changes in coherent x-ray speckle pattern, such as the one shown above, researchers are able for the first time to investigate nanoscale dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls, and observe a cross over from classical to quantum behavior. (Credit: O. Shpyrko)

404

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials ranging from massive steel girders to the microscopic aluminum wires in computer chips are made of grains - tiny crystals with diameters measured in millionths of a meter (microns). If scientists could "see" these individual grains, they could determine their orientation, as well as the effects of stress and chemical activity on them. They might also be able to determine how best to jam more circuits together in microelectronic components, making them smaller and faster, so computers could perform complex functions - such as speech recognition - more quickly. They could also find out to what extent grains of a superconducting material mimic the alignment of the substrate on which the material is grown; discovery of

405

A New Measurement of Kaonic Hydrogen X rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $\\bar{K}N$ system at threshold is a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD, especially for the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Therefore, we have measured the $K$-series x rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms at the DA$\\Phi$NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and have determined the most precise values of the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the $1s$ atomic state. As x-ray detectors, we used large-area silicon drift detectors having excellent energy and timing resolution, which were developed especially for the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift and width were determined to be $\\epsilon_{1s} = -283 \\pm 36 \\pm 6 {(syst)}$ eV and $\\Gamma_{1s} = 541 \\pm 89 {(stat)} \\pm 22 {(syst)}$ eV, respectively. The new values will provide vital constraints on the theoretical description of the low-energy $\\bar{K}N$ interaction.

M. Bazzi; G. Beer; L. Bombelli; A. M. Bragadireanu; M. Cargnelli; G. Corradi; C. Curceanu; A. d'Uffizi; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; F. Ghio; B. Girolami; C. Guaraldo; R. S. Hayano; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Iwasaki; P. Kienle; P. Levi Sandri; A. Longoni; V. Lucherini; J. Marton; S. Okada; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; A. Rizzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. L. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; H. Tatsuno; A. Tudorache; V. Tudorache; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

406

Segmentation of x-ray images using Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling  

SciTech Connect

Segmentation is a process of separating objects of interest from their background or from other objects in an image. Without a suitable segmentation scheme, it is very difficult to detect contraband in X-rays images. In this paper, a Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling (PRL) segmentation scheme is presented and compared with other segmentation methods. PRL segmentation is an interative algorithm that labels each pixel in an image by cooperative use of two information sources: the pixel probability and the degree of certainty of its probability supported by the neighboring pixels. The practical implementation and results of the PRL segmentation on X-ray baggage images are also discussed and compared with other segmentation methods. 13 refs., 12 figs.

Thai, T.Q.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Search for serendipitous TNO occultation in X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To study the population properties of small, remote objects beyond Neptune's orbit in the outer solar system, of kilometer size or smaller, serendipitous occultation search is so far the only way. For hectometer-sized Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), optical shadows actually disappear because of diffraction. Observations at shorter wave lengths are needed. Here we report the effort of TNO occultation search in X-rays using RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken from June 2007 to October 2011. No definite TNO occultation events were found in the 334 ks data. We investigate the detection efficiency dependence on the TNO size to better define the sensible size range of our approach and suggest upper limits to the TNO size distribution in the size range from 30 m to 300 m. A list of X-ray sources suitable for future larger facilities to observe is proposed.

Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chen, Kuan-Ting

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre' , Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

LCLS - The X-ray Laser Has Turned On  

SciTech Connect

On April 10, 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser, was brought to lasing. Producing an x-ray beam with over a billion times higher peak brightness that then most powerful existing syncrotron sources, it marked the beginning of a new era of science. The LCLS pulses arrive at a rate of 60 - 120 Hz in an energy range from 480 eV to 10 keV, with pulse lengths as short as a few fs to about 300 fs. Since October 2009, users have been performing experiments at the LCLS, and currently three of the six planned instruments are available. Although we stand only at the beginning of LCLS science, there is no doubt about the strong sense of early excitement.

