National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid hydrocarbons produced

  1. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  2. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  3. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  4. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  5. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  6. Catalysts for converting syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Qiangu; Batchelor, William

    2016-03-15

    The presently-disclosed subject matter includes methods for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas. In some embodiments the syngas is obtained from biomass and/or comprises a relatively high amount of nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide. In some embodiments the present methods can convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons through a one-stage process. Also provided are catalysts for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas, wherein the catalysts include a base material, a transition metal, and a promoter. In some embodiments the base material includes a zeolite-iron material or a cobalt-molybdenum carbide material. In still further embodiments the promoter can include an alkali metal.

  7. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  8. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  9. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  10. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  11. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  12. Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

  13. Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cellulosic Feedstock - Energy Innovation Portal Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without Cellulosic Feedstock DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Shewanella Oneidensis naturally produces hydrocarbons without cellulosic feedstock.</span></span> Shewanella Oneidensis naturally

  14. Simultaneous upgrading and dedusting of liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for simultaneously upgrading and dedusting liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks. It comprises injecting dust particulate-containing raw retort effluent product stream from a feed line into a catalytic hydrotreater capable of agitating the product stream during hydrotreatment; agitating the product stream with a hydrotreating gas upstream of the hydrotreater to substantially prevent settling of particulate matter in the feed line; agglomerating the particulates to enhance solid-liquid separation and removing at least 90% of sulfur and nitrogen contaminants to produce synthetic crude oil by hydrotreating the product stream in the presence of a hydroprocessing catalyst at a temperature of from about 760{degrees} to about 825{degrees}F, under a hydroprocessing gas pressure of from about 1500 to about 2500 psi and at a space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 6.0 hr{sup -1}; and substantially separating the agglomerated particulates from the hydrotreated oil.

  15. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee

  16. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  17. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  18. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  19. Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

  20. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  1. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues Release date: November 25, 2014 Executive summary Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of

  2. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  3. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-01-01

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  4. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  5. Producing power from a cryogenic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhemann, M.S.W.

    1983-08-30

    Power is produced from a methane-containing cryogenic liquid such as LNG by compressing the liquid and employing the compressed liquid as a refrigerant in the condensers of two closed and independent power cycles. The heat exchange medium in the first of the cycles evaporates in a lower temperature range than that at which the heat exchange medium in the second cycle condenses. The first heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a first heat exchange step with the compressed cryogenic liquid and the second heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a second heat exchange step with compressed cryogenic liquid recovered from the first heat exchange step and evaporating first heat exchange medium. Power is recovered from the expansion engines associated with the two power cycles.

  6. Estimating the aqueous solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, B.G.; Cooke, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Empirical equations which correlate high performance liquid chromatography capacity factor (k') to aromatic hydrocarbon aqueous solubility are developed. The correlations of k' to octanol-water partition coefficients, and k' to hydrocarbon surface area are also shown.

  7. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  8. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  10. EM's Liquid Waste Contractor Produces $21 Million in Savings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Liquid Waste Contractor Produces 21 Million in Savings with 'Lean' System EM's Liquid Waste Contractor Produces 21 Million in Savings with 'Lean' System April 29, 2015 - 12:00pm ...

  11. UV resonance Raman characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquid distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumelfanger, R.; Asher, S.A.; Perry, M.B.

    1988-02-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of a series of distillates of coal-derived liquids. The UV Raman spectra easily monitor changes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition as a function of distillation temperature. Specific species, such as pyrene, can be determined by judicious choice of excitation wavelength.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  13. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions ...

  14. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  15. Removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damron, E.; Mick, M.B.; Woodall, R.M.

    1981-09-22

    Carbonyl sulfide is removed from propane and other similar liquefied petroleum gas products by mixing liquid methanol with the untreated liquefied gas and then contacting the liquid mixture with solid potassium hydroxide.

  16. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  17. 2013 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwab, A.; Geiger, J.; Lewis, J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2013, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the first of what is anticipated to be an annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this initial survey and describes the survey methodology. Subsequent surveys will report on the progress over time of the development of these facilities and companies.

  18. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  19. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  20. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 31 for fourth quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  1. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  2. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  3. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, V. Udaya S.; Gormley, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  4. Prediction of retention and identification of non-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanin, S.N.; Nikitin, Yu.S.

    1988-03-10

    Elucidation of the correlation between the structures of investigated compounds and their retention parameters in liquid chromatography allows one to predict their behavior in the chromatographic system and to choose optimal conditions of resolution, which is the main task. The important and complex problem remains analysis of waste water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are among the most widespread and toxic pollutants of industrial waste and natural waters. Many of them are carcinogens. A correlation equation, universal for a certain class of substances, is proposed to describe the retention and separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by reversed phase liquid chromatography. The possibility was shown of its application to prediction of retention data for test substances and for their identification.

  5. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  6. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  7. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  8. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  9. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  10. Nonionic diethanolamide amphiphiles with isoprenoid-type hydrocarbon chains: thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    The thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of a series of diethanolamide amphiphiles with isoprenoid-type hydrocarbon chains (geranoyl, H-farnesoyl, and phytanoyl) has been investigated. When neat, both H-farnesoyl and phytanoyl diethanolamide form a smectic liquid crystalline structure at sub-zero temperatures. In addition, all three diethanolamides exhibit a glass transition temperature at around -73 C. Geranoyl diethanolamide forms a lamellar crystalline phase with a lattice parameter of 17.4 {angstrom} following long term storage accompanied by the loss of the glass transition. In the presence of water, H-farnesoyl and phytanoyl diethanolamide form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, whilst geranoyl diethanolamide forms an L{sub 2} phase. H-farnesoyl diethanolamide forms a fluid lamellar phase (L{sub {alpha}}) at room temperature and up to {approx} 40 C. Phytanoyl diethanolamide displays a rich mesomorphism forming the inverse diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) bicontinuous cubic phases in addition to an L{sub {alpha}} phase.

  11. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  12. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  13. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. ...

  14. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J.; Meloni, Giovanni; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Vereecken, Luc; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-12-05

    The reactions of the methylidyne radical (CH) with ethylene, acetylene, allene, and methylacetylene are studied at room temperature using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and time-resolved mass spectrometry. The CH radicals are prepared by 248 nm multiphoton photolysis of CHBr3 at 298 K and react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow. Analysis of photoionization efficiency versus VUV photon wavelength permits isomer-specific detection of the reaction products and allows estimation of the reaction product branching ratios. The reactions proceed by either CH insertion or addition followed by H atom elimination from the intermediate adduct. In the CH + C2H4 reaction the C3H5 intermediate decays by H atom loss to yield 70(+-8)percent allene, 30(+-8)percent methylacetylene and less than 10percent cyclopropene, in agreement with previous RRKM results. In the CH + acetylene reaction, detection of mainly the cyclic C3H2 isomer is contrary to a previous RRKM calculation that predicted linear triplet propargylene to be 90percent of the total H-atom co-products. High-level CBS-APNO quantum calculations and RRKM calculation for the CH + C2H2 reaction presented in this manuscript predict a higher contribution of the cyclic C3H2 (27.0percent) versus triplet propargylene (63.5percent) than these earlier predictions. Extensive calculations on the C3H3 and C3H2D system combined with experimental isotope ratios for the CD + C2H2 reaction indicate that H-atom assisted isomerization in the present experiments is responsible for the discrepancy between the RRKM calculations and the experimental results. Cyclic isomers are also found to represent 30(+-6)percent of the detected products in the case of CH + methylacetylene, together with 33(+-6)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 37(+-6)percent vinylacetylene. The CH + allene reaction gives 23(+-5)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 77(+-5)percent vinylacetylene, whereas cyclic isomers are produced below the detection limit

  15. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  16. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  17. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  18. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; Simonetti, Dante A.; Kunkes, Edward L.

