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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and is the cross correlation coefficient ... a NIST Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Calibration Facility ... FED2004-56790, 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering ...

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

1978-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

4

Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana)...

6

Flexible hydrogen plant utilizing multiple refinery hydrocarbon streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous processes are available to produce hydrogen, however, steam reforming is still the dominant and currently preferred process because it can economically process a variety of refinery feedstocks into hydrogen. This paper discusses the Air Products 88 MMSCFD hydrogen plant built by KTI, adjacent to Shell`s Martinez refinery, which utilizes up to eight separate refinery hydrocarbon streams as feed and fuel for the production of hydrogen in the steam reforming unit. The integration of refinery hydrocarbon purge streams, normally sent to fuel, allows greater flexibility in refinery operations and increases the overall refinery fuel efficiencies. The hydrogen plant also incorporates a number of process control design features to enhance reliability, such as two out of three voting systems, in-line sparing, and reduced bed PSA operation. The final section of the paper describes the environmental features of the plant required for operation in the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Air Products and KTI designed BACT features into the hydrogen plant to minimize emissions from the facility.

Kramer, K.A.; Patel, N.M. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Sekhri, S. [Kinetics Technology International Corp., San Dimas, CA (United States); Brown, M.G. [Shell Oil Products Co., Martinez, CA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

8

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

9

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Process And Apparatus For Producing A Stream Of Inert Gases From A Hydrocarbon Fuel Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental research study involving an unconventional method of producing a stream of inert gases from common hydrocarbon fuel sources has been described. Design and processing science elements from several different scientific, engineering, and ... Keywords: design, engine, fuel, hydrocarbon, inert gas, process, production, system

F. W. Giacobbe

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the storage of natural gas and prior to the exercise of eminent domain by any person, firm, or corporation having such right under laws of the state of Louisiana, the commissioner, shall have found all of the following:

12

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

Kuester, J.L.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Future radioactive liquid waste streams study  

SciTech Connect

This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

Rey, A.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various option will be performed as experimental data become available. The project is of two year's duration and contains three major tasks: Project Management Plan, Pilot Plant Modification, and Comparison of Preliminary Data With Los Alamos Model: We will determine if the kinetic model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory can be used to guide our experimental effort. Other subtasks under Task 3 include: Pressure/Temperature/Reaction Time Effects; Study of Different Injection Systems: Different schemes for introducing and mixing reactants before or within the reactor will be evaluated theoretically and/or experimentally; Study of Different Quench Systems; Effect of Reactor Geometry; Effect of Reactor Recycle; and Enhanced-Yield Catalyst Study. 5 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Hydrocarbon adsorption system  

SciTech Connect

In a solid adsorbent hydrocarbon recovery system for processing natural gas, towers adapted for performing adsorbing, cooling, and regenerating functions are used. It is recommended that a regeneration gas be used of substantially uniform richness in hydrocarbons in the closed-cycle regeneration system. The natural gas stream is flowed through an adsorbent bed to remove liquid hydrocarbons. A portion of the stripped gas stream is flowed through a second adsorbent bed for cooling purposes. A heated, rich, regeneration gas is circulated through a closed-cycle regeneration system that includes a third adsorbent bed. This rich regeneration gas is combined with the stripped gas stream. These steps are repeated in a cyclic operation. (10 claims)

Humphries, C.L.

1966-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen in a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

27

Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Separation and recovery of hydrogen and normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen from a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

30

CROWTM PROCESS APPLICATION FOR SITES CONTAMINATED WITH LIGHT NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) has successfully applied the CROWTM (Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes) process at two former manufactured gas plants (MGPs), and a large wood treatment site. The three CROW process applications have all occurred at sites contaminated with coal tars or fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) mixtures, which are generally denser than water and are classified as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). While these types of sites are abundant, there are also many sites contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, or fuel oil, which are lighter than water and lie on top of an aquifer. A third site type occurs where chlorinated hydrocarbons have contaminated the aquifer. Unlike the DNAPLs found at MGP and wood treatment sites, chlorinated hydrocarbons are approximately one and a half times more dense than water and have fairly low viscosities. These contaminants tend to accumulate very rapidly at the bottom of an aquifer. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are the major industrial chlorinated solvents that have been found contaminating soils and aquifers. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying the CROW process to sites contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Individual objectives were to determine a range of operating conditions necessary to optimize LNAPL and chlorinated hydrocarbon recovery, to conduct numerical simulations to match the laboratory experiments and determine field-scale recoveries, and determine if chemical addition will increase the process efficiency for LNAPLs. The testing consisted of twelve TCE tests; eight tests with PCE, diesel, and wood treatment waste; and four tests with a fuel oil-diesel blend. Testing was conducted with both vertical and horizontal orientations and with ambient to 211 F (99 C) water or steam. Residual saturations for the horizontal tests ranged from 23.6% PV to 0.3% PV. Also conducted was screening of 13 chemicals to determine their relative effectiveness and the selection of three chemicals for further testing.

L.A. Johnson, Jr.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

31

Microscopic linear liquid streams in vacuum: Injection of solvated biological samples into X-ray free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic linear liquid free-streams offer a means of gently delivering biological samples into a probe beam in vacuum while maintaining the sample species in a fully solvated state. By employing gas dynamic forces to form the microscopic liquid stream (as opposed to a conventional solid-walled convergent nozzle), liquid free-streams down to 300 nm diameter have been generated. Such 'Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzles' (GDVN) are ideally suited to injecting complex biological species into an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) to determine the structure of the biological species via Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX). GDVN injector technology developed for this purpose is described.

Doak, R. B.; DePonte, D. P.; Nelson, G.; Camacho-Alanis, F.; Ros, A.; Spence, J. C. H.; Weierstall, U. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream T.Funada, D velocity airstream is studied assuming that the flow of the viscous gas and liquid is irrotational for the perturbations which depend on all the material properties of the incompressible liquid and compressible gas

Joseph, Daniel D.

33

Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

COZZI, ALEX

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

36

Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

COZZI, ALEX

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

Removing the Hydrocarbon from Hydrocarbon Flow ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas and petroleum products. Therefore is important to have primary calibration standards with low uncertainty. NIST has several hydrocarbon liquid ...

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

38

Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

2010-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

Manke, K.L. [ed.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Source modulation-correlation measurement for fissile mass flow in gas or liquid fissile streams  

SciTech Connect

The method of monitoring fissile mass flow on all three legs of a blending point, where the input is high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) and the product is PEU, can yield the fissile stream velocity and, with calibration, the [sup235]U content. The product of velocity and content integrated over the pipe gives the fissile mass flow in each leg. Also, the ratio of fissile contents in each pipe: HEU/LEU, HEU/PEU, and PEU/LEU, are obtained. By modulating the source on the input HEU pipe differently from that on the output pipe, the HEU gas can be tracked through the blend point. This method can be useful for monitoring flow velocity, fissile content, and fissile mass flow in HEU blenddown of UF[sub 6] if the pressures are high enough to contain some of the induced fission products. This method can also be used to monitor transfer of fissile liquids and other gases and liquids that emit radiation delayed from particle capture. These preliminary experiments with the Oak Ridge apparatus show that the method will work and the modeling is adequate.

Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.; Abston, R.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 11 for thrid quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 15 fourth quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gas-to-liquids (GTL) processes produce a large fraction of by-products whose disposal or handling ordinarily becomes a cost rather than benefit. As an alternative strategy to market stranded gas reserves, GTL provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional handling cost. The key concept investigated in this work is the possibility of integrating the GTL process with power generation using conventional waste by-product steam streams. Simulation of the integrated process was conducted with the aim of identifying the critical operating conditions for successful integration of the GTL and power generation processes. About 500 MW of electric power can be generated from 70% of the exit steam streams, with around 20 to 25% steam plant thermal efficiency. A detailed economic analysis on the LNG, stand-alone GTL, and Integrated GTL Power-Generation plants indicates that the integrated system is more profitable than the other options considered. Justifying the technology and economics involved in the use of the by-product streams to generate power could increase the net revenue and overall profitability of GTL projects. This technology may be transferable to GTL projects in the world, wherever a market for generated power exists.

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Use of Ionic Liquids as Physical Solvents for Selective Capture of CO2 from Fuel Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

This study is to investigate the potential use of ionic liquids (ILs) as physical solvents for selective CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams at elevated pressures and temperatures. The equilibrium gas solubility (x*) and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) for CO2 and H2 in two different ILs (TEGO IL K5 and TEGO IL P51P) were determined. The data were obtained in an agitated reactor, equipped with sight-windows, in wide ranges of pressures, temperatures, mixing speeds, and liquid heights. Under the operating conditions investigated, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs increased with pressure at constant temperature and decreased with temperature at constant pressure. Also, the volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients of CO2 increased with mixing speed, pressure, and temperature and decreased with liquid height. The CO2 solubilities in the TEGO IL K5 were greater than those in the other two ILs at 500 K. Under similar operating conditions, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs were greater than those of H2, which reflects the selective nature of ILs for CO2 capture. In addition, the ILs appeared to have negligible vapor pressure up to 500 K, which presents an advantage over conventional physical solvents currently employed for CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams. This study demonstrated the thermal stability of the ILs and highlighted their ability to selectively capture CO2 at temperatures up to 500 K and pressures as high as 30 bars.

Heintz, Y.J.; Sehabiague, L.; Morsi, B.I.; Jones, K.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

EIAs Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 June 14, 2013 EIA's Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids Term Current Definition Proposed Definition Note Lease condensate Condensate (lease condensate): A natural gas liquid recovered from associated and non associated gas wells from lease separators or field facilities, reported in barrels of 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Lease condensate: Light liquid hydrocarbons recovered from lease separators or field facilities at associated and non-associated natural gas wells. Mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. Normally enters the crude oil stream after production. Includes lease condensate as part of the crude oil stream, not an NGL. Plant condensate Plant condensate: One of the

51

Liquid-impregnated clay solid sorbents for CO2 removal from postcombustion gas streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel liquid-impregnated clay sorbent #1;R. V. Siriwardane, U.S. Patent No. 6,908,497 B1 #2;2003#3;#4; was developed for carbon dioxide #1;CO2#2; removal in the temperature range of ambient to 60°C for both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactor applications. The sorbent is regenerable at 80–100°C. A 20-cycle test conducted in an atmospheric reactor with simulated flue gas with moisture demonstrated that the sorbent retains its CO2 sorption capacity with CO2 removal efficiency of about 99% during the cyclic tests. The sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed reactor operations showed required delta CO2 capacity requirements for sorption of CO2 at 40°C and regeneration at 100°C. The parameters such as rate of sorption, heat of sorption, minimum fluidization velocities, and attrition resistance data that are necessary for the design of a reactor suitable for capture and regeneration were also determined for the sorbent. A 20-cycle test conducted in the presence of flue-gas pollutant sulfur dioxide—SO2 #2;20 parts per million#3;—indicated that the sorbent performance was not affected by the presence of SO2.

Siriwardane, R.; Robinson, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Novel catalyst for selective NOx reduction using hydrocarbons ...  

This invention discloses a catalyst and process for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust streams under lean burn conditions using hydrocarbons as the reductant.

55

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 6. Preliminary analysis of upgrading alternatives for the Great Plains liquid by-production streams. Interim report, March 1987-February 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However the phenolic and naptha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10-15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10% of the U.S. market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream.

Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Molecular shape and the prediction of high-performance liquid chromatographic retention indexes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of molecular shape on the retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been studied. It has been found that the retention on polymeric phases is highly shape dependent in contrast to the monomeric phases where retention is more dependent on the electronic properties of the solute. In addition, retention on the polymeric phases has been studied with respect to substitution and shape. The retention of substituted PAHs shows a strong dependence on shape, whereas the retention of unsubstituted PAHs is more dependent on electronic properties.

Rohrbaugh, R.H.; Jurs, P.C.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

58

Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); Lee, Lap-Keung (Cranbury, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

SciTech Connect

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

60

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

Direct determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquids and shale oil by laser excited Shpol'skii spectrometry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article reports that tunable, dye laser excitation of Shpol'skii effect spectra provides a potentially useful means of determining PAH compounds directly in coal liquids and shale oil without prior isolation of the PAH fraction by chromatographic or other techniques. The data reported were obtained by selecting excitation wavelengths within the response curve of a single dye, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4 oxadiazole (PBD). The characteristic low temperature excitation spectra of PAH compounds in appropriate Shpol'skii matrices are known to be sharp (FWHM approx. 10cm/sup -1/). The luminescence of four individual PAHs is included. The analytical results obtained for a typical solvent refined coal and shale oil sample are summarized. 2 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Yen, Y.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.; Iles, M.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, or Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, Natural Gas, or Liquid Hydrocarbon Flows Special Tests. Fluid Metrology ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

66

Hydrocarbon adsorption apparatus and process  

SciTech Connect

A method of recovering hydrocarbons from natural gas by the use of solid adsorbents consists of 3 steps. The main flow stream of natural gas is passed through a first and only bed of solid adsorbent so that at least a portion of the hydrocarbons present is adsorbed in the bed. A heated regeneration gas is next passed through a second bed of solid adsorbent so that at least a portion of the hydrocarbons is desorbed from the bed. The main flow of natural gas is passed through the second and only bed when in a heated condition after regeneration and the flow of heated regeneration gas is passed through the first bed. The hydrocarbons desorbed from the first and second beds from the regeneration gas are recovered while the previous 3 steps are repeated. (6 claims)

Humphries, C.L.

1966-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

Kuester, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A chilled water heat exchanger controlled by a feedback temperature sensor is used to remove heat from the fluid added by friction and the pumps. ...

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Previous work at MIT indicates that essentially stoichiometric, rather than catalytic, reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides offer technical and economic promise as an innovative approach to upgrading natural gas to premium products such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. In this approach, methane would be reacted with relatively low cost and recyclable alkaline earth metal oxides, such as CaO and MgO, at high temperatures (>1500{degrees}C) to achieve very high (i.e. approaching 100%) gas conversions to H{sub 2}, CO and the corresponding alkaline earth metal carbides. These carbides exist stably in solid form at dry ambient conditions and show promise for energy storage and long distance transport. The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop new scientific and engineering knowledge bases for further assessment of the approach by performing laboratory-scale experiments and thermodynamic and thermochemical kinetics calculations. Work on this project will be performed according to two tasks. Under Task 1 (Industrial Chemistry), a laboratory-scale electric arc discharge plasma reactor is being constructed and will be used to assess the technical feasibility of producing Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} from MgO and methane, and to identify the operating conditions of interest for the commercial production of Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} and/or CaC{sub 2} from MgO and/or CaO and methane. Under Task 2 (Mechanistic Foundations), preliminary thermodynamic calculations were performed for the Ca-C-H-O and Mg-C-H-O systems using the Chemkin program. A scoping run with CaO in an electrical screen heater reactor under reduced methane pressure was also conducted. No appreciable quantity of acetylene was detected upon hydrolysis of the solid residue. This can be attributed to the very small quantity of methane at the very low pressure coupled with inadequate contacting of whatever methane was present with the CaO powder.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

APPENDIX A CRUDE STREAM CODES COUNTRY Stream Code Stream Name ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Page ?? 6 * A Former Soviet Republic APPENDIX A CRUDE STREAM CODES COUNTRY Stream Code Stream Name Gravity Sulfur Columbia - Continued CO043 Orito ...

72

Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

Leininger, Thomas F. (Chino Hills, CA); Robin, Allen M. (Anaheim, CA); Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Suggitt, Robert M. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method for enhanced atomization of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

: Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion  

crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil).

76

Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

Clean Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Streams Clean Streams Nature Bulletin No. 538-A October 5, 1974 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CLEAN STREAMS Each year in mid-May is Clean Streams Week in Cook County by proclamation of the president of the county board and the Board of Forest Preserve Commissioners, and in all of Illinois by proclamation of the Governor. Its purpose is to focus the attention of everyone, young and old, upon the disgraceful conditions in our streams, formerly clean and beautiful, which have been made foul and unsightly by pollution with sewage and by the dumping of garbage and junk into them. Some of us remember when fish such as northern pike, black bass, sunfish, bluegills, crappies and channel catfish were plentiful in the rivers and creeks of Cook County. Now the desirable kinds of fish have largely disappeared and many portions are so polluted that even carp cannot exist. Swimming, once popular in the DesPlaines River, Salt Creek and other streams, has long been prohibited by the State Board of Health. In some streams the stench and appearance of the water is so repulsive that no one enjoys picnicking or resting in the shade along their banks.

78

Stream Pollution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stream Pollution Stream Pollution Nature Bulletin No. 401-A January 9, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation STREAM POLLUTION The pollution of surface waters in the United States is one of man's most shameful and dangerous crimes against himself. It is ruining one of the nation's basic resources by rendering water unfit for human consumption and unsuitable for many industrial or domestic uses. Pollution is particularly alarming near most big cities, but, emptied into rivers and creeks, other communities may feel its effect a hundred or more miles downstream. Even in remote or rural regions, it originates as wastes from mines, paper mills, canneries and creameries . A lot of the pleasure of living is taken away because our streams and lakes are fouled and spoiled for bathing, boating, fishing and other recreations. Further, the health hazard is very real. Unless such waters are boiled or chlorinated there is danger from typhoid, dysentery and many other diseases.