Bergmann, Uwe [Linac Coherent Light Source

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

410

Rapid determination of uranium by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a method for rapidly determining the amount of uranium using x-ray fluorescence. We add an aliquot of sample solution plus the internal standard element, yttrium, to a 10-ml volumetric flask. We transfer this solution to an x-ray cell and read the L..cap alpha..1 line of uranium and the K..cap alpha..1 line of yttrium. We then compare the ratio of uranium to yttrium for the sample with the ratios obtained from standards. This rapid, highly accurate procedure has a relative standard deviation of 0.69% for samples containing 1 to 5 mg U/ml. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Martell, C.J.; Hansel, J.M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

X-ray absorption studies of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

McBreen, J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer ``wavetrap`` deposited over the surface of a layered synthetic microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 {Angstrom} wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 {Angstrom} has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, their number and distance for the ``wavetrap.``

Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.W.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomographic Nanoimaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron-based full-field tomographic microscopy established itself as a tool for noninvasive investigations. Many beamlines worldwide routinely achieve micrometer spatial resolution while the isotropic 100-nm barrier is reached and trespassed only by few instruments, mainly in the soft x-ray regime. We present an x-ray, full-field microscope with tomographic capabilities operating at 10 keV and with a 3D isotropic resolution of 144 nm recently installed at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Custom optical components, including a beam-shaping condenser and phase-shifting dot arrays, were used to obtain an ideal, aperture-matched sample illumination and very sensitive phase-contrast imaging. The instrument has been successfully used for the nondestructive, volumetric investigation of single, unstained cells.

Stampanoni, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Marone, F.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gorelick, S.; David, C.; Mokso, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trtik, P.; Jefimovs, K. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

An X-ray Polarimeter for Constellation-X  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarimetry remains a largely unexploited technique in observational X-ray astronomy which could provide insight in the study of the strong gravity and magnetic fields at the core of the Constellation-X observational program. Adding a polarization capability to the Constellation-X instrumentation would be immensely powerful. It would make Constellation the first space observatory to simultaneously measure all astrophysically relevant parameters of source X-ray photons; their position (imaging), energy (spectroscopy), arrival time (timing), and polarization. Astrophysical polarimetry requires sensitive well-calibrated instruments. Many exciting objects are extra-galactic (i.e. faint) and may have small polarization. Recent advances in efficiency and bandpass make it attractive to consider a polarimetry Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation-X mission.

K. Jahoda; K. Black; P. Deines-Jones; J. E. Hill; T. Kallman; T. Strohmayer; J. H. Swank

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

416

Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Studies of Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superconductors hold the promise for a more stable and efficient electrical grid, but new isotropic, high-temperature superconductors are needed in order to reduce cable manufacturing costs. The effort to understand high-temperature superconductivity, especially in the layered cuprates, provides guidance to the search for new superconductors. Neutron scattering has long provided an important probe of the collective excitations that are involved in the pairing mechanism. For the cuprates, neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques also provide information on competing types of order, such as charge and spin stripes, that appear to be closely connected to the superconductivity. Recently, inelastic x-ray scattering has become competitive for studying phonons and may soon provide valuable information on electronic excitations. Examples of how these techniques contribute to our understanding of superconductivity are presented.

Tranquada,J.M.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic K? lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K? line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

418

ON THE TRUE SHAPE OF X-RAY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

A method for obtaining the true shape of x-ray spectra was developed for the particular case of dispersive distortions. The method is of value in the correction of the shape of the spectrum for the distortion introduced by the outside level of the atom and in showing the correct shape of the energy dependence of the density of states n(E)p(E) where p(E) is the probability of the corresponding transition. (J.S.R.)

Blokhin, M.A.