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  19. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumesic, James A.; Simonetti, Dante A.; Kunkes, Edward L.

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  20. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  1. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga thatmore » compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.« less

  2. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  3. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  4. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  5. Apparatus and methods for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-04-25

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  6. Catalytic hydrotreating of biomass liquefaction products to produce hydrocarbon fuels: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Research catalytic hydrotreatment of biomass liquefaction products to a gasoline has been technically demonstrated in a bench-scale continuous processing unit. This report describes the development of the chemistry needed for hydrotreatment of both high pressure and pyrolyzate biomass liquefaction products and outlines the important processing knowledge gained by the research. Catalyst identity is important in hydrotreatment of phenolics. Hydrogenation catalysts such as palladium, copper chromite, cobalt and nickel show activity with nickel being the most active. Major products include benzene, cyclohexane, and cyclohexanone. The hydrotreating catalysts cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten exhibit some activity when added to the reactor in the oxide form and show a great specificity for hydrodeoxygenation of phenol without saturation of the benzene product. The sulfide form of these catalysts is much more active than the oxide form and, in the case of the cobalt-molybdenum, much of the specificity for hydrodeoxygenation is retained. Substitution on the phenolic ring has only marginal effects on the hydrotreating reaction. However, the methoxy (OCH/sub 3/) substituent on the phenol ring is thermally unstable relative to other phenolics tested. The pyrolysis products dominate the product distribution when cobalt-molybdenum is used as the hydrotreating catalyst for methoxyphenol. The product from catalytic hydrotreatment of high-pressure biomass liquefaction products confirms the model compounds studies. Catalytic processing at 350 to 400/sup 0/C and 2000 psig with the sulfided cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst produced a gasoline-like product composed of cyclic and aromatic compounds. Oxygen contents in products were in the range of 0 to 0.7 wt % and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.0. 46 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  8. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  9. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  10. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  11. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  12. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-10-06

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  13. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. ...

  14. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  15. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  16. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon conversion Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Hydrocarbon Conversion process enables conversion of heavy hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil). Description It can convert hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels/chemicals. The dielectric barrier discharge plasma process that adds carbon and hydrogen simultaneously to heavy

  17. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors ... and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons (containing ...

  18. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  19. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  20. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  1. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  2. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  3. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  4. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  5. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh

  6. Hydroprocessing hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, H.D.; Borgens, P.B.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic hydroprocess of a hydrocarbon oil containing nitrogen or sulfur. It comprises: contacting a catalytic composition with the hydrocarbon oil under hydroprocessing conditions so as to produce a product hydrocarbon oil containing less nitrogen or sulfur than the hydrocarbon oil, the catalytic composition prepared by the method comprising the steps of impregnating porous refractory support particles with an aqueous impregnating solution comprising one or more Group VIB metal components, one or more phosphorus components and citric acid, the citric acid in a mole ratio to the Group VIB metal components calculated as the Group VIB metal trioxide of less than 1 to 1. The solution has a pH less than 1.0 and calcining the impregnated support particles to produce a catalytic composition containing a Group VIB metal component and a phosphorous component on the porous refractory oxide support.

  7. The fluorescence action spectra of some saturated hydrocarbon liquids for excitation energies above and below their ionization thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostafin, A.E.; Lipsky, S. )

    1993-04-01

    Fluorescence action spectra have been obtained for the neat liquids, [ital cis]-decalin, [ital trans]-decalin, bicyclohexyl, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isobutylcyclohexane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 3-methylhexane, 3-methylpentane, [ital n]-decane, [ital n]-dodecane, and [ital n]-pentadecane at excitation energies, [epsilon], ranging from their absorption onsets (at ca. 7 eV) to 10.3 eV. For all compounds, with the exception of [ital cis]-decalin, the fluorescence quantum yield is observed to monotonically decline with increasing [epsilon], reaching a minimum value at an energy, [epsilon][sub [ital m

  8. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Catalytic hydroprocessing of simulated heavy coal liquids; 1: Reactivities of aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girgis, M.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ . Central Research Lab.); Gates, B.C. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    The hydroprocessing of mixtures simulating a coal liquid without organonitrogen compounds was investigated with a once-through flow reactor operated with liquid-phase reactants at 350 C and 171 atm. The catalyst was sulfided Ni-Mo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The reactants included pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthol. The products formed from each reactant were determined, and each reaction was modeled as first order in the organic reactant. The reactivity of fused six-ring aromatics increases with the number of rings, but the change from one member of the family to another is less than the order-of-magnitude increase in reactivity from benzene to naphthalene. Fluoranthene must be considered in a separate compound class from fused six-membered-ring aromatics because it is hydrogenated more rapidly. Dibenzothiophene gives biphenyl selectively. Dibenzofuran reacts very slowly, whereas 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthol reacts very rapidly. The results reported here, in combination with the reaction networks developed in the sequel, are the first quantitative evaluation of reactivities of components in a mixture simulating a hydroprocessing feedstock that takes account of competitive reactions and the formation of intermediate products.

  10. Catalytic hydroprocessing of simulated heavy coal liquids; 2: Reaction networks of aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girgis, M.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ . Central Research Lab.); Gates, B.C. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The reactivity of a mixture simulating a coal liquid from the SRC-II process, with the organonitrogen compounds excluded, was characterized at 350 C and 171 atm; the catalyst was presulfided Ni-Mo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The reaction products were identified and analyzed quantitatively. Approximate reaction networks were determined for the simultaneously reacting phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzofuran. The reactions in each network are approximated as first order in the organic reactant. The proposed networks allow clarification of pathways that had been proposed earlier with less complete evidence; some previously unidentified pathways have also been identified. The results represent the first determination of quantitative networks of simultaneously reacting compounds in hydroprocessing and help to lay the foundation for modeling of hydroprocessing.

  11. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  12. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  13. Process for upgrading a heavy viscous hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, I.H.

    1984-06-12

    A process for upgrading a heavy viscous hydrocarbon, for example, rendering a heavy viscous crude pipelinable, includes visbreaking, distillation and solvent extraction steps. A heavy viscous hydrocarbon is fed through the visbreaker which forms a feed to the distillation step. A heavier fraction from distillation is fed to a solvent extraction unit which produces a fraction which contains resin. At least a portion of the resin containing fraction separated in the solvent extraction unit is recycled and combined with the feed which is to be subjected to visbreaking so that the total yield of products, residual and gas-free, is increased. The recycled resin reduces the tendency of the asphaltenes to separate from the oil and thereby reduces the tendency to lay down coke in the visbreaker; this allows higher conversion to upgraded liquid products.

  14. Combined application of normal and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determining the group composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belous, E.F.; Lanin, S.N.; Nikitin, Yu.S.

    1995-01-01

    The quality and working characteristics of motor fuels essentially depend on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs). Therefore, the development of procedures for the group determination of aromatic hydrocarbons is an important and topical problem in the processing and quality control of petroleum products. The aim of this work was to improve the group separation and quantitative determination of monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH and BAH) in light-end products.

  15. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  16. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  17. Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H.; Levin, L.

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  19. Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, Junichi

    1996-10-01

    The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

  20. NREL Updates Survey of Advanced Biofuel Producers in the United...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. The survey report, titled 2015 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers, documents important ...