79

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Final technical progress report, September 19, 1979-October 22, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The effects of support and of boron or potassium promoters on the adsorption properties, CO hydrogenation activity/selectivity behavior, and sulfur resistance of iron (and to a lesser extent cobalt) were investigated. Iron catalysts supported on alumina, silica, and silicalite and promoted with potassium were prepared by conventional impregnation techniques. Cobalt and iron borides were prepared by chemical reduction with NaBH/sub 4/. The adsorptions of CO and H/sub 2/ on these catalysts were studied by static adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption techniques. Activity, selectivity, and sulfur-resistance during CO hydrogenation on these catalysts were determined using a laboratory microreactor. The results indicate that support, promoter, and catalyst pretreatment significantly influence adsorption, activity, selectivity, and sulfur resistance behavior of these catalysts. Hydrogen adsorption on these catalysts is highly activated; moreover the degree of activation varies with support, promoter and pretreatment. Specific activities of iron catalysts on different supports vary 40 fold; selectivities of these catalysts for CO/sub 2/ and different hydrocarbons also vary significantly with support. Calcination at 473/sup 0/K of potassium promoted Fe/silica shifts selectivity from conventional Fisher-Tropsch products (C/sub 1/-C/sub 10/ hydrocarbons and CO/sub 2/) to mainly methane, ethylene and propylene. These and other significant results are presented and discussed. An account of technical communications and publications is also included. 24 references, 20 tables, 9 figures.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1984-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

80

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Work on this project will be performed according to two tasks: Task 1, Industrial Chemistry and Applied Kinetics of Light Hydrocarbon Gas Conversion to Metal Carbides H{sub 2} and CO. We are building a laboratory-scale electric are discharge reactor, in which to assess the technical feasibility of producing Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, H{sub 2}, and CO from methane and MgO. We will also do experimental runs with CaO as well as mixtures of CaO and MgO and measure conversions of methane, CaO and/or MgO, and yields of Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, and/or CaC{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO to identify the operating conditions of interest for implementing these reactions on a commercial scale. Reaction conditions and parameters will be chosen based on the previous work at MIT with CaO and CH, and on results of thermodynamic and thermochemical kinetics calculations. Task 2: Mechanistic Foundations-For Convertings Light Hydrocarbon Gases to Metal Carbides-H{sub 2} and CO. We will evaluate the technical feasibility of carrying out methane reactions with CaO and MgO by thermal (e.g. 1500--2000{degrees}C) rather than under plasma conditions by performing experiments with the use of electrical screen heaters, heated tubular reactors, or other suitable apparatus. Extents and global rates of methane conversion, and yields as well as global production rates of CaC{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, H{sub 2} and CO will be measured upon subjecting mixtures of methane and CaO and/or MgO to high temperatures and controlled residence times. We will conduct hypothesis-testing of possible mechanistic pathways with selected experiments and perform reaction modeling to better understand the underlying chemical and physical processes that could influence process scale-up possibilities.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methane plasma stabilization problem was resolved with the reconfiguration of the DC power supply to give a higher open circuit voltage to enable operation of the arc at higher voltage levels and with the installation of a solenoid around the plasma reactor to magnetically rotate the are. Cathode tip erosion problems were encountered with the 1/4-inch graphite and tungsten tips which necessitated a redesign of the plasma reactor. The new plasma reactor consists of an enlarged 3/4-inch O.D. graphite tip to reduce current density and a 1-inch I.D. graphite anode. Products from MgO/CH{sub 4} scoping runs in the redesigned reactor under conditions of excess MgO gave strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved i.e. that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons, primarily C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, were detected in the headspace above hydrolyzed solid samples by GC analysis. In one run, solids glowed upon exposure to the atmosphere, strongly suggesting carbide reaction with moisture in the air, exothermically forming acetylenes which ignited instantaneously in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperatures arising from localized heat-up of the specimens.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Pride, J.D.; Howard, J.B.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Quarterly technical progress report, March 19-June 18, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 15% Fe-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO/sub 2/ catalyst, a 15% Co-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO catalyst and a 15% CoB/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst were prepared. H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption uptakes were measured for the catalysts prepared to date. It was noted that calcining the iron catalysts in air before reduction in flowing H/sub 2/ aided in increasing metal dispersion. Liquid and wax traps for use in the reactor system were completed as were plans for chromatographic product analysis.

Bartholomew, C H

1980-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

85

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Models for calculating the effects of isotopic exchange, radioactive decay, and of recycle in removing iodine from gas and liquid streams  

SciTech Connect

Different decontamination factors for $sup 129$I and $sup 131$I are frequently invoked in environmental impact reports concerned with nuclear fuel recycle. Selected differences, or ratios, have not been justified on the basis of mathematical models or experimental data. A description is given of the origins of these differences in terms of isotopic exchange and material balance equations for the short- and long-lived (or stable) isotopes. The ratios of decontamination factors can be calculated when there is complete attainment of isotopic exchange between gas- or liquid-phase iodine and iodine sorbed by a solid or liquid. If there is no exchange, decontamination factors are isotope- independent unless material recycle occurs within the system. Between these extremes, there can be decontamination factors whose explanation requires experimental determination of the extent of exchange. The model applies to other radioactive isotopes of iodine as well as to other elements with short- and long- lived (or stable) isotopes. (auth)

Davis, W. Jr.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Annual technical progress report, September 19, 1979-September 18, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twelve supported iron and cobalt catalysts were prepared, including three boride-promoted catalysts, by a procedure developed previously in this laboratory. Each was characterized by H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption measurements. Construction and testing of a high pressure laboratory microreactor system were completed. The system features a 0.65 cm tubular reactor, ice-temperature liquid traps, and a gas chromatograhic system for complete product analysis. Eight catalysts were tested at 90 kPa, 450 to 500/sup 0/K H/sub 2//CO = 2 to obtain product distribution, selectivity, and turnover number data. The results show that supports and promoters significantly affect specific activity and product selectivity of iron and cobalt in CO hydrogenation.

Bartholomew, C H

1980-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Annual technical progress report, September 19, 1980-September 18, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the past contract year, considerable progress was made in characterization and activity/selectivity testing of iron and cobalt catalysts. Preparation of boride promoted cobalt and iron catalysts was refined and nearly completed. H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption and oxygen titration measurements were performed on a number of supported and unsupported catalysts, especially several boride promoted cobalt and iron catalysts. Activity/selectivity tests of 3 and 15% Fe/SiO/sub 2/ and Co/SiO/sub 2/ and of 6 borided cobalt and iron catalysts were completed. The product distributions for iron and cobalt boride catalysts are unusual and interesting. Boron promoted iron is more active and stable than iron/silica; cobalt boride has an unusually high selectivity for alcohols. Tests to determine effects of H/sub 2/S poisoning on activity/selectivity properties of 15% Co/SiO/sub 2/ indicate that a significant loss of activity occurs over a period of 24 to 28 h in the presence of 10 to 20 ppM H/sub 2/S. Product selectivity to liquids increased through a maximum during the gradual addition of sulfur. Reactant CO and H/sub 2/S interact partially to form COS which is less toxic than H/sub 2/S. H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption data were obtained for 3, 6 and 9% Co/ZSM-5 catalysts prepared and reactor tested by PETC. The unusual and interesting results suggest that metal-support interactions may have an important influence on reactant adsorption properties.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1981-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Hydrocarbon compositions of high elongational viscosity and process for making the same  

SciTech Connect

A hydrocarbon composition is described consisting essentially of a hydrocarbon liquid and an ionic-association or coordination-complex polymer in an amount sufficient to increase and maintain the elongational viscosity of the composition at a level greater than that of the hydrocarbon alone. The polymer is capable of dissociation upon application of the high shear regime to which the hydrocarbon is subjected, and reassociation upon withdrawal of the high shear.

Hamil, H.F.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Fodor, G.E.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Merrimac: Supercomputing with Streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Merrimac uses stream architecture and advanced interconnection networks to give an order of magnitude more performance per unit cost than cluster-based scientific computers built from the same technology. Organizing the computation into streams and exploiting ...

William J. Dally; Francois Labonte; Abhishek Das; Patrick Hanrahan; Jung-Ho Ahn; Jayanth Gummaraju; Mattan Erez; Nuwan Jayasena; Ian Buck; Timothy J. Knight; Ujval J. Kapasi

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Streams, Stream Transformers and Domain Representations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract. We present a general theory for the computation of stream transformers of the form F: (R ¿ B) ¿ (T ¿ A), where time T and R, and data A and B, are discrete or continuous. We show how methods for representing ...

Jens Blanck; Viggo Stoltenberg-Hansen; J. V. Tucker

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method for production of hydrocarbon diluent from heavy crude oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of producing a hydrocarbon diluent from a heavy crude oil extracted from an underground petroleum formation via a production well. It comprises: preheating a quantity of heavy crude oil extracted from the production well to yield a heated crude oil; separating in a separator vessel by flashing the heated crude oil to produce a first vapor fraction and a first liquid fraction; thermally cracking in a cracking unit at least a portion of the first liquid fraction to produce a first liquid effluent; quenching the first liquid effluent; introducing at least a portion of the quenched fist liquid effluent into a separator; condensing the first vapor fraction; separating in a separator vessel the condensed vapor fraction to produce a liquid hydrocarbon diluent middle fraction characterized in having a boiling range between about 400{degrees}-700{degrees}F. and a gas; and, directing the liquid hydrocarbon diluent into the formation via an injection well for enhancing production of petroleum from the formation via the production well.

McCants, M.F.

1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor  

the invention is an electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor that is more reliable and reproducible than any other hydrocarbon sensor on the market today. The patented method for producing the sensor ensures reproducibility and reduces the need for ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst, particularly useful in catalytic reforming and for producing highly pure aromatic hydrocarbons, comprising an alumina carrier and containing, expressed in proportion of the weight of the alumina carrier: 005 to 1% of platinum 01 to 4% of gallium, indium or thallium 01 to 2% of tungsten, and 1 to 10% of halogen.

Le P. J.; Malmaison, R.; Marcilly, C.; Martino, G.; Miquel, J.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

103

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

Kong, P.C.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

105

Persistent temporal streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by ...

David Hilley; Umakishore Ramachandran

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Effectively grouping trajectory streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trajectory data streams are huge amounts of data pertaining to time and position of moving objects. They are continuously generated by different sources exploiting a wide variety of technologies (e.g., RFID tags, GPS, GSM networks). Mining such amount ...

Gianni Costa, Giuseppe Manco, Elio Masciari

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

TimeStream: reliable stream computation in the cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TimeStream is a distributed system designed specifically for low-latency continuous processing of big streaming data on a large cluster of commodity machines. The unique characteristics of this emerging application domain have led to a ... Keywords: StreamInsight, cluster computing, distributed stream processing, dynamic reconfiguration, fault-tolerance, real-time, resilient substitution

Zhengping Qian; Yong He; Chunzhi Su; Zhuojie Wu; Hongyu Zhu; Taizhi Zhang; Lidong Zhou; Yuan Yu; Zheng Zhang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

GC/MS characterization of condensable tars in the output stream of a stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The output stream of the stirred fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was sampled for total entrained material. A major portion of the entrained material, in addition to particles, is condensable tar that is subsequently removed from the process gas by wet scrubbing. Characterization of the entrained materials, specifically the tar, is important to establish contaminant levels and to evaluate performance of downstream cleanup units. Samples of tars were collected from the process unit in a combined ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen sampler and stored in a refrigerator. The tar samples were then separated into asphaltene, neutral oil, tar acid, and base fractions by solvent extraction using toluene, pentane, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide extraction. Characterization of the fractions obtained from these tars include IR, UV, GC, and GC/MS analysis. The mass spectrometer analysis of the various isolates shows that many individual peaks in the gas chromatograph are in fact mixtures that can be readily identified by the mass spectrometer. It was found that many of the species identified in these fractions were members of aromatic homologous series consisting of parent, mono, di, and tri substituted compounds. Compound identification was made by comparison of the data system library and standard reference spectra. This paper will discuss the instrumental approach and limitation of the GC/MS and the results of the characterization studies of entrained hydrocarbons collected from the gasifier stream.

Lamey, S.C.; McCaskill, K.B.; Smith, R.R.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Hydrocarbon reclaimer system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a filtering process for filtering sludge from a finished product oil storage tank and thereby separating solids from oil and hydrocarbon. The process requires no added water, solvents or diluents. It comprises: pumping a volume sludge from a finished product oil storage tank to a mixing tank; mixing the sludge; sampling the sludge to determine solid content; adding filter aid comprising diatomaceous earth to the mixing tank; mixing the filter aid with the sludge in the mixing tank; enclosing and sealing a plurality of filter plates inside a horizontal plate filter; pressurizing the horizontal plate filter by operation of pump means; pumping the sludge from the mixing tank through the horizontal plate filter to filter out solids; recirculating the sludge from the horizontal plate filter back through the mixing tank; and pumping a purified hydrocarbon and water filtrate from the horizontal plate filter.

Uremovich, M.J.

1990-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

110

FROZEN HYDROCARBONS IN COMETS  

SciTech Connect

Recent investigations of the luminescence of frozen hydrocarbon particles of icy cometary halos have been carried out. The process of luminescence of organic icy particles in a short-wavelength solar radiation field is considered. A comparative analysis of observed and laboratory data leads to 72 luminescent emission lines in the spectrum of the comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. The concept of cometary relict matter is presented, and the creation of a database of unidentified cometary emission lines is proposed.

Simonia, Irakli, E-mail: irakli.simonia@jcu.edu.au [School of Graduate Studies, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Street, Tbilisi, 0162 (Georgia); Center for Astronomy, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

113

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Electroslag Refining as a Clean Liquid Metal Source for Atomization ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

electrode of the alloy to be melted, a liquid slag, and a water- cooled copper ... term applied to a process in which a stream of liquid metal is gas-atomized and.

115

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Gulf Stream Ring Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period 1976–78, the movement of 14 Gulf Stream rings, including two anticyclonic and 12 cyclonic rings, was measured with satellite-tracked free-drifting buoys. The buoys in the cyclonic rings showed a tendency to move out toward the ...

Philip L. Richardson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Natural gas liquids: a review of their role in the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines compiled information for the nonspecialist about natural gas liquids recovery from hydrocarbon streams in natural gas processing plants. Attention is directed to the impact of the technology of processing and the quality of gas processed, in view of the increased availability of natural gas for processing. Significant changes in product and market trends within the natural gas processing industry are highlighted. Fixed capital-plant costs for grassroots, refrigerated-oil absorption, and conventional adsorption schemes, adapted from published studies, are presented giving ranges of cost estimates for medium-sized plants. Marketed products of the natural gas processing industry are briefly discussed in relation to automotive air-pollution problems and approaches to their control. (10 refs.)

Zaffarano, R.F.

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Experimental and analytical study of the shear instability of a gas-liquid mixing layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and analytical study of the shear instability of a gas- liquid mixing layer Jean://pof.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Experimental and analytical study of the shear instability of a gas-liquid mixing layer Jean analysis of a planar mixing layer, where a fast gas stream destabilizes a slower parallel liquid stream

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Gas stream cleanup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Sugar Land, TX); Cradeur, Robert R. (Spring, TX)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Hydrocarbons in the deep earth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

composed of the elements hydrogen and carbon) are the main building block of crude oil and natural gas. Hydrocarbons contribute to the global carbon cycle (one of the most...

127

Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 6, January 16, 1988--April 15, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that later can be converted to either liquid fuels or value-added chemicals, as economics dictate. During this reporting period, we synthesized several phthalocyanine catalysts supported on magnesia (MgO) in Task 3. In Task 4 we have tested these catalysts for oxidation of methane and did a number of blank experiments to determine the cause of the low methanol yield we have observed. Magnesia supported catalysts were prepared by first synthesizing the various metal tetrasulfophthalocyanines (TSPCs), converting them to the acid form, and then supporting these complexes on a basic support (MgO) by a neutralization reaction. The metals used were Ru, Pd, Cu, Fe, Co, Mn, and Mo. CoTSPC was also synthesized in zeolite Y using our standard template techniques described in Quarterly Report No. 1. These complexes were examined for catalytic activity in the oxidation of methane. The PdTSPC/MgO had greater activity, and oxidized some of the methane (selectivity of 2.8% from the methane oxidized at 375{degrees}C) to ethane. This is a much lower temperature for this reaction than previously reported in the literature. We also examined the reactivity of various components of the system in the oxidation of the product methanol. The reactor showed some activity for the oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide. When zeolite or magnesia were added, this activity increased. The magnesia oxidized most of the methanol to carbon dioxide, while the zeolite reduced some of the methanol to hydrocarbons. With oxygen in the feed gas stream (i.e., the conditions of our methane oxidation), a very large fraction of the methanol was oxidized to carbon dioxide when passed over magnesia. From this, we can conclude that any methanol formed in the oxidation of methane would probably be destroyed very quickly on the catalyst bed.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan, Yee Wai; Posin, B.M.

