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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

4

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

5

Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001)...

6

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

(Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production...

9

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study. Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model...

11

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Process for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen which comprises contacting methanol vapor at a temperature of 200 degrees to 300 degrees C with an indirectly heated zinc containing catalyst to obtain an effluent gas in which the components of carbon monoxide and hydrogen constitute at least 90% by volume of said gas. At least a part of the impurities from said effluent gas are removed and said effluent gas is deparated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by adsorption. The effluent gas can be separated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by use of a plurality of adsorbers containing zeolite-type molecular sieve material where the zeolite is substantially permeable to hydrogen but sorbs carbon monoxide.

Jockel, H.; Marschner, F.; Moller, F.W.; Mortel, H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

Liquid-liquid equilibrium of cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol mixtures; Effect of water content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol and for the binary systems n-hexane-methanol and cyclohexane-methanol are presented over a temperature range from 284 to 298{Kappa} at pressure of 0.1 MPa. Attention is given to the effect of the purity of methanol as far as the water content is concerned. The data are correlated by means of excess Gibbs energy models (NRTL and UNIQUAC), and the binary interaction parameters are reported.

Alessi, P.; Fermeglia, M.; Kikic, I. (Istituto di Chimica Applicata e Industriale, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (IT))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch Relaxation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch, 2002 Vibrational relaxation and hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol-d dissolved in CCl4 have been-d molecules both accepting and donating hydrogen bonds at 2500 cm-1 . Following vibrational relaxation

Fayer, Michael D.

15

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during at the catalyst layer, resulting in a transient reference hydrogen electrode, which allows quantifying

Zhao, Tianshou

16

Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium (P-T-x) for the methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether binary system were obtained by the static method in the range of temperatures from 293.15 to 423.15 K at 10 K intervals. The modified vapor pressure apparatus used is described. The Kuczynsky method was used to calculate the liquid and vapor composition and the activity coefficients of methanol from the initial composition of the sample and the measured pressure and temperature. The results were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC temperature dependent activity coefficient models. This system shows nearly ideal behavior at 323.15 K, but positive deviations from ideality at lower temperatures and negative deviations at higher temperatures are observed. The activity coefficients become more negative with the increase in temperature and mole fraction of methanol. The excess molar enthalpy using the Gibss-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters were calculated at 303.15 K and compared with experimental data. This binary system shows promise as a working pair for high-temperature heat pump applications.

Esteve, X.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to...

19

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

23

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

24

(Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

25

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine possible mechanisms of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported copper catalysts. Two broad categories of reaction mechanism can be identified: (a) Type I: Carbon monoxide, adsorbed on the copper surface, is hydrogenated by the addition of hydrogen atoms while the C-O bond remains intact. A second C-O bond is neither formed nor broken. (b) Type II: Carbon monoxide (or a partially hydrogenated intermediate, e.g., HCO) reacts with an oxygen atom on the catalyst surface to give an intermediate, typically a formate, which contains two C-O bonds. Subsequent reaction leads overall to methanol and the reformation of the surface oxygen atom. Both mechanisms are discussed.

Fakley, M.E.; Jennings, J.R.; Spencer, M.S. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Billingham, Cleveland (England))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Simultaneous photon absorption as a probe of molecular interaction and hydrogen-bond correlation in liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the simultaneous absorption of near-infrared photons by pairs of neighboring molecules in liquid methanol. Simultaneous absorption by two OH-stretching modes is found to occur at an energy higher than the sum of the two absorbing modes. This frequency shift arises from interaction between the modes, and its value has been used to determine the average coupling between neighboring methanol molecules. We find a rms coupling strength of 46+/-1 cm-1, much larger than can be explained from transition-dipole coupling, suggesting that hydrogen-bond mediated interactions between neighboring molecules play an important role in liquid methanol. The most important aspect of simultaneous vibrational absorption is that it allows for a quantitative investigation of hydrogen-bond cooperativity. We derive the extent to which the hydrogen-bond strengths of neighboring molecules are correlated by comparing the line shape of the absorption band caused by simultaneous absorption with that of the fundamental transition. Surprisingly, neighboring hydrogen bonds in methanol are found to be strongly correlated, and from the data we obtain a hydrogen-bond correlation coefficient of 0.69+/-0.12.

Sander Woutersen

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

28

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Liquid-liquid equilibria of water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at various temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is part of a wider program of research on the recovery of light alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions using high molecular weight solvents. The authors report liquid-liquid equilibrium data and binodal curves for the systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at 25, 35, and 45 C. The data were fitted to the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations.

Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Souza, P.; Vidal, I. (Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...

35

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

36

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and thermodynamics of liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol on ion exchange catalyst (Amberlyst 15) were studied. Thermodynamic properties and rate data were obtained in a batch reactor operating under 1,013 kPa and 323--353 K. The kinetic equation was modeled following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson formalism according to a proposed surface mechanism where the rate-controlling step is the surface reaction. According to the experimental results, methanol adsorbs very strongly on the active sites, covering them completely, and thus the reaction follows an apparent first-order behavior. The isoamylenes, according to the proposed mechanism, adsorb simultaneously on the same single active center already occupied by methanol, migrating through the liquid layer formed by the alcohol around the catalyst to react in the acidic site. From the proposed mechanism a model was suggested and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained using nonlinear estimation methods.

Piccoli, R.L. (Copesul-Cia Petroquimica do Sul, Triunfo (Brazil)); Lovisi, H.R. (Petroflex-Ind. e Comercio, Duque de Caxias (Brazil))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Promotive SMSI effect for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol on a Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports strong metal support interaction (SMSI) appearing in supported palladium catalysts which improves greatly the selectivity and lifetime of the catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels such as methanol has recently been recognized as one of the promising recycling technologies for emitted CO{sub 2}. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol have been measured at 101.325 kPa. The results were checked for thermodynamic consistency using Fredenslund et al.`s test, correlated using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations for the liquid phase activity coefficients, and compared with the predictions of the ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC group contribution methods.

Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Soto, A.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen.Solid and liquid hydrogen carriers for use in hydrogen storage and delivery.

46

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

50

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

None

1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

52

Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

a Dedicated Wind Power Plant Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant This May 2012 study assesses the costs and potential for remote renewable...

53

Vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. The binary system difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride forms a homogeneous liquid phase, and the others form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes at the experimental conditions.

Kang, Y.W. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental and CFC Technology] [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental and CFC Technology

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to followmolecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currentlycurrently available hydrogen production routes that can be

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

None

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both-d in an isotopically mixed solu- tion of methanol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride.11­13 The first step involved

Fayer, Michael D.

58

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOIWM Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, the Cooperative Agreement was modified (Mod AO11) on 8 October 1996, authorizing the transition born Budget Period No. 2 (Design and Construction) to the . final Budget Period (Commissioning, Start-up, and Operation), A draft Topical Report on Process Economics Studies concludes that methanol coproduction with integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power utilizing the LPMEOW process technology, will be competitive in serving local market needs. Planning for a proof-of- concept test run of the liquid phase dimethyl ether (DME) process at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended; and a deeision to proceed is pending. Construction (Task 2.2) is 97'Mo complete, asof31 December 1996. Completion of pipe pressure testing has taken longer than expected. This will delay completion of construction by about three weeks. Commissioning activities (Task 2.3) commenced in mid-October of 1996, and the demonstration unit is scheduled to be mechanically complete on 24 January 1997.

None

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A High-Yield, Liquid-Phase Approach for the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol using SO3 as the Oxidant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approach for producing methanol from methane in a three-step, liquid phase process is reported is hydrolyzed in the presence of an organic solvent, to produce an organic phase con- taining methanol the facile separation of methanol. Con- centrated sulfuric acid is produced as a by-product, which can either

Bell, Alexis T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1 exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cell system. PEM fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into useful electric power is seen as an attractive means of providing the necessary hydrogen to the fuel cell. With the exception

Gulari, Erdogan

63

Spectroscopic investigations of hydrogen bond dynamics in liquid water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many of the remarkable physical and chemical properties of liquid water are due to the strong influence hydrogen bonds have on its microscopic dynamics. However, because of the fast timescales involved, there are relatively ...

Fecko, Christopher J., 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Communication: Towards the binding energy and vibrational red shift of the simplest organic hydrogen bond: Harmonic constraints for methanol dimer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discrepancy between experimental and harmonically predicted shifts of the OH stretching fundamental of methanol upon hydrogen bonding to a second methanol unit is too large to be blamed mostly on diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicity corrections. It is shown that a decisive contribution comes from post-MP2 electron correlation effects, which appear not to be captured by any of the popular density functionals. We also identify that the major deficiency is in the description of the donor OH bond. Together with estimates for the electronic and harmonically zero-point corrected dimer binding energies, this work provides essential constraints for a quantitative description of this simple hydrogen bond. The spectroscopic dissociation energy is predicted to be larger than 18 kJ/mol and the harmonic OH-stretching fundamental shifts by about ?121 cm{sup ?1} upon dimerization, somewhat more than in the anharmonic experiment (?111 cm{sup ?1})

Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A.; Mata, Ricardo A., E-mail: rmata@gwdg.de [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Tammannstr. 6, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

65

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

None

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electron-stimulated reactions in layered CO/H{sub 2}O films: Hydrogen atom diffusion and the sequential hydrogenation of CO to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-energy (100 eV) electron-stimulated reactions in layered H{sub 2}O/CO/H{sub 2}O ices are investigated. For CO layers buried in amorphous solid water (ASW) films at depths of 50 monolayers (ML) or less from the vacuum interface, both oxidation and reduction reactions are observed. However, for CO buried more deeply in ASW films, only the reduction of CO to methanol is observed. Experiments with layered films of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O show that the hydrogen atoms participating in the reduction of the buried CO originate in the region that is 10–50 ML below the surface of the ASW films and subsequently diffuse through the film. For deeply buried CO layers, the CO reduction reactions quickly increase with temperature above ?60 K. We present a simple chemical kinetic model that treats the diffusion of hydrogen atoms in the ASW and sequential hydrogenation of the CO to methanol to account for the observations.

Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Greg A., E-mail: gregory.kimmel@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K8-88, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Monckton, Rhiannon J.; Koehler, Sven P. K. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); UK Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Moor Row, Whitehaven CA24 3HA (United Kingdom)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 298. 15 K for binary systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 298.15 K for the systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol. Mixtures containing methanol show a behavior close to ideal, while those containing methyl acetate exhibit positive deviations from ideality and satisfy the Redlich-Kister thermodynamic consistency test. The liquid-phase activity coefficients were fitted by using the van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and NRTL-m (a modified NRTL equation) equations.