  1. Fundamental studies in production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

  2. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  3. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  4. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  5. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  6. Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, Alfred G.; Lee, Lap-Keung

    2001-01-01

    A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

  7. Produce diesel from gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.; Regier, S.

    1983-05-01

    The Gulf Badger process converts natural gas directly to hydrocarbon liquids by a catalytic chemical route. Fischer-Tropsch process--which is a carbon monoxide polymerization/ hydrogenation process--is used. Because the process is exothermal, heat removal by either tubular fixed bed, fluidized bed, or slurry are considered. A wax build up of high molecular weight material is removed by hydro-stripping two-bed system. The demonstration plant flow diagram shows the process to be: natural gas is compressed, recycled with CO/sub 2/, sulfur is removed in a zinc oxide drum, CO is removed in amine scrubbers, H/sub 2//CO ratio is adjusted to produce a hydrogen rich stream, and stabilization and distribution follow. A monitoring system using computers is part of the demonstration unit.

  8. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Satish C. B. Myneni, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 When we think of chlorine, we often relate it to the salt used in food preparation, chloride in the oceans, chlorine gas from swimming pools, and gaseous chlorofluorocarbons that have close links to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We rarely think of thousands of chlorinated hydrocarbons that exist in the natural systems, several of which are highly toxic to humans (1). The C-Cl bond, common to all

  9. Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  10. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  11. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  12. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2009-01-06

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  13. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  14. A thermodynamic model to predict the aqueous solubility of hydrocarbon

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixtures at two-phase hydrate-liquid water equilibrium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A thermodynamic model to predict the aqueous solubility of hydrocarbon mixtures at two-phase hydrate-liquid water equilibrium Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 30, 2018 Title: A thermodynamic model to predict the aqueous solubility of hydrocarbon mixtures at two-phase hydrate-liquid water equilibrium Authors: Velaga, Srinath C.

  15. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  16. Fundamental studies in production of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons from coal. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

  17. Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Quarterly technical progress report, March 19-June 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C H

    1980-07-10

    A 15% Fe-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO/sub 2/ catalyst, a 15% Co-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO catalyst and a 15% CoB/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst were prepared. H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption uptakes were measured for the catalysts prepared to date. It was noted that calcining the iron catalysts in air before reduction in flowing H/sub 2/ aided in increasing metal dispersion. Liquid and wax traps for use in the reactor system were completed as were plans for chromatographic product analysis.

  18. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano; West, Ryan M.

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  19. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program was intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research was to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by

  20. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2014-01-07

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  1. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano; West, Ryan M.

    2015-06-30

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  2. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  3. Recovery of co-adsorbed hydrocarbons from molecular sieve adsorption units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, K.R.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes a process for removing carbonyl sulfide from a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: providing a feedstock of hydrocarbons; passing the feedstock in the liquid phase; terminating the passage; draining the bed; concurrently to the direction of flow into the bed; recovering the hydrocarbon; and regenerating the adsorption bed.

  4. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  5. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  6. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  7. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  8. High Cyclability of Ionic Liquid-Produced TiO2 Nanotube Arrays As an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaqing; Martha, Surendra K; Unocic, Raymond R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) are considered as a potential SEI-free anode material for Li-ion batteries to offer enhanced safety. Organic solutions, dominatingly ethylene glycol (EG)-based, have widely been used for synthesizing TiO{sub 2} NTs via anodization because of their ability to generate long tubes and well-aligned structures. However, it has been revealed that the EG-produced NTs are composited with carbonaceous decomposition products of EG, release of which during the tube crystallization process inevitably causes nano-scale porosity and cracks. These microstructural defects significantly deteriorate the NTs charge transport efficiency and mechanical strength/toughness. Here we report using ionic liquids (ILs) to anodize titanium to grow low-defect TiO{sub 2} NTs by reducing the electrolyte decomposition rate (less IR drop due to higher electrical conductivity) as well as the chance of the decomposition products mixing into the TiO{sub 2} matrix (organic cations repelled away). Promising electrochemical results have been achieved when using the IL-produced TiO{sub 2} NTs as an anode for Li-ion batteries. The ILNTs demonstrated excellent capacity retention without microstructural damage for nearly 1200 cycles of charge-discharge, while the NTs grown in a conventional EG solution totally pulverized in cycling, resulting in significant capacity fade.

  9. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, ...

  10. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

  11. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  12. Method and apparatus for conversion of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lux, Kenneth W.; Namazian, Mehdi; Kelly, John T.

    2015-12-01

    Embodiments of the invention relates to conversion of hydrocarbon material including but not limited to coal and biomass to a synthetic liquid transportation fuel. The invention includes the integration of a non-catalytic first reaction scheme, which converts carbonaceous materials into a solid product that includes char and ash and a gaseous product; a non-catalytic second reaction scheme, which converts a portion of the gaseous product from the first reaction scheme to light olefins and liquid byproducts; a traditional gas-cleanup operations; and the third reaction scheme to combine the olefins from the second reaction scheme to produce a targeted fuel like liquid transportation fuels.

  13. Methods for retarding coke formation during pyrolytic hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    A method is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of pyrolytic coke on the heated metal surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon feedstock which is undergoing pyrolytic processing to produce lower hydrocarbon fractions and said metal surfaces having a temperature of about 1,400 F or higher, consisting essentially of adding to said hydrocarbon feedstock being pyrolytically processed a coke inhibiting amount of hydroquinone.

  14. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B.; Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.

  15. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

    1989-10-17

    A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

  16. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC LIQUIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vavalides, S.P.

    1959-08-25

    A process is described for recovering small quantities of uranium from organic liquids such as hydrocarbon oils. halogen-substituted hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The organic liquid is contacted with a comminuted alkaline earth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide particularly, and the resulting uranium-bearing solid is separated from the liquid by filtration. Uranium may then be recovered from the solid by means of dissolution in nitric acid and conventional extraction with an organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate.

  17. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  18. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  19. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  20. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  1. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  2. Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  3. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  4. Hybrid Rotor Compression for Multiphase and Liquids-Rich Wellhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but also allows for compression of wet gas, or gas that contains liquid content. At many natural gas wellheads, liquids-typically heavier hydrocarbons and water-are present in the...

  5. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  6. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  7. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  8. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  9. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  10. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  11. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  12. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  13. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  14. Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrocarbon Technologies Place: Lawrenceville, New Jersey Zip: 8648 Sector: Efficiency Product: String representation...

  15. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  16. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  17. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  18. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  19. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  20. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  1. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  2. Chemistry and catalysis of coal liquefaction catalytic and thermal upgrading of coal liquid and hydrogenation of CO to produce fuels. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.

    1981-02-01

    Studies on the basic properties of supported sulfide catalysts showed that different supports have a profound influence on catalytic activities of CoMo catalysts. The three functions of hydrodesulfurization, hydrogenation and cracking were differently affected depending on the support used and the manner of preparation of the catalyst. Also, incorporation of additives to the support showed that the different catalytic functions can be selectively affected. A systematic study concerned with catalytic cracking of coal-derived liquids, viz., an SRC-II middle-heavy distillate and four hydrotreated SRC-II products was carried out in the range of 375 to 500/sup 0/C (LHSV, 0.2 to 3.9 h/sup -1/). Hydrotreatment, even to a limited extent, results in a remarkable improvement in the yield of gasoline-range products from the SRC-II distillate. This improvement is ascribed to: (a) hydrogenolysis reactions leading to lower molecular weight feedstock components and (b) limited hydrogenation of aromatic rings leading to polycyclic feed components with sufficient concentration of hydroaromatic rings needed for effective cracking. The results with model compounds and the data on hydrogen consumption during hydrotreatment of SRC-II liquids indicate that for tricyclic, tetracyclic, and pentacyclic coal-liquid components the optimal concentration of hydroaromatic rings for effective subsequent cracking is at least two rings per molecule.