1956-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Nuclear transitions induced by synchrotron x-rays.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss two rare but interesting processes by which synchrotron x-rays with energies up to about 100 keV may be used to induce nuclear transitions. In the NEET (Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition) process, an intense x-ray beam is employed to make vacancies, e.g. K-holes, in the atoms of a specific nuclear isotope. When a vacancy is filled by an electronic transition from a higher atomic level, there is some probability that instead of the usual x-ray or Auger emission, the nucleus of the atom itself will be excited. This is then followed by a nuclear decay exhibiting characteristic gamma-rays or other types of radiation, with time delays typical of the nuclear states involved. The probability for NEET increases when the energies of the atomic and the nuclear transitions become close. We address some theoretical aspects of the process and describe experimental efforts to observe it in {sup 189}Os and {sup 197}Au. The second process to be discussed is the possibility of ''triggering'' the decay of a nuclear isomer by irradiation with an x-ray beam. We focus on the case of the 31-year, 2.4-MeV, 16+ isomer of {sup 178}Hf. There has been speculation that if one could isolate gram quantities, say, of this isomer and then have the capability to accelerate its decay in a controlled way, one would have a powerful triggerable source of enormous energy. This could be used to generate explosions, for rapid irradiations, or for more general energy-storage applications, depending on the rate of energy release. We describe attempts to observe this process.

Gemmell, D. S.

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

420

X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

X-ray Flares in Orion Low Mass Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. X-ray flares are common phenomena in pre-main sequence stars. Their analysis gives insights into the physics at work in young stellar coronae. The Orion Nebula Cluster offers a unique opportunity to study large samples of young low mass stars. This work is part of the Chandra Orion Ultradeep project (COUP), an ~10 day long X-ray observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Aims. Our main goal is to statistically characterize the flare-like variability of 165 low mass (0.1-0.3 M_sun) ONC members in order to test and constrain the physical scenario in which flares explain all the observed emission. Methods. We adopt a maximum likelihood piece-wise representation of the observed X-ray light curves and detect flares by taking into account both the amplitude and time derivative of the count-rate. We then derive the frequency and energy distribution of the flares. Results. The high energy tail of the energy distribution of flares is well described by a power-law with index 2.2. We test the hypothesis that light curves are built entirely by overlapping flares with a single power law energy distribution. We constrain the parameters of this simple model for every single light curve. The analysis of synthetic light curves obtained from the model indicates a good agreement with the observed data. Comparing low mass stars with stars in the mass interval (0.9-1.2M_sun), we establish that, at ~1 Myr, low mass and solar mass stars of similar X-ray luminosity have very similar flare frequencies. Conclusions. Our observational results are consistent with the following model/scenario: the light curves are entirely built by over- lapping flares with a power-law intensity distribution; the intense flares are individually detected, while the weak ones merge and form a pseudo-quiescent level, which we indicate as the characteristic level.

M. Caramazza; E. Flaccomio; G. Micela; F. Reale; S. J. Wolk; E. D. Feigelson

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

422

Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

1990-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Sensitivity in X-ray grating interferometry on compact systems  

SciTech Connect

The optimization of compact X-ray grating interferometry systems is crucial for the progress of this technique in industrial devices. Here, an analytical formulation for the sensitivity of the phase contrast image acquisition is derived using previous results from noise analyses. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the sensitivity for different configurations are compared, providing further insight into the dependence on polychromatic radiation. Finally, strategies for the geometrical optimization are given.

Thuering, Thomas; Modregger, Peter; Haemmerle, Stefan; Weiss, Stephan; Nueesch, Joachim; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland) and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); School of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); SCANCO Medical AG, Bruettisellen (Switzerland)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Statistical Analysis of X-ray Speckle at the NSLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a statistical analysis of the static speckle produced by illuminating a disordered aerogel sample by a nominally coherent x-ray beam at wiggler beamline X25 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The results of the analysis allow us to determine that the coherence delivered to the X25 hutch is within 35% of what is expected. The rate of coherent photons is approximately two times smaller than expected on the basis of the X25 wiggler source brilliance.