Martin, M.C.; Cocero, M.J.; Mato, F.B. (Univ. de Valladolid (Spain))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

78

Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergy Information LightningAiken Electric CoopCooling: AirHydrogen

79

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJuneWhenJuly 28,TheEnergy Lintgram #59Hydrogen is

80

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Experimental investigation of onboard storage and refueling systems for liquid-hydrogen-fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2-1/2-year baseline experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive vehicle project was conducted to evaluate and document state-of-the-art capabilities in engine conversion for hydrogen operation, liquid-hydrogen onboard storage, and liquid-hydrogen refueling. The engine conversion, onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tank, and liquid-hydrogen refueling system used in the project represented readily available equipment or technology when the project began. The project information documented herein can serve as a basis of comparison with which to evaluate future vehicles that are powered by hydrogen or other alternative fuels, with different engines, and different fuel-storage methods. The results of the project indicate that liquid-hydrogen storage observed an operating vehicle and routine refueling of the vehicle can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulty. Two different liquid-hydrogen vehicle onboard storage tanks designed for vehicular applications were tested in actual road operation: the first was an aluminum dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 l; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper, vapor-cooled thermal-radiation shields, and a stainless-steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 l. The car was refueled with liquid hydrogen at least 65 times involving more than 8.1 kl of liquid hydrogen during the 17 months that the car was operated on liquid hydrogen. The vehicle, a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-l-displacement turbocharged V6 engine, was driven for 3633 km over the road on hydrogen. The vehicle had a range without refueling of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second tank. The vehicle achieved 2.4 km/l of liquid hydrogen which corresponds to 9.4 km/l gasoline on an equivalent energy basis.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/ methanol decomposition using Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal and gasoline [3]. Moreover, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity A & M University, College Station, TX 77843 3136, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 18, or directly as a transportation fuel [4]. Hydrogen can be generated from hydrocarbons and water resources

83

Vapor-liquid equilibria for the system benzene-thiophene-methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor pressure data over the whole range of composition were obtained for the system benzene-thiophene-methanol. Data were taken at temperatures of 35, 40, and 45 /sup 0/C by using a static equilibrium cell. The systems benzene-methanol and thiophene-methanol are highly nonideal, while the system benzene-thiophene shows a very small deviation from ideality. The models suggested by Wilson and by Renon and Prausnitz (NRTL) and the modified equation of Abrams and Prausnitz (UNIQUAC) were used in the reduction of data. Physical parameters of these equations obtained from the binary data were used to predict the ternary system. The Wilson equation gives the best fit for the binary as well as the ternary data. Also, this equation gives the best prediction for the ternary system.

Triday, J.O.; Rodriguez, P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

1985-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

86

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions are not repeated here. In order to compete with lithium-ion batteries, a portable DMFC system must overcome several, and optimiza- tion of various interactive transport and electrochemical processes that occur in portable DMFCs

89

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Methanol and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Non-Noble Catalysts in Alkaline Solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A primary goal of this work is to develop a novel liquid-based microscale fuel cell using non-noble metal catalysts. The developed fuel cell is based… (more)

Sung, Woosuk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces Ahmed Hassanein the PFC surface (helium and hydrogen isotopes) while accommodating high heat loads. To study this problem. Hydrogen isotope (DT) particles are likely be trapped in the liquid metal surface (e.g., lithium) due

Harilal, S. S.

92

MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897± 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol L of liquid ethanol at three temperatures have been carried out. The hydrogen bonding states of ethanol measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of liquid ethanol. 1. Introduction A detailed

Saiz, Leonor

93

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Re

94

Catalytic decomposition of methanol at various temperatures and several liquid hourly space velocities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISTRIBUTION FOR COMPOSITE CATALYST B POSSIBLE REACTOR CONFIGURATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A GASEOUS FUEL ~Pa e 12 15 21 23 26 28 33 35 37 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Methanol can be produced from coal, and natural gas from foreign sources can... increase in 0 temperature resulted in a rapid increase in the production of C02, CO, C2H4, H2 and CH4 with a corresponding decrease in the production of dimethyl ether. In the case of zinc oxide catalyst the formation of dimethyl ether was almost...

Gupta, Yashpal Satyapal

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

97

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Ke Liu, GE Global Research Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming, Lanny D. Schmidt, University of Minnesota Low-Cost Hydrogen from Ethanol...

98

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the three binary systems (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride) have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. All of the systems form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes.

Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Pd4/In2O3 has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. In this study, three possible routes in the reaction network of CO2 + H2 ? CH3OH + H2O have been examined. Our DFT results show that the HCOO route competes with the RWGS route whereas a high activation barrier kinetically blocks the HCOOH route. DFT results also suggest that H2COO* + H* ? H2CO* +OH* and cis-COOH* + H* ?CO* + H2O* are the rate limiting steps in the HCOO route and the RWGS route, respectively. Microkinetic modeling results demonstrate that the HCOO route is the dominant reaction route for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. We found that the activation of H adatom on the small Pd cluster and the presence of H2O on the In2O3 substrate play important roles in promoting the methanol synthesis. The hydroxyl adsorbed at the interface of Pd4/In2O3 induces the transformation of the supported Pd4 cluster from a butterfly structure into a tetrahedron structure. This important structure change not only indicates the dynamical nature of the supported nanoparticle catalyst structure during the reaction but also shifts the final hydrogenation step from H2COH to CH3O.

Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Modeling hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal surfaces as plasma-facing components in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal surfaces as plasma the PFC surface (helium and hydrogen isotopes) while accommodating high heat loads. To study this problem rather than requiring a standard vacuum system. Hydrogen isotope (DT) particles that strike the surface

Harilal, S. S.

102

Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

Gurau, Bogdan

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Vibrational relaxation of the free terminal hydroxyl stretch in methanol oligomers: Indirect pathway to hydrogen bond breaking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrational relaxation of methanol-d MeOD in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated via ultrafast infrared such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or alkanes. Unlike water, which is only sparingly soluble in nonpolar

Fayer, Michael D.

104

Operating experience with a liquid-hydrogen fueled Buick and refueling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling systems for vehicular applications was made in a recently completed project. The vehicle used in the project was a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-L displacement turbocharged V6 engine and an automatic transmission. The vehicle had a fuel economy for driving in the high altitude Los Alamos area that was equivalent to 2.4 km/L of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis. About 22% less energy was required using hydrogen rather than gasoline to go a given distance based on the Environmental Protection Agency estimate of 7.2 km/L of gasoline for this vehicle. At the end of the project the engine had been operated for 138 h and the car driven 3633 km during the 17 months that the vehicle was operated on hydrogen . Two types of onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tanks were tested in the vehicle: the first was an aluminum Dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 L; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper vapor-cooled thermal radiation shields, and a stainless steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 L. The Buick had an unrefueled range of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second. The Buick was fueled at least 65 times involving a minimum of 8.1 kL of liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and a semiautomatic refueling station. A refueling time of nine minutes was achieved, and liquid hydrogen losses during refueling were measured. The project has demonstrated that liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle, and its refueling, can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulties; nevertheless, appropriate testing is still needed to quantitatively address the question of safety for liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

106

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and long cycle life, and that remain liquid over the working temperature range. Air Products and Chemicals Inc (APCI) investigated many candidates for potential liquid...

107

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer

Berning, Torsten

108

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

109

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

110

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

usable hydrogen. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2017, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The off-board performance including the Well-to-Tank and...

111

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2005 2010 2012 2015 2017 Down-select BILI BILI R&D for BILI <3.80gge <3.00gge 2020 Production vehicles Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative R&D to Meet Targets...

112

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J. Saykally,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas. These thermal methods are relatively cheap, but they do not mitigate difficulties associatedElectrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J, 2007; In Final Form: May 31, 2007 We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from

Cohen, Ronald C.

113

Long time fluctuation of liquid water: l/f spectrum of energy fluctuation in hydrogen bond network rearrangement dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long time fluctuation of liquid water: l/f spectrum of energy fluctuation in hydrogen bond network of the potential energy fluctuation of liquid water is examined and found to yield so-called l/f frequency of hydrogen bond network relaxations in liquid water. A simple model of cellular dynamics is proposed

Ramaswamy, Ram

114

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production Systems, Sandy Thomas, H2Gen Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Wei Wei, GE Global Research Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Darlene Steward,...

115

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for Tuesday, November 6, 2007 Location: BCS Incorporated, 8929 Stephens Road, Laurel, MD. 20723 410-997-7778 8:30 -...

116

Produce syngas for methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.

MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (Somerville, NJ)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

119

Hydrogenation with monolith reactor under conditions of immiscible liquid phases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an improved for the hydrogenation of an immiscible mixture of an organic reactant in water. The immiscible mixture can result from the generation of water by the hydrogenation reaction itself or, by the addition of, water to the reactant prior to contact with the catalyst. The improvement resides in effecting the hydrogenation reaction in a monolith catalytic reactor from 100 to 800 cpi, at a superficial velocity of from 0.1 to 2 m/second in the absence of a cosolvent for the immiscible mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrogenation is carried out using a monolith support which has a polymer network/carbon coating onto which a transition metal is deposited.

Nordquist, Andrew Francis (Whitehall, PA); Wilhelm, Frederick Carl (Zionsville, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA); Machado, Reinaldo Mario (Allentown, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cryogenic, compressed, and liquid hydrogen fuel storage in vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen is the viable energy carrier of future energy and transportation systems due to its clean emissions, light weight, and abundance. Its extremely low volumetric density, however, presents significant challenges to ...

Reyes, Allan B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ?6 wt% and ?50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

VAJO, JOHN

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

123

Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two major energy challenges for the United States are replacing crude oil in our transportation system and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. A domestic-source greenhouse-gas-neutral nuclear hydrogen biomass system to replace oil in the transportation sector is described. Some parts of the transportation system can be electrified with electricity supplied by nuclear energy sources that do not emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Other components of the transportation system require liquid fuels. Biomass can be converted to greenhouse-gas-neutral liquid fuels; however, the conversion of biomass-to-liquid fuels is energy intensive. There is insufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid fuel demands and provide the energy required to process the biomass-to-liquid fuels. With the use of nuclear energy to provide heat, electricity, and hydrogen for the processing of biomass-to-liquid fuels, the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass is dramatically increased, and the available biomass could meet U.S. liquid fuel requirements.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modeling of Plasma-Assisted Conversion of Liquid Ethanol into Hydrogen Enriched Syngas in the Nonequilibrium Electric Discharge Plasma-Liquid System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we report recent results of our experimental and theoretical studies related to plasma conversion of liquid ethanol into hydrogen-enriched syngas in the plasma-liquid system with the electric discharge in a gas channel with liquid wall using available diagnostics and numerical modeling.

Levko, Dmitry; Naumov, Vadim; Chernyak, Valery; Yukhymenko, Vitaly; Prysiazhnevych, Irina; Olszewski, Sergey

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

126

Dynamical Model of Rocket Propellant Loading with Liquid Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f = dimensionless resistance coefficient H = height of external tank, m h = specific enthalpy, J S = cross-sectional area of vent valve area or leak hole, m2 T = temperature, K u = specific internal energy, J=kg V = volume, m3 v = velocity of liquid/vapor in pipes or valves, m=s _W = power on or by control

Muratov, Cyrill

127

Caution on the Use of Liquid Nitrogen Traps in Stable Hydrogen Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail: tbcoplen@usgs.gov. (1) Kirshenbaum, I. In Physical Properties and Analysis of Heavy Water; Urey, H. C with the process of adding liquid nitrogen (LN2) to top off the dewar of a stainless-steel water trap on a gaseous hydrogen-water platinum equilibration system. Al- though the cause of this isotopic fractionation

128

2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogas reformation Shift reactorShift reactor Selective oxidation of COSelective oxidation of CO Fuel cellFuel cell2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S

129

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Proceedings from the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

130

Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andof Energy EmbrittlementFact Sheet Hydrogen

131

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Observation of crystallization slowdown in supercooled para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium quantum liquid mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a quantitative experimental study of the crystallization kinetics of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures of para-hydrogen (pH$_2$) and ortho-deuterium (oD$_2$) by high spatial resolution Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets. We show that in a wide range of compositions the crystallization rate of the isotopic mixtures is significantly reduced with respect to that of the pure substances. To clarify this behavior we have performed path-integral simulations of the non-equilibrium pH$_2$-oD$_2$ liquid mixtures, revealing that differences in quantum delocalization between the two isotopic species translate into different effective particle sizes. Our results provide first experimental evidence for crystallization slowdown of quantum origin, offering a benchmark for theoretical studies of quantum behavior in supercooled liquids.