  3. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  4. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P.; Taylor, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  5. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  6. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report | Department of Energy Workshop Report Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report The U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office and Fuel Cell Technologies Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters (HHBPW) on March 17-18, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on the use of biological, biochemical, and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher

  7. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J.; Anderson, Brian L.; Wijesinghe, Ananda M.; Viani, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  8. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  9. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  10. Hydrocarbons from methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    During the early 1970s, the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons emerged as a viable industrial process due to two events: the discovery by workers at Mobil Oil Company of the selective catalytic conversion of methanol to high octane gasoline over zeolite catalysts and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. This survey attempts to comprehensively cover the journal literature and selectively cover the patent literature dealing with the theoretical aspects of the methanol conversion. 178 references. (BLM)

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  13. Effect of hydrocarbons on plasma treatment of NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    Lean burn gasoline engine exhausts contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons in the form of propene. Diesel engine exhausts contain little gaseous hydrocarbon; however, they contain a significant amount of liquid-phase hydrocarbons (known as the volatile organic fraction) in the particulates. The objective of this paper is to examine the fate of NO{sub x} when an exhaust gas mixture that contains hydrocarbons is subjected to a plasma. The authors will show that the hydrocarbons promote the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}, but not the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} is strongly coupled with the hydrocarbon oxidation chemistry. This result suggests that gas-phase reactions in the plasma alone cannot lead to the chemical reduction of NO{sub x}. Any reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} can only be accomplished through heterogeneous reactions of NO{sub 2} with surfaces or particulates.

  14. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2

  15. Catalytic conversion of alcohols having at least three carbon atoms to hydrocarbon blendstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-13

    A method for producing a hydrocarbon blendstock, the method comprising contacting at least one saturated acyclic alcohol having at least three and up to ten carbon atoms with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100°C and up to 550°C, wherein the metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and the metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting the alcohol to the hydrocarbon blendstock, wherein the method directly produces a hydrocarbon blendstock having less than 1 vol % ethylene and at least 35 vol % of hydrocarbon compounds containing at least eight carbon atoms.

  16. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  17. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  18. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  19. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  20. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G.; Lobban, Lance; Liu, Chang-jun

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  1. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  2. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ratio Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State ...

  3. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  4. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  5. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  6. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  7. Method and apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivas, N.; Beichel, R.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from oil fields comprising: a. a bipropellant generator capable of producing exhaust gases at supercritical pressures and temperatures; b. transport means for carrying the exhaust gases into a well bore, at least a portion of the well bore extending into a hydrocarbon bearing formation from which hydrocarbons are to be recovered; c. means for introducing water into the transport means; and d. a water cooling jacket extending into at least the upper portion of the well bore, the center of the cooling jacket receiving the exhaust gases from the transport means, means being provided for the introduction of chemical additives through a portion of the cooling jacket. A process is described for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from geological formations comprising: a. providing a well bore extending at least into the strata of the geologic formation containing the hydrocarbons to be recovered; b. providing at least the upper portion of the well bore with a cooling jacket, the cooling jacket being provided with a central, open portion; c. generating gases at supercritical temperatures and pressures; d. introducing water into the supercritical gases to form steam; e. forcing the mixture of supercritical combustion gases and steam through the central open portion of the cooling jacket and the well bore into the hydrocarbon strata; and f. adding chemical additives to the mixture of combustion gases and steam below the cooling jacket.

  8. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

  10. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  11. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  12. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  13. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  14. Characterization and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G.M.; Smith, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analytical procedures were developed for determining the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animal-exposure chambers during studies on exposure to diesel exhaust, coal dust, or mixtures of these two pollutants. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for analysis. Coal-dust only samples revealed a broad, rising background in the chromatogram with small peaks superimposed corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, diesel exhaust only samples showed many peaks on a flat baseline including those corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. In general, no polynuclear aromatics were noted in the clean air samples. The authors note that relatively minor changes in air/fuel ratio, lubricant, fuel, and load may have substantial effects on very minor components of the exhaust emission.

  15. Garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, W.A.

    1986-07-15

    A garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system is described which consists of: (a) a source of combustible garbage; (b) means for pulverizing the garbage; (c) a furnace to burn the garbage; (d) means for transporting the pulverized garbage to the furnace which comprises a motor operated worm feed automatic stoker; (e) a steam generating coil inside the furnace which supplies live steam to power a turbine which in turn powers an alternating current generator; and a condenser which returns remaining the steam to a liquid state for re-circulation through the steam generating coils; (f) means for collecting incompletely combusted waste gases from the furnace; precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace; and, extracting hydrocarbon gas; where in the means for precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace comprise a cottrell precipitator wherein oil from an external source is mixed with fine dust received from the exhaust port, wherein an electrostatic charge helps to precipitate the dust; a dust and light oil mixer which provides a homogeneous mixture; and, an oil burner mounted to the furnace whose heat output is supplied to the furnace to add energy thereto; and (g) means for burning trapped heavy gases and removing waste ash from the furnace for disposal.

  16. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO.sub.2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO.sub.2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO.sub.2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  17. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  18. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  19. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G.

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  20. Development of Advanced Membranes Technology Platform for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalthod, Dr Dilip

    2010-03-01

    Virtually all natural gas is dehydrated during its production, transmission and storage, mostly by absorption processes. Membranes offer many potential advantages over absorption, including smaller footprints, lighter-weight packages, packaging flexibility, minimal electrical power duty, amenability to expansion due to system modularity, reduced maintenance costs, reduced emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, no liquid waste streams, and amenability to unmanned operation. The latter is particularly valuable because new natural gas sources are generally located in remote onshore and offshore sites. Most commercially-available membranes for natural gas upgrading involve high capital costs, high methane loss and performance degradation from operational upsets – all of which are barriers to their widespread adoption by the industry. The original focus of the project was to develop and demonstrate robust, high-performance membranes for natural gas dehydration. The first task completed was a user needs-and-wants study to 1) clarify the expectations of system fabricators and end users of the new separations equipment, and 2) establish the required technical and commercial targets for the membrane products. Following this, membrane system modeling and membrane development in the lab proceeded in parallel. Membrane module diameter and length, as well as and the fiber outer and inner fiber diameter, were optimized from a mathematical model that accounts for the relevant fluid dynamics and permeation phenomena. Module design was evaluated in the context of overall system design, capital costs and energy consumption, including the process scheme (particularly sweep generation), feed pretreatment, system layout, and process control. This study provided targets for membrane permeation coefficients and membrane geometry in a commercial offering that would be competitive with absorption systems. A commercially-available polymer with good tensile strength and chemical resistance was

  1. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  2. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  3. Method and apparatus for detecting halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monagle, Matthew (Los Alamos, NM); Coogan, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A halogenated hydrocarbon (HHC) detector is formed from a silent discharge (also called a dielectric barrier discharge) plasma generator. A silent discharge plasma device receives a gas sample that may contain one or more HHCs and produces free radicals and excited electrons for oxidizing the HHCs in the gas sample to produce water, carbon dioxide, and an acid including halogens in the HHCs. A detector is used to sensitively detect the presence of the acid. A conductivity cell detector combines the oxidation products with a solvent where dissociation of the acid increases the conductivity of the solvent. The conductivity cell output signal is then functionally related to the presence of HHCs in the gas sample. Other detectors include electrochemical cells, infrared spectrometers, and negative ion mobility spectrometers.

  4. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the

  5. Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-04-18

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  6. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-05-30

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  7. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

    2006-08-22

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  8. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  9. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  10. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  11. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons (190.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  13. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report provides a reference that supports and explains changes to EIA's real-time analysis and outlooks, data presentation on EIA's website, and, ultimately, survey data...

  14. Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ... Fuels-- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass-- (1976-1989); 320604 -- Energy ...

  15. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  16. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  17. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  18. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  1. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  2. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  3. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  4. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  5. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  6. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  7. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  8. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  9. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  10. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  11. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Processes for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons via sulfur-containing intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.; Palermo, R.E.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a process for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The process comprising the steps of contacting methane with carbonyl sulfide in the presence of UV light under conditions sufficient to generate Ch/sub 3/SH; and contacting CH/sub 3/SH with a catalyst under conditions sufficient to produce hydrogen sulfide and a mixture of hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms.