Ophelia K. C. Tsui; S. G. J. Mochrie; L. E. Berman

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

X-ray diffraction data for plutonium compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of x-ray diffraction information relating to powder photographs of plutonium compounds. The information is presented in a format and style substantially as recommended by the International Centre for Diffraction Data. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been very much involved in the study of the properties of plutonium and its compounds. During the past 45 years the Powder Diffraction File of the Laboratory has grown to more than 20,000 films. F.H. Ellinger and his coworkers have used this data to establish a large number of plutonium binary phase diagrams. A phase diagram, however, should never be regarded as really complete as new techniques of alloy preparation or x-ray and optical metallography continually discover new phases that must be incorporated in the diagram. In addition to the phase diagrams, the crystal structure of a number of plutonium intermetallic compounds have been determined at Los Alamos. Due to the importance of plutonium as a representative of the actinide series of elements, it is deemed advisable to have available information on the x-ray diffraction of plutonium and its compounds for the purpose of identification of these materials. It is hoped that the information presented here will be of value in this regard.

Roof, R.B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler  

SciTech Connect

A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

427

THz Pump and X-Ray Probe Development at LCLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on measurements of broadband, intense, coherent transition radiation at terahertz frequencies, generated as the highly compressed electron bunches in Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) pass through a thin metal foil. The foil is inserted at 45{sup o} to the electron beam, 31 m downstream of the undulator. The THz emission passes downward through a diamond window to an optical table below the beamline. A fully compressed 350-pC bunch produces up to 0.5 mJ in a nearly half-cycle pulse of 50 fs FWHM with a spectrum peaking at 10 THz. We estimate a peak field at the focus of over 2.5 GV/m. A 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser oscillator has recently been installed for electro-optic measurements. We are developing plans to add an x-ray probe to this THz pump, by diffracting FEL x rays onto the table with a thin silicon crystal. The x rays would arrive with an adjustable time delay after the THz. This will provide a rapid start to user studies of materials excited by intense single-cycle pulses and will serve as a step toward a THz transport line for LCLS-II.

Fisher, Alan S; /SLAC, LCLS; Durr, Hermann; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Lindenberg, Aaron; Stanford U., Materials Sci.Dept.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Reis, David; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Dept. Appl. Phys.; Frisch, Josef; Loos, Henrik; Petree, Mark; /SLAC, LCLS; Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Fuchs, Matthias; /SLAC, PULSE; Ghimire, Shambhu; /SLAC, PULSE; Goodfellow, John; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

428

CONSTRAINTS ON THE UBIQUITY OF CORONAL X-RAY CYCLES  

SciTech Connect

Stellar activity cycles are known to be a widespread phenomenon amongst moderately active solar- and late-type stars from long-term periodic variations in chromospheric Ca II H and K emission lines, yet to date, only a handful of coronal X-ray cycles are known. We have surveyed serendipitously observed stellar sources in fields observed multiple times in the last decade by XMM-Newton and present our analysis of nine stars from six fields. Since our sample is flux-limited, it is strongly biased toward higher levels of X-ray activity. We fit a single temperature APEC spectrum to each source and search for significant periodicities using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram. We use a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm to yield robust analysis of the statistical significance of cycle detections and non-detections. None of the nine stellar light curves show any convincing indications of periodicity. From MC simulations, we simulate the detection capabilities of our methodology and, assuming a uniform distribution of cycle periods and strengths over the domain searched, we conclude with 95% confidence that less than 72% of the stars represented by our sample of active stars have 5-13 year coronal X-ray cycles.

Hoffman, John [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Guenther, Hans M.; Wright, Nicholas J., E-mail: hoffma24@illinois.edu, E-mail: guenther@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: nwright@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Computational Simulations of High Intensity X-Ray Matter Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Free electron lasers have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity short pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1-10 keV energy range. For example, the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford is being designed to produce an output intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in a 230 fs pulse. These sources will open the door to many novel research studies. However, the intense x-ray pulses may damage the optical components necessary for studying and controlling the output. At the full output intensity, the dose to optical components at normal incidence ranges from 1-10 eV/atom for low-Z materials (Z < 14) at photon energies of 1 keV. It is important to have an understanding of the effects of such high doses in order to specify the composition, placement, and orientation of optical components, such as mirrors and monochromators. Doses of 10 eV/atom are certainly unacceptable since they will lead to ablation of the surface of the optical components. However, it is not precisely known what the damage thresholds are for the materials being considered for optical components for x-ray free electron lasers. In this paper, we present analytic estimates and computational simulations of the effects of high-intensity x-ray pulses on materials. We outline guidelines for the maximum dose to various materials and discuss implications for the design of optical components.