Matthias Kühnel; José M. Fernández; Filippo Tramonto; Guzmán Tejeda; Elena Moreno; Anton Kalinin; Marco Nava; Davide E. Galli; Salvador Montero; Robert E. Grisenti

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

134

ATOM-ECONOMICAL PATHWAYS TO METHANOL FUEL CELL FROM BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An economical production of alcohol fuels from biomass, a feedstock low in carbon and high in water content, is of interest. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is under development to improve the economics by maximizing the conversion of energy carrier atoms (C,H) into energy liquids (fuel). So far, the LPLT concept has been successfully applied to obtain highly efficient methanol synthesis. This synthesis was achieved with specifically designed soluble catalysts, at temperatures < 150 C. A subsequent study at BNL yielded a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for the production of hydrogen from a feedstock of carbon monoxide and H{sub 2}O at temperatures < 120 C. With these LPLT technologies as a background, this paper extends the discussion of the LPLT concept to include methanol decomposition into 3 moles of H{sub 2} per mole of methanol. The implication of these technologies for the atom-economical pathways to methanol fuel cell from biomass is discussed.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capture of CO2 and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO2 to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO2 proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H2, 140 ?C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 ?C yields formate salts, 140 ?C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Yadav, Mahendra (ORCID:0000000202660382); Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Observation of Fractional Stokes-Einstein Behavior in the Simplest Hydrogen-bonded Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate the single-particle dynamics of hydrogen fluoride across its entire liquid range at ambient pressure. For T > 230 K, translational diffusion obeys the celebrated Stokes-Einstein relation, in agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance studies. At lower temperatures, we find significant deviations from the above behavior in the form of a power law with exponent xi = -0.71+/-0.05. More striking than the above is a complete breakdown of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation for rotational diffusion. Our findings provide the first experimental verification of fractional Stokes-Einstein behavior in a hydrogen-bonded liquid, in agreement with recent computer simulations.

Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Fernandez-Alonso, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Bermejo, F. J. [CSIC - Inst. Estructura de la Materia & Dept. of Electricity and Electronics; Turner, John F. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); McLain, Sylvia E. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Liquid–solid phase transition of hydrogen and deuterium in silica aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of hydrogen isotopes confined in disordered low-density nanoporous solids remains essentially unknown. Here, we use relaxation calorimetry to study freezing and melting of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in an ?85%-porous base-catalyzed silica aerogel. We find that liquid–solid transition temperatures of both isotopes inside the aerogel are depressed. The phase transition takes place over a wide temperature range of ?4?K and non-trivially depends on the liquid filling fraction, reflecting the broad pore size distribution in the aerogel. Undercooling is observed for both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} confined inside the aerogel monolith. Results for H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} are extrapolated to tritium-containing hydrogens with the quantum law of corresponding states.

Van Cleve, E.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O., E-mail: kucheyev@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

A high power liquid hydrogen target for the Mainz A4 parity violation experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new powerful liquid hydrogen target developed for the precise study of parity violating electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. This target has been designed to have minimal target density fluctuations under the heat load of a 20$\\mu$A CW 854.3 MeV electron beam without rastering the electron beam. The target cell has a wide aperture for scattered electrons and is axially symmetric around the beam axis. The construction is optimized to intensify heat exchange by a transverse turbulent mixing in the hydrogen stream, which is directed along the electron beam. The target is constructed as a closed loop circulating system cooled by a helium refrigerator. It is operated by a tangential mechanical pump with an optional natural convection mode. The cooling system supports up to 250 watts of the beam heating removal. Deeply subcooled liquid hydrogen is used for keeping the in-beam temperature below the boiling point. The target density fluctuations are found to be at the level 10$^{-3}$ at a beam current of 20 $\\mu$A.

I. Altarev; E. Schilling; S. Baunack; L. Capozza; J. Diefenbach; K. Grimm; Th. Hammel; D. vonHarrach; Y. Imai; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kothe; J. H. Lee; A. LopesGinja; F. E. Maas; A. SanchezLorente; G. Stephan; C. Weinrich

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

139

Liquid-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane at {minus}20 and 20 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is presently under consideration as a replacement for trichlorofluoromethane, which is widely used as a foam blowing agent. 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane is the major raw material for the production of poly(vinylidene fluoride). These two materials are normally manufactured by the fluorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane or vinylidene chloride with hydrogen fluoride. A phase separator is normally used to retrieve hydrogen fluoride from the product stream. To design the phase separator, liquid-liquid equilibrium data are required. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system (hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been measured at {minus}20 and 20 C. The results are correlated with the NRTL model, and the relevant parameters are presented.

Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). CFC Alternatives Technology Center

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafast hydrogen migration.7,8 The 38 fs 800 nm pump pulse produced methanol monocation, and a probe pulseMolecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

144

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in applications such as the direct methanol fuel cell, where Ru/Pt alloys are used as catalysts for dehydration and hydrogen/ deuterium as suggested in the literature is therefore discarded. At very low coverages or by annealing a low coverage methanol layer, hydrogen bonding leads to cluster formation, as evidenced

148

A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cells using hydrogen as fuel are efficient, quiet, and have near zero harmful emissions. Elemental fuel cells that use precious metal catalysts such as platinum require hydrogen fuel which contains lessA Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from

Mukasyan, Alexander

149

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend II, J. G. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Beßler, Y. [Forschungzentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Klaus, M. [Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

151

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pathway, with hydrogen production at refueling stations (with centralized hydrogen production and gaseous hydrogenwith centralized hydrogen production and liquid hydrogen (

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Methanol production method and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to electric energy in a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell was demon- strated. Although hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells): Application to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III* Contribution from and designing new catalysts. We find that methanol dehydrogenation is most facile on Pt, with the hydrogens

Goddard III, William A.

156

"Kohn-Shamification" of the classical density-functional theory of inhomogeneous polar molecular liquids with application to liquid hydrogen chloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gordian knot of density-functional theories for classical molecular liquids remains finding an accurate free-energy functional in terms of the densities of the atomic sites of the molecules. Following Kohn and Sham, we show how to solve this problem by considering noninteracting molecules in a set of effective potentials. This shift in perspective leads to an accurate and computationally tractable description in terms of simple three-dimensional functions. We also treat both the linear- and saturation- dielectric responses of polar systems, presenting liquid hydrogen chloride as a case study.

Johannes Lischner; T. A. Arias

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

157

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen from ethanol in the Spring of 2008 for use by members of the working group and others. · Catalyst in their reactors to make their reactors fuel flexible. · Greg Keenan, Virent Energy Systems: "Hydrogen Generation Recommendations · Quantification of cost and performance of PSA v H2 quality on the fuel cell to determine life

158

Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hydrogen in the gaseous state has an extremely high ability to diffuse through solid materials be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical.0 70 10.0 141.0 Methanol 12.5 99 19.0 22.7 Gasoline 33.4 47.6 Lead/Acid Battery 0.2 Advanced battery 0

160

Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Hydrogen Delivery Mark Paster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquids (e.g. ethanol etc.) ­ Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen ­ Regional Pipelines ­ Breakthrough Hydrogen;Delivery Key Challenges · Pipelines ­ Retro-fitting existing NG pipeline for hydrogen ­ Utilizing existing NG pipeline for Hythane with cost effective hydrogen separation technology ­ New hydrogen pipeline

165

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary… (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-FEED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Z. H. Wang and C. Y. Wang Electrochemical methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Diffusion and convection of both gas and liquid phases are considered

Wang, Chao-Yang

167

PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

Liquefaction of natural gas to methanol for shipping and storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. The new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. As a result of process design factors made possible by the BNL catalyst, the plant required to convert natural gas to methanol is very simple. Conversion of natural gas to methanol requires two chemical reactions, both of which are exothermic, and thus represent a loss of heating value in the feed natural gas. This loss is about 20% of the feed gas energy, and is, therefore, higher than the 10% loss in energy in natural gas liquefaction, which is a simpler physical - not a chemical - change. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of the capital needed for the LNG plant and LNG tanker fleet. This large reduction in capital requirements is expected to make liquefaction to methanol attractive in many cases where the LNG capital needs are prohibitive. 3 tabs.

O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

Wang, Guihua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2)central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery;and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs." Research ReportHydrogen Pipelines liquid hydrogen, and hydrogen pipelines. By limiting to a

Parker, Nathan C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs." Research ReportHydrogen Pipelines liquid hydrogen, and hydrogen pipelines. By limiting to a

Parker, Nathan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the light of increasing air pollution in megacitites like Mexico City and SĂŁo Paulo [UNEP/WHO, 1992 for biomass to be used for road transportation, with zero or near-zero local air pollution and very low levels

178

"Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNG IHDR€ÍSolar Energy SystemsFebruary"Seeing" hydrogen atoms

179

Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

180

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Advanced hydrogen utilization technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study done by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). DDC used a 6V-92TA engine for experiments with hydrogen fuel. The engine was first baseline tested using methanol fuel and methanol unit injectors. One cylinder of the engine was converted to operate on hydrogen fuel, and methanol fueled the remaining five cylinders. This early testing with only one hydrogen-fueled cylinder was conducted to determine the operating parameters that would later be implemented for multicylinder hydrogen operation. Researchers then operated three cylinders of the engine on hydrogen fuel to verify single-cylinder idle tests. Once it was determined that the engine would operate well at idle, the engine was modified to operate with all six cylinders fueled with hydrogen. Six-cylinder operation on hydrogen provided an opportunity to verify previous test results and to more accurately determine the performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

Hedrick, J.C.; Winsor, R.E. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)] [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The production of methanol by the Brookhaven National Laboratory process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop a capital cost estimate and methanol production costs for a new methanol process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The cost of fuel delivered to the US Gulf Coast is compared with fuel produced by a conventional methanol process and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) process. The new methanol process is made possible by the development of a new liquid phase catalyst. The new liquid catalyst system can convert synthesis gas almost completely to methanol in a SINGLE pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This catalyst system reduces synthesis reaction temperatures from about 260{degree}C to about 100{degree}C, permitting isothermal synthesis conditions, in contrast to the temperature gradients in currently available pelleted, solid catalysts. Natural gas feedstock can be processed at pressures under 250 psia. Since nitrogen in the synthesis gas can be tolerated, the autothermal reforming step (combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming over a nickel catalyst) uses preheated air rather than oxygen. However, even with nitrogen present, the volume of gas fed to the reactor can still be smaller than the volume of gas that must be circulated in a conventional reactor, which operates with low conversions and requires high recycle volumes. The characteristics of the BNL system permits a major improvement in methanol plant design and economics. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

Miller, D.B.; Williams, J.J.; Johnson, A.R.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid Fuels viaDepartment

184

Hydrogen Storage Systems Analysis Working Group Meeting Held in Conjunction with the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery concept using an organic liquid carrier for hydrogen. Joe Reiter

185

Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 selected Pt nanoparticles2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), which produce electricity from11 liquid fuel without1 Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 * Corresponding author: roldan@ucf.edu9 Keywords: platinum; methanol oxidation; operando; XAS; EXAFS; alumina

Kik, Pieter

186

Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMR production with gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery, andhydrogen: gaseous hydrogen pipeline vs. liquid hydrogenproduction with gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery systems;

Wang, Guihua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol: Enhanced methanol production in silica sol-gel matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strategies for effective conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to methanol offer promising new technologies not only for recycling of the greenhouse gas but also for an efficient production of fuel alternatives. Partial hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been accomplished by means of heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Oxide-based catalysts are predominantly used for industrial fixation of carbon dioxide. A unique approach in this direction involves the use of enzymes as catalysts for conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The use of enzymes is particularly appealing since it provides a facile low-temperature route for generation of methanol directly from gaseous carbon dioxide. The authors report an enzymatically coupled sequential reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a series of reactions catalyzed by three different dehydrogenases. Overall, the process involves an initial reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (F{sub ate}DH), followed by reduction of formate to formaldehyde by formaldehyde dehydrogenase (F{sub ald}DH), and finally formaldehyde is reduced to methanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this process, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) acts as a terminal electron donor for each dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction.