  13. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  14. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  15. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  16. NREL Updates Survey of Advanced Biofuel Producers in the United States |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NREL Updates Survey of Advanced Biofuel Producers in the United States NREL Updates Survey of Advanced Biofuel Producers in the United States March 16, 2016 - 2:23pm Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated its annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. The survey report, titled 2015 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers, documents important changes (e.g., biorefinery

  17. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  18. Tetracationic cyclophanes and their use in the sequestration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by way of complexation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddart, J. Fraser; Barnes, Jonathan C.; Juri, Michal

    2016-03-22

    Novel tetracationic cyclophanes incorporating .pi.-electron poor organic compounds into their ring structures, as well as methods of making the cyclophanes, are provided. The cyclophanes are able to form electron donor-acceptor complexes with a variety of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging in size, shape, and electron density. Also provided are methods of using the cyclophanes in the sequestration of PAHs in liquid or gaseous samples, the separation of PAHs from liquid or gaseous samples, the detection of PAHs in liquid samples, and the exfoliation of graphene via pseudopolyrotaxane formation.

  19. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  20. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  1. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  2. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  3. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  4. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  5. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  6. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  7. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop: Agenda and Objectives | Department of Energy Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Agenda and objectives for the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. Workshop Agenda and Objectives (146.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report Anaerobic MBR:

  8. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  9. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  10. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels ...

  11. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from ...

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice; Gatsis, John G.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  13. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  14. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah ...

  15. Vaporization and gasification of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, H.S.; Garstang, J.H.; Timmins, C.

    1983-08-23

    Heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, e.g. gas oils, are vaporized and subsequently gasified at high temperatures without pyrolytic degradation by first admixing the hydrocarbon with a hot gaseous reactant, e.g. product gas or steam, to bring the temperature of the mixture above that of the dew point of the hydrocarbon and thereafter raising the temperature of the mixture to above that at which pyrolysis of the hydrocarbon begins to be significant by admixture with further quantities of the reactant which are superheated thereby to bring the temperature of the resultant mixture to that required for effecting a catalytic gasification reaction.

  16. Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF on catalytic bioenergy process Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons (477.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Selection Effort Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  17. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Henh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  18. A process economic assessment of hydrocarbon biofuels production using chemoautotrophic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, NE; Myers, JA; Tuerk, AL; Curtis, WR

    2014-11-01

    Economic analysis of an ARPA-e Electrofuels (http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-programs/electrofuels) process is presented, utilizing metabolically engineered Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha to produce the C30+ hydrocarbon fuel, botryococcene, from hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The analysis is based on an Aspen plus (R) bioreactor model taking into account experimentally determined Rba. capsulatus and Rls. eutropha growth and maintenance requirements, reactor residence time, correlations for gas-liquid mass-transfer coefficient, gas composition, and specific cellular fuel productivity. Based on reactor simulation results encompassing technically relevant parameter ranges, the capital and operating costs of the process were estimated for 5000 bbl-fuel/day plant and used to predict fuel cost. Under the assumptions used in this analysis and crude oil prices, the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) required for economic feasibility must be less than 2(sic)/kWh. While not feasible under current market prices and costs, this work identifies key variables impacting process cost and discusses potential alternative paths toward economic feasibility. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, Asad; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  1. De-ashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent de-ashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  2. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  3. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  4. Liquid level controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  5. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  6. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  7. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  8. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support ...

  11. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. ...

  12. EERE Success Story-Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization EERE Success Story-Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization January 27, 2016 - 1:40pm ...

  13. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 ...

  14. Liquid Resources LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Liquid Resources LLC Place: Medina, Ohio Zip: 44258 Product: Produces bioethanol from waste. Coordinates: 43.174659, -89.082003 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  16. Method of generating hydrocarbon reagents from diesel, natural gas and other logistical fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R.; Aardahl, Chris L.; Rozmiarek, Robert T.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Wang, Yong; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  17. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L. [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T. [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  18. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  19. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N.

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  20. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. )

    1996-01-01

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  1. Prebiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in impacting reduced astrophysical icy mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir

    2015-04-21

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extendedmore » structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Lastly, our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.« less

  2. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  3. Fluorescent growth bands in irradiated-bitumen nodules: Evidence of episodic hydrocarbon migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Minute rims of solid bitumen ({approximately}40-50 {mu}m thick) surround detrital radioactive grains in the Permian-Triassic sandstones and Arranoo Member of the Kockatea Shale from the northern Perth basin, Australia. The bitumen formed as Th- and U-bearing minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, thorite) irradiated and immobilized fluid hydrocarbons coming within range of alpha-particle emissions. using transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy and rims appear compositionally homogeneous, but under blue/violet epifluorescent illumination the bitumen displays complex concentric and contorted banding. These fluorescent textures indicate that multiple influxes of hydrocarbons passed through the reservoir sandstones. Following radiation-induced immobilization of hydrocarbons from the first oil influx, the bitumen nodules grew through a process of swelling and expansion outward form the mineral core during subsequent oil influxes, producing graded fluorescent growth bands. Oil droplets and lamellae also were adsorbed onto the outer portion of the nodules. Such bitumen nodules are a new and potentially important source of data for understanding the movement of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins, specifically for identifying hydrocarbon pathways, the number of discrete hydrocarbon pulses, and the relative timing of oil migration.

  4. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  5. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Goldberg, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  6. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  7. LIQUID TARGET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  8. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  9. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  11. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  12. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18–19, 2015.

  13. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  14. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  15. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations

  16. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    Functionalization Department of Chemistry Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars Undergraduate Studies Contact Us Faculty & Research > Research Centers & Programs > Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization CCHF Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization Catalysts are central to the efficient and clean utilization of energy resources, and they impact all aspects of the energy sector. With the University of Virginia as

  17. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankel, L.A.

    1986-07-22

    A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

  18. Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John M.

    1979-06-26

    Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates

  20. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  1. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  2. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  4. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  5. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  6. Method of producing non-agglomerating submicron size particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Roy S.; Eichman, Clarence C.; Welbon, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in "metallic inks".

  7. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to

  8. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z.

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  9. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  10. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  11. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  12. Heterobimetallic zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, enables efficient conversion of biomass derived ethanol to renewable hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-03

    Here, direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10–15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of catalytic hydroprocessing of components of coal-derived liquids. Fifth quarterly report, May 15, 1980-August 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.; Katzer, J.R.; Kwart, H.; Olson, J.H.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Stiles, A.B.; Petrakis, L.

    1980-11-15

    An asphaltene-containing SRC-II coal liquid derived from Powhatan No. 5 mine coal and produced in the Ft. Lewis demonstration plant has been selected for study of catalytic hydroprocessing reactions. Analytical separation by liquid hydroprocessing reactions. Analytical separation by liquid chomatography has been carried out to produce nine distinct fractions from 1 kg of coal liquid. These have been further separated into compound classes and characterized in detail by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. Compounds typical of each fraction (except asphaltenes) have been designed. Hydroprocessing of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons under industrially relevant conditions has shown that these are much more reactive than benzene. The reaction networks involve reversible hydrogenation and isomerization, and significant concentrations of hydroaromatic (hydrogen-donor) species are attainable under practical conditions. Hydroprocessing of solutions containing the following combinations of compounds has also been studied: quinoline/indole, quinoline/indole/dibenzothiophene, and quinoline/indole/naphthalene. Lumping of components in a reaction network simplifies the kinetics determination of fuel feedstocks. Component lumping simulations involving first-order kinetics were successfully carried out for certain schemes in the quinoline network. This network can be represented by 3 simplified components. The quinoline and indole reaction networks are assumed to be made up of 4 lumps with the adsorption constants fixed, the intrinsic kinetic constants were recovered, and the lumping proved successful.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of catalytic hydroprocessing of components of coal-derived liquids. Second quarterly report, August 15, 1979-November 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.; Katzer, J.R.; Kwart, H.; Petrakis, L.; Ruberto, R.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Stiles, A.B.