1988-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated bubble flotation of fine coal using 3-in. ID flotation column. Technical progress report for the eleventh quarter, April 1--June 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are four modes of the collector dispersion techniques. They are (1) direct liquid additions and stirring, (2) ultrasonic energy collector dispersion, (3) atomized collector dispersion, and (4) gasified collector transported in air stream. Among those collector dispersion techniques, the technique using the gasified collector transported in air phase can be used to enhance the flotation performance with substantial reduction in collector usage and selectivity, compared to the flotation using direct liquid addition (and mechanical agitation) technique. In this phase of study, two modes of collector addition techniques including gasified collector transported in gas phase and direct collector addition techniques were applied in the column flotation to demonstrate the selectivity of utilizing the hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubbles in the fine coal flotation process. The 1-in. ID flotation column was used to scale-up to 3-in. ID flotation column. The initial starting point to operate the 3-in ID flotation column were determined using both 1-in. and 3-in. flotation columns based on the three phases of work plans and experiment design. A 3-in. flotation column was used to evaluate two modes of collector dispersion and addition techniques on the recovery and grade of fine coals using various ranks of coal.

Peng, F.F.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

High pressure separation of higher hydrocarbons from natural gas with a continuous regeneration of the adsorbent by raw gas  

SciTech Connect

In natural gas production it is common practice to remove water and frequently also higher hydrocarbons from the gas stream in order to prevent the formation and accumulation of liquids in the downstream pipeline system. Gas drying by condensation at low temperatures, which is the normal practice, becomes increasingly ineffective with rising pressures. In this case adsorption or absorption processes must be applied in order to meet the gas specifications. During trials performed in one of BEB's North German gas fields, a selected adsorption process was tested in a pilot plant in cooperation between BEB and Lurgi. In particular, regeneration with heated raw gas at adsorption pressure was investigated. The suitability of the process was confirmed using activated carbon as an adsorbent. Based -1- on the data obtained from the test, the operating plant could be optimally designed. The latest environmental legislation was taken into account as regards both the disposal of used activated carbon and the avoidance of environmental pollution.

Kaliner, J.; Schwettmann, F.; May, H.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

From a stream of relational queries to distributed stream processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications from several domains are now being written to process live data originating from hardware and software-based streaming sources. Many of these applications have been written relying solely on database and data warehouse technologies, despite ... Keywords: ODBC, continuous processing, streaming processing

Qiong Zou; Huayong Wang; Robert Soulé; Martin Hirzel; Henrique Andrade; Bu?ra Gedik; Kun-Lung Wu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Sampling streaming data with replacement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple random sampling is a widely accepted basis for estimation from a population. When data come as a stream, the total population size continuously grows and only one pass through the data is possible. Reservoir sampling is a method of maintaining ... Keywords: Data stream mining, Random sampling with replacement, Reservoir sampling

Byung-Hoon Park; George Ostrouchov; Nagiza F. Samatova

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Cleanup of hydrocarbon conversion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a substantially contaminant-free second hydrocarbon feed using a second reforming catalyst, in a catalytic-reforming system having equipment contaminated through contact with a contaminant-containing prior feed. It comprises: contacting the first hydrocarbon feed in the catalytic-reforming system at first reforming conditions with a first reforming catalyst until contaminant removal from the conversion system is substantially completed and the system is contaminant-free; thereafter replacing the first reforming catalyst in the contaminant-free catalytic-reforming system with a second reforming catalyst; and thereafter contacting the second hydrocarbon feed in the contaminant-free catalytic-reforming system with the second reforming catalyst at second reforming conditions.

Peer, R.L.; Russ, M.B.

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

SciTech Connect

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BECHTEL HYDROCARBON TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR AN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BECHTEL HYDROCARBON TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR AN BECHTEL HYDROCARBON TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FE0000896, W(A)-2012-030; CH-1667 The Petitioner, Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions (Bechtel) was awarded a subcontract under the subject cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy and SRI International (SRI) for the performance of work entitled , "C0 2 Capture from IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) Gas Streams Using the AC-ABC (ammonium carbonate-ammonium bicarbonate) Process". The objective of the subcontract is to show the effectiveness of two technologies - one from SRI and one from Bechtel. This will include four to six weeks of testing at the National Carbon Capture Center in Wilsonville

138

Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction  

SciTech Connect

A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

BOILER COFIRING OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

percent liquid hazardous waste co-firing, the separation is probably the n:sult of combustor design dill

Columbia University

140

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Efficient pattern matching over event streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pattern matching over event streams is increasingly being employed in many areas including financial services, RFIDbased inventory management, click stream analysis, and electronic health systems. While regular expression matching is well studied, pattern ... Keywords: event streams, pattern matching, query optimization

Jagrati Agrawal; Yanlei Diao; Daniel Gyllstrom; Neil Immerman

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Reclamation and reuse of freon in total petroleum hydrocarbon analyses  

SciTech Connect

ADS is using a commercially available solvent reclamation system to recycle 95-97 percent of the Freon used in total petroleum hydrocarbon analyses. ADS has further developed the commercially available solvent reclamation system to accommodate radioactive contaminated Freon. This report establishes the following: validity of the method; success of recycling; and effect of radionuclides in recycling radioactive contaminated Freon. The standard analysis method for determining total petroleum hydrocarbons (commonly known as oil and grease determination) involves solvent extraction of the hydrocarbons using Freon followed by quantitation using infrared detection. This has been the method of choice because it is simple, rugged, inexpensive, and applicable to both solid and liquid samples and to radioactive samples. Due to its deleterious effect on the ozone layer, the use of Freon and other chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs) has been greatly restricted. Freon has become very expensive (800$/liter) and will soon be unavailable entirely. Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon extraction method. These methods include solid-phase extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction all of which use gravimetric determination or infrared analysis of the extracted hydrocarbons. These methods are not as precise or as sensitive as the Freon extraction method, and a larger amount of sample is therefore required due to the decreased sensitivity. The solid phase extraction method cannot accommodate solid samples. Supercritical fluid extraction requires expensive instrumentation. ADS opted to keep the existing Freon method and recycle the solvent. An inexpensive solvent reclamation system was procured to reclaim the spent Freon. This reclaimer removes hydrocarbons from the Freon solvent by passage through an activated carbon bed.

Ekechukwu, A.A.; Peterson, S.F.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons ...  

Conventional biomass to hydrocarbon conversion is generally not commercially feasible, due to costs of the conversion process.

144

Discretized streams: fault-tolerant streaming computation at scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many "big data" applications must act on data in real time. Running these applications at ever-larger scales requires parallel platforms that automatically handle faults and stragglers. Unfortunately, current distributed stream processing models provide ...

Matei Zaharia, Tathagata Das, Haoyuan Li, Timothy Hunter, Scott Shenker, Ion Stoica

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Hydrocarbons from plants and trees  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The way energy was used in the US in 1980 was examined. A diagram shows the development of energy from its source to its end use. The following are described: the carbon dioxide problem - the greenhouse effect, sugar cane as an energy source, hydrocarbon-producing plants and trees, and isoprenoids from plants and trees. (MHR)

Calvin, M.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

treatment in addition to the side stream filtration, mechanical cleaning of the heat exchangers can be reduced and efficiency increased (Wymore, 2003). 7 2 Side Stream...

147

Thermalization of a two-stream plasma  

SciTech Connect

Improvements on the theory of two oppositely directed plasma streams are obtained by improving the calculation of the friction force between the two streams. (AIP)

Alipchenkov, V.M.; Konkashbaev, I.K.; Ryl' tseva, T.V.; Ulinich, F.P.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

Polanek, P.J. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States); Hooper, H.M. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Mueller, J.; Walter, M. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Emmrich, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Stream Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stream Energy Place Texas Utility Id 50041 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 LinkedIn...

150

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Manifold to uniformly distribute a solid-liquid slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention features a manifold that divides a stream of coal particles and liquid into several smaller streams maintaining equal or nearly equal mass compositions. The manifold consists of a horizontal, variable area header having sharp-edged, right-angled take-offs which are oriented on the bottom of the header.

Kern, Kenneth C. (Lake Hiawatha, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Position sensitive radioactivity detection for gas and liquid chromatography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for the position sensitive detection of radioactivity in a fluid stream, particularly in the effluent fluid stream from a gas or liquid chromatographic instrument. The invention represents a significant advance in efficiency and cost reduction compared with current efforts.

Cochran, Joseph L. (Knoxville, TN); McCarthy, John F. (Loudon, TN); Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fundamental studies in production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons from coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase BTEX-contaminated waste streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been exploring heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) as a remediation technology for air streams contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX). This research is a continuation of work performed on chlorinated organics. The photocatalytic oxidation of BTEX has been studied in the aqueous phase, however, a study by Turchi et al. showed a more economical system would involve stripping organic contaminants from the aqueous phase and treating the resulting gas stream. Another recent study by Turchi et al. indicated that PCO is cost competitive with such remediation technologies as activated carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration for some types of contaminated air streams. In this work we have examined the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene using ozone (0{sub 3}) as an additional oxidant. We varied the residence time in the PCO reactor, the initial concentration of the organic pollutant, and the initial ozone concentration in a single-pass reactor. Because aromatic hydrocarbons represent only a small fraction of the total hydrocarbons present in gasoline and other fuels, we also added octane to the reaction mixture to simulate the composition of air streams produced from soil-vapor-extraction or groundwater-stripping of sites contaminated with gasoline.

Gratson, D A; Nimlos, M R; Wolfrum, E J

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrocarbon Technologies Hydrocarbon Technologies Place Lawrenceville, New Jersey Zip 8648 Sector Efficiency Product String representation "Technology-base ... onmental risks." is too long. Coordinates 36.761678°, -77.845048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.761678,"lon":-77.845048,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

157

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

158

Blowdown of hydrocarbons pressure vessel with partial phase separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a model for the simulation of the blowdown of vessels containing two-phase (gas-liquid) hydrocarbon fluids, considering non equilibrium between phases. Two phases may be present either already at the beginning of the blowdown process (for instance in gas-liquid separators) or as the liquid is formed from flashing of the vapor due to the cooling induced by pressure decrease. There is experimental evidence that the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium is not appropriate, since the two phases show an independent temperature evolution. Thus, due to the greater heat transfer between the liquid phase with the wall, the wall in contact with the liquid experiences a stronger cooling than the wall in contact with the gas, during the blowdown. As a consequence, the vessel should be designed for a lower temperature than if it was supposed to contain vapor only. Our model is based on a compositional approach, and it takes into account internal heat and mass transfer processes, as well as heat transfer with ...

Speranza, Alessandro; 10.1142/9789812701817_0046

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

160

Methods of making transportation fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Stream combination: Adaptive IO scheduling for streaming servers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle-based IO schedulers use statically configured timecycle durations. As a result, they are unable to avoid the formation of virtual bottlenecks. We term a bottleneck as virtual when it occurs within a single resource subsystem, and it is possible to use a secondary under-utilized resource to thwart the bottleneck. The primary reason for virtual bottlenecks in streaming servers is static allocation of memory and disk-bandwidth resources using fixed time-cycle durations. As a result, shifting request workload can cause a virtual bottleneck either in the memory or disk subsystem. We present stream combination, an adaptive IO scheduling technique that addresses this problem in a comprehensive fashion. Stream combination predicts the formation of virtual bottlenecks and proactively alters the IO schedule to avoid them. A simulation study suggests significant performance gains compared to the current state-of-the-art fixed time-cycle IO scheduler. 1

Bin Liu; Raju Rangaswami

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Consistent Streaming Through Time: A Vision for Event Stream Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Event processing will play an increasingly important role in constructing enterprise applications that can immediately react to business critical events. Various technologies have been proposed in recent years, such as event processing, data streams and asynchronous messaging (e.g. pub/sub). We believe these technologies share a common processing model and differ only in target workload, including query language features and consistency requirements. We argue that integrating these technologies is the next step in a natural progression. In this paper, we present an overview and discuss the foundations of CEDR, an event streaming system that embraces a temporal stream model to unify and further enrich query language features, handle imperfections in event delivery, define correctness guarantees, and define operator semantics. We describe specific contributions made so far and outline next steps in developing the CEDR system.

Roger S. Barga; Jonathan Goldstein; Mohamed Ali; Mingsheng Hong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

Chaiko, D.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

Chaiko, D.J.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

167

Process for Removing Radioactive Wastes from Liquid Streams  

SciTech Connect

The process is under development at Mound Laboratory to remove radioactive waste (principally plutonium-238) from process water prior to discharge of the water to the Miami river. The contaminated water, as normally received, is at a pH between 6 and 90. Under these conditions, plutonium in all its oxidation states is hydrolyzed; however, the level of the radioactive solids varies from about 50ppm down to about 50 ppb and the plutonium remains in a colloidal or subcolloidal condition. The permissible concentration for discharge to the river is about 50 parts per trillion. Pilot plant test show that 95-99% of the radioactive material is removed by adsorption on diatomaceous earth. The remainder is removed by passage through a bed of either dibasic or tribasic calcium phosphate. Ground phosphate rock is equally effective in removing the radioactive material if the flow rate is controlled to permit sufficient contact time. Parameters for optimizing the process are now under study. Future plans include application of the process to wastes from reactor fuels reprocessing.

Kirby, H. W.; Blane, D. E.; Smolin, R. I.

1972-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Two decades of hydrocarbon exploration activity in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, hydrocarbon exploration activity within Indonesia has been based on the Indonesian Energy Policy, aims of which include intensifying and expanding hydrocarbon exploration programs. Expansion into the offshore regions of the nation has resulted in the discovery of petroliferous basins. The first offshore oil production came on stream in 1971. Since then, significant achievements have been made in developing these resources. Intensified onshore exploration has resulted in additional oil fields being discovered in these more mature areas. Among the significant gas fields discovered during the past 20 years, Arun and Badak both supply major LNG projects. Oil fields have been found in the onshore areas of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, and Irian Jaya, and in the offshore areas around West Java, Madura, Natuna, and East Kalimantan. The exploration drilling success during this time has been approximately 32%. In addition, the ratio of oil field development to these discoveries is about 54%. For technical and economic reasons, not all discoveries can be developed into oil fields. Recently, Pertamina's Research and Development Division organized the study of data contributed by Pertamina exploration, foreign contractors, and science institutes. This study reveals that 60 basins are spread throughout the onshore and offshore areas of the nation. Using PAUS (plan and analysis of uncertainty situation), a Monte Carolo simulation program, the hydrocarbon potential of each basin has been estimated. These estimates will be continually revised as more data are made available to the study, as the geology of Indonesia is better understood in terms of plate tectonic theory, and as computing techniques improve.

Suardy, A.; Taruno, J.; Simbolon, P.H.; Simbolon, B.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

171

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Dynamic visualization of data streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richalnd, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Adams, Daniel R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically converting an alcohol ...

175

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically ...

177

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Separation of hydrogen from a catalytic reforming zone effluent stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock at reforming conditions including a pressure of from about 50 to about 250 psig. Is disclosed. A portion of the hydrogen-rich vapor phase recovered from the reforming zone effluent at a relatively low pressure is compressed and recycled to the reforming zone without further purification. The balance of said hydrogen-rich vapor phase, or the net hydrogen, is compressed to a relatively high pressure and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid hydrocarbon phase recovered from said low pressure separation to effect a further purification of said net hydrogen and to maximize the recovery of C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/+ the liquid phase.

Schmelzer, E.; Tagamolila, C.P.

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

180

Data streams: algorithms and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the data stream scenario, input arrives very rapidly and there is limited memory to store the input. Algorithms have to work with one or few passes over the data, space less than linear in the input size or time significantly less than the input size. ...

S. Muthukrishnan

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

XXIII ICTAM, 19-24 August 2012, Beijing, China Study of liquid destabilization and stripping in a liquid-gas mixing layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a liquid-gas mixing layer Jean-Philippe Matasa) , Sylvain Marty & Alain Cartellier LEGI, CNRS-Université de the atomization of a liquid sheet by a parallel gas flow, in order to understand the conditions of destabilization of injection turns a liquid flow into a homogeneous spray under the action of a fast gas stream. A good quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Before the year 2000, more than one quarter of U.S. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), to supplement fossil fuels, will be considered a key element of the management strategy for industrial power plants. The increase in interest in Alternate Fuels and demand for proven Alternate Fuel technology is being driven by three factors -* The requirement of U.S. firms to compete in a global market. * The improvements in Alternate Fuel technologies. * The increasing federal regulations encompassing more types of waste streams. This paper will provide an overview of the types of waste utilized as fuel sources in packaged boilers and the technology available to successfully handle these waste streams.

Coerper, P.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Liquid membrane purification of biogas  

SciTech Connect

Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

N-Stream Approximations to Radiative Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Schuster's two-stream approximation is first derived from Chandrasekhar's radiative transfer equation, and then generalized to an arbitrary number of streams. The resulting technique for solving the transfer equation that is similar to the ...