Obert, R.; Dave, B.C.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

188

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special

189

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas trucks needs hydrogen storage, hydrogen compressors forcapacity. Liquid hydrogen storage consists of 5 days of thethis reason the liquid hydrogen storage at the station is

Parker, Nathan C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas trucks needs hydrogen storage, hydrogen compressors forcapacity. Liquid hydrogen storage consists of 5 days of thethis reason the liquid hydrogen storage at the station is

Parker, Nathan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

192

The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Making a Business from Biomass in Energy, Environment,2004. An assessment of biomass resources in California.methanol and hydrogen from biomass. Journal of Power Sources

Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellto petroleum pathways with gasoline and diesel vehicles.simplicity, we use the term ‘‘gasoline pathway” to refer to

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Methanol Economy Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - air liquide adds Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

All Sizes (Cylinders to Liquid to Pipelines) Operations... ;4 Merchant Hydrogen Plants Praxair Liquid Hydrogen Plant Praxair Tube Trailer Hydrogen Plant ... Source: DOE Office of...

198

Methanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH Jump to: navigation,Metalysis Jump to:DecMethanol Jump to:

199

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

MTBE, methanol prices rise  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After several months of drifting lower in line with declining autumn gasoline prices, tabs for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have turned around. There has been no big demand surge, but consumers and traders are beginning to build up inventories in advance of a series of midwinter shutdowns and turnarounds by producers. Spot prices, which dropped as low as 75 cts/gal, have rebounded to 90 cts/gal fob. Eager for a positive glimmer, methanol producers posted a 3-cts/gal increase in contract prices this month. It marks the first upward idea since February. In that time contract prices have dropped 75% from $1.55/gal to 39 cts/gal. A hard winter has hit early in much of the US sending natural gas prices up sharply. At the same time, formaldehyde and acetic acid markets remain firm, and with MTBE rebounding, methanol producers feel entitled to a piece of the action. {open_quotes}I don`t buy into this claim that MTBE demand is up and I don`t think producers can justify even a 3-cts/gal increase,{close_quotes} says one. {open_quotes}There is nothing in the economy to warrant a run-up. Housing starts are weaker, and demand is down at least 80,000 bbl/day with the MTBE shutdown.{close_quotes}

Morris, G.D.L.; Cornitius, T.

1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

202

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal The economics of producing methanol and other fuels aresome discussion of producing methanol as a by-product from

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Included in this reaction is the decomposition of methanol, which produces CO: CH3OH CO + 2H2 (90.5 kJ mol a picture of the methanol reformer which has been designed to produce hydrogen for a 1 kWe HTPEM fuel cellExperimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

Berning, Torsten

204

IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................... 14 Biomass Pyrolysis to Hydrogen and Carbon or Methanol................................. 17-Derived Pyrolysis Oils............................................ 18 Hydrogen from Biomass-Derived MethanolIEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass State of the Art and Research Challenges Thomas A. Milne

205

A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gaseous and liquid hydrogen storage tech- nologies are giveninclude compressors, hydrogen storage and dispensing. In thein the analysis. Hydrogen production and storage Hydrogen

Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Hydrogen Production CODES & STANDARDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS for 2010 · Reduce the cost of distributed production of hydrogen from natural gas and/or liquid fuels to $1 SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pete Devlin #12;Hydrogen

207

Methanol injection and recovery in a large turboexpander plant. [Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol is used to prevent hydrate formation in Petro-Canada's 2000 MMSCFD Empress expander plant. Injection and recovery facilities have operated essentially trouble-free since start-up late in 1979. A portion of the methanol recovery section has been modified to provide removal of the H/sub 2/S and most of the COS from the propane product stream, concurrent with methanol recovery. The Empress straddle plant strips natural gas liquids from pipeline gas leaving Alberta for eastern Canadian and U.S. markets. The original cold oil absorption plant, started up in 1964 and expanded in 1967, recovered over 90% of the propane and virtually all of the heavier components. In 1976, a market for ethane was secured as feedstock for the world-scale ethylene complex under construction in Alberta, and it was decided to replace the cold oil plant with a turboexpander facility. The plant and its operations are described in some detail. 2 refs.

Nelson, K.; Wolfe, L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

In-situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of 1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, 2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and 3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonly promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

In situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of (1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, (2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and (3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonyl promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium. 186 references, 83 figures, 28 tables.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coal–to–liquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coal–to–liquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This… (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2/H2/H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low temperature (403 – 453K) conversions of CO:hydrogen and CO2:hydrogen mixtures (6 bar total pressure) to methanol over copper catalysts are both assisted by the presence of small amounts of water (mole fraction ~0.04%-0.5%). For CO2:hydrogen reaction mixtures, the water product from both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift serves to initiate both reactions in an autocatalytic manner. In the case of CO:D2 mixtures, very little methanol is produced until small amounts of water are added. The effect of water on methanol production is more immediate than in CO2:D2, yet the steady state rates are similar. Tracer experiments in 13CO:12CO2:hydrogen (with or without added water), show that the dominant source of C in the methanol product gradually shifts from CO2 to CO as the temperature is lowered. Cu-bound formate, the major IR visible surface species under CO2:hydrogen, is not visible in CO:moist hydrogen. Though formate is visible in the tracer experiments, the symmetric stretch is absent. These results, in conjunction with recent DFT calculations on Cu(111), point to carboxyl as a common intermediate for both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift, with formate playing a spectator co-adsorbate role.

Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, Charles T.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

1984-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storing and transporting hydrogen. Golden, CO: NREL; 1998. [V. Survey of the economics of hydrogen technologies. Golden,liquid or gaseous form. Hydrogen can be produced from a va-

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Negative void reactivity in a large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor with hydrogenous moderator (ZrH[sub 1. 7]) layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Placing a thin hydrogenous moderator (ZrH[sub 1.7]) layer between the seed and the blanket is very effective in reducing the sodium void reactivity of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The void reactivity reduction is attributed to the decrease in neutron production and increase in neutron absorption in the blanket at voiding due to the slowing down of fast neutrons in the layer. This dominates the whole core neutron balance. The fixed hydrogenous layer concept is much more effective than the conventional uniform introduction of such moderator in a core. Furthermore, it does not seriously deteriorate the breeding capability. For realizing the negative sodium void reactivity in a large-sized core, the seeds should be divided by blankets with the layers. The conceptual design of a nonflat LMFBR core is presented for demonstrating the effectiveness of the layer. Negative void reactivity is realized in a radially heterogeneous core of 1,000-MW(electric) class output. The active core is 2.9 m high. It is much taller than the conventional LMFBR core, which is [approximately]1 m high. A wide pitch-to-fuel diameter ratio was chosen so as not to increase the pressure drop in the core. The compound system doubling time is 12.5 yr.

Oka, Yoshiaki; Jevremovic, T.; Koshizuka, Seiichi (Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

Rutledge, G.P. [Central Environmental, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

Not Available

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

223

An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pressure Relief Device (PRD) Liquid Hydrogen Storage TankCompressed hydrogen storage Ambient-air vaporizer Liquidreactor (PSA) Compressed hydrogen storage Feed water pump

Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Total pressure measurements for pentane + methanol + ethanol at 303. 15 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper total pressure is reported as a function of liquid-phase composition for pentane + methanol + ethanol at 303.15 K. The data were reduced using Barker's method. The excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase is represented by a rational function obtained by making an empirical modification to the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The resulting fit to the data is superior to that obtained using a previous representation based on a modified Margules equation.

Reimers, J.L.; Bhethanabotla, V.R.; Campbell, S.W. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

Barthelat, Francois

226

Methanol adsorption and decomposition on rhodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decomposition of methanol on rhodium probed from {approximately}200 atomic sites of the (001) or (111) planes or Rh field emitter crystals but randomly with regard to crystallographic zones was studied by pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry. High electric field pulses were used to quantitatively desorb the final products, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, thus achieving steady-state conditions. Substantial amounts of methoxy (mainly desorbed as CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions) were also present at the surface. Applying a steady electric field, F{sub R} {ge} 4 V/nm, between the field pulses, led to a deceleration of the decomposition reaction and to increase of the amount of adsorbed CH{sub 3}O and CH{sub 2}O species. There were indicators that the rate-determining step of the reaction is C-H bond cleavage in adsorbed methoxy to form the CH{sub 2}O intermediate. This was supported by the observation of a kinetic isotope effect in the formation of CD{sub 2}O and CHDO from methyl-d{sub 2}-alcohol, CHD{sub 2}OH. Here, the C-H bond breaking to form the CD{sub 2}O was found to be twice as fast as the breaking of the C-D bond which results in CHDO. Field ion microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of the reaction on the structure of the whole hemispherical single crystal surface. There were neither topographic changes nor corrosion of the Rh surface after field-free exposure to 2 Pa methanol at temperatures up to 423 K.

Chuah, G.K.; Kruse, N.; Schmidt, W.A.; Block, J.H.; Abend, G. (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the final products are dominated by carbon dioxide and hydrogen. On Pd(111), formaldehyde is also found is considered as a promising alternative because of its high hydrogen to carbon ratio, no carbon-carbon bond, and easy storage and handling requirements.4,5 Hydrogen production from methanol can be performed by three

Li, Weixue

228

Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

Air Products and Chemicals

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The oxidation of methane (and other hydrocarbons) can also produce methanol primarily via the self reactionACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass

230

*sja@iet.aau.dkwww.iet.aau.dk Initial experiments with a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer for a HTPEM fuel cell system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fuel water/methanol mixture is done by electrical heaters, but could be integrated with the burner side reformed hydro- carbon as fuel for fuel cells can redu- ce fuel storage volume considerably. The PBI of evaporated water and methanol is presented and steam-reformed to a hydrogen rich gas. The steam reforming

Andreasen, Søren Juhl

231

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid hydrogen pumps cost less than compressors. Further,hydrogen flow rate, though there are slight economies of scale associated with compressor cost.

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Author's personal copy Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal and gasoline [3]. Moreover, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or directly as a transportation fuel [4]. Hydrogen can be generated from hydrocarbons and water resourcesAuthor's personal copy Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/ methanol decomposition

Wood, Thomas K.

233

Hydrogen Delivery- Current Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube trailers, or by rail or barge. Read on to learn more about current hydrogen delivery and storage technologies.

234

High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2005 Target: 1.01kg Technically (10% improvement) could be met, but unlikely demand drivers will be present to encourage meeting target Likely no plant will be built in 2005...

236

Liguid and Solid Carriers Group- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for solid and liquid hydrogen storage and delivery materials.