    1980-10-20

    An asphaltene-containing SRC-II coal liquid derived from Powhatan No. 5 mine coal and produced in the Ft. Lewis demonstration plant has been selected for study of catalytic hydroprocessing reactions. Analytical separation by liquid chromatography is being carried out to produce nine distinct fractions from 1 kg of coal liquid. These fractions will be used as feeds to high-pressure catalytic flow microreactors. Hydroprocessing of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons under industrially relevant conditions has shown that these are much more reactive than benzene. The reaction networks involve reversible hydrogenation and isomerization, and significant concentrations of hydroaromatic (hydrogen-donor) species are attainable under practical conditions. Hydroprocessing of solutions containing the following combinations of compounds has also been studied: quinoline/indole, quinoline/indole/dibenzothiophene, and quinoline/indole/naphthalene. Four of the types of compounds, or potential lumps, in coal-derived liquids are basic nitrogen, nonbasic nitrogen, sulfur, and aromatic compounds. It is desired to determine how these compounds interact and compete with each other in hydroprocessing and how these interactions depend on hydrogen partial pressure. Four model compounds, quinoline, indole, dibenzothiophene, and naphthalene, have been selected to represent compounds in each group. These compounds, in different proportions with hydrogen, were allowed to react in a batch autoclave reactor.

  15. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of catalytic hydroprocessing of components of coal-derived liquids. First quarterly report, May 15, 1979-August 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.; Katzer, J.R.; Kwart, H.; Olson, J.H.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Stiles, A.B.

    1980-09-30

    An asphaltene-containing SRC II coal liquid from the Ft. Lewis demonstration plant has been selected for study of catalytic hydroprocessing reactions. Analytical separation of the liquid by liquid chromatography will be used to produce nine distinct fractions. These will be prepared from 1 kg of coal liquid and used individually as feeds to high-pressure flow microreactors. Hydroprocessing of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons under industrially relevant conditions has shown that they are much more reactive than benzene. The reaction networks involve reversible hydrogenation and isomerization, and significant concentrations of hydroaromatic (hydrogen-donor) species are attainable under practical conditions. Scanning electron microscopy combined with catalytic activity measurements (in hydroprocessing of dibenzothiophene and of quinoline) were used to characterize deactivated and regenerated Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts (aged in the hydroprocessing of coal-derived liquids). EDAX results determined chemical composition of the catalyst and the deposited mineral crust. The hydroprocessing results indicate that regeneration of the catalysts can recover much of the activity lost as a result of coke formation.

  17. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  18. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  19. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  20. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  1. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  2. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  3. Process for hydrogenation of hydrocarbon tars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbear, Geoffrey E.

    1978-07-18

    Hydrocarbon tars of high asphaltene content such as tars obtained from pyrolysis of coal are dissolved in a solvent formed from the hydrogenation of the coal tars, and the resultant mixture hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst at a pressure from about 1500 to 5000 psig at a temperature from about 500.degree. F to about the critical temperature of the solvent to form a light hydrocarbon as a solvent for the tars. Hydrogen content is at least three times the amount of hydrogen consumed.

  4. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production March 18-19, 2015 Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Ph. D. Argonne National Laboratory Total Potential Energy at Municipal WWTPs Basis Thermal energy (MMBtu/ year) Electric power (kWh/year) Total energy potential (MMBtu /year) Reference 1 MGD wastewater equates 26 kW of electric capacity and 2.4 MMBtu/day of thermal energy 3.52 × 10 7 9.11 × 10 9 6.65 × 10 7 EPA,

  5. Multiple-stage hydroprocessing of hydrocarbon oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, H.D.; McArthur, D.P.

    1984-02-14

    In the catalytic hydroprocessing of hydrocarbons, a hydrocarbon oil is successively contacted with a first hydroprocessing catalyst in a first reaction zone and a second hydroprocessing catalyst in a second reaction zone. The first catalyst has an average pore diameter at least about 30 angstroms larger than the second catalyst, although both have narrow pore size distributions wherein at least about 90 percent of the total pore volume is in pores of diameter from about 100 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, and with essentially all the pores having diameters greater than 100 angstroms.

  6. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  7. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  8. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-08-12

    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  9. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean ...

  10. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAE; ALGAL BIOMASS; HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy BIOMASS...

  11. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin; Janikowski, Stuart Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  12. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology to explain the underlying process. Photo courtesy Oak Ride National Laboratory. Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion

  13. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

    2007-08-28

    A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

  14. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

    2009-05-19

    A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

  15. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  16. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravishankar, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  18. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  20. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE)

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  1. DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels Zia Haq, DPA Coordinator, presentation on DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels. 4_haq_roundtable.pdf (1007.62 KB) More Documents & Publications A Review of DOE Biofuels Program Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels Technology Pathway Selection Effort

  2. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  3. De-ashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent de-ashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  4. Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minderhoud, Johannes Kornelis [Amsterdam, NL; Nelson, Richard Gene [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-22

    A method includes producing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a gas stream. At least a portion of the liquid stream is provided to a hydrotreating unit. At least a portion of selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions in the liquid stream are removed to produce a hydrotreated liquid stream by hydrotreating at least a portion of the liquid stream at conditions sufficient to remove the selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions.

  5. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  6. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  8. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-02-16

    A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  9. The evolution and hydrocarbon habitat of the Papuan fold belt, PNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, D.G.; Smith, R.I.; Cawley, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    After over 70 years of hydrocarbon exploration in the Papuan fold belt of PNG (Papua New Guinea) there have been a number of hydrocarbon discoveries over recent years that have confirmed its potential as a significant producing province. The Papuan basin developed during the early Mesozoic as part of the northeast corner of the Australian passive margin. The basin's tertiary evolution and the development of the Papuan fold belt within the Papuan basin has evolved in response to oblique convergence between the northerly moving Australian plate and westerly moving Pacific plate. Restacking of the Mesozoic passive margin sequence within the Papuan Basin was initiated in the early miocene by southward abduction of the Solomon Sea plate and the subsequent collision, in the late Miocene, of the Melanesian Island arc along the northeastern margin of PNG. This later collision provided the driving mechanism for the development of the papuan thrust belt. To date, all the significant hydrocarbon discoveries made within the Papuan fold belt have been located within the frontal zone of the fold belt, which is characterized by relatively simple ramp anticlines and thick-skinned inversion structures. The primary proven reservoir fairway is the Jurassic Toro formation, which is a sequence of stacked submarine bars prograding out across a shallow-marine low-gradient shelf. Geochemical analysis of produced hydrocarbons and samples collected from the many surface seeps found in the fold belt indicate two main families of oil. A model explains the distribution of hydrocarbons discovered to date, which involves Jurassic and Cretaceous source intervals and a complex history of secondary migration and entrapment. The unique technical problems associated with exploration of the Papuan fold belt leave many elements of the proven play systems uncertain, but in so doing, they present many challenges and opportunities for the future.