London, R A; Rionta, R; Tatchyn, R; Roessler, S

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

430

XIPE: the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray polarimetry, sometimes alone, and sometimes coupled to spectral and temporal variability measurements and to imaging, allows a wealth of physical phenomena in astrophysics to be studied. X-ray polarimetry investigates the acceleration process, for example, including those typical of magnetic reconnection in solar flares, but also emission in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars and white dwarfs. It detects scattering in asymmetric structures such as accretion disks and columns, and in the so-called molecular torus and ionization cones. In addition, it allows fundamental physics in regimes of gravity and of magnetic field intensity not accessible to experiments on the Earth to be probed. Finally, models that describe fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity and the extension of the Standard Model) can be tested. We describe in this paper the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE), proposed in June 2012 to the first ESA call for a small mission with a launch in 2017 but not selected. XIPE ...

Soffitta, Paolo; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Braga, João; Costa, Enrico; Fraser, George W; Gburek, Szymon; Huovelin, Juhani; Matt, Giorgio; Pearce, Mark; Poutanen, Juri; Reglero, Victor; Santangelo, Andrea; Sunyaev, Rashid A; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Weisskopf, Martin; Aloisio, Roberto; Amato, Elena; Attiná, Primo; Axelsson, Magnus; Baldini, Luca; Basso, Stefano; Bianchi, Stefano; Blasi, Pasquale; Bregeon, Johan; Brez, Alessandro; Bucciantini, Niccoló; Burderi, Luciano; Burwitz, Vadim; Casella, Piergiorgio; Churazov, Eugene; Civitani, Marta; Covino, Stefano; da Silva, Rui Miguel Curado; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Dadina, Mauro; D'Amico, Flavio; De Rosa, Alessandra; Di Cosimo, Sergio; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Dovciak, Michal; Elsner, Ronald; Eyles, Chris J; Fabian, Andrew C; Fabiani, Sergio; Feng, Hua; Giarrusso, Salvatore; Goosmann, René W; Grandi, Paola; Grosso, Nicolas; Israel, Gianluca; Jackson, Miranda; Kaaret, Philip; Karas, Vladimir; Kuss, Michael; Lai, Dong; La Rosa, Giovanni; Larsson, Josefin; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Maggio, Antonio; Maia, Jorge; Marin, Frédéric; Massai, Marco Maria; Mineo, Teresa; Minuti, Massimo; Moretti, Elena; Muleri, Fabio; O'Dell, Stephen L; Pareschi, Giovanni; Peres, Giovanni; Pesce, Melissa; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier; Pinchera, Michele; Porquet, Delphine; Ramsey, Brian; Rea, Nanda; Reale, Fabio; Rodrigo, Juana Maria; Ró?a?ska, Agata; Rubini, Alda; Rudawy, Pawel; Ryde, Felix; Salvati, Marco; Júnior, Valdivino Alexandre de Santiago; Sazonov, Sergey; Sgró, Carmelo; Silver, Eric; Spandre, Gloria; Spiga, Daniele; Stella, Luigi; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamborra, Francesco; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Dias, Teresa Teixeira; van Adelsberg, Matthew; Wu, Kinwah; Zane, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

X-ray Microspectroscopy and Chemical Reactions in Soil Microsites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soils provide long-term storage of environmental contaminants, which helps to protect water and air quality and diminishes negative impacts of contaminants on human and ecosystem health. Characterizing solid-phase chemical species in highly complex matrices is essential for developing principles that can be broadly applied to the wide range of notoriously heterogeneous soils occurring at the earth's surface. In the context of historical developments in soil analytical techniques, we describe applications of bulk-sample and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for characterizing chemical species of contaminants in soils, and for determining the uniqueness of trace-element reactivity in different soil microsites. Spatially resolved X-ray techniques provide opportunities for following chemical changes within soil microsites that serve as highly localized chemical micro- (or nano-)reactors of unique composition. An example of this microreactor concept is shown for micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of metal sulfide oxidation in a contaminated soil. One research challenge is to use information and principles developed from microscale soil chemistry for predicting macroscale and field-scale behavior of soil contaminants.