237

Hydrogen energy systems studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Florida Hydrogen Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

Block, David L

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O'Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL M. M. Mench, S. Boslet, S. Thynell, J. Scott, and C.Y. Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL M. M. Mench, S. Boslet, S. Thynell, J. Scott in this area. INTRODUCTION The liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has received enormous interest compared to H2 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (H2 PEMFC). Several studies have examined

Wang, Chao-Yang

243

Structure and dynamics of nonaqueous mixtures of dipolar liquids. II. Molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2000 Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study mixtures of acetone/methanol, acetonitrile/ methanol, and acetone/acetonitrile over their entire composition range. Using the effective pair potentials in these two papers is on the nonaqueous dipolar liquid mixtures of acetone/methanol, acetonitrile

244

HYDROGEN USAGE AND STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is thought that it will be useful to inform society and people who are interested in hydrogen energy. The study below has been prepared due to this aim can be accepted as an article to exchange of information between people working on this subject. This study has been presented to reader to be utilized as a “technical note”. Main Energy sources coal, petroleum and natural gas are the fossil fuels we use today. They are going to be exhausted since careless usage in last decades through out the world, and human being is going to face the lack of energy sources in the near future. On the other hand as the fossil fuels pollute the environment makes the hydrogen important for an alternative energy source against to the fossil fuels. Due to the slow progress in hydrogen’s production, storage and converting into electrical energy experience, extensive usage of Hydrogen can not find chance for applications in wide technological practices. Hydrogen storage stands on an important point in the development of Hydrogen energy Technologies. Hydrogen is volumetrically low energy concentration fuel. Hydrogen energy, to meet the energy quantity necessary for the nowadays technologies and to be accepted economically and physically against fossil fuels, Hydrogen storage technologies have to be developed in this manner. Today the most common method in hydrogen storage may be accepted as the high pressurized composite tanks. Hydrogen is stored as liquid or gaseous phases. Liquid hydrogen phase can be stored by using composite tanks under very high pressure conditions. High technology composite material products which are durable to high pressures, which should not be affected by hydrogen embrittlement and chemical conditions.[1

245

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid hydrogen pumps cost less than compressors. Further,hydrogen ?ow rate, though there are slight economies of scale associated with compressor cost.hydrogen storage tanks are needed. Costs for central plant compressors

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Hydrogen Related Analytical Studies Office of Fossil Energy and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal with co-production of electric power · Centralized production of liquid fuel hydrogen carriers to ASPEN. Simulations included production of power, liquids, syngas and hydrogen from coal. · In the mid current baseline · Centralized production of hydrogen from coal · Centralized production of hydrogen from

247

Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1 Members Theme 1

248

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Recovery of methanol in an MTBE process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for the manufacture of methyltertiarybutylether (MTBE) in which methanol and a mixture of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons containing isobutylene are contacted in a reaction zone containing an ion-exchange resin catalyst under suitable conditions to effect the reaction of methanol and isobutylene to produce a reaction product containing MTBE, unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the reaction product is introduced to a fractionation zone wherein it is separated into a bottoms product comprising essentially MTBE and an overhead product containing unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene, and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, and the overhead product is introduced to an absorption zone wherein the methanol is absorbed; the improvement is described which comprises utilizing silica gel as adsorbent and regenerating the silica gel adsorbent in a closed loop by contacting the silica gel absorbent with a desorption gas stream at an elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to remove absorbed methanol, cooling the effluent from the adsorption zone to condense desorbed methanol removing desorbed methanol from the system and recycling the desorption gas to the adsorption zone.

Whisenhunt, D.E.; Byers, G.L.; Hattiangadi, U.S.

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

251

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Presentation...

252

Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hydrogen passivation of Se and Te in AlSb M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen passivation of Se and Te in AlSb M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller Lawrence Berkeley observed local vibrational modes LVM's arising from DX-hydrogen complex in AlSb. Hydrogen was diffused into bulk AlSb:Se and AlSb:Te by annealing in sealed quartz ampoules with either hydrogen gas or methanol CH

McCluskey, Matthew

254

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

255

Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Amgad Elgowainy (ANL), Marianne Mintz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Truck Liquid Hydrogen Truck Terminal H2 Transmission Compressor H2 Forecourt Compressor Hydrogen Storage Options Geologic gas storage Low cost for very large amounts of hydrogen May not be convenientlyHydrogen Delivery Analysis Models Amgad Elgowainy (ANL), Marianne Mintz (ANL), Jerry Gillette (ANL

256

In-situ activation of CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalysts in the liquid phase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of activation of a CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst slurried in a chemically inert liquid. Successful activation of the catalyst requires the use of a process in which the temperature of the system at any time is not allowed to exceed a certain critical value, which is a function of the specific hydrogen uptake of the catalyst at that same time. This process is especially critical for activating highly concentrated catalyst slurries, typically 25 to 50 wt %. Activation of slurries of CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is useful in carrying out the liquid phase methanol or the liquid phase shift reactions.

Brown, Dennis M. (Allentown, PA); Hsiung, Thomas H. (Emmaus, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

Tjandra, Sinoto

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Synthesis of MTBE during CO hydrogenation: Reaction sites required  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) during carbon monoxide (CO) hydrogenation has been studied with the following reaction schemes: (1) the addition of isobutylene during CO hydrogenation over metal catalysts active for methanol synthesis (Pd/SiO{sub 2} and Li-Pd/SiO{sub 2}) and (2) the addition of isobutylene during CO hydrogenation over a dual bed configuration consisting of Li-Pd/SiO{sub 2} and a zeolite (H-ZSM-5 or HY). The addition of isobutylene during methanol synthesis over the supported Pd catalysts indicated that MTBE cannot be formed on metal sites from a reaction of isobutylene with methanol precursors. However, addition of isobutylene to the syngas feed over a dual bed consisting of a methanol synthesis catalyst and an acid zeolite downstream of the methanol synthesis catalyst showed that MTBE can be synthesized during CO hydrogenation provided acid sites are available. In order to get higher conversions of methanol to MTBE, optimization of the acid catalyst and/or reaction conditions would be required to minimize formation of byproduct hydrocarbons.

Kazi, A.M.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Basic metal oxides as cocatalysts for Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic behavior of Cu catalysts supported on ultrapure silica and promoted with Ca, Zn, and La oxides was investigated in the hydrogenation of CO and CO{sub 2} to methanol at high pressure. Cu on very pure silica produces hardly any methanol, while the addition of basic oxides and the use of {gamma}-alumina as support improve the catalyst performance. The strong promoting effect of Ca and La oxide on the silica-supported Cu and the weak promoting effect for alumina-supported Cu suggest that the basic oxide additives must be close to or in contact with the Cu particles to be effective in methanol synthesis. The methanol activity of Zn/Cu/SiO{sub 2} increased with increasing CO{sub 2} content in a CO-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture, suggesting that CO{sub 2} is the main carbon source for methanol.

Gotti, A.; Prins, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

263

Hydrogen bond breaking probed with multidimensional stimulated vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen bond breaking probed with multidimensional stimulated vibrational echo correlation September 2003 Hydrogen bond population dynamics are extricated with exceptional detail using ultrafast ( 50 of methanol­OD oligomers in CCl4 . Hydrogen bond breaking makes it possible to acquire data for times much

Fayer, Michael D.

264

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

266

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

267

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

268

Technology and economics of gas utilization: Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reviews the current and emerging technology for the conversion of natural gas into methanol and assesses its impact on the production economics. Technologies of potential use for offshore developments of large gas reserves or associated gas are discussed. New technologies for the production of methanol synthesis-gas, such as autothermal reforming and GHR technology, are described and the economic advantages over conventional steam reforming are quantified. New methanol synthesis technology, such as slurry phase reactors, are outlined but appear to offer little advantage over conventional technology for offshore gas utilization. The purification of methanol for fuel and chemical grade product is outlined and the cost of transport presented. The data presented gives an overview of the production costs for production of methanol from large gas reserves (> 1Tcf, 25--35PJ/a) and smaller scale reserves (10--20MMscfd, 4--10PJ/a). The variation of the production cost of methanol with gas price indicates that the gas price is the principal economic consideration. However, adoption of new technology will improve production economics by an amount equivalent to an incremental gas cost of about $0.5/GJ. For gas reserves of low development cost, the adoption of new technology is not a prerequisite to economic viability.

Seddon, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Cooper, Alan Charles (Macungie, PA); Scott, Aaron Raymond (Allentown, PA)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

271

Muon capture in hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical difficulties in reconciling the measured rates for ordinary and radiative muon capture are discussed, based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We also examine ambiguity in our analysis due to the formation of p$\\mu$p molecules in the liquid hydrogen target.

S. Ando; F. Myhrer; K. Kubodera

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery William A. Braff1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refined and optimized over several decades. More recently, a laminar flow fuel cell based on borohydride batteries [23, 27], as well as methanol [25], formic acid [24], and hydrogen fuel cells [29]. However, none

Bazant, Martin Z.

273

Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Prediction of Transport Properties by Molecular Simulation: Methanol and Ethanol and their mixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transport properties of liquid methanol and ethanol are predicted by molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular models for the alcohols are rigid, non-polarizable and of united-atom type. They were developed in preceding work using experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data only. Self- and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients as well as the shear viscosity of methanol, ethanol and their binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Green-Kubo formalism. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used for predicting the thermal conductivity of the two pure substances. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a wide temperature range at ambient pressure and compared with experimental and simulation data from the literature. Overall, a very good agreement with the experiment is found. For instance, the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are predicted with average deviations of less 8% for the pure alcohols and 12% for the mixture. The predicted thermal...

Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Electronic Effect in Methanol Dehydrogenation on Pt Surfaces: Potential Control during Methanol Electrooxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advanced insight into the design of an optimal catalyst as the anode for direct methanol fuel cells. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Fuel cells are promising alternative energy conversion. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs

Park, Byungwoo

276

A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu membrane enables improvements in cell performance. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 31 October 2012 Received in revised form 4 December 2012 Accepted 3 January 2013 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct

Zhao, Tianshou

277

Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Praxair extending hydrogen pipeline in Southeast Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Praxair Inc., an independent corporation created by the spinoff of Union Carbide Corp.'s Linde division, is extending its high purity hydrogen pipeline system from Channelview, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex. The 70 mile, 10 in. extension begins at a new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification unit next to Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview plant. The PSA unit will upgrade hydrogen offgas from Lyondell's methanol plant to 99.99% purity hydrogen. The new line, advancing at a rate of about 1 mile/day, will reach its first customer, Star Enterprise's 250,000 b/d Port Arthur refinery, in September.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

279

Falling MTBE demand bursts the methanol bubble  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol spot markets in Europe and the US have been hit hard by weakening demand from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers. In Europe, spot prices for domestic T2 product have dropped to DM620-DM630/m.t. fob from early-January prices above DM800/m.t. and US spot prices have slipped to $1.05/gal fob from $1.35/gal. While chemical applications for methanol show sustained demand, sharp methanol hikes during 1994 have priced MTBE out of the gasoline-additive market. {open_quotes}We`ve learned an important lesson. We killed [MTBE] applications in the rest of the world,{close_quotes} says one European methanol producer. Even with methanol currently at DM620/m.t., another manufacturer points out, MTBE production costs still total $300/m.t., $30/m.t. more than MTBE spot prices. Since late 1994, Europe`s 3.3-million m.t./year MTBE production has been cut back 30%.

Wiesmann, G.; Cornitius, T.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

Meeting Action Items and Highlights from the Bio-Derived Liquids...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

from the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Meeting Action Items and Highlights...

283

Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution in DMFCs Induced by Oxygen Interruptions and Its Effect on Cell Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tem optimization and reliable operation of the fuel cell. Gas evolu- tion on the anode of a DMFC under flow field of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC under open-circuit conditions after methanol fuel cells DMFCs are considered as one of the most competitive candidates for the future power

Zhao, Tianshou

284

Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

NONE

1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

286

Neutron diffraction of hydrogenous materials: measuring incoherent and coherent intensities separately from liquid water - a 40-year-old puzzle solved  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(short version) Accurate determination of the coherent static structure factor of disordered materials containing proton nuclei is prohibitively difficult by neutron diffraction, due to the large incoherent cross section of $^1$H. This notorious problem has set severe obstacles to the structure determination of hydrogenous materials up to now, via introducing large uncertainties into neutron diffraction data processing. Here we present the first accurate separate measurements, using polarized neutron diffraction, of the coherent and incoherent contributions to the total static structure factor of 5 mixtures of light and heavy water, over an unprecedentedly wide momentum transfer range. The structure factors of H$_2$O and D$_2$O mixtures derived in this work may signify the beginning of a new era in the structure determination of hydrogenous materials, using neutron diffraction.