  10. Fiber-optic liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  12. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Trkula, Mitchell; Coates, Don M.; Shah, S. Ismat

    1996-01-01

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  13. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  14. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willms, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  15. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  16. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  17. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  18. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  19. A squalene synthase-like enzyme initiates production of tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in Botryococcus braunii Race L

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thapa, Hem R.; Naik, Mandar T.; Okada, Shigeru; Takada, Kentaro; Molnar, Istvan; Xu, Yuquan; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2016-04-06

    Here, the green microalga Botryococcus braunii is considered a promising biofuel feedstock producer due to its prodigious accumulation of hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into fuels. B. braunii Race L produces the C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon lycopadiene via an uncharacterized biosynthetic pathway. Structural similarities suggest this pathway follows a biosynthetic mechanism analogous to that of C30 squalene. Confirming this hypothesis, the current study identifies C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) as a precursor for lycopaoctaene biosynthesis, the first committed intermediate in the production of lycopadiene. Two squalene synthase (SS)-like complementary DNAs are identified in race L with one encoding a true SSmore » and the other encoding an enzyme with lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS) activity. Interestingly, LOS uses alternative C15 and C20 prenyl diphosphate substrates to produce combinatorial hybrid hydrocarbons, but almost exclusively uses GGPP in vivo. In conclusion, this discovery highlights how SS enzyme diversification results in the production of specialized tetraterpenoid oils in race L of B. braunii.« less

  20. Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry February 7, 2014 - 3:27pm Addthis Oxidized fibers move to a high temperature furnace, where material is converted into carbon fiber at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTC). The CFTC enables companies to test low-cost carbon fiber for use in several industries including the clean energy sector. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oxidized fibers

  1. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    as sulfur and various metals; Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. ...

  2. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  3. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, Harold H. (Wilmette, IL); Chaar, Mohamed A. (Homs, SY)

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M.sub.3 (VO.sub.4).sub.2 and MV.sub.2 O.sub.6, M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  4. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen L.

    1989-01-01

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm.sup.2. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000.degree. C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity.

  5. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  6. PRODUCTION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING HYDROCARBON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-08-01

    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  7. Heterobimetallic zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, enables efficient conversion of biomass derived ethanol to renewable hydrocarbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-03

    Here, direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10–15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbonmore » pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.« less

  8. Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR during PCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Parks, II, James E

    2012-01-01

    The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOX conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the raw engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite showed better tolerance to HC fouling at low temperatures compared to the Fe-zeolite but PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOX conversion efficiency. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the hydrocarbons trapped on the SCR cores was conducted to better determine chemistry specific effects.

  9. Assessment of simulation predictions of hydrocarbon pool fire tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2010-04-01

    An uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is performed on the fuel regression rate model within SIERRA/Fuego by comparing to a series of hydrocarbon tests performed in the Thermal Test Complex. The fuels used for comparison for the fuel regression rate model include methanol, ethanol, JP8, and heptane. The recently implemented flamelet combustion model is also assessed with a limited comparison to data involving measurements of temperature and relative mole fractions within a 2-m diameter methanol pool fire. The comparison of the current fuel regression rate model to data without UQ indicates that the model over predicts the fuel regression rate by 65% for methanol, 63% for ethanol, 95% for JP8, and 15% for heptane. If a UQ analysis is performed incorporating a range of values for transmittance, reflectance, and heat flux at the surface the current model predicts fuel regression rates within 50% of measured values. An alternative model which uses specific heats at inlet and boiling temperatures respectively and does not approximate the sensible heat is also compared to data. The alternative model with UQ significantly improves the comparison to within 25% for all fuels except heptane. Even though the proposed alternative model provides better agreement to data, particularly for JP8 and ethanol (within 15%), there are still outstanding issues regarding significant uncertainties which include heat flux gauge measurement and placement, boiling at the fuel surface, large scale convective motion within the liquid, and semi-transparent behavior.

  10. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  11. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  12. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  13. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  14. Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.; Cradeur, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

  15. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  16. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  17. On coagulation mechanisms of charged nanoparticles produced by combustion of hydrocarbon and metallized fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savel'ev, A. M.; Starik, A. M.

    2009-02-15

    The contributions of van der Waals, Coulomb, and polarization interactions between nanometersized particles to the particle coagulation rate in both free-molecular and continuum regimes are analyzed for particle charges of various magnitudes and signs. Analytical expressions are obtained for the coagulation rate constant between particles whose interaction in the free-molecular regime is described by a singular potential. It is shown that van der Waals and polarization forces significantly increase the coagulation rate between a neutral and a charged particle (by a factor of up to 10) and can even suppress the Coulomb repulsion between like-charged particles of widely different sizes.

  18. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  20. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-,

  2. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  3. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop | Department of Energy Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Introductory presentation by Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Director, at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19,

  4. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Rational Catalyst Design Approach | Department of Energy Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. deer11_kapur.pdf (745.87 KB) More Documents &

  5. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18-19, 2015, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices. Sponsored by the DOE's Bioenergy and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, the workshop gathered 30

  6. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway

  7. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  8. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  9. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  10. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  11. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  12. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yuschak, Thomas; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rankin, Scott; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick; Simmons, Wayne W.; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low ...

  14. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  15. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  16. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  17. ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia researcher Cy Fujimoto demonstrates his new flexible hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membrane, which could be a key factor in realizing a hydrogen car. Current automotive ...

  18. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Introductory presentation by Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Director, at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from ...

  19. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports ...

  20. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion...

  1. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by hydrocarbons can lead to improved tolerances for selective catalytic reduction performance

  2. Method and means for producing solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  3. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  4. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Photo of cylindrical reactor vessel and associated piping and equipment in the Thermochemical Process Development Unit at NREL Liquids derived from biomass resources-including ethanol and bio-oils-can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming. Biomass-derived liquids can be transported more easily than their biomass feedstocks, allowing for semi-central

  6. New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHundreds of new ionic liquids can be synthesized using a method invented by ORNL researchers. This innovation makes it possible to produce ionic liquids and ionic compounds with a variety of tunable chemical properties, and provides ion liquids that are nonvolatile

  7. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  8. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  9. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  10. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  11. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, P.E.D.; Pugar, E.A.

    1985-11-12

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of whiskers'' or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900 C to about 1,200 C to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900 C. 6 figs.

  12. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D.; Pugar, Eloise A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

  13. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  14. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  15. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  16. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  17. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  18. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  19. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, Kent M.

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  20. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbons with supercritical water and light olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspek, S. C. Jr.

    1984-11-20

    Heavy hydrocarbons are upgraded and cracked in a process comprising contacting the heavy hydrocarbons with olefins containing 5 or less carbon atoms and a solvent, at a temperature both sufficient for cracking and greater than or equal to the critical temperature of the solvent.

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  3. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  4. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  5. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  6. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  7. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  8. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and ...

  9. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leininger, Thomas F.; Robin, Allen M.; Wolfenbarger, James K.; Suggitt, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  10. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  11. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  12. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  13. Hydroprocessing using regenerated spent heavy hydrocarbon catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a process for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: contacting the feedstock with hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions with a hydroprocessing catalyst wherein the hydroprocessing catalyst contains a total contaminant metals build-up of greater than about 4 wt. % nickel plus vanadium, a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metals and Group VIII metals and is regenerated spent hydroprocessing catalyst regenerated by a process comprising the steps: partially decoking the spent catalyst in an initial coke-burning step; impregnating the partially decoked catalyst with a Group IIA metal-containing impregnation solution; and decoking the impregnated catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein the impregnated catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of about 600[degrees]F to about 1400[degrees]F.

  14. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-22

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  15. DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N. E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

  16. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  17. Analyses of mixed-hydrocarbon binary thermodynamic cycles for moderate-temperature geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, O.J.