D Hesterberg; M Duff; J Dixon; M Vepraskas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism studies of Co2FeAl in magnetic tunnel junctions  

SciTech Connect

The bulk magnetic moment and the element specific magnetic moment of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were examined as a function of annealing temperature by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)/X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), respectively. A high magnetic moment can be achieved for all annealing temperatures and the predicted bulk and interface magnetic moment of about 5 {tilde A}{sub B} are reached via heating. We will also present tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) values of up to 153% at room temperature and 260% at 13 K for MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeAl and Co-Fe electrodes.

Ebke, D.; Kugler, Z.; Thomas, P.; Schebaum, O.; Schafers, M.; Nissen, D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Hutten, A.; Arenholz, E.; Thomas, A.

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge ({approx}285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition.

Gann, E.; Collins, B. A.; Ade, H. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Young, A. T.; Nasiatka, J.; Padmore, H. A.; Hexemer, A.; Wang, C. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yan, H. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of a Liquid-Gas Interface Driven by a Cylindrical Imploding Pressure Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The compression of a cylindrical gas bubble by an imploding molten lead (Pb) shell may be accompanied by the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability at the liquid-gas interface due to the initial imperfection of the interface. A converging pressure wave impinging upon the interface causes a shell of liquid to detach and continue to travel inwards, compressing the gas bubble. The efficiency of compression and collapse evolution can be affected by development of the RM instability. Investigations have been performed in the regime of extreme Atwood number $A=-1$ with the additional complexity of modeling liquid cavitation in the working fluid. Simulations have been carried out using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM on a set of parameters relevant to the prototype compression system under development at General Fusion Inc. for use as a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) driver. After validating the numerical setup in planar geometry, simulations have been carried out in 2D cylindrical geometry for both initially smooth and perturbed interfaces. Where possible, results have been validated against existing theoretical models and very good agreement has been found. While our main focus is on the effects of initial perturbation amplitude and azimuthal mode number, we also address differences between this problem and those usually considered, such as RM instability at an interface between two gases with a moderate density ratio. One important difference is the formation of narrow molten lead jets rapidly propagating inwards during the final stages of the collapse. Jet behaviour has been observed for a range of azimuthal mode numbers and perturbation amplitudes.

Victoria Suponitsky; Sandra Barsky; Aaron Froese

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The...

436

Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room...

437

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser We have demonstrated flash diffractive imaging of nanostructures using pulses from the first soft-X-ray free-electron...

438

The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

Lin, Dacheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques for microelectronics-related materials studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction techniques using synchrotron radiation play a vital role in the understanding of structural behavior for a wide range of materials important in microelectronics. The extremely high flux of X-rays produced by synchrotron storage rings ...

J. L. Jordan-Sweet

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Wednesday, 26...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid interface x-ray" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Bendable X-ray Optics at the ALS: Design, Tuning, Performance and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-RAY OPTICS AT THE ALS: DESIGN, TUNING, PERFORMANCE ANDat the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of bendable x- ray opticsof a bendable optic used at ALS beamline 5.0.2. The mirror

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Design and development of a 3D X-ray microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid development of needle-free injection systems demands better and faster imaging systems, capable of imaging the transient and steady state response of an injection into real tissue. X-ray radiography, x-ray ...