Charles Acquista; Frederick House; James Jafolla

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Language and compiler support for stream programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream programs represent an important class of high-performance computations. Defined by their regular processing of sequences of data, stream programs appear most commonly in the context of audio, video, and digital ...

Thies, William Frederick, 1978-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Determination of unconverted HDPE in coal/plastics co-liquefaction stream samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In several coal/plastics liquefaction runs performed by Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI), a substantial amount of incompletely converted high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was present in ash-free recycle resid streams when either the ROSE-SR unit was used in Run POC-2, or the pressure filter unit was used in Runs CMSL-8 and CMSL-9. This indicates that the HDPE is less reactive than coal at the liquefaction conditions used. In these ash-free streams, there is no solid organic or inorganic material arising from the coal, and the incompletely converted HDPE can be recovered by extraction and filtration with tetrahydrofuran (THF) at room temperature. The HDPE (or HDPE-like material, which could also consist of heavy waxes) is THF insoluble. However, in ashy streams, there are both inorganic ({open_quotes}ash{close_quotes}) and organic (unconverted coal) components present from liquefaction of the coal, that interfere with an easy and clean separation of the HDPE from the coal/plastics liquefaction stream sample. Therefore, CONSOL developed an analytical procedure for HDPE in the ashy stream samples based on extraction of HDPE from the sample using hot (150{degrees}C) decalin (decahydronaphthalene), in which the HDPE is soluble. The decalin extraction is both preceded and succeeded by extractions and washes with THF at room temperature, to remove the coal-derived components from the sample.

Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

Zaczepinski, Sioma (Houston, TX); Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank (Baytown, TX); Lington, Christopher G. (Houston, TX); Plumlee, Karl W. (Baytown, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

HVS-DBS: human visual system-aware dynamic luminance backlight scaling for video streaming applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the advances in Liquid Crystal Display's (LCD) technology, LCD power consumption is still one of the major limiters of battery lifetime for handheld devices. The main contribution to LCD subsystem power consumption comes from the backlight. This ... Keywords: LCD, backlight scaling, display, power management, video streaming

Andrea Bartolini; Martino Ruggiero; Luca Benini

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

192

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission...

193

Biogeochemistry of Isoprenoid Production and Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodgeradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation is an exploration of microbial isoprenoid production and destruction by anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Isoprenoids are methyl-branched hydrocarbons, and include biomarkers from all three… (more)

Dawson, Katherine

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Data stream management for historical XML data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are presenting a framework for continuous querying of time-varying streamed XML data. A continuous stream in our framework consists of a finite XML document followed by a continuous stream of updates. The unit of update is an XML fragment, which can ...

Sujoe Bose; Leonidas Fegaras

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Efficient elastic burst detection in data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Burst detection is the activity of finding abnormal aggregates in data streams. Such aggregates are based on sliding windows over data streams. In some applications, we want to monitor many sliding window sizes simultaneously and to report those windows ... Keywords: data stream, elastic burst

Yunyue Zhu; Dennis Shasha

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Programmable transitions for video stream editing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Video editing applications provide a facility to transition from one video stream to another, or to filter a video stream in some way. New transitions are usually developed using a custom API for the particular package. In this article we present a shading ... Keywords: stream processing, video editing, video shaders

Alexandre Hardy

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

DRM protected dynamic adaptive HTTP streaming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic adaptive HTTP streaming (DASH) is a new concept for video streaming using consecutive downloads of short video segments. 3GPP has developed the basic DASH standard which is further extended by the Open IPTV Forum (OIPF) and MPEG. In all versions ... Keywords: adaptive http streaming, content protection, digital rights management, encryption

Frank Hartung; Sinan Kesici; Daniel Catrein

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nitration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal combustors and exhaust streams  

SciTech Connect

Our efforts quarter were directed at preparing PAH samples at well-controlled extents of secondary pyrolysis. The same operating conditions used in the past were implemented this quarter to prepare PAH samples at well-controlled extents of secondary pyrolysis from a Pit. [number sign]8 hvA bituminous coal. The new data are in excellent agreement with the old. Both ultimate yield values and soot percentages at particular furnace temperatures from these data sets am within experimental uncertainties. PAH samples have now been prepared to cover extents of conversion of coal tar into soot from 35--80 %. Additional runs during primary devolatilization have yielded PAH samples that cover nearly the full range of this process as well. Hence, all PAH samples from the Pit. [number sign]8 coal sample are in hand. We also began to collect the analogous PAH samples from a subituminous coal. Efforts at sample analysis focused on testing and modification of the gravity-flow column chromatography procedure using actual tar samples. Extra samples collected during combustion experiments using the Pit. [number sign]8 bituminous coal were used to refine the preparation technique. Solvent volumes were adjusted to optimize sample separation, and additional tests were conducted to determine the reproducibility of the fractionation and recovery. Further refinement in the experimental methodology allowed 80% recovery of the coal tar samples to be reproducibly achieved.

Yu, L.; Dadamio, J.; Hildemann, L.; Niska, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Idle Operating Total Stream Day  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Idle Operating Total Stream Day Barrels per Idle Operating Total Calendar Day Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Idle Operating Total Operable Refineries Number of State and PAD District a b b 11 10 1 1,293,200 1,265,200 28,000 1,361,700 1,329,700 32,000 ............................................................................................................................................... PAD District I 1 1 0 182,200 182,200 0 190,200 190,200 0 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Delaware......................................

200

Towards Flexible Exascale Stream Processing System Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream processing is an important emerging computational model for performing complex operations on and across multi-source, high-volume, unpredictable dataflows. We present Flow, a platform for parallel and distributed stream processing system simulation that provides a flexible modeling environment for analyzing stream processing applications. The Flow stream processing system simulator is a high-performance, scalable simulator that automatically parallelizes chunks of the model space and incurs near-zero synchronization overhead for acyclic stream application graphs. We show promising parallel and distributed event rates exceeding 149 million events per second on a cluster with 512 processor cores.

Li, Cheng-Hong [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Nair, Ravi [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Ohba, Noboyuki [IBM Research, Japan; Shvadron, Uzi [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Zaks, Ayal [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Schenfeld, Eugen [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

202

Separation of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from a catalytic reforming effluent and recovery of purified hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products, is disclosed. Relatively impure hydrogen is separated from the reforming zone effluent, compressed, and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide relatively pure hydrogen, a portion of which is recycled to the reforming zone. The balance is further compressed and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide an improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons as well as an improved recovery of purified hydrogen at a pressure suitable for use in the relatively high pressure hydrotreating of sulfur-containing feedstocks.

Coste, A.C.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

203

Security of jump controlled sequence generators for stream ciphers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of jump control technique provides efficient and secure ways for generating key-stream for stream ciphers. This design approach was recently implemented in some algorithms submitted to eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project. However, inappropriately ... Keywords: Pomaranch, cryptanalysis, jump register, key-stream generator, linear relations, stream cipher

Tor Helleseth; Cees J. A. Jansen; Shahram Khazaei; Alexander Kholosha

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Two decades of internet video streaming: A retrospective view  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For over two decades, video streaming over the Internet has received a substantial amount of attention from both academia and industry. Starting from the design of transport protocols for streaming video, research interests have later shifted to the ... Keywords: HTTP streaming, P2P streaming, Video streaming, cloud computing, multicast, multimedia streaming, social media

Baochun Li, Zhi Wang, Jiangchuan Liu, Wenwu Zhu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Environmental assessment of the HYGAS process. Volume III. Interim report on HYGAS environmental characterization: manual of methods for characterization of HYGAS pilot plant solids, liquids, and gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has commissioned the HYGAS environmental assessment program to characterize various solid, liquid, and gaseous streams in the HYGAS pilot plant. The purpose of this manual is to describe the various analytical techniques that have been used to analyze pilot plant streams for environmental species. Many of the techniques have been recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency or otherwise have been published in ASTM Standards, Standard Methods, and assorted vendor equipment manuals. Complete references have been provided in the text. Analytical techniques for the determination of the following are included: ammonia-nitrogen; biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; chlorides; total cyanide; grease and oil; total organic carbon; phenol; total, suspended, and dissolved solids; sulfide; total sulfur; thiocyanate; total oxygen demand; hydrocyanic acid in gas; hydrogen sulfide in gas; gaseous hydrocarbons; organic compounds in HYGAS light oil and aqueous samples; proximate analysis of coal; ultimate analysis of coal; calorific value; screen analysis; bulk density; and trace elements in coal (arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium, barium, beryllium chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, tin, vanadium, zinc, boron, cadmium, lead, thallium, chlorine, cobalt, fluorine, mercury, and molybdenum). (DMC)

Karst, R.H.; Passaniti, J.L.; Metcalf, T.C.; Salazar, E.V.; Pau, J.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

207

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. and Calvin, M. J. Amer. Oil Chern. Assoc. Science,· 208,of the production of oil and alcohol from hydrocarbon-Figure 1 Cumulative U.S. crude oil discoveries as a function

Calvin, Melvin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons Mixtures L. Negadi1,C,S, N. Ainous2, A. Negadi1, I. Mokbel2, A. Kaci3 and J. Jose2 ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

211

Simulation Data as Data Streams  

SciTech Connect

Computational or scientific simulations are increasingly being applied to solve a variety of scientific problems. Domains such as astrophysics, engineering, chemistry, biology, and environmental studies are benefiting from this important capability. Simulations, however, produce enormous amounts of data that need to be analyzed and understood. In this overview paper, we describe scientific simulation data, its characteristics, and the way scientists generate and use the data. We then compare and contrast simulation data to data streams. Finally, we describe our approach to analyzing simulation data, present the AQSim (Ad-hoc Queries for Simulation data) system, and discuss some of the challenges that result from handling this kind of data.

Abdulla, G; Arrighi, W; Critchlow, T

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

212

Process for Photochemical Chlorination of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for chlorination of a major portion of the hydrogen atoms of paraffinic hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms may be replaced by subjecting the hydrocarbon to the action of chlorine under active light. The initial chlorination is begun at 25 to 30 deg C with the chlorine diluted with HCl. The later stages may be carried out with undiluted chlorine and the temperature gradually raised to about 129 deg C.

Beanblossom, W.S.

1950-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae  

SciTech Connect

A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

Tornabene, T.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

215

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

216

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

217

Clean, economical, underwater (hydrocarbon) storage  

SciTech Connect

A consortium consisting of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft A.G., Phoenix Gummiwerke A.G., Strabag Bau-A.G., and Bugsier Reederei und Bergungs-A.G. offers a plausible solution to the large-scale underwater storage of hydrocarbons. Up to 20 storage compartments of 8000 cu m capacity can be assembled for a capacity of 160,000 cu m. Each compartment is divided in half by a nylon-reinforced polyurethane diaphragm which isolates oil or other products on one side from sea-water ballast on the other side. As oil is pumped into storage on one side of the diaphragm, the diaphragm moves and ballast on the other side is displaced to the sea. Ballast re-enters the compartment during unloading. The system can enable small offshore platforms to produce more economically. Cargo tankers load at 8000 cu m/hr. The tanks will be used in 200 m or greater water depths. The loading station is installed in a buoy 30 m below the water surface.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

Malek, John M. (P.O. Box 71, Lomita, CA 90717)

1979-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

219

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

Skogestad, Sigurd

220

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Low NOx combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

Low NOx combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

223

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Error resilient video streaming for heterogeneous networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of video streaming for a critical private web cast, for a medium sized audience with heterogeneous nodes having different bandwidths and reliabilities. The nodes can distribute video in a peer-to-peer manner by forming a multicast ... Keywords: error resilience, multiple description coding (MDC), path diversity, video streaming

Divyashikha Sethia; Huzur Saran

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Data stream management and mining Georges HEBRAIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arriving at a very high rate. Table 1 shows an example of a data stream representing electric power in a database before being processed, due in particular to its historical dimension. This problem has recently historical data from raw data produced by input streams. As data stored in data bases and warehouses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Efficient and compositional higher-order streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream-based programming has been around for a long time, but it is typically restricted to static data-flow networks. By introducing first-class streams that implement the monad interface, we can describe arbitrary dynamic networks in an elegant and ...

Gergely Patai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Real time video streaming over heterogeneous networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technological advances allow handheld devices to be equipped with faster processors and wireless interfaces, making the performance comparable to laptop Computers. In this paper, we describe real-time video streaming over heterogeneous networks namely ... Keywords: GPRS-EDGE, IEEE802.11, IETF, MPEG-4, PSS, RTCP, RTP, RTSP, bluetooth, performance, piconet, quality of service, video streaming, wireless LANs

Mohammed A. Qadeer; Rehan Ahmad; Mohd Siddique Khan; Tauseef Ahmad

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

230

Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative pyrolysis of n-heptane was investigated with metal oxides Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MnO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, and CuO supported on alumina. Metallic content of the catalyst weight varied from 0.1 to 2.0% with catalytic activity reaching a maximum when the metal content was 1%. The most active catalysts were Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/, and NiO. Pyrolysis of cyclohexane and toluene was also studied with Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst. Hydrocarbon stability and coke formation increase with increase of hydrocarbon condensation in the series paraffin < naphthalene < aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the various hydrocarbons at 800/sup 0/C yielded a gas that has an octane number of 90 to 93, and the process was shown to be adaptable to pyrolysis of various commercial fractions such as benzines A-72 and A-76, petroleum fractions, and liquid paraffins to produce gas of about the same octane. (BLM)

Antonova, V.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Paushkin, Ya.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information · Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations are stable and their physical properties ... can be observed, thus allowing details of their structures to be determined. Besides trivalent ions ... Olah demonstrated the existence of higher coordinate carbocations ... . These species do not violate the octet rule, but involve 2-electron 3-center bonding. '1

232

Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrocarbon Inc Hydrocarbon Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc Address 2016 Main St Place Houston, Texas Zip 77002 Sector Biofuels Product Wholesale marketing of biodiesel and ethanol to refiners, blenders and petroleum distributors Website http://www.gulfhydrocarbon.com Coordinates 29.749227°, -95.371693° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.749227,"lon":-95.371693,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

233

Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Comparing data streams using Hamming norms (how to zero in)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Massive data streams are now fundamental to many data processing applications. For example, Internet routers produce large scale diagnostic data streams. Such streams are rarely stored in traditional databases, and instead must be processed "on the fly" ...

Graham Cormode; Mayur Datar; Piotr Indyk; S. Muthukrishnan

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Global Characteristics of Stream Flow Seasonality and Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly stream flow series from 1345 sites around the world are used to characterize geographic differences in the seasonality and year-to-year variability of stream flow. Stream flow seasonality varies regionally, depending on the timing of ...

Michael D. Dettinger; Henry F. Diaz

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Compiler optimizations for an asynchronous stream-oriented programming language  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream-oriented programs allow different opportunities for optimization than procedural programs. Moreover, as compared to purely synchronous stream-oriented programs, optimizing for asynchronous stream-based programs is ...

Craig, Michael B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Biogenic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this ...

J. D. Fuentes; L. Gu; M. Lerdau; R. Atkinson; D. Baldocchi; J. W. Bottenheim; P. Ciccioli; B. Lamb; C. Geron; A. Guenther; T. D. Sharkey; W. Stockwell

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Life on the Bottom of a Stream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on the Bottom of a Stream on the Bottom of a Stream Nature Bulletin No. 690 October 20, 1962 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist LIFE ON THE BOTTOM OF A STREAM A stream conceals a teeming world of bottom-dwelling animals that are the food supply for all stream fish and a source of live bait for catching them. Raccoons, mink, muskrats, ducks, shore birds, turtles and frogs hunt here for mussels, snails, crayfish and aquatic insects. These insects, after passing their young stages on the stream bottom, emerge as swarms of flying adults devoured by dozens of kinds of song birds. These, too, are the insects that fly fishermen imitate in making their artificial lures. Streams of all sizes have about the same kinds of bottom animals, whether a brook small enough to be stepped across or the mile-wide Mississippi. The greatest differences are found when the populations from different types of bottom are compared -- rock, gravel, sand and mud. These main types result from the sorting action of the water, especially during floods. Rock bottom is found in the fastest water because all smaller materials are swept downstream. As the current becomes slower the gravel, then the sand, and finally the mud, settle out.

239

Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons ...  

... microbes has been developed. These hydrocarbons may be further processed into vehicle fuels using traditional oil refining techniques.

240

The Clean Streams Law (Pennsylvania) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Clean Streams Law (Pennsylvania) The Clean Streams Law (Pennsylvania) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor General PublicConsumer Industrial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

242

Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE)

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

McGuire, P.L.