László Temleitner; Anne Stunault; Gabriel Cuello; László Pusztai

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid hydrogen pumps cost less than compressors. Further,hydrogen flow rate, though there are slight economies of scale associated with compressorhydrogen storage tanks are needed. Costs for central plant compressors

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

will contain between 6.2 kg and 10.7 kg of hydrogen if the tank is refueled with subcritical liquid hydrogen, and the initial tank (liner and carbon fiber) temperature is...

289

CdSe-MoS2: A Quantum Size-Confined Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution from Water under Visible Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and for the conversion of carbon dioxides into methanol and hydrocarbons. Metal chalcogenides1­9 are promisingCdSe-MoS2: A Quantum Size-Confined Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution from Water under Visible driven pathway to hydrogen. Hydrogen is not only an environmentally benign fuel for the generation

Osterloh, Frank

290

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

291

Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of NO and N02 in a Turbulent Propane/Air Di fusion Flame,"Fuel Methanol Ethanol Ethane Propane i so Octane n - Cetanestage of the secondary Propane, at A spark air line contains

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Theoretical model for methanol formation from CO and H/sub 2/ on zinc oxide surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models are developed for the polar (0001) and nonpolar (1010) surfaces of ZnO in order to consider methanol formation from adsorbed carbon monoxide and hydrogen atoms. The heats of adsorption of H/sub x/CO and OH/sub x/CO (x = 0-3) species involved in methanol formation are computed to determine the enthalpy changes of reaction. Reaction sequences involving formyl or formate intermediates are considered. The reaction mechanism is catalyzed by the Cu/sup +/ to proceed through a methoxy intermediate on Cu/sup +//ZnO with a lower of the energy pathway. The ZnO surfaces are poor donors and function primarily as acceptors of electron density from CO. The donor role of Cu/sup +/ is demonstrated on the polar surface by increasing the heat of adsorption of acceptor adspecies and decreasing the heat of adsorption of donor adspecies. 22 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Baetzold, R.C.

1985-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

Nizamoff, Alan J. (Convent Station, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,n70460...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been described elsewhere.9 Methanol cluster anions were produced by passing argon through a reservoirPhotoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,MeOH...n - ,,n�70­460... Aster Kammrath Electron solvation in methanol anion clusters, MeOH n - n 70­460 , is studied by photoelectron imaging. Two

Neumark, Daniel M.

297

Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

liquid hydrogen storage, improved insulated-pressure vessels are being investigated. Materials research is focused on developing and evaluating advanced solid-state materials. In...

298

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid hydrogen pumps cost less than compressors. Further,and compressors have small-scale economies at this size range. Liquid hydrogenhydrogen ?ow rate, though there are slight economies of scale associated with compressor

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Site-site memory equation approach in study of density/pressure dependence of translational diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time of polar molecular solutions: acetonitrile in water, methanol in water, and methanol in acetonitrile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of theoretical study and numerical calculation of the dynamics of molecular liquids based on combination of the memory equation formalism and the reference interaction site model - RISM. Memory equations for the site-site intermediate scattering functions are studied in the mode-coupling approximation for the first order memory kernels, while equilibrium properties such as site-site static structure factors are deduced from RISM. The results include the temperature-density(pressure) dependence of translational diffusion coefficients D and orientational relaxation times t for acetonitrile in water, methanol in water and methanol in acetonitrile, all in the limit of infinite dilution. Calculations are performed over the range of temperatures and densities employing the SPC/E model for water and optimized site-site potentials for acetonitrile and methanol. The theory is able to reproduce qualitatively all main features of temperature and density dependences of D and t observed in real and comp...

Kobryn, A E; Hirata, F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

VLE measurements of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane, and 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane at 101.32 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + methanol, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + ethanol, methanol + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane, ethanol + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane, and 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane were determined at 101.32 kPa. Fredenslund et al.`s test confirmed the results to be thermodynamically consistent. The VLE data were satisfactorily correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations for liquid phase activity coefficients and adequately predicted using the ASOG, UNIFAC, UNIFAC-Dortmund, and UNIFAC-Lyngby group contribution methods.

Arce, A.; Martinez-Ageitos, J.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hydrogen Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

302

Nuclear Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen High temperature options for nuclear generation of hydrogen on a commercial basis are several years in the future. Thermo-chemical water splitting has been proven to be...

303

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

304

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

305

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy density of 1.5 Wh/cc; 1.5Wh/g = X5; x10 energy density of Li ion battery * Direct & complete Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Micro Fuel Cells TM State of MTI Micro Fuel Cells Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

307

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have demonstrated robust operation when tested at various orientations, temperatures, and humidity levels. Durability testing has progressed significantly over the course of the program. MEA, engine, and system level steady state testing has demonstrated degradation rates acceptable for initial product introduction. Test duration of over 5000 hrs has been achieved at both the MEA and breadboard system level. P3 level prototype life testing on engines (stacks with reactant conditioning) showed degradation rates comparable to carefully constructed lab fixtures. This was a major improvement over the P2 and P1 engine designs, which exhibited substantial reductions in life and performance between the lab cell and the actual engine. Over the course of the work on the P3 technology set, a platform approach was taken to the system design. By working in this direction, a number of product iterations with substantial market potential were identified. Although the main effort has been the development of a prototype charger for consumer electronic devices, multiple other product concepts were developed during the program showing the wide variety of potential applications.

Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Dynamic simulation of nuclear hydrogen production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear hydrogen production processes have been proposed as a solution to rising CO 2 emissions and low fuel yields in the production of liquid transportation fuels. In these processes, the heat of a nuclear reactor is ...

Ramírez Muńoz, Patricio D. (Patricio Dario)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator (SCPO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Ke Liu, Gregg Deluga, Lanny Schmidt, and Ted Krause at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

310

Mechanism of methanol synthesis on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces: Comparative dipped adcluster model study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces was studied using the dipped adcluster model (DAM) combined with ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) calculations. On clean Cu(100) surface, calculations show that five successive hydrogenations are involved in the hydrogenation of adsorbed CO{sub 2} to methanol, and the intermediates are formate, dioxomethylene, formaldehyde, and methoxy. The rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of formate to formaldehyde, and the Cu-Cu site is responsible for the reaction on Cu(100). The roles of Zn on Zn/Cu(100) catalyst are to modify the rate-limiting step of the reaction: to lower the activation energies of this step and to stabilize the dioxomethylene intermediate at the Cu-Zn site. The present comparative results indicate that the Cu-Zn site is the active site, which cooperates with the Cu-Cu site to catalyze methanol synthesis on a Cu-based catalyst. Electron transfer from surface to adsorbates is the most important factor in affecting the reactivity of these surface catalysts.

Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Hu, Zhenming

2000-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

311

Liquid-phase oxidation of anthracene by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of vanadium oxide bronzes Cu{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vanadium oxide bronzes of the general formula Cu{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where 0 liquid-phase oxidation of anthracene H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The anthracene conversion and the selectivity with respect to anthraquinone are maximum within the region of {Beta}- and {Xi}-phases respectively close to the compositions Cu{sub 0.6} V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Cu{sub 0.95}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This is connected with change in the electronic structure of the catalyst, which is a function of the copper content. 11 refs., 1 tab.

Men`shikov, S.Yu.; Vurasko, A.V.; Petrov, L.A.; Volkov, V.L.; Novoselova, A.A. [Inst. of Chemistry, Sverdlovsk (Russian Federation)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Ethanol L. Saiz and J. A. Padro*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Ethanol L. Saiz and J. A. Padro´* Departament de Fi dynamics simulations of liquid ethanol at four thermodynamic states ranging from T ) 173 K to T ) 348 K and to their influence on the molecular behavior. Results for liquid ethanol are compared with those for methanol

Saiz, Leonor

313

Modelling of Gas Clathrate Hydrate Equilibria using the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (eNRTL) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g. pipeline blockages by hydrates in drilling applications or gas pipelines) [6]. Species being capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the water molecules like methanol or ethylene glycol as well as water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

HYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass, such as peanut shells, for urban transportation. The process involves pyrolysis of the biomassHYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION Collaborating Project Team Y. Yeboah (PI) and K and liquid fuels) · Potential sources of hydrogen include biomass, natural gas and other fossil fuels. #12

315

Hydrogen from Post-Consumer Residues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. #12;Approach Technology being developed for producing hydrogen from biomass: Pyrolysis or partial pyrolysis gases and vapors. Catalytic steam reforming of biomass-derived liquid streams (trap grease of the Project This work is one of three tasks in the Biomass to Hydrogen project. Goal: develop and demonstrate

316

Improvements to Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvements to Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM) and Results May 8, 2007 Amgad and storage are at or adjacent to Liquid Hydrogen (LH) TruckH2 Production 100 or 1500 kg/d Compressed H2 (CH) Truck H2 Production 3 or 7 kpsi 100 or 1500 kg/d H2 Production Gaseous H2 Pipeline 100 or 1500 kg

317

List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList of GeothermalMethanol Incentives Jump to:

318

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Novel Compression and Fueling Apparatus to Meet Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor concept involving compression of hydrogen with a "liquid piston" with little temperature rise that are available commercially Cost increases, but cost per kg of delivered hydrogen decreases slightly 700 barg delivers 71% more hydrogen for a similar sized vehicle tank #12;8 Novel Compressor Targets: ­ Prototype

320

Hydrogen Bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

Li, Zaiwei (Moreno Valley, CA); Tang, Yongchun (Walnut, CA); Cheng; Jihong (Arcadia, CA)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

322

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

Urban, P.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

but scarce oil and natural gas. Adapting to such limitations, it has developed a chemical industry, with the rest coming from natural gas (Peng, 2011). Methanol is commonly used to produce formaldehyde, methylCommunication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment

Jackson, Robert B.

324

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

Brown, L.F.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

326

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

327

Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen...

332

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have persistedbenefits from compressed natural gas, ethanol, methanol,

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hydrogen program overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

Alan C. Cooper

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

336

Cryocompressed Hydrogen Storage and Liquid Delivery  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLEReport 2009Site | Department of EnergytoRev.

337

Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

338

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by C.E. (Sandy) Thomas at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

339

Hydrogen Storage Options: Technologies and Comparisons for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 kpsi) in carbon fiber-composite tanks, liquid hydrogen incarbon fiber is the highest cost material component of high pressure compressed gas tanks.

Burke, Andy; Gardiner, Monterey

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Z. Feng*, L.M. Anovitz*, J and industry expectations · DOE Pipeline Working Group and Tech Team activities - FRP Hydrogen Pipelines - Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines - Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Use #12;3 OAK

342

Pressure dependence of diffusion coefficient and orientational relaxation time for acetonitrile and methanol in water: DRISM/mode-coupling study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of theoretical description and numerical calculation of the dynamics of molecular liquids based on the Reference Interaction Site Model / Mode-Coupling Theory. They include the temperature-pressure(density) dependence of the translational diffusion coefficients and orientational relaxation times for acetonitrile and methanol in water at infinite dilution. Anomalous behavior, i.e. the increase in mobility with density, is observed for the orientational relaxation time of methanol, while acetonitrile does not show any deviations from the usual. This effect is in qualitative agreement with the recent data of MD simulation and with experimental measurements, which tells us that presented theory is a good candidate to explain such kind of anomalies from the microscopical point of view and with the connection to the structure of the molecules.