Brayanov, Jordan, 1981-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A CATALOG OF SOLAR X-RAY PLASMA EJECTIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOFT X-RAY TELESCOPE ON BOARD YOHKOH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalog of X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite has been recently developed in the Astronomical Institute of University of Wroclaw. The catalog contains records of 368 events observed in years 1991-2001 including movies and cross-references to associated events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One hundred sixty-three XPEs out of 368 in the catalog were not reported until now. A new classification scheme of XPEs is proposed in which morphology, kinematics, and recurrence are considered. The relation between individual subclasses of XPEs and the associated events was investigated. The results confirm that XPEs are strongly inhomogeneous, responding to different processes that occur in the solar corona. A subclass of erupting loop-like XPEs is a promising candidate to be a high-temperature precursor of CMEs.

Tomczak, M.; Chmielewska, E., E-mail: tomczak@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: chmielewska@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, ul. Kopernika 11, PL-51-622 Wroclaw (Poland)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

High Flux Water Window X-rays Driven by Ultrashort 1.8mm Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

445

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

446

**TITLE** ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, **PUBLICATION YEAR** **EDITORS** X-ray Transients from X-ray Binaries to Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We discuss three classes of x-ray transients to highlight three new types of transients found with the Wide Field Cameras onboard BeppoSAX. First there are the transients related to Low Mass X-ray Binaries in outburst, typically lasting weeks to months and reaching luminosities of the Eddington limit for a few solar masses. Recently another subclass of outbursts in such binaries has been discovered, which are an order of magnitude fainter and last shorter than typical hours to days. We discuss whether they constitute a separate subset of x-ray binaries. A second class of x-ray transients are the x-ray bursts. Thermonuclear explosions on a neutron star (type I x-ray bursts) usually last of order minutes or less. We discovered a second type (called super x-ray bursts) with a duration of several hours. They relate to thermonuclear detonations much deeper in the neutron star atmosphere, possibly burning on the nuclear ashes of normal x-ray bursts. The third class are the enigmatic Fast X-ray Transients occurring at all galactic latitudes. We found that the bright ones are of two types only: either nearby coronal sources (lasting hours) or the socalled x-ray flashes (lasting minutes). The new class, the X-ray flashes, may be a new type of cosmic explosion, intermediate between supernovae and gamma ray bursts, or they may be highly redshifted gamma ray bursts. It thus appears that the three classes of x-ray transients each come in two flavors: long and short. 1.

John Heise; Jean In ’t Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Characterization of nanocrystalline Pd by x-ray diffraction and EXAFS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the fraction of atoms located within a few atomic distances of one or more internal interfaces increases rapidly with decreasing grain size in the nanometer regime, it is expected that the structure of grain boundaries plays an important role in determining and controlling the properties of nanocrystalline materials. A high resolution electron microscopy study of nanocrystalline Pd found no evidence for extended, disordered boundary regions that would differ from boundaries in coarse-grained materials. Recent results from x-ray diffraction, EXAFS and hydriding studies have yielded clear evidence that the boundaries in nanocrystalline Pd are ordered and/or extremely localized in nature. The present paper will summarize and discuss the principal results of these three studies. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Eastman, J.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Mueller-Stach, M.; Wallner, G. (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany, F.R.)); Elam, W.T. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Contact-cooled U-monochromators for high heat load x-ray beamlines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design, expected performance, and preliminary test results of a contact-cooled monochromator for use on high heat load x-ray beamlines. The monochromator has a cross section in the shape of the letter U. This monochromator should be suitable for handing heat fluxes up to 5 W/square millimeter. As such, for the present application, it is compatible with the best internally cooled crystal monochromators. There are three key features in the design of this monochromator. First, it is contact cooled, thereby eliminating fabrication of cooling channels, bonding, and undesirable strains in the monochromator due to coolant-manifold-to-crystal-interface. Second, by illuminating the entire length of the crystal and extracting the central part of the reflected beam, sharp slope changes in the beam profile and thus slope errors are avoided. Last, by appropriate cooling of the crystal, tangential slope error can be substantially reduced.

Khounsary, A.; Yun, W.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xu, S.; Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.K.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Experimental validation of a radiographic simulation code using breast phantom for X-ray imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer models and simulations of X-ray imaging systems are becoming a very precious tool during the development and evaluation of new X-ray imaging techniques. To provide, however, a faithful simulation of a system, all components must be accurately ... Keywords: Breast phantoms, Experimental verification, Synchrotron radiation, X-ray imaging simulation

K. Bliznakova; R. Speller; J. Horrocks; P. Liaparinos; Z. Kolitsi; N. Pallikarakis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography.