1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method for recovery of hydrocarbon material from hydrocarbon material-bearing formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for heating a hydrocarbon material contained in a recovery zone in an underground hydrocarbon material-bearing formation to reduce the viscosity thereof for facilitating recovery of the hydrocarbon material. A gaseous penetration medium comprising a gaseous working fluid and a carrier gas, is fed into the formation at a penetration pressure sufficient for penetration of the recovery zone, the working fluid being a water soluble gas which generates heat of solution upon absorption in an aqueous medium, and in which the partial pressure of the working fluid in relation to the penetration pressure and the temperature prevailing in the recovery zone is controlled to inhibit working fluid condensation but to provide for absorption of working fluid by water present in the formation to release heat for heating the hydrocarbon material in the recovery zone.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2.2 Anthropogenic emissions 28 2.3 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 30 2.3.1 Sources of PAHs 30 2.3.2 Gas to particle distribution in atmosphere 32 2.3.3 Gas to particle distribution in atmosphere 32 CHAPTER THREE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 1, October 16, 1986--January 15, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States will need to be able to convert coal to liquid fuels should current supplies be interrupted. The indirect method for producing fuel liquids is the gasification of the coal to synthesis gas (syngas) followed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert syngas to hydrocarbons. However, both the gasifier and the FTS processes result in the production of methane and/or light hydrocarbon by-product that negatively affect the economics of the production of liquid fuel from coal. The goal of SRI`s research is thus to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. SRI project 2678 is exploring two approaches to achieving the stated goal. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare earth exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surfaceconfined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. We will then decompose the organometallic complexes to obtain very stable, highly dispersed catalysts. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. We will test the catalysts in a fixed-bed isothermal microreactor in a downflow mode at {approximately}100 psi. During the first quarter of this project, we have concentrated on methane oxidation to methanol. We have synthesized phthalocyanine oxidation catalysts containing different metals (Co, Fe, and Ru) within zeolite pores. our examination of their ability to oxidize methane to methanol has indicated preliminary positive results.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan, Yee Wai

1987-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

250

Anticyclonic Eddies in the Alaskan Stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anticyclonic eddies propagating southwestward in the Alaskan Stream (AS) were investigated through analysis of altimetry data from satellite observations during 1992–2006 and hydrographic data from profiling float observations during 2001–06. ...

Hiromichi Ueno; Kanako Sato; Howard J. Freeland; William R. Crawford; Hiroji Onishi; Eitarou Oka; Toshio Suga

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Allocation and Admission Policies for Service Streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A service provisioning system is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer different types of services to paying customers. A customer is charged for the execution of a stream of jobs; the number of jobs in the stream and the rate of their submission is specified. On the other hand, the provider promises a certain quality of service (QoS), measured by the average waiting time of the jobs in the stream. A penalty is paid if the agreed QoS requirement is not met. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and stream admission decisions are introduced and evaluated. The results of several simulations are described.

Mazzucco, Michele; Fisher, Mike; McKee, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Randomized data allocation in scalable streaming architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IP-networked streaming media storage has been increasingly used as a part of many applications. Random placement of data blocks has been proven to be an effective approach to balance heterogeneous workload in multi-disk steaming architectures. However, ...

Kun Fu; Roger Zimmermann

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Alpine Stream Temperature Response to Storm Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite continued interest in meteorological influences on the thermal variability of river systems, there are few detailed studies of stream temperature dynamics during storm events. This paper reports high-resolution (15 min) water column and ...

Lee E. Brown; David M. Hannah

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

Woo, Grace

2008-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

255

Adaptively detecting aggregation bursts in data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding bursts in data streams is attracting much attention in research community due to its broad applications. Existing burst detection methods suffer the problems that 1) the parameters of window size and absolute burst threshold, which are hard to ...

Aoying Zhou; Shouke Qin; Weining Qian

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Dorsal stream : from algorithm to neuroscience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dorsal stream in the primate visual cortex is involved in the perception of motion and the recognition of actions. The two topics, motion processing in the brain, and action recognition in videos, have been developed ...

Jhuang, Hueihan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Stream Flow Standards and Regulations (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to all rivers and streams in Connecticut. Dam owners need to comply with these regulations unless the dam is principally used for hydroelectric power generation and is under...

258

Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ¿. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time/space tradeoffs.

Ziv Bar-Yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Real-time spatio-temporal analytics using Microsoft StreamInsight  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microsoft StreamInsight (StreamInsight, for brevity) is a platform for developing and deploying streaming applications that run continuous queries over high-rate streaming events. StreamInsight adopts a temporal stream model to handle imperfections in ... Keywords: SQL server, StreamInsight, analytics, complex event processing, data streaming, spatio-temporal

Mohamed Ali; Badrish Chandramouli; Balan S. Raman; Ed Katibah

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efforts to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells a function of production volume. The wells are visited monthly as they are operating and samples are reported taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intergas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Results obtained are to correlated the production of the collected compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics.

Not Available

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Fundamental studies in production of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons from coal. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Catalytic Cracking of Gaseous Heavy Hydrocarbons by Ceramic Filters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of syngas from waste or biomass gasification to generate electricity is a way which is attracting increasing attention especially with regard to the demands of regenerable energy consumption and to the reduction of waste disposal. In order to feed the syngas to a gas motor or a gas turbine the gas has to be cleaned. In future also the coupling of biomass gasification with a fuel cell will be applied, which needs a very efficient gas cleaning. The decomposition of tars and the removal of particles from the gas are the key issues of gas cleaning. Up to now these two steps are performed in two separate units. Normally, the tars are decomposed in catalytic beds or honeycomb structures. The catalytic decomposition is achieved at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C depending on the catalyst used. Particles are removed by filtration of the hot gas. Filtration at high temperatures and with high efficiencies is possible when using ceramic filter elements. Ceramic hot gas filters are well established in advanced coal gasification, such as the integrated gasification combined cycle process, as well as in waste and biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes. Since the catalytic reaction requires high temperatures the gas has to be reheated after the particles are removed in the filter or the hot unfiltered gas has to flow through the catalytic unit. If the gas is filtered first, reheating of the gas stream is an additional cost factor. Furthermore, pipes downstream of the filter can be plugged, if the temperature of the gas falls below the condensation temperature of the heavy hydrocarbons. Using the second way of hot unfiltered gas flows through the catalytic unit, there is the problem of deactivation of the catalyst by deposition of dust at higher dust concentrations. At worst the catalytic unit can be plugged by dust deposition.

Heidenreich, S.; Nacken, M.; Walch, A.; Chudzinski, S.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

268

Materials Challenges in Hostile Environments for Hydrocarbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The rising demand for energy combined with our depleting natural oil and gas reserves ... Mitigation of Scale Formation using Liquid Impregnated Surfaces.

269

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas resource is abundant and can be found throughout the world. But most natural gas reserves are at remote sites and considered stranded because of the extremely expensive transportation cost. Therefore advanced gas-to-liquid (GTL) techniques are being studied to convert natural gas to useful hydrocarbon liquids, which can be transported with far less cost. Direct pyrolysis of methane, followed by catalytic reaction, is a promising technology that can be commercialized in industry. In this process, methane is decomposed to ethylene, acetylene and carbon. Ethylene and acetylene are the desired products, while carbon formation should be stopped in the decomposition reaction. Some researchers have studied the dilution effect of various inert gases on carbon suppression. All previous results are based on the isothermal assumption. In this thesis, our simulator can be run under adiabatic conditions. We found there was a crossover temperature for carbon formation in the adiabatic case. Below the crossover temperature, the carbon formation from pure methane feed is higher than the one from a methane/hydrogen feed, while above the crossover temperature, the carbon formation from pure methane feed is lower than the one from a methane/hydrogen feed. In addition to the pure methane and methane/hydrogen feed, we also simulated the rich natural gas feed, rich natural gas with combustion gas, rich natural gas with combustion gas and methane recycle. We found the outlet temperature increases only slightly when we increase the initial feed temperature. Furthermore, the combustion gas or the recycled methane has a dilute effect, which increases the total heat capacity of reactants. The outlet temperature from the cracker will not drop so much when these gases are present, causing the methane conversion to increase correspondingly. Up to now there is no adiabatic simulator for methane pyrolysis. This work has significant meaning in practice, especially for rich natural gases.

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

271

Chemical kinetic modelling of hydrocarbon ignition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon ignition is discussed with reference to a range of experimental configurations, including shock tubes, detonations, pulse combustors, static reactors, stirred reactors and internal combustion engines. Important conditions of temperature, pressure or other factors are examined to determine the main chemical reaction sequences responsible for chain branching and ignition, and kinetic factors which can alter the rate of ignition are identified. Hydrocarbon ignition usually involves complex interactions between physical and chemical factors, and it therefore is a suitable and often productive subject for computer simulations. In most of the studies to be discussed below, the focus of the attention is placed on the chemical features of the system. The other physical parts of each application are generally included in the form of initial or boundary conditions to the chemical kinetic parts of the problem, as appropriate for each type of application being addressed.

Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.J.; Gaffuri, P.; Marinov, N.M.

1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

Nizamoff, Alan J. (Convent Station, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High-pressure binary phase equilibria of aromatic hydrocarbons with CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of several binary systems containing aromatic hydrocarbons as one component and supercritical carbon dioxide or ethane as the other component measured by using a dynamic system in which both vapor and liquid phases were circulated. The aromatic hydrocarbons that were used in this study are anisole, benzaldehyde, tetralin, and 1-methylnaphthalene. The phase equilibria of binary systems containing carbon dioxide were measured at two different temperatures, 343 and 373 K, and pressures up to 22 MPa. For ethane binary systems, equilibrium measurements were made at 373 K and pressures up to 12 MPa. In addition to measuring temperature, pressure, and phase compositions, the vapor- and liquid-phase densities also were determined for both carbon dioxide and ethane binary systems.

Kim, C.H.; Clark, A.B.; Vimalchand, P.; Donohue, M.D. (The Johns Hopkins Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (US))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT  

SciTech Connect

In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Review of World Hydrocarbon Resource Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reviews assessments of world oil, natural gas, and oil shale resources made between the end of World War II and the end of 1980. Details are provided on the methods used in developing these assessments, geographic coverage, time horizons, and major assumptions (e.g., about discovery rates and recovery factor). Conclusions on the current state of knowledge concerning each of these hydrocarbon resources are presented.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Literature Review of Background Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) continuously move through the environment, often via atmospheric transport. The subsequent deposition of particulates containing PAHs along with other sources of PAHs, such as natural vegetative decay, result in "background" PAHs in surficial soils. Even in pristine areas, surface and near surface soils can contain detectable levels of PAHs. This study provides data on the concentrations and distributions of background PAHs observed in environmental media. Such inf...

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

Osif, T.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm.sup.2. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000.degree. C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity.

Hsu, Wen L. (Danville, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy from hot gas discharge streams can be recovered by transfer directly to a coolant liquid in one of several available gas-liquid contacting devices. The design of the device is central to the theme of this paper, and experimental work has verified that the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer can be used for design purposes. This enables the large amount of available mass transfer data for spray, packed and tray columns to be used for heat transfer calculations. Additional information is provided on flow arrangements for integrating direct contact exchangers into systems for recovering the energy transferred to the liquid.

Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR during PCCI combustion  

SciTech Connect

The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOX conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the raw engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite showed better tolerance to HC fouling at low temperatures compared to the Fe-zeolite but PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOX conversion efficiency. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the hydrocarbons trapped on the SCR cores was conducted to better determine chemistry specific effects.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The Orbit of the Orphan Stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use recent SEGUE spectroscopy and SDSS and SEGUE imaging data to measure the sky position, distance, and radial velocities of stars in the tidal debris stream that is commonly referred to as the 'Orphan Stream.' We fit orbital parameters to the data, and find a prograde orbit with an apogalacticon, perigalacticon, and eccentricity of 90 kpc, 16.4 kpc and e = 0.7, respectively. Neither the dwarf galaxy UMa II nor the Complex A gas cloud have velocities consistent with a kinematic association with the Orphan Stream. It is possible that Segue-1 is associated with the Orphan Stream, but no other known Galactic clusters or dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way lie along its orbit. The detected portion of the stream ranges from 19 to 47 kpc from the Sun and is an indicator of the mass interior to these distances. There is a marked increase in the density of Orphan Stream stars near (l, b) = (253{sup o}; 49{sup o}), which could indicate the presence of the progenitor at the edge of the SDSS data. If this is the progenitor, then the detected portion of the Orphan Stream is a leading tidal tail. We find blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars and F turnoff stars associated with the Orphan Stream. The turnoff color is (g-r){sub 0} = 0.22. The BHB stars have a low metallicity of [Fe/H]{sub WBG} = -2.1. The orbit is best fit to a halo potential with a halo plus disk mass of about 2.6 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}, integrated to 60 kpc from the Galactic center. Our fits are done to orbits rather than full N-body simulations; we show that if N-body simulations are used, the inferred mass of the galaxy would be slightly smaller. Our best fit is found with a logarithmic halo speed of v{sub halo} = 73 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1}, a disk+bulge mass of M(R distant parts of the stream would be a powerful probe of the mass of the Milky Way.

Newberg, Heidi Jo; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu, Yan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in "solar neighbourhood"-like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in the form of stellar streams for all five stellar haloes we have analysed. These streams can be easily identified in velocity space, as well as in spaces of pseudo-conserved quantities such as E vs. Lz. In our best-resolved local volumes, the number of identified streams ranges from ~ 300 to 600, in very good agreement with previous analytical predictions, even in the presence of chaotic mixing. The fraction of particles linked to (massive) stellar streams in these volumes can be as large as 84%. The number of identified streams is found to decrease as a power-law with galactocentric radius. We show that the strongest limitation to the quantification of substructure in our poorest-resolved local volumes is particle...

Gómez, Facundo A; Cooper, Andrew P; Frenk, Carlos S; Navarro, Julio F; White, Simon D M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Separation of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from a catalytic reforming effluent and recovery of purified hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products, is disclosed. Relatively impure hydrogen is separated from the reforming zone effluent, compressed, and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide relatively pure hydrogen, a portion of which is recycled to the reforming zone. The balance is further compressed and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product in a plural stage absorption zone to provide an improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons as well as an improved recovery of purified hydrogen at a pressure suitable, for example, the relatively high pressure hydrotreating of sulfur-containing feedstocks.

O'brien, D.E.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

287

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

From Multi-Component Gas Streams Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Separation of CO Separation of CO 2 From Multi-Component Gas Streams Opportunity Research is active on the patent-pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Process for the Separation of Gases Using Supersonic Expansion and Oblique Shock Wave Compression." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview The separation of a gaseous mixture into constituent gases has proven to be useful for a variety of industrial and commercial applications. Currently CO 2 can be separated from multi- component gas streams using compression and refrigeration techniques in order to condense the CO 2 out of a vapor phase so that it can be mechanically separated from the stream.

289

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

MPD streaming plasma source for MFTF  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of Magneto-plasma-dynamic (MPD) arcs as a source of warm, streaming plasma for start-up and for the suppression of instabilities is discussed. The plasma source emits a high particle flux (1000-5000 amp) of well directed ions having kinetic energy in the 10-100 eV range. The construction details of an MPD plasma source are given and a sequence of proposed tests are presented. The tests are designed to demonstrate the large flux and good gas utilization of the source as well as investigate the behavior of the streaming plasma in a high magnetic field environment.

Poulsen, P.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A protocol for instruction stream processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The behaviour produced by an instruction sequence under execution is a behaviour to be controlled by some execution environment: each step performed actuates the processing of an instruction by the execution environment and a reply returned at completion of the processing determines how the behaviour proceeds. In this paper, we are concerned with the case where the processing takes place remotely. We describe a protocol to deal with the case where the behaviour produced by an instruction sequence under execution leads to the generation of a stream of instructions to be processed and a remote execution unit handles the processing of that stream of instructions.

Bergstra, J A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

293

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Harvester ants utilize cuticular hydrocarbons in nestmate recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—Cuticular hydrocarbons appear to play a role in ant nestmate recognition, but few studies have tested this hypothesis experimentally with purified hydrocarbon extracts. We exposed captive colonies of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus to small glass blocks coated with whole cuticular lipid extracts and the purified hydrocarbon portion of extracts from nestmate and nonnestmate workers. As an estimate of agonistic behavior, we measured the proportion of ants in contact with blocks that flared their mandibles. Blocks coated with cuticular extracts from nonnestmates were contacted by more workers in one of two experiments and elicited higher levels of aggression in both experiments than blocks bearing extracts from nestmates. The cuticular hydrocarbon fraction of extracts alone was sufficient to elicit agonistic behavior toward nonnestmates. The results demonstrate that harvester ants can perceive differences in cuticular hydrocarbon composition, and can use those differences in nestmate recognition. Key Words—Cuticular hydrocarbons, Formicidae, Nestmate recognition, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.

Diane Wagner; Madeleine Tissot; William Cuevas; Deborah M. Gordon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Using the Biphase Turbine to Generate Useful Energy from Process Streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Biphase turbine is a device for effectively converting enthalpy changes in a two-phase (liquid and gas) working fluid into mechanical energy. No other device is currently available for performing this task. The working fluid may be a single component, two-phase stream, as in a water-steam combination; or it may be a multi-component, two phase stream such as is often present in industrial processes. The performance of the Biphase turbine and its advantages over single-phase energy conversion devices' (steam or hydraulic turbines for example) have been demonstrated in its application to geothermal energy conversion. Its development and application to other areas such as waste-heat recovery, desalination, solar cooling, and now, two phase industrial process streams is being pursued by Biphase Energy Systems. This paper identifies specific industrial process streams from which power recoveries of up to two MW can be obtained. In current practice, this power is dissipated across two phase flash valves. A total potential national energy savings equivalent to 58 million barrels of oil per year is identified for processes examined in the five most energy-intensive industries.