    1981-02-01

    A number of binary geothermal cycles utilizing mixed hydrocarbon working fluids were analyzed with the overall objective of finding a working fluid which can produce low-cost electrical energy using a moderately-low temperature geothermal resource. Both boiling and supercritical shell-and-tube cycles were considered. The performance of a dual-boiling isobutane cycle supplied by a 280/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource (corresponding to the 5 MW pilot plant at the Raft River site in Idaho) was selected as a reference. To investigate the effect of resource temperature on the choice of working fluid, several analyses were conducted for a 360/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource, which is representative of the Heber resource in California. The hydrocarbon working fluids analyzed included methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, isopentane, hexane, heptane, and mixtures of those pure hydrocarbons. For comparison, two fluorocarbon refrigerants were also analyzed. These fluorocarbons, R-115 and R-22, were suggested as resulting in high values of net plant geofluid effectiveness (watt-hr/lbm geofluid) at the two resource temperatures chosen for the study. Preliminary estimates of relative heat exchanger size (product of overall heat transfer coefficient times heater surface area) were made for a number of the better performing cycles.

  18. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  19. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting Data-Producing Facilities and Instruments Co-Chairs: David Skinner & Stuart Campbell 1 Contributors * Kaki Kelly, LANL * David Smith, LLNL * Jeff Cunningham, LBNL * Yao Zhang, ANL * John Harney, ORNL * Stuart Campbell, ORNL * Ilana Stern, NCAR * David Skinner, NERSC * Craig Ulmer, Sandia * Dino Pavlakos, Sandia * Rudy Garcia, Sandia * Jack Deslippe, NERSC 2 Some Questions ? * How does a Data-Producing Facility or Instrument plug in to HPC facilities ? * Do we support facilities

  20. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  1. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  2. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  3. Alloy and method of producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ott, Ryan T.; Fan, Cang; Kecskes, Laszlo

    2005-07-19

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, an alloy or other composite material is provided formed of a bulk metallic glass matrix with a microstructure of crystalline metal particles. The alloy preferably has a composition of (X.sub.a Ni.sub.b Cu.sub.c).sub.100-d-c Y.sub.d Al.sub.c, wherein the sum of a, b and c equals 100, wherein 40.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.80, 0.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.35, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.40, 4.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, and 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, and wherein preferably X is composed of an early transition metal and preferably Y is composed of a refractory body-centered cubic early transition metal. A preferred embodiment of the invention also provides a method of producing an alloy composed of two or more phases at ambient temperature. The method includes the steps of providing a metastable crystalline phase composed of at least two elements, heating the metastable crystalline phase together with at least one additional element to form a liquid, casting the liquid, and cooling the liquid to form the alloy. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition and cooling rate of the liquid can be controlled to determine the volume fraction of the crystalline phase and determine the size of the crystalline particles, respectively.

  4. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Zaiwei; Tang, Yongchun; Cheng; Jihong

    2009-11-10

    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  5. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  6. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Gailani, M.

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  7. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  8. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  9. Method and apparatus for detecting gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, deceased, William G.; Anderson, legal representative, Johanna S.

    1990-01-01

    A method and optrode for detecting gem polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in a sample fluid based on a single phase Fujiwara reaction as provided. The method comprises contacting a reaction mixture with a sample fluid which contains the gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. The reaction mixture comprises an aqueous solution of pyridine or derivative thereof and a hindered nitrogen base. Upon contact a fluorescent and/or chromgenic reaction product forms whose fluorescence and/or absorbance is related to the concentration of gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in the sample fluid.

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, A. H.; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  11. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia - Energy Innovation Portal Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, Albert Cheh, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce Dale Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn the continuing push to develop alternative fuels, bioethanol is clearly a viable option. However, if it is to become a truly economical

  12. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  13. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  14. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... - Journal Papers 1. An overview of biogas production and utilization at full-scale ... review) 2. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane via anaerobic digestion of sludge ...

  15. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... to 7 days to minimize the biogas production. Summary Renewable Methane Production We developed a novel process using biochar for producing biomethane at pipeline quality ...

  16. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  17. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-15

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  18. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O.

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  19. Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II) Coordination Sites Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, W. L. Queen, R. Krishna, J. M. Zadrozny, C. M. Brown, and ...

  20. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, III, Henry F.

    2015-11-14

    This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.

  1. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines ...

  2. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  3. Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Zoey R. Herm, Eric D. Bloch, and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Mater., 26 (1), pp 323-338 (2014) DOI: 10.1021...

  4. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an article in Scientific Reports on its new method to directly convert biomass-derived ethanol to a hydrocarbon blendstock and is continuing work with...

  5. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. deer11kapur.pdf ...

  6. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18–19, 2015, hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices.

  7. Method for producing gasoline from methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daviduk, Nicholas; Siuta, Michael T.

    1976-12-21

    A method for converting lower alcohols to ethers and hydrocarbons in an exothermic restricted process control arrangement with efficient utilization of process generated heat is described.

  8. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1988-01-01

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  9. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  10. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00219_ID2414.pdf (629 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA method for catalytically converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon without requiring

  12. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research | Department of Energy advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Research on future fuels chemistry and effects on combustion in advanced internal combustion engines p-14_gieleciak.pdf (695.84 KB) More Documents &

  13. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  14. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PCCI) combustion | Department of Energy fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Analyzed the effects of higher hydrocarbon emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes deer11_parks.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications Efficient Emissions Control for

  15. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  16. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S.

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  18. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  19. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Truhan, Jr., John J

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  20. Catalyst and reactor development for a liquid-phase Fischer-Tropsch process. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1983-31 March 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, P.N.; Pierantozzi, R.; Brian, B.W.; Nordquist, A.F.; Parsons, R.L.

    1983-09-01

    Two major tasks continued in the APCI/US DOE contract, Catalysts and Reactor Development for a Liquid Phase Fischer-Tropsch Process: (1) Slurry Catalyst Development; and (2) Slurry Reactor Design Studies. The first extended slurry test was continued using a proprietary catalyst. The results showed that it was possible to produce yields in the diesel fuel region equal to or greater than the Schulz-Flory maximum, without further optimization. Low deactivation rates were observed. Kinetic rate constants were derived from the CSTR experiments, and used in a computer simulation to predict conversions from bubble column operation under Rheinpreussen conditions. Short term (21 day) slurry tests were carried out on two other catalysts, optimized by the screening program. Parametric gas phase screening results were concluded for two additional modified conventional catalysts, and the optimum preparation and activation methods for diesel fuel selectively were chosen. In the hydrodynamic studies, work in the 5'' column was completed with measurements on the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3//water slurries. In the 12'' column, fitted with 7 heat transfer tubes, hydrodynamic parameters were determined for slurries of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in paraffin and water, and SiO/sub 2/ in water. Gas holdups were close to the Akita and Yoshida correlation for the hydrocarbon slurries, but lower for the aqueous ones. Solid concentration profiles, modelled by the sedimentation model, gave evidence of particle agglomeration in SiO/sub 2//hydrocarbon slurries, underlining the need to use chemically similar slurries in cold-flow modelling work. In the 5'' column, solid and liquid dispersion coefficients were found to be equal.

  1. Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2006-03-10

    In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

  2. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  3. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  4. Method of producing imines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  5. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  6. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  7. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  8. Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kydd, Paul H.

    1984-01-01

    The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

  9. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  10. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ANL's process (U.S. Patent Serial No. 14540,393) 55-70 % CH 4 30-45% CO 2 Conventional biogas upgrading: 20-72% of overall production cost 1. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane ...

  11. Power generation with synthetic liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebowitz, H.E.; Rovesti, W.C.; Schreiber, H.

    1984-06-01

    Tests performed burning H-Coal and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquids in a utility combustion turbine, and a test burning EDS in a utility boiler are described. The H-Coal was produced by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. The EDS was produced in a pilot plant by Exxon Corporation in Baytown, Texas. The test objectives, site preparation, and performance results are discussed for both tests. 8 references, 6 tables.

  12. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  14. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  15. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  16. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity ionic liquids, used as neat lubricants or basestock, produced significantly lower friction and engine wear

  17. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  18. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  19. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  20. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Barnes, John W.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Thomas, Kenneth E.; Bentley, Glenn E.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.