Kobryn, A E; Hirata, F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy based on the hydrogen fuel cell, but this cannot beus to look toward hydrogen. Fuel cell basics, simplifiedthe path to fuel cell commercialization. Hydrogen production

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Here, Graciani et al. report on a new nanocatalyst that can do just that for CO2- in producing methanol, a key industrial chemical commonly used to make other chemicals and...

349

Coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a better understanding of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis on zeolites, the coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite was investigated using IR spectroscopy. Initial adsorption of isobutene alone at 35{degree}C led to rapid oligomerization yielding strongly bound oligomers. The subsequent coadsorption of methanol did not induce any changes in the zeolite-adsorbate complexes. TPD following the coadsorption showed that the Bronsted acid sites could be restored by temperature treatment above approximately 300{degree}C. When methanol was adsorbed first and isobutene was subsequently coadsorbed, MTBE was formed even at 35{degree}C on the catalyst surface. MTBE desorbed easily at a temperature of 70{degree}C, restoring a major fraction of the Bronsted acid sites. Methanol was concluded to decrease the probability of oligomerization by effectively competing for the acid sites. 34 refs., 6 figs.

Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lercher, J.A. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

350

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-state reaction conditions, CH2O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures belowMechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported

Bell, Alexis T.

351

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

352

Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF REFORMED METHANOL AS AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE FUEL A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL MCCALL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1903 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EVALUATION OF REFORMED METHANOL AS AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE FUEL A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL MCCALL Approved as to style and content by: Dr. T. R. Lalk (Chairman o f Committee ) Dr. R. R. Davison (Member...

McCall, David M

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Adsorption of hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper catalysts display a high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of various carbonyl compounds, and copper is a component of the complex catalysts for the synthesis of methanol from CO and H/sub 2/. The adsorption of H/sub 2/ on copper catalysts has been studied by means of thermal desorption. The molecular form of adsorption of H/sub 2/ has been established, the thermal desorption parameters calculated, and the heat of adsorption of H/sub 2/ on a copper surface estimated.

Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.; Golodets, G.I.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

Edward C. Heydorn

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

another promising solution for hydrogen storage. However,storage and delivery, and there are safety issues as well with hydrogen

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

358

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type metalorganic framework (Fe-BTT) discovered via high-throughput methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type metal­organic framework the compound in methanol and heating at 135 C for 24 h under dynamic vacuum, most of the solvent is removed and open Fe2+ coordination sites. Hydrogen adsorption data collected at 77 K show a steep rise

360

Electrolytic hydrogen production infrastructure options evaluation. Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel-cell electric vehicles have the potential to provide the range, acceleration, rapid refueling times, and other creature comforts associated with gasoline-powered vehicles, but with virtually no environmental degradation. To achieve this potential, society will have to develop the necessary infrastructure to supply hydrogen to the fuel-cell vehicles. Hydrogen could be stored directly on the vehicle, or it could be derived from methanol or other hydrocarbon fuels by on-board chemical reformation. This infrastructure analysis assumes high-pressure (5,000 psi) hydrogen on-board storage. This study evaluates one approach to providing hydrogen fuel: the electrolysis of water using off-peak electricity. Other contractors at Princeton University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas, probably the least expensive hydrogen infrastructure alternative for large markets. Electrolytic hydrogen is a possible short-term transition strategy to provide relatively inexpensive hydrogen before there are enough fuel-cell vehicles to justify building large natural gas reforming facilities. In this study, the authors estimate the necessary price of off-peak electricity that would make electrolytic hydrogen costs competitive with gasoline on a per-mile basis, assuming that the electrolyzer systems are manufactured in relatively high volumes compared to current production. They then compare this off-peak electricity price goal with actual current utility residential prices across the US.

Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Improvements to Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for 3 pathways with single mode. conditioning and storage are at or adjacent to Liquid Hydrogen (LH) Truck H2 Production 100 or 1500 kgd Compressed H2 (CH) Truck H2 Production...

362

High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

363

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Methanol fumigation of a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Oldsmobile 5.7 l V-8 diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluable organic extract was also made using both the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the Bacillus subtilis Comptest. Results are presented for a test matrix consisting of twelve steady state operating conditions chosen to reflect over-the-road operation of a diesel engine powered automobile. Generally methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. While the biological activity of the raw particulate was generally found to be lower than that of the soluble organic fraction, the fumigation of methanol appears to enhance this activity in both cases.

Houser, K.R.; Lestz, S.S.; Dukovich, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

366

Production of Liquid Cluster Ions by Nozzle Beam Source with and without He Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a new type of cluster ion source which could produce various kinds of liquid clusters such as water, methanol, ethanol and octane clusters. When the vapor pressure was larger than one atm, the water and ethanol clusters could be produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon without adding He gas. The peak size of the cluster ions increased with the increase of the vapor pressures. When the source temperature was at room temperature, the water and ethanol clusters were also produced by adding He gas. In another case of producing liquid clusters such as methanol and octane clusters, He gas was added to mix up with vapors of liquid materials. When the He gas pressure was larger than a few atms, the methanol and octane clusters were produced at a vapor pressure of two atm. The peak size increased with increase of the vapor pressure as well as the He gas pressure.

Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Okada, T.; Sugiyama, K. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation The hydrogen...

368

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

369

NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage &...

370

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

371

Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

Conocophillips

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrogen Storage in Ammonia and Aminoborane Complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Storage in Ammonia and Aminoborane Complexes Ali Raissi Florida Solar Energy Center;Advantages of Ammonia Costs about $150 per short ton or less than $6.25 per million BTU of H2 contained and utilization Stores 30% more energy by liquid volume than LH2 Easily reformed using 16% of the energy

374

Single-cell protein from methanol with Enterobacter aerogenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An identified Enterobacter aerogenes utilizing methanol as a sole carbon source was studied for the optimization of biomass production and the reduction of its nucleic acid content. Results indicated that the highest yield and conversion were obtained at 0.5% methanol. The addition of seawater as a source of trace elements has an adverse effect. However, the addition of urea as source of nitrogen enhanced the growth of E. aerogenes. Heat shock at 60 degrees C for one minute followed by incubation at 50 degrees C for 2 hours caused 72.6% reduction in the nucleic acid. 12 references.

Gnan, S.O.; Abodreheba, A.O.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to serve as "go-to" organization to catalyze PA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Economy development #12;FundingHYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA Melissa Klingenberg, PhDMelissa Klingenberg, PhD #12;Hydrogen ProgramHydrogen Program Air Products

376

Kinetic study of hydrogen sulfide absorption in aqueous chlorine solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This technique involves H2S mass transfer in an aqueous phase using a gas-liquid contactor. Since H2S is poorly. This scrubbing liquid is just drained when the salt accumulation due to H2S oxidation into sulfate anions becomes Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently removed from gaseous effluents by chemical scrubbing using water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would becost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September byet al. , 1988,1989 HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES: TECHNICALIn the FCEV, the hydrogen fuel cell could supply the "net"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the hydrogen refueling station. Compressor cost: inputcost) Compressor power requirement: input data 288.80 Initial temperature of hydrogen (Compressor cost per unit of output ($/hp/million standard ft [SCF] of hydrogen/

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy StorageAdvancedMetamaterials Researchsc 620VibrationalA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

(Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies | BlandinePrinceton Plasmareactions. | EMSL (100)

382

Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the EffectsAcknowledgment StatementGuidance6803. |

383

Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-breathing direct methanol Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Res. 2005; 29:10411050 Summary: , U.S.A. SUMMARY An 8-cell air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack with the active area... of an air-breathing direct methanol fuel...

385

An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam...

387

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study M. Mench, J. Scott, S. Thynell boundary Fuel cell performance Current density distribution measurements Conclusions #12;3 Method, flow rate, species inlet and fuel cell temperature, and humidity. Transparent polycarbonate windows

Wang, Chao-Yang

390

Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Young, I.

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Influence of the pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns I. Measurement of the compressibility of methanol-water mixtures on a mesoporous silica adsorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compressibilities of aqueous solutions of methanol or acetonitrile containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) organic solvent were measured with a dynamic chromatographic method. The elution volumes of thiourea samples (2 {micro} L) in these solutions were measured at different average column pressures, adjusted by placing suitable capillary restrictors on-line, after the detector. The reproducibility of the measurements was better than 0.2%. In the range of average pressures studied (10-350 bar), the maximum change in elution volume of thiourea is 1.3% (in pure water) and 4.0% (in pure methanol). This difference is due to the different compressibilities of these pure solvents. For mixtures, the plots of the elution volume of thiourea versus the pressure are convex downward, which is inconsistent with the opposite curvature predicted by the classical Tait model of liquid compressibility. This difference is explained by the variation of the amount of thiourea adsorbed with the pressure. The deconvolution of the two effects, adsorption of thiourea and solvent compressibility, allows a fair and consistent determination of the compressibilities of the methanol-water mixtures. A column packed with non-porous silica particles was also used to determine the compressibility of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures. A negative deviation by respect to ideal behavior was observed.

Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Influence of the pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns I. Measurement of the compressibility of methanol-water mixtures on a mesoporous silica adsorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compressibilities of aqueous solutions of methanol or acetonitrile containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) organic solvent were measured with a dynamic chromatographic method. The elution volumes of thiourea samples (2 {micro} L) in these solutions were measured at different average column pressures, adjusted by placing suitable capillary restrictors on-line, after the detector. The reproducibility of the measurements was better than 0.2%. In the range of average pressures studied (10-350 bar), the maximum change in elution volume of thiourea is 1.3% (in pure water) and 4.0% (in pure methanol). This difference is due to the different compressibilities of these pure solvents. For mixtures, the plots of the elution volume of thiourea versus the pressure are convex downward, which is inconsistent with the opposite curvature predicted by the classical Tait model of liquid compressibility. This difference is explained by the variation of the amount of thiourea adsorbed with the pressure. The deconvolution of the two effects, adsorption of thiourea and solvent compressibility, allows a fair and consistent determination of the compressibilities of the methanol-water mixtures. A column packed with non-porous silica particles was also used to determine the compressibility of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures. A negative deviation by respect to ideal behavior was observed.

Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

395

Hydrogen and fuel taxation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The competitiveness of hydrogen depends on how it is integrated in the energy tax system in Europe. This paper addresses the competitiveness of hydrogen and… (more)

Hansen, Anders Chr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hydrogen Program Overview  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

398

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sources Hydrogen Hydrogen September 30, 2014 Developed by Sandia National Laboratories and several industry partners, the fuel cell mobile light (H2LT) offers a cleaner, quieter...

399

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately...

400

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

402

CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as biofuel plug-in hybrids, but did well when biofuels were removed or priced excessively. Hydrogen fuel cells failed unless costs were assumed to descend independent of demand. However, hydrogen vehicles were; Hydrogen as fuel -- Economic aspects; Technological innovations -- Environmental aspects; Climatic changes

403

Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) it reduces the fuel efficiency (methanol is reacted without producing electrical current). We canChapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li

404

Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this process is a limiting factor in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells, which produce electricityCorrelating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol

Kik, Pieter

405

Seasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2002] and photochemical produc- tion from hydrocarbon precursors. Methanol is often the most abundantSeasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets December 2005; published 21 February 2006. [1] Acetone and methanol have been measured hourly at a rural

Cohen, Ronald C.