Helgeson, N. L.; Studhalter, W. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. I. MOLECULAR CRITERIA FOR HYDROCARBON GENESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

isoprenoid hydrocarbons in crude oils and sediments must beisomers (up to C ) in crude oil and those characterised inarc found ubiqubtously in crude oils and shalt extracts as

McCarthy, Eugene D.; Calvin, Kevin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

299

Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene ...  

Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas United States Patent. Patent Number: 6,576,043: Issued: June 10, 2003: Official Filing:

300

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

302

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels from biomass pyrolysis bio-oil (PNNL IPID 16665) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

303

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in German Coke Oven Workers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed whenever there is incomplete combustion of carbonaceous material. They are ubiquitous in the environment and background levels are found… (more)

Thoroman, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

An extensible test framework for the Microsoft StreamInsight query processor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microsoft StreamInsight (StreamInsight, for brevity) is a platform for developing and deploying streaming applications. StreamInsight adopts a deterministic stream model that leverages a temporal algebra as the underlying basis for processing ... Keywords: SQL server, StreamInsight, data streaming, testing, verification

Alex Raizman; Asvin Ananthanarayan; Anton Kirilov; Badrish Chandramouli; Mohamed Ali

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate conversion of coal to produce at least 70% by weight of the coal as liquids, with ratios of liquids to gases in excess of 10/1, resulting in low hydrogen consumption and a significant reduction in the cost of producing hydrocarbon liquid fuels from coal. Utilizing a small continuous-flow reactor designed and constructed for this research, the maximum possible ratio of liquids to gases will be defined, operating at short residence times of a few seconds, at the same time converting more than 70% of the carbon in the coal to liquids. The practical ability to attain coal particle center-line temperatures of 500 {degree}C in one second or less, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow, will also be demonstrated. Particle heat-up rates for a few selected system pressures and particle sizes will be determined. Catalysts will be screened and selected for sufficient activity and selectivity. Particle heat-up rates for small coal particles slurried in a super-critical hydrocarbon-type fluid will be examined, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow as the heat transfer medium.

Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Enhanced solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigation included two similarly-designed experiments. In the first, a biological surfactant produced by Rhodococcus strain H13-A and a commonly-used synthetic surfactant, Tween-80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate), were compared for their effectiveness in enhancing the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a complex organic phase into aqueous solution. In the batch-reactor experiment, each reactor contained a surfactant solution and West Texas Crude oil, while the control reactors contained distilled-deionized water and the crude oil. Using a temporal-monitoring scheme, the reactors were sacrificially sampled to determine the water-accommodated fraction (WAF). The phenanthrenes, fluorenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes showed significant increases in their aqueous-plus-micellar-phase concentrations in the presence of surfactants; the increase was greater for the biosurfactant compared to the synthetic surfactant. The enhancement in "solubility" was also more significant for the highly-substituted aromatics, when compared to their parent compounds. In the second study, the effects of four biosurfactants on the solubility of petroleum saturated hydrocarbons were compared. Rhodococcus species H13-A (glycolipid-producing), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (rhamnolipid-producing), Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 (sophorolipid-producing), and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 (surfactin-producing) were compared to a control of distilled-deionized water. The experimental design was similar that of the first study. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa treatment significantly enhanced the solubility of the lower-weight, higher-weight and branched saturated hydrocarbons. The Rhodococcus treatment significantly enhanced the solubility of the low-molecular-weight compounds, but only moderately increased the solubilities of the other saturates. Neither the Candida nor the Bacillus solutions produced any negligible increase in solubility under these laboratory conditions.

Page, Cheryl Ann

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This is a patent for a disc-type, four-port sampling valve for service with erosive high temperature process streams. Inserts and liners of ..cap alpha..-silicon carbide respectively, in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities, limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation. 1 fig.

Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

1984-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nuclear Utility Mixed Waste Stream Characterization Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents industry experience at nuclear utilities in characterizing the hazardous component of potential mixed waste streams. It identifies key considerations for characterizing mixed waste; provides background information, including actual sample results, on the majority of plant processes with a potential to generate mixed waste; and presents a methodology for characterizing mixed waste.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Efficient and robust streaming provisioning in VPNs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today, most large companies maintain virtual private networks (VPNs) to connect their remote locations into a single secure network. VPNs can be quite large covering more than 1000 locations and in most cases use standard Internet protocols and services. ... Keywords: VPNs, streaming server placement

Z. Morley Mao; David Johnson; Oliver Spatscheck; Jacobus E. van der Merwe; Jia Wang

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS M&O 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''.

S. Gillespie

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Density estimation for spatial data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we study the problem of estimating several types of spatial queries in a streaming environment. We propose a new approach, which we call Local Kernels, for computing density estimators by using local rather than global statistics on the ...

Cecilia M. Procopiuc; Octavian Procopiuc

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Annotations for streaming video on the web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Streaming video on the World Wide Web is being widely deployed, and workplace training and distance education are two key applications. The ability to annotate video presentations on the Web can add significant value by enabling "in context" note-taking ... Keywords: asynchronous collaboration, video annotation

David Bargeron; Anoop Gupta; Jonathan Grudin; Elizabeth Sanocki

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

Charles Park

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Archaeal Communities in Surface Stream Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-5324 Contact: Tony Palumbo, palumboav@ornl.gov DOE/Office of Science/Biological & Environmental Research #12;Archaeal Communities in Surface Stream Sediments Contact: Tony Palumbo, palumboav@ornl.gov DOE/Office of Science/Biological & Environmental Research Freshwater Group Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group I3 Rice

316

Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

1983-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

Collisional processes of hydrocarbons in hydrogen plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated the reactions of methane and its derivatives with hydrogen plasmas for use in modelling carbon and hydrocarbon transport in hydrogen plasmas. We provide quantitative information over the temperature range from 0.1 eV to 2 keV for the most significant reactions of methane and methane fragments with electrons and protons. We review the properties of each reaction, present graphs of the cross section and reaction rate coefficient, and give analytical fits for sigma and (sigmav). 34 refs.

Ehrhardt, A.B.; Langer, W.D.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Orbit of the Orphan Stream  

SciTech Connect

We use recent SEGUE spectroscopy and SDSS and SEGUE imaging data to measure the sky position, distance, and radial velocities of stars in the tidal debris stream that is commonly referred to as the 'Orphan Stream.' We fit orbital parameters to the data, and find a prograde orbit with an apogalacticon, perigalacticon, and eccentricity of 90 kpc, 16.4 kpc and e = 0.7, respectively. Neither the dwarf galaxy UMa II nor the Complex A gas cloud have velocities consistent with a kinematic association with the Orphan Stream. It is possible that Segue-1 is associated with the Orphan Stream, but no other known Galactic clusters or dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way lie along its orbit. The detected portion of the stream ranges from 19 to 47 kpc from the Sun and is an indicator of the mass interior to these distances. There is a marked increase in the density of Orphan Stream stars near (l, b) = (253{sup o}; 49{sup o}), which could indicate the presence of the progenitor at the edge of the SDSS data. If this is the progenitor, then the detected portion of the Orphan Stream is a leading tidal tail. We find blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars and F turnoff stars associated with the Orphan Stream. The turnoff color is (g-r){sub 0} = 0.22. The BHB stars have a low metallicity of [Fe/H]{sub WBG} = -2.1. The orbit is best fit to a halo potential with a halo plus disk mass of about 2.6 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}, integrated to 60 kpc from the Galactic center. Our fits are done to orbits rather than full N-body simulations; we show that if N-body simulations are used, the inferred mass of the galaxy would be slightly smaller. Our best fit is found with a logarithmic halo speed of v{sub halo} = 73 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1}, a disk+bulge mass of M(R < 60 kpc) = 1.3 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}, and a halo mass of M(R < 60 kpc) = 1.4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, we can find similar fits to the data that use an NFW halo profile, or that have smaller disk masses and correspondingly larger halo masses. Distinguishing between different classes of models requires data over a larger range of distances. The Orphan Stream is projected to extend to 90 kpc from the Galactic center, and measurements of these distant parts of the stream would be a powerful probe of the mass of the Milky Way.

Newberg, Heidi Jo; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu, Yan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

320

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 6, 1 October-31 December 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; and (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box amounts of contaminated water along with the hydrocarbon phase, termed "produced water" by the industry 1 Agency (EPA) limit on oil and grease content in produced water discharged in the ocean is a daily maximum

323

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

324

Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources  

SciTech Connect

Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

326

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

327

Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored Study Shows Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored Study Shows September 23, 2010 - 1:00pm...

328

Real-Time streaming and rendering of terrains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terrains and other geometric models have been traditionally stored locally. Their remote access presents the characteristics that are a combination of file serving and realtime streaming like audio-visual media. This paper presents a terrain streaming ...

Soumyajit Deb; Shiben Bhattacharjee; Suryakant Patidar; P. J. Narayanan

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Biosorption beads for removal of dissolved metals from aqueous streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process for removing heavy metals from aqueous waste streams 5 by contacting such streams with certain biological adsorbents, either living, dead or in fragments, that may be immobilized in gel beads. 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

330

Event dissemination via group-aware stream filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a distributed system that disseminates high-volume event streams to many simultaneous monitoring applications over a low-bandwidth network. For bandwidth efficiency, we propose a group-aware stream filtering approach, used together with multicasting, ...

Ming Li; David Kotz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Parallel detection of temporal events from streaming data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced applications of sensors, network traffic, and financial markets have produced massive, continuous, and time-ordered data streams, calling for high-performance stream querying and event detection techniques. Beyond the widely adopted sequence ...

Hao Wang; Ling Feng; Wenwei Xue

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Optimising Skeletal-Stream Parallelism on a BSP Computer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream parallelism allows parallel programs to exploit the potential of executing different parts of the computation on distinct input data items. Stream parallelism can also exploit the concurrent evaluation of the same function on different input items. ...

Andrea Zavanella

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS  

SciTech Connect

STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

Chen, K.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Geology and hydrocarbon potentials of Arafura Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arafura Sea is a continental-shelf sea located between Irian Jaya (western New Guinea) and the northern part of the Australian continent. On the south it adjoins the stable Australian craton, and on the north it is bordered by the Tertiary collision zone between the Australian craton and the northern Irian Jaya island arc. On the west and northwest it is bounded by the active Banda arc collision zone, whereas on the east it is bordered by the northern extension of the Gulf of Carpentaria that also forms the western limit of the zone of late Paleozoic granites. Shelf sediments, ranging in age from late Paleozoic to Cenozoic, predominate in the Arafura Sea continental shelf, and are underlain by granitic basement. Gas shows have been reported from Jurassic to Cretaceous fine-grained marine limestones and sandstones, and gas and condensate also are present in Cretaceous sediments and Middle Jurassic fine-grained sandstones. At the north, the most prospective area seems to be the hinge zone of the Aru high, where a combination of traps and reservoir rocks presumably exists. On the south, the Money Shoal area is considered a significant prospect. In the Arafura basin, stratigraphic traps seem to be the most promising target for hydrocarbon exploration as tectonics seems not to have played an important role in the area. The sedimentary area occupied by the eastern extension of the Tarera-Aiduna wrench fault should also be investigated in detail for its hydrocarbon potential.

Katili, J.A.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engine-out emissions of unburnt hydrocabons from spark ignition engines are attributable to a number of mechanisms, occurring during the engine cycle, by which fuel escapes combustion. These include absorption of fuel components into the bore lubricating oil film during compression, and subsequent desorption into hot combustion gases throughout expansion. A proportion of the hydrocarbons desorbed will then be emitted, either as unburnt or partially oxidised fuel. This mechanism has been studied by a number of workers, and estimates of its importance vary from 10 to 30% of total hydrocarbons being related to the absorption/desorption process. A novel lubricant additive has been formulated for the purpose of reducing the quantity of fuel which is absorbed into the bore lubricant film, and hence the quantity of fuel subsequently desorbed. This paper describes a programme to evaluate the effect that this lubricant additive can have on engine-out emissions from a single cylinder research engine, together with results from current technology, low-emitting US and European vehicles, tested over FTP and ECE drive cycles. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Beckwith, P.; Cooper, J.H.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Liquid low level waste management expert system  

SciTech Connect

An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Jackson, J.R. (Southwest Baptist Univ., Bolivar, MO (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

345

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

Zakharov, Leonid E.

346

Apparatus for mixing char-ash into coal stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for obtaining complete mixing of char with coal prior to the introduction of the mixture into the combustor (30) of a coal gasifier (10). The coal is carried in one air stream (22), and the char in another air stream (54), to a riffle plate arrangement (26), where the streams of solid are intimately mixed or blended.

Blaskowski, Henry J. (Avon, CT)

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Interactive mining of high utility patterns over data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High utility pattern (HUP) mining over data streams has become a challenging research issue in data mining. When a data stream flows through, the old information may not be interesting in the current time period. Therefore, incremental HUP mining is ... Keywords: Data mining, Data streams, High utility pattern mining, Incremental mining, Interactive mining, Knowledge discovery

Chowdhury Farhan Ahmed; Syed Khairuzzaman Tanbeer; Byeong-Soo Jeong; Ho-Jin Choi

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Gulf Stream Trajectories Measured with Free-Drifting Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During 1975–78, 35 free-drifting buoys measured surface currents in the Gulf Stream region. The buoy trajectories trace numerous paths of the Stream and show that the Stream is strongly influenced by the New England Seamounts. This influence is ...

P. L. Richardson

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Event composition and detection in data stream management systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a rising need to handle and process streaming kind of data. It is continuous, unpredictable, time-varying in nature and could arrive in multiple rapid streams. Sensor data, web clickstreams, etc. are the examples of streaming data. One ...

Mukesh Mohania; Dhruv Swamini; Shyam Kumar Gupta; Sourav Bhowmick; Tharam Dillon

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Optimistic parallelization support for event stream processing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Event stream applications consist of an acyclic graph of components that are traversed by streams of events. Examples of operations in such components are filtering, aggregation, enrichment, and transformation of events and, commonly, applications include ... Keywords: event stream processing, optimistic parallelization, software transactional memory

Andrey Brito

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Distortion-aware scalable video streaming to multinetwork clients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of scalable video streaming from a server to multinetwork clients over heterogeneous access networks, with the goal of minimizing the distortion of the received videos. This problem has numerous applications including: 1) mobile ... Keywords: quality optimization, rate control, stream adaptation, video streaming

Nikolaos M. Freris, Cheng-Hsin Hsu, Jatinder Pal Singh, Xiaoqing Zhu

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Stream computing based synchrophasor application for power grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an application of stream computing analytics framework to high speed synchrophasor data for real time monitoring and control of electric grid. High volume streaming synchrophasor data from geographically distributed grid sensors (namely, ... Keywords: power grid, stream computing, synchrophasor, voltage stability

Jagabondhu Hazra; Kaushik Das; Deva P. Seetharam; Amith Singhee

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta, Botryococcaceae) is a colony-forming green microalga that produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons, which can be converted into transportation fuels. While B. braunii has been well studied for the chemistry of the hydrocarbon production, very little is known about the molecular biology of B. braunii. As such, this study developed both apparatus and techniques to culture B. braunii for use in the genetic and biochemical characterization. During genetic studies, the genome size was determined of a representative strain of each of the three races of B. braunii, A, B, and L, that are distinguished based on the type of hydrocarbon each produces. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that the A race, Yamanaka strain, of B. braunii has a genome size of 166.0 +/- 0.4 Mb, which is similar to the B race, Berkeley strain, with a genome size of 166 +/- 2.2 Mb, while the L race, Songkla Nakarin strain, has a substantially larger genome size at 211.3 +/- 1.7 Mb. Phylogenetic analysis with the nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA and actin genes were used to classify multiple strains of A, B, and L races. These analyses suggest that the evolutionary relationship between B. braunii races is correlated with the type of liquid hydrocarbon they produce. Biochemical studies of B. braunii primarily focused on the B race, because it uniquely produces large amounts of botryococcenes that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. C30 botryococcene is metabolized by methylation to generate intermediates of C31, C32, C33, and C34. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of botryococcenes. The spectral region from 1600?1700 cm^-1 showed v(C=C) stretching bands specific for botryococcenes. Distinct botryococcene Raman bands at 1640 and 1647 cm^-1 were assigned to the stretching of the C=C bond in the botryococcene branch and the exomethylene C=C bonds produced by the methylations, respectively. A Raman band at 1670 cm^-1 was assigned to the backbone C=C bond stretching. Finally, confocal Raman microspectroscopy was used to map the presence and location of methylated botryococcenes within a living colony of B. braunii cells.