Schulze, D. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Anderson, S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Mattigod, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and strong field gravity in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past five years observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer have revealed fast quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray flux of about 20 X-ray binaries. Thought to originate close to the surface of a neutron star, these oscillations provide unique information about the strong gravitational field in which they are produced.

Mariano Mendez

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

452

X-ray timing of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a 7 yr timing study of the 2.5 ms X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658, an X-ray transient with a recurrence time of =2 yr, using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer covering 4 transient outbursts (1998-2005). ...

Hartman, Jacob M., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Imaging of micro-and nano-structures with hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

object with the hard X-ray microscope A horizontal line profile is inserted in the upper right partImaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard X-rays C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K Abstract: Imaging of micro- and nano-structures of opaque samples is demonstrated using hard X-rays. Two

Braun, Paul

454

Focal plane instrumentation for the Wide-Field X-ray Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three X-ray imaging focal planes of the Wide-Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) Mission will each have a field of view up to 1 degree square, pixel pitch smaller than 1 arcsec, excellent X-ray detection efficiency and spectral ...

Bautz, Marshall W.

455

Adsorption Trajectories and Free-Energy Separatrices for Colloidal Particles in Contact with a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply the recently developed triangular tessellation technique as presented in [J. de Graaf et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 051405 (2009)] to calculate the free energy associated with the adsorption of anisotropic colloidal particles at a flat interface. From the free-energy landscape, we analyze the adsorption process, using a simplified version of Langevin dynamics. The present result is a first step to understand the time-dependent behavior of colloids near interfaces. This study shows a wide range of adsorption trajectories, where the emphasis lies on a strong dependence of the dynamics on the orientation of the colloid at initial contact with the interface. We believe that the observed orientational dependence in our simple model can be recovered in suitable experimental systems.

J. de Graaf; M. Dijkstra; R. van Roij

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

456

Magnetic order and interfacial coupling in oxide thin films and heterostructures probed with soft x-ray dichroism  

SciTech Connect

The combination of novel magnetic properties induced by reduced dimensionality and strong magnetic interactions across interfaces leads to intriguing new properties in magnetic hetero- and nanostructures not observed in the constituent materials in bulk form. It is the careful optimization of the characteristics of the individual layers as well as the magnetic coupling across the interface that allows us to control the magnetic properties and tailor them for devices, e.g., in information storage and processing technology. Soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopies can make unique contributions to improving our understanding of complex magnetic nanostructures since these techniques provide elemental, valence- and site-symmetry specific information with high sensitivity and tunable probing depth. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is sensitive to (unidirectional) ferromagnetic order, while x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) can also detect (uniaxial) antiferromagnetic order. A crystalline electric field with cubic symmetry induces only a weak angular dependence in XMCD spectra [1] but can cause a very pronounced anisotropy in XMLD spectra [2]. Furthermore, non-magnetic sites with a distorted local cubic symmetry can give rise to an x-ray linear dichroism (XLD). In this presentation, we discuss how to distinguish between the individual contributions to soft x-ray dichroism spectra in order to extract the wealth of information about magnetic thin films, interfaces and hetero- and nanostructures contained in the data [3, 4, 5] We determined the magnetic structure of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} (LSFO) superlattices with 6 unit cell thick sublayers using soft x-ray magnetic dichroism [5]. Circular dichroism was employed to study the characteristics of the ferromagnetic LSMO layer indicating a reduced magnetic ordering temperature of 200 K compared to the bulk value of 360 K. Linear dichroism is used to analyze the antiferromagnetic order in the LSFO layers which persists up to the bulk Neel temperature near 400 K. Our experiments clearly show that when the magnetization of the LSMO layer is aligned with a magnetic field, a torque is created on the Fe moments in the LSFO layer through exchange coupling at the interface realigning the Fe moments as well. Through