406

Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X-ray absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O and Cr2O3 mixtures and produced methanol in low yields from CO­H2 mixtures at high temperatures (593Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433­441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X a consistent structural picture of methanol synthesis catalysts. Copper metal is the principal Cu species

Iglesia, Enrique

407

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream-effective system that would remove methanol from the produced water stream. Objectives Our objective was to reduce the methanol concentration of either one of two produced water samples. Specifically, our goal was to reduce

Demirel, Melik C.

408

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

409

Hydrogen Energy Technology Geoff Dutton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) Pyrolysis Water electrolysis Reversible fuel cell Hydrogen Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines Hydrogen-fuelled turbines Fuel cells Hydrogen systems Overall expensive. Intermediate paths, employing hydrogen derived from fossil fuel sources, are already used

Watson, Andrew

410

First demonstration of CdSe as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution from water under UV and visible lightw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­10 but can produce H2 from aqueous solutions containing sacrificial electrons donors, such as Na2S and Na2SO3% aqueous methanol, a known sacrificial electron donor,21 the hydrogen evolution rate was about three to four times higher, producing a total H2 amount of 18.4 mmol after 5 h. The increase in the H2 rate

Osterloh, Frank

411

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression Raymond Drnevich Praxair - Tonawanda, NY Strategic Initiatives for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop - May 7, 2003 #12;2 Agenda Introduction to Praxair Hydrogen Liquefaction Hydrogen Compression #12;3 Praxair at a Glance The largest industrial gas company in North

412

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop to make it a reality. This Roadmap provides a framework that can make a hydrogen economy a reality

413

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop...

415

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

416

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

417

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); McLean, Joseph B. (So. Somerville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Adsorption and Deactivation Characteristics of Cu/ZnO-Based Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and deactivation characteristics of coprecipitated Cu/ZnO-based catalysts were examined and correlated to their performance in methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The addition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoters is shown to increase the Cu surface area and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} adsorption capacities of the catalysts and enhance methanol synthesis activity. Infrared studies showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs spontaneously on these catalysts at room temperature as both monoand bi-dentate carbonate species. These weakly bound species desorb completely from the catalyst surface by 200 °C while other carbonate species persist up to 500 °C. Characterization using N{sub 2}O decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis clearly indicated that Cu sintering is the main cause of catalyst deactivation. Ga and Y promotion improves the catalyst stability by suppressing the agglomeration of Cu and ZnO particles under pretreatment and reaction conditions.

Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Ohodnicki, Paul R., Jr.; Howard, Bret H.; Lekse, Jonathan W.; Baltrus, John P.; Matranga, Christopher

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

420

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 This program record from the Department...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

422

Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22,...

423

The use of advanced steam reforming technology for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for supplementary hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly world-wide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method is by steam reforming. The process has been developed both to reduce the capital cost and increase efficiency, reliability and ease of operation. ICI Katalco`s Leading Concept Hydrogen or LCH process continues this process of improvement by replacing the conventional fired steam reformer with a type of heat exchange reformer known as the Gas Heated Reformer or GHR. The GHR was first used in the Leading Concept Ammonia process, LCA at ICI`s manufacturing site at Severnside, England and commissioned in 1988 and later in the Leading Concept Methanol (LCM) process for methanol at Melbourne, Australia and commissioned in 1994. The development of the LCH process follows on from both LCA and LCM processes. This paper describes the development and use of the GHR in steam reforming, and shows how the GHR can be used in LCH. A comparison between the LCH process and a conventional hydrogen plant is given, showing the benefits of the LCH process in certain circumstances.

Abbishaw, J.B.; Cromarty, B.J. [ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG) enginewas to demonstrate that hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG)characteristics of hydrogen enriched natural gas combustion,

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will trump hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. Advocates ofbenefits sooner than hydrogen and fuel cells ever could.emissions from a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be about

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electronic level of hydrogen (thick red bar) was notdescribing the behavior of hydrogen atoms as impuritiesenergy of interstitial hydrogen as a function of Fermi level

Van de Walle, Chris G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1978-August 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts were investigated for (1) the role of additives such as alumina, ceria, and lanthana, (2) the effect of carbon dioxide in the H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas, (3) the chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the catalysts, and (4) the chemical poisoning of the catalysts by sulfur- and chlorine-containing compounds. Maximum activity and selectivity were obtained with a binary catalyst having a composition of Cu/ZnO = 30/70 metal atomic percent and with a synthesis gas of H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2/ = 70/28/2 volume percent in the absence of strongly reducing or strongly oxidizing chemical poisons. Both the binary and the ternary catalysts were fully characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction, electron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area-pore distribution measurements. Structural and morphologic information is presented in this report in detail for very active Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts prepared from acetates and for other catalysts in which the third component caused a loss of activity.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C. [Wellman CJB Limited, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Simpson, Theodore B. (McLean, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Strategic Initiatives, and Infrastructure Technologies Program #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Design & Operation development) #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Future H2 Infrastructure Wind Powered

431

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

432

DOE Hydrogen Program Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy 27: 1217-1228 Melis A, Seibert M and Happe T (2004) Genomics of green algal hydrogen research. Photosynth. Res. 82: 277- 288 Maness P-C, Smolinski...

433

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7 detection Pipeline Safety: odorants, flame visibility Compression: cost, reliability #12;Breakout Session goal of a realistic, multi-energy distribution network model Pipeline Technology Improved field

434

Hydrogen transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

Mundschau, Michael V.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

Ohi, J.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to accurately calculate the properties of liquid water (e.g., heat capacity, density, dielectric constantWater clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time Frank N. Keutsch- ative hydrogen bonding and promises to lead to a more complete molecular description of the liquid

Cohen, Ronald C.

437

Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Webinar: Hydrogen Refueling Protocols  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Refueling Protocols, originally presented on February 22, 2013.

439

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression - Overview of commercial hydrogen liquefaction and compression and opportunities to improve efficiencies and reduce cost.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced...

442

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds"OfficeTour theFrom CO2 to Methanol via

443

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds"OfficeTour theFrom CO2 to Methanol

444

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds"OfficeTour theFrom CO2 to MethanolFrom

445

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note: SincePlantFreedomofFrom CO2 to Methanol via

446

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note: SincePlantFreedomofFrom CO2 to Methanol

447

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note: SincePlantFreedomofFrom CO2 to MethanolFrom

448

Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

449

Hydrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

450

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez University of California, Berkeley #12;OUTLINE WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? HISTORY IMPORTANCE THEORY HOW TO MAKE ANTI-HYDROGEN OTHER ANTI-MATTER EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION #12;WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? Anti-hydrogen is composed of a Positron(anti-electron) and anti-Proton. Anti-Hydrogen

Budker, Dmitry

451

Optimizing membrane electrode assembly of direct methanol fuel cells for portable power.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) for portable power applications require high power density, high-energy conversion efficiency and compactness. These requirements translate to fundamental properties of… (more)

Liu, Fuqiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that methanol initially adsorbs dissociatively producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O- support bond, producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O-Si bond producing

Vining, William Collins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute methanol toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... ) to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA Methanol ...

454

STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A., E-mail: Shari.Breen@csiro.au [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hydrogen production from the reaction of solvated electrons with benzene in water-ammonia mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product analysis data for the reaction of the ammoniated electron with benzene-water mixtures in liquid ammonia show that the dominant product is evolved hydrogen and not 1,4-cyclohexadiene.

Dewald, R.R.; Jones, S.R.; Schwartz, B.S.

1980-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

456

Collective Hydrogen Bond Reorganization in Water Studied with Temperature-Dependent Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use temperature-dependent ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of dilute HOD in H2O to study the picosecond reorganization of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. Temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

457

Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation of electricity in California, which resulted in more air pollution than central power plants [electricity-intensive liquid hydrogen truck pathway, emis- sions from diesel truck delivery and electric generation at power plants

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Method for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

Preston, J.L.

1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Hydrogenation reactions in interstellar CO ice analogues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reactions of CO in inter- and circumstellar ices are regarded as an important starting point in the formation of more complex species. Previous laboratory measurements by two groups on the hydrogenation of CO ices resulted in controversial results on the formation rate of methanol. Our aim is to resolve this controversy by an independent investigation of the reaction scheme for a range of H-atom fluxes and different ice temperatures and thicknesses. Reaction rates are determined by using a state-of-the-art ultra high vacuum experimental setup to bombard an interstellar CO ice analog with room temperature H atoms. The reaction of CO + H into H2CO and subsequently CH3OH is monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in a reflection absorption mode. In addition, after each completed measurement a temperature programmed desorption experiment is performed to identify the produced species. Different H-atom fluxes, morphologies, and ice thicknesses are tested. The formation of both formaldeh...

Fuchs, G W; Ioppolo, S; Romanzin, C; Bisschop, S E; Andersson, S; Van Dishoeck, E F; Linnartz, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Hydrogen Filling Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

463

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

psi) High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogen2005 High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogenthe hydrogen, a hydrogen compressor, high-pressure tank

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

465

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis ...........................................................................2-1 H2A Hydrogen Delivery Models 2.1.5.2 ......................................................................2-10 Refueling Station Compressor 2.1.5.3 ............................2-11 Refueling Station Liquid

467

Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu* , Chunguang Suo, email: lxw@hit.edu.cn) ABSTRACT In view of micro fuel cells, the silicon processes are employed for microfabrication of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Using the MEMS technology we have successfully made

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

470

Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced it to methanol and its derivatives. In this system, the kinetics of the oxidation of Pt(II) is important because activation and selective conversion of Pt(II) monomethyl complex (dpms)PtII Me(OH2) to its monomethyl Pt

Goddard III, William A.

471

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy]. The report forecasts even more success for fuel cells in the near future. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

Kær, Søren Knudsen

472

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 43174324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 4317­4324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with its cathode current collector made of porous metal foam was investigated that the passive DMFC having the porous current collector yielded much higher and much more stable performance than

Zhao, Tianshou

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol of the production methanol from glycerol and its integration in the production of biodiesel from algae. We propose a limited superstructure where the glycerol from biodiesel is first reformed for which steam reforming

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

474

Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol Dean S mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol over their entire range of compositions have and acetonitrile mixtures. Spatial distribution functions are reported for the acetone/water system. © 2000

475

Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production: Evaluation of H2 Mini-Grids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have assessed the transportation of hydrogen as a metal hydride slurry through pipelines over a short distance from a neighborhood hydrogen production facility to local points of use. The assessment was conducted in the context of a hydrogen "mini-grid" serving both vehicle fueling and stationary fuel cell power systems for local building heat and power. The concept was compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen mini-grid option and to a stand-alone hydrogen fueling station. Based on our analysis results we have concluded that the metal hydride slurry concept has potential to provide significant reductions in overall energy use compared to liquid or chemical hydride delivery, but only modest reductions in overall energy use, hydrogen cost, and GHG emissions compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen delivery. However, given the inherent (and perceived) safety and reasonable cost/efficiency of the metal hydride slurry systems, additional research and analysis is warranted. The concept could potentially overcome the public acceptance barrier associated with the perceptions about hydrogen delivery (including liquid hydrogen tanker trucks and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen pipelines or tube trailers) and facilitate the development of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure.

Lasher, Stephen; Sinha, Jayanti

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

476

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P · UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station · Two hydrogen pipelines l · " i i l i 2 i i ll i i l pl ifi i · 8" ly idl i i l s Hydrogen Pipelines Two nes, on y a brand

477

Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. (Barrier R ­ Cost) Generate public interest & support. (Barrier S­Siting) #12;Hawaii hydrogen power park H Electrolyzer ValveManifold Water High Pressure H2 Storage Fuel Cell AC Power H2 Compressor Hydrogen Supply O2Hawaii hydrogen power park H Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park 2003 Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Merit Review

478

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

479

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

480

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrogen methanol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

482

Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of