Weiss, Taylor Leigh

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

355

Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

356

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation, the primary source of petroleum hydrocarbons inPetroleum Geologists, Tulsa Clark JF, Washburn L, Hornafius JS, Luyendyk BP (2000) Natural marine hydrocarbon seep source

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Spatial Scales, Distribution, and Intensity of Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara,marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California,associated with offshore oil production", Geology, 27(11),

Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.; Kyriakidis, Phaedon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Spatial Scales, Distribution, and Intensity of Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara,marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California,source areas such as near Coal Oil Point. Furthermore,

Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.; Kyriakidis, Phaedon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Nitration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal combustors and exhaust streams. Quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Our efforts quarter were directed at preparing PAH samples at well-controlled extents of secondary pyrolysis. The same operating conditions used in the past were implemented this quarter to prepare PAH samples at well-controlled extents of secondary pyrolysis from a Pit. {number_sign}8 hvA bituminous coal. The new data are in excellent agreement with the old. Both ultimate yield values and soot percentages at particular furnace temperatures from these data sets am within experimental uncertainties. PAH samples have now been prepared to cover extents of conversion of coal tar into soot from 35--80 %. Additional runs during primary devolatilization have yielded PAH samples that cover nearly the full range of this process as well. Hence, all PAH samples from the Pit. {number_sign}8 coal sample are in hand. We also began to collect the analogous PAH samples from a subituminous coal. Efforts at sample analysis focused on testing and modification of the gravity-flow column chromatography procedure using actual tar samples. Extra samples collected during combustion experiments using the Pit. {number_sign}8 bituminous coal were used to refine the preparation technique. Solvent volumes were adjusted to optimize sample separation, and additional tests were conducted to determine the reproducibility of the fractionation and recovery. Further refinement in the experimental methodology allowed 80% recovery of the coal tar samples to be reproducibly achieved.

Yu, L.; Dadamio, J.; Hildemann, L.; Niska, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 2, January 16, 1987--April 15, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. In this program we are exploring two approaches to developing such catalysts. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare-earth-exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surfaceconfined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. During the second quarter of this project, we concentrated on methane reforming. Two ruthenium clusters (Ru{sub 4} and Ru{sub 6}) supported on three types of support materials ({beta}-alumina, 5 {Angstrom} molecular sieves, and {gamma}-zeolite) were tested for methane reforming. The effects of cluster size, supporting material, and reaction conditions were evaluated. The methane conversions range from 1.74 to 10.11% at 750{degrees}C. The reaction product contains hydrogen, C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, and C{sub 6} or higher hydrocarbons. Up to 48.34% yield of hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) is obtained based on reacted methane. Some of these catalysts show very good coking resistance compared with a commercial ruthenium catalyst. Addition of oxygen to these reactions significantly increases the percent methane conversion at lower reaction temperature. However, carbon dioxide and water are the major products in the presence of oxygen.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan, Yee Wai

1987-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Side Stream Filtration Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Pacific Northwest National Laboratory X. Duan, J.L. Williamson, K.L McMordie Stoughton and B.K. Boyd October 2012 FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM i Contact Will Lintner, PE Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Phone: (202) 586-3120 E-mail: william.lintner@ee.doe.gov Cover photo: Cooling Towers. Photo from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ii Acknowledgements The authors of the report would like to thank the following individuals that provided support to

363

A Generalized Streaming Model for Concurrent Computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multicore parallel programming has some very difficult problems such as deadlocks during synchronizations and race conditions brought by concurrency. Added to the difficulty is the lack of a simple, well-accepted computing model for multicore architectures--because of that it is hard to develop powerful programming environments and debugging tools. To tackle the challenges, we promote a generalized stream computing model, inspired by previous researches on stream computing, that unifies parallelization strategies for programming language design, compiler design and operating system design. Our model provides a high-level abstraction in designing language constructs to convey concepts of concurrent operations, in organizing a program's runtime layout for parallel execution, and in scheduling concurrent instruction blocks through runtime and/or operating systems. In this paper, we give a high-level description of the proposed model: we define the foundation of the model, show its simplicity through algebraic/co...

Wang, Yibing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

History of Rocky Flats waste streams  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL.

Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

1982-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

Gas stream cleaning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil mist and solid particle laden gas from an oil shale retorting operation is initially treated with a temperature controlled oil spray and then by a coalescer to reduce the quantity of oil mist and remove most of the solid particle content of the gas stream and then finally treated by an electrostatic precipitator to essentially remove the oil mist remaining in the gas.

Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 81501); Erck, Louis J. (Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650); Harris, Harry A. (No. 25 Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650)

1979-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

Appendix F Stream Flow.xls  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Stream Flow Measurement Results Since 2000 Stream Flow Measurement Results Since 2000 This page intentionally left blank Appendix F Stream Flow Measurement Results Since 2000 Collect Date Surface ID Calculated Flow (ft 3 /sec) Comments 1/14/2000 CARB POND TRENCH OUT 0.25 Carb Pond trench outfall 1/14/2000 MNT CR E OF HWY CULV 0.22 MONTEZUMA CREEK 100 FT EAST OF HIGHWAY CULVERT 1/14/2000 MC>CUTOFFTRENCH CLAY 0.19 Montezuma Creek above ground water cutoff trench, clay bottom. 4/14/2000 MIDPOND OUTFALL PIPE 0.26 Middle Pond outfall pipe (groundwater impoundment in old Van Pile area) 4/14/2000 >VANPILE-STEEP/LINED 0.38 Montezuma Creek above old Vanadium Pile, where gradient steepens/lined. 4/14/2000 SW00-01 0.44 MONTEZUMA CREEK 100 FT EAST OF HIGHWAY CULVERT 4/14/2000 SW00-02 0.74 Pipe outfall at east end of millsite

367

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Stable isotope investigations of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can be masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.

Abrajano, T.; Heraty, L. J.; Holt, B. D.; Huang, L.; Sturchio, N. C.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

372

Preignition oxidation characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results obtained from a static reactor are presented for the oxidation of a variety of fuels. Pressure and temperature histories of the reacting fuel/oxidizer mixtures were obtained. Measurements of the stable reaction intermediate and product species were made using gas chromatographic analysis. One aspect of this work involved detailed studies of the oxidation chemistry of relatively low molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons: propane, propene, and n-butane. The oxidation chemistry of these fuels was examined at temperatures in the range 550-750 K, equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 4.0 and at subatmospheric pressures. The main characteristics and features of the oxidation mechanisms were determined for each fuel in each temperature regime. The experimental results from propene and propane were used to develop a low and intermediate temperature kinetic mechanism for these fuels based on a low temperature acetaldehyde mechanism of Kaiser et al. and a high temperature propene/propane mechanism of Westbrook and Pitz. General preignition characteristics of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons and binary mixtures of these fuels were also studied. The low temperature/cool flame ignition characteristics of dodecane were investigated at temperatures in the range 523-623 K, equivalence s ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and at subatmospheric pressures. The preignition characteristics of binary mixtures of dodecane and the aromatic component tetralin were examined. The addition of the tetralin had the overall effect of decreasing the ignition tendency of the mixture, although this effect was nonlinear with respect to the amount of tetralin added.

Wilk, R.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons in water is the major factor limiting the degradation rates of these compounds (Zhang and Miller, 1994). The fraction that is more soluble in the aqueous phase is degraded at higher rates, while less soluble or insoluble compounds have lower degradation rates due to limited bioavailability to the microbial community. A recent study in our lab found no significant degradation of weathered petroleum at a Texas petrochemical plant site. It was concluded that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al., 1994). This research focused on biosurfactants because they have been shown to be as effective as chemical surfactants and, most importantly, they enhance biodegradation. Glycolipid biosurfactants are produced by Rhodococcus species HI 3-A to enhance substrate solubility and promote bioavailability for degradation. The work proceeded in two stages. The initial stage involved production and characterization of extracellular biosurfactants by HI 3-A when grown on minimal salts media with hexadecane as the carbon source. The second stage evaluated the performance of the biosurfactants in enhancing the aqueous solubility of weathered West Texas Crude. Initial results indicated production of the biosurfactants by Rhodococcus species H13-A during the stationary growth stage. Biosurfactants lowered the surface tension from 72 to-30 dynes/cm and interfacial tension to below 5 dynes/cm. The two-, three-, and four-ring aromatic compounds showed substantial increase in their aqueous phase concentrations in the presence of biosurfactants. The enhancement was more dramatic with the larger aromatics and also the highly substituted-compounds. Preliminary experiments on toxicity and biodegradation indicated higher levels of toxicity in the surfactant/aqueous mixtures due to increased PAH partitioning (Lambert, 1995), and increased degradation rates for the target PAH compounds.

Kanga, Shahrukh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Nonradiological Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program FY 1991, annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 12 liquid effluent streams from fiscal year 1987 through fiscal year 1991 are presented with emphasis on fiscal year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991) activities.

Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.; Einerson, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Nonradiological Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program FY 1991, annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 12 liquid effluent streams from fiscal year 1987 through fiscal year 1991 are presented with emphasis on fiscal year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991) activities.

Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.; Einerson, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal tar aged in a large-scale, artificial aquifer experiment for five years was subsequently investigated for leaching behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After five years, the initially liquid coal tar had solidified and formed segregated particles with a grain size similar to that of the sandy aquifer material. The composition of the aged coal tar (ACT) with regard to PAHs was remarkably different from that of the original bulk coal tar (BCT), because most of the low-molecular-weight compounds had been depleted. Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 {sup o}C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2-to 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult's law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van't Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs.

Liu, L.H.; Endo, S.; Eberhardt, C.; Grathwohl, P.; Schmidt, T.C. [University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

379

Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrocarbons is accomplished by pyrolysis of oil shale with controlled removal of the resulting layer of spent oil-shale residue. A procedure is described for the in situ thermal conversion of oil shale wherein fluidized abrasive particles are employed to foster improved hydrocarbon production, in amount and kind, by a controlled partial removal of the layer of spent oil shale which results from application of flowing fluids to heat exposed surfaces of the oil shale to release hydrocarbons. (5 claims)

Slusser, M.L.; Bramhall, W.E.

1969-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

380

Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

Heldebrant, David J. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE  

SciTech Connect

Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar{reg_sign} L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring.

Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

CROSS-STREAM COMPARISON OF SUBSTRATE-SPECIFIC DENITRIFICATION POTENTIAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Headwater streams have a demonstrated ability to denitrify a portion of their nitrate (NO(3) (-)) load but there has not been an extensive consideration of where in a stream this process is occurring and how various habitats contribute to total denitrification capability. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II (LINX II) we measured denitrification potential in 65 streams spanning eight regions of the US and draining three land-use types. In each stream, potential denitrification rates were measured in common substrate types found across many streams as well as locations unique to particular streams. Overall, habitats from streams draining urban and agricultural land-uses showed higher potential rates of denitrification than reference streams draining native vegetation. This difference among streams was probably driven by higher ambient nitrate concentrations found in urban or agricultural streams. Within streams, sandy habitats and accumulations of fine benthic organic matter contributed more than half of the total denitrification capacity (mg N removed m(-2) h(-1)). A particular rate of potential denitrification per unit area could be achieved either by high activity per unit organic matter or lower activities associated with larger standing stocks of organic matter. We found that both small patches with high rates (hot spots) or more widespread but less active areas (cool matrix) contributed significantly to whole stream denitrification capacity. Denitrification estimated from scaled-up denitrification enzyme assay (DEA) potentials were not always dramatically higher than in situ rates of denitrification measured as (15)N gas generation following 24-h (15)N-NO(3) tracer additions. In general, headwater streams draining varying land-use types have significant potential to remove nitrate via denitrification and some appear to be functioning near their maximal capacity.

Findlay, Stuart [Institute of Ecosystem Studies; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Hamilton, Stephen [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tank, Jennifer [University of Notre Dame, IN; Bernot, Melody [Ball State University; Burgin, Amy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Grimm, Nancy [Arizona State University; McDowell, William [University of Hew Hampshire; Potter, Jody [University of New Hampshire; Sobota, Daniel [Oregon State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Analysis of the behavior of ternary hydrocarbon mixture as substitutes of the CFC-12  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbons are stratospheric ozone friendly and have good heat transfer properties. The use of hydrocarbons (HCs) or their blend as refrigerant is extending in these days. This paper deals with the search of the best ternary hydrocarbons mixture of ... Keywords: CFC-12, LB-12, cub, hydrocarbon, ozone, refrigerant, ternary mixture

Rafael Quintero Ricardo

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

387

Assessment of dosimetry requirements and techniques for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [13 refs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prediction by ERDA is that, within a decade, 10/sup 6/ barrels/day of synthetic fuel will come from liquefaction of coal. The coproduction of highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) will necessitate much better dosimetry and means of personnel protection than exist today. Traditional techniques for measuring PAH are gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Several newly developed, or developing techniques, may also lend themselves to PAH dosimetry. These include low-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, time-resolved fluorescence, room-temperature phosphorescence, portable mass spectrometry, and second derivative spectrometry. Special emphasis is given to potential use of the second derivative spectrometer for dosimetry purposes. Some of the advantages and limitations of these techniques for characterizing and measuring PAH under various conditions (vapor, liquid, solid, or aerosol) are discussed.

Hawthorne, A R; Gammage, R B; Simpkin, D J

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Requirements for the GCFR plenum streaming experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report gives the experiment objectives and generic descriptions of experimental configurations for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) plenum shield experiment. This report defines four experiment phases. Each phase represents a distinct area of uncertainty in computing radiation transport from the GCFR core to the plenums, through the upper and lower plenum shields, and ultimately to the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) liner: (1) the shield heterogeneity phase; (2) the exit shield simulation phase; (3) the plenum streaming phase; and (4) the plenum shield simulation phase.

Perkins, R.G.; Rouse, C.A.; Hamilton, C.J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2004-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Trend Analysis for Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Partitioning Using Continuous Thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partitioning of atmospheric hydrocarbons into vapor and condensed phases when the species count is large is considered using the formalism of continuous thermodynamics. The vapor saturation pressures and condensate species distribution are ...

K. Harstad

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Biodegradation and phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using mushroom compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Soils contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly found in petroleum, gas-work and wood-impregnation sites. Interest in the biodegradation and environmental fate of PAHs… (more)

Kodjo-Wayo, Lina Korkor

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling--Benedict--Webb--Rubin equation of state was used. A brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine are included.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling-Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Conversion of Pentose-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are interested in the conversion of biomass-derived hemicellulose into hydrocarbon molecules that can be used in the formulation of 'drop-in' fuels such as gasoline (C5-12), diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16). Our focus lies on the use of furfuryl alcohol as a starting material since that is already produced commercially from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The steps required to convert the latter into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. However, furfuryl alcohol readily polymerizes to form resins in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the exothermic oligomerization must be carried out under reaction control. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this sugar-to-hydrocarbon pathway.

Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A Global Approach to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures and Related In-Stream First-Order Decay Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream water temperature is an important factor used in water quality modeling. To estimate monthly stream temperature on a global scale, a simple nonlinear regression model was developed. It was applied to stream temperatures recorded over a 36-...

Manuel Punzet; Frank Voß; Anja Voß; Ellen Kynast; Ilona Bärlund

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

DCU Library User Guide -DataStream Advance 5.1 What is DataStream?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Criteria Search, enter your search terms and click on Search. 5. Double-click on the DS Mnemonic you want on the designated DataStream PC in the Library's information commons. You'll be prompted to "Enter Password". Type is not broken!). 2. At Novell Login: "Workstation only" must be ticked. This automatically enters "datastream

Humphrys, Mark

404

Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbon fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is the primary candidate as the power source for light-duty transportation systems. On-board conversion of fuels (reforming) to supply the required hydrogen has the potential to provide the driving range that is typical of today's automobiles. Petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline or some distillate similar to it, are attractive because of their existing production, distribution, and retailing infrastructure. The fuel may be either petroleum-derived or other alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, etc. [1]. The ability to use a variety of fuels is also attractive for stationary distributed power generation [2], such as in buildings, or for portable power in remote locations. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a catalytic reactor based on partial oxidation reforming that is suitable for use in light-duty vehicles powered by fuel cells. The reactor has shown the ability to convert a wide variety of fuels to a hydrogen-rich gas at less than 800 C, temperatures that are several hundreds of degrees lower than alternative noncatalytic processes. The fuel may be methanol, ethanol, natural gas, or petroleum-derived fuels that are blends of various hydrocarbons such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, etc., as in gasoline. This paper will discuss the results obtained from a bench-scale (3-kWe) reactor., where the reforming of gasoline and natural gas generated a product gas that contained 38% and 42% hydrogen on a dry basis at the reformer exit, respectively.

Ahmed, S.

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

408

Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

NETL: CO2 Capture from IGCC Gas Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process Project No.: DE-FE0000896 Batch scale...

410

TSA waste stream and final waste form composition  

SciTech Connect

A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 51 Table 29. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued...

412

S08-03 Peeler Feed Qualification for New Streams  

for analysis Analyze WAPS sample to determine reportable radionuclides Provide projected ... Depends on the necessary scenario to bound the new stream processing

413

Process for recovering condensible components from a gas stream  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for adsorbing the condensible components out of the inlet gas stream in one of a number of stationary adsorption beds, while simultaneously cooling one or more of the other adsorption beds with the residue gas stream from the adsorbing bed. At the same time, one or more other adsorption beds are heated by a regeneration gas stream in a closed cycle, thereby stripping and vaporizing the condensible components. A special main gas-flow pattern is utilized at the beginning of each cycle to prevent condensible components, remaining in the bed or beds just heated, from being lost, with the gas stream leaving the process. (6 claims)

McMinn, R.E.; Loomer, J.A.; Sellars, A.I.

1970-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

414

Methods, Apparatuses and Systems for Processing Fluid Streams ...  

Applications and Industries Gas separations of capture flue gas and/or pipeline gas streams; Oil & gas, power & manufacturing industries. More ...

415

Method for Removal of Mercury from Various Gas Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,576,092 entitled "Method for Removal of Mercury from Various Gas Streams."...

416

NETL: Gasification Systems - Liquid Carbon Dioxide/Coal Slurry for Feeding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Liquid Carbon Dioxide/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low-Rank Coal to Gasifiers Project Number: DE-FE0007977 There is increased interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) for future coal-based power plants, and in a CCS integrated gasification plant, relatively pure, high pressure CO2 stream(s) will be available within the power plant. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) aims to help reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with CCS by using a portion of the high purity CO2 product stream as the carrier fluid to feed low rank coal (LRC) into the gasifier. EPRI proposes to confirm the potential advantages of LRC/liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) slurries by: Conducting plant-wide technical and economic simulations.

417

Fishing in Tidal Streams: New Radial Velocity and Proper Motion Constraints on the Orbit of the Anticenter Stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have obtained radial velocity measurements for stars in two, widely-separated fields in the Anticenter Stream. Combined with SDSS/USNO-B proper motions, the new measurements allow us to establish that the stream is on a nearly circular, somewhat inclined, prograde orbit around the Galaxy. While the orbital eccentricity is similar to that previously determined for the Monoceros stream, the sizes, inclinations, and positions of the orbits for the two systems differ significantly. Integrating our best fitting Anticenter Stream orbit forward, we find that it is closely aligned along and lies almost on top of a stream-like feature previously designated the "Eastern Banded Structure". The position of this feature coincides with the apogalacticon of the orbit. We tentatively conclude that this feature is the next wrap of the Anticenter Stream.

Carl J. Grillmair; Jeffrey L. Carlin; Steven R. Majewski

2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Interfacial inactivation of epoxide hydrolase in a two-liquid-phase system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Midwest Research Institute (MRI). The concept is based on the use of the SpinCon® gas-liquid contactor the wall. Particles move outward toward the wall due to the centrifugal forces. Any particles that reach percent of the particles initially in the gas stream. Centrifugal forces resulted in the capture

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

419

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Radiological Issues for the Thin Liquid Walls of ARIES-IFE Study  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants employ liquid wall materials to protect the structure against the energetic x-rays, ions, and debris emitted from the target following each shot. The objective of this assessment is to identify the radiological issues of the candidate liquid wall materials (Pb, LiPb, Sn, and Flibe) using the ARIES-IFE radiation chamber environment. The issues to be addressed include the radioactivity level and liquid waste minimization for waste management. Specifically, the liquids are evaluated with regard to the Class C limitation for waste disposal, a top-level requirement for all ARIES power plant designs. Two extreme cases were analyzed; the worst case is separation of the liquid wall material (highest radiation exposure) and the breeder (lowest radiation exposure), and the best case is the mixing of the two liquid streams. Both tangential and porous wall injection schemes were examined. Pb and LiPb are more radioactive than Sn and Flibe. For the liquid breeder system, the porous wall injection scheme with mixed liquid flows results in the lowest waste disposal rating and smallest waste stream achieved in our study.

El-Guebaly, L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Henderson, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Waganer, L. [Boeing Company (United States); Raffray, R. [University of California-San Diego (United States)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method and apparatus for cutting, abrading, and drilling with sublimable particles and vaporous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas delivery system provides a first gas which is in a liquid state under extreme pressure and in a gaseous state under intermediate pressure. A particle delivery system provides a slurry comprising the first gas in a liquid state and a second gas in a solid state. The second gas is selected so that it will solidify at a temperature at or above the temperature of the first gas in a liquid state. A nozzle assembly connected to the gas delivery system and to the particle delivery system produces a stream having a high velocity central jet comprising the slurry, a liquid sheath surrounding the central jet comprising the first gas in a liquid state and an outer jacket surrounding the liquid sheath comprising the first gas in a gas state.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swainston, Richard C. (Shelley, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method and apparatus for cutting, abrading, and drilling with sublimable particles and vaporous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas delivery system provides a first gas which is in a liquid state under extreme pressure and in a gaseous state under intermediate pressure. A particle delivery system provides a slurry comprising the first gas in a liquid state and a second gas in a solid state. The second gas is selected so that it will solidify at a temperature at or above the temperature of the first gas in a liquid state. A nozzle assembly connected to the gas delivery system and to the particle delivery system produces a stream having a high velocity central jet comprising the slurry, a liquid sheath surrounding the central jet comprising the first gas in a liquid state and an outer jacket surrounding the liquid sheath comprising the first gas in a gas state. 19 figs.

Bingham, D.N.; Swainston, R.C.; Palmer, G.L.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hydrogen production from liquid hydrocarbons demonstration program. Final report, 26 August 1985-1 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force now uses diesel-engine generators as sources of heat and electricity at selected remotes sites. Simultaneously, it has investigated alternative cogeneration candidates that offer improved reliability, maintain ability, and economics. One system that shows high potential is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant consisting of a fuel conditioner to convert logistic fuels such as DEF-2, DF-a and JP-4 to a hydrogen-rich gas, and a power conditioner to convert the direct-current power to alternating current. The objective of the project work was to define, and demonstrate, a fuel conditioner to meet performance criteria established for the Air Force Remote Site Fuel Cell Power Plant program. Key criteria included high fuel-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, rapid startup and load-following capability, and minimum water consumption during operations. A process configuration which has the potential to produce a minimum of 0.365 pound of hydrogen per pound of feed diesel consumed is described. The hydrogen-containing product is a suitable fuel for phosphoric-acid fuel-cell power plant. A 2 mole per hour (hydrogen) demonstration plant was designed, constructed and started up. Results are summarized.

O'Hara, J.B.; Chow, T.K.; Ling, J.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

425

GPRS Video Streaming Surveillance System GVSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future security measures will create comfortable living environments that are embedded with a wide range of intelligent functionalities including home computing, entertainment, health care and security. These place stringent requirements on the home networking architecture which integrates various existing technologies for monitoring and control for future high security needs. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a gvss gprs Video Streaming Surveillance System system, which integrates various existing technologies for providing security for smart home environments. This system provides security for office, home and other buildings where high security is required.This allows the mobile user to track the activities from a particular location. The system will send snapshots of the video and stores them in different formats. It is also possible to display the time with the image when it was captured in the gprs enabled mobiles. This system is implemented using J2me Technology

Pushpavathi, T P; Kumar, N R Shashi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

StreamNet; 1999 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The views of this report are the author's and do not necessarily represent the views of BPA. This annual report covers progress made by: Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Idaho; Department of Fish and Game; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission; Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; and FY1999 StreamNet Quickplan.

Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Physical gas stream cleanup: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the status of particulate control technologies for use at high temperatures and high pressures. The technologies are being developed under the Physical Gas Stream Cleanup Program that is administered by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The intended uses of the particulate control technologies are to protect components in advanced coal systems, such as integrated gasification combined cycles, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycles, gasification molten carbonate fuel cells, and direct coal-fueled turbines. The use of particulate control technologies for these advanced energy conversion systems requires separation and collection of particles at temperatures in excess of 1000/sup 0/F and at pressures in excess of 7 atmospheres. These temperature and pressure regimes represent a drastic departure from those of conventional technologies. The Physical Gas Stream Cleanup Program seeks to establish a technical and economic data base that will demonstrate the feasibility of high-temperature, high-pressure particulate control. Particulate control concepts and their corresponding research and development projects are described in this report. These projects include subpilot-scale tests of an electrostatic precipitator, a ceramic cross-flow filter, and a screenless granular-bed filter on a 30-inch diameter pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Bench-scale tests will also be conducted using a ceramic cross-flow filter, a ceramic bag filter, and an electrostatic precipitator on a 6-inch diameter fluidized-bed gasifier. Additional research involves laboratory evaluation of acoustic agglomeration, turbulence characterization and suppression in cyclones and characterization of ceramic fabrics for bag filters. Each project and significant accomplishments in FY 85 are described. 14 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Hydrocarbon autothermal performing program annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A goal of the national molten carbonate fuel cells program is to develop the capability to use heavy fuel oil or coal liquids as feed stock for fuel cell power plants. These liquid fuels must be reformed to gaseous fuels which are composed mainly of CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O (and N/sub 2/) for use by the fuel cell. The goal of this program is to understand the mechanism for the formation of soot under conditions relevant to autothermal reformers and to translate this understanding to recommendations for modification of autothermal design. This goal is to be accomplished by a combination of experimental and theoretical tasks. The experimental tasks are to study the mechanisms of soot formation under controlled conditions with gaseous fuels, O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O, both premixed, and with well-described mixing, with and without catalysts. The theoretical tasks will develop models to describe the experimental data first by detailed chemical and fluid mechanical processes, second by quasiequilibrium models, and finally by scaling laws. These scaling laws will then be utilized in recommending reformer design modifications. The first year's work of the two year program is described. (WHK)

Lewis, P.F.; Kothandaraman, G.; Pugh, E.; Lord, G.; Yarrington, R.; Hwang, H.S.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

2003-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, they use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey. They conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process in all five natural gas liquids markets.

Serletis, A.; Gogas, P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Gulf Stream Variability and Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of Gulf Stream position derived from the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter from October 1992 to November 1998 are used to investigate the lead and lag relation between the Gulf Stream path as it leaves the continental shelf and the changes in ...

Claude Frankignoul; Gaelle de Coëtlogon; Terrence M. Joyce; Shenfu Dong

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Geo-spatial event detection in the twitter stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rise of Social Media services in the last years has created huge streams of information that can be very valuable in a variety of scenarios. What precisely these scenarios are and how the data streams can efficiently be analyzed for each scenario ... Keywords: event detection, social media analytics, twitter

Maximilian Walther; Michael Kaisser

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Brook for GPUs: stream computing on graphics hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present Brook for GPUs, a system for general-purpose computation on programmable graphics hardware. Brook extends C to include simple data-parallel constructs, enabling the use of the GPU as a streaming co-processor. We present a compiler ... Keywords: Data Parallel Computing, GPU Computing, Brook, Programmable Graphics Hardware, Stream Computing

Ian Buck; Tim Foley; Daniel Horn; Jeremy Sugerman; Kayvon Fatahalian; Mike Houston; Pat Hanrahan

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

High resolution live streaming with the HYDRA architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital continuous media (CM) are now well established as an integral part of many applications. With highdefinition (HD) displays becoming increasingly common and large network bandwidth available, high-quality video streaming has become feasible, and ... Keywords: high-definition media, human-computer interaction, latency, remote performance, streaming

Roger Zimmermann; Moses Pawar; Dwipal A. Desai; Min Qin; Hong Zhu

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A self-managing wide-area data streaming service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient and robust data streaming services are a critical requirement of emerging Grid applications, which are based on seamless interactions and coupling between geographically distributed application components. Furthermore the dynamism of Grid ... Keywords: Autonomic computing, Grid computing, Model based online control, Scientific data streaming

Viraj Bhat; Manish Parashar; Hua Liu; Nagarajan Kandasamy; Mohit Khandekar; Scott Klasky; Sherif Abdelwahed

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Middleware for streaming 3D progressive meshes over lossy networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Streaming 3D graphics have been widely used in multimedia applications such as online gaming and virtual reality. However, a gap exists between the zero-loss-tolerance of the existing compression schemes and the lossy network transmissions. In this article, ... Keywords: 3D streaming, progressive compression

H. Li; M. Li; B. Prabhakaran

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Dynamic adaptive data structures for monitoring data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The monitoring of data streams is a very important issue in many different areas. Aspects such as accuracy, the speed of response, the use of memory and the adaptability to the changing nature of data may vary in importance depending on the situation. ... Keywords: Bloom filters, Data streams, Data structures

J. Aguilar-Saborit; P. Trancoso; V. Muntes-Mulero; J. L. Larriba-Pey

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Content pollution on P2P Live Streaming systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P2P Live Streaming are subject to content pollution attack. This technology has high potential for the continuous consumption, however, the intentional degradation can become fatal for adherence and maintenance of users. This work deals with the characterization ... Keywords: Caracterização, P2P Live Streaming, poluição

João Oliveira; Alex Borges; Sérgio Campos

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A majorization approach to downlink multiuser VBR video streaming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the problem of optimal power control for multiuser variable bit rate (VBR) video streaming in a cellular network with orthogonal channels. We adopt a deterministic model for VBR video traffic that incorporates video frame ... Keywords: Majorization, Power control, Stochastic programming, Variable bit rate, Video streaming

Yingsong Huang; Shiwen Mao; Yihan Li

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Integrated power management for video streaming to mobile handheld devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimizing user experience for streaming video applications on handheld devices is a significant research challenge. In this paper, we propose an integrated power management approach that unifies low level architectural optimizations (CPU, memory, register), ... Keywords: cross-layer adaptation, low-power, multimedia streaming

Shivajit Mohapatra; Radu Cornea; Nikil Dutt; Alex Nicolau; Nalini Venkatasubramanian

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

443

Maximizing Throughput for Queries over Streaming Sensor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Computer Science The George Washington University Washington, DC, USA Email: {joegomes throughput for sliding window based multi-join queries over con- tinuous sensor data streams. We develop joining two unbounded streams. Therefore it is more sensible and useful to impose window predicates

Choi, Hyeong-Ah

444

Towards collaborative data reduction in stream-processing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a distributed system that disseminates high-volume event streams to many simultaneous monitoring applications over a low-bandwidth network. For bandwidth efficiency, we propose a collaborative data-reduction mechanism, 'group-aware ... Keywords: application-level multicasting, bandwidth efficiency, collaborative data reduction, data quality, group-aware filters, monitoring applications, networked systems, stream processing, wireless mesh networks

Ming Li; David Kotz

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

INEEL Radioactive Liquid Waste Reduction Program  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of radioactive liquid waste, much of which is Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed, is a high priority at the Idaho National Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Major strides in the past five years have lead to significant decreases in generation and subsequent reduction in the overall cost of treatment of these wastes. In 1992, the INTEC, which is part of the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), began a program to reduce the generation of radioactive liquid waste (both hazardous and non-hazardous). As part of this program, a Waste Minimization Plan was developed that detailed the various contributing waste streams, and identified methods to eliminate or reduce these waste streams. Reduction goals, which will reduce expected waste generation by 43%, were set for five years as part of this plan. The approval of the plan led to a Waste Minimization Incentive being put in place between the Department of Energy–Idaho Office (DOE-ID) and the INEEL operating contractor, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This incentive is worth $5 million dollars from FY-98 through FY-02 if the waste reduction goals are met. In addition, a second plan was prepared to show a path forward to either totally eliminate all radioactive liquid waste generation at INTEC by 2005 or find alternative waste treatment paths. Historically, this waste has been sent to an evaporator system with the bottoms sent to the INTEC Tank Farm. However, this Tank Farm is not RCRA permitted for mixed wastes and a Notice of Non-compliance Consent Order gives dates of 2003 and 2012 for removal of this waste from these tanks. Therefore, alternative treatments are needed for the waste streams. This plan investigated waste elimination opportunities as well as treatment alternatives. The alternatives, and the criteria for ranking these alternatives, were identified through Value Engineering meetings with all of the waste generators. The most promising alternatives were compared by applying weighting factors to each based on how well the alternative met the established criteria. From this information, an overall ranking of the various alternatives was obtained and a path forward recommended.

Tripp, Julia Lynn; Archibald, Kip Ernest; Argyle, Mark Don; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Miller, Rose Anna; Lauerhass, Lance

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

INEEL Radioactive Liquid Waste Reduction Program  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of radioactive liquid waste, much of which is Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed, is a high priority at the Idaho National Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Major strides in the past five years have lead to significant decreases in generation and subsequent reduction in the overall cost of treatment of these wastes. In 1992, the INTEC, which is part of the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), began a program to reduce the generation of radioactive liquid waste (both hazardous and non-hazardous). As part of this program, a Waste Minimization Plan was developed that detailed the various contributing waste streams, and identified methods to eliminate or reduce these waste streams. Reduction goals, which will reduce expected waste generation by 43%, were set for five years as part of this plan. The approval of the plan led to a Waste Minimization Incentive being put in place between the Department of Energy ? Idaho Office (DOE-ID) and the INEEL operating contractor, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This incentive is worth $5 million dollars from FY-98 through FY-02 if the waste reduction goals are met. In addition, a second plan was prepared to show a path forward to either totally eliminate all radioactive liquid waste generation at INTEC by 2005 or find alternative waste treatment paths. Historically, this waste has been sent to an evaporator system with the bottoms sent to the INTEC Tank Farm. However, this Tank Farm is not RCRA permitted for mixed wastes and a Notice of Non-compliance Consent Order gives dates of 2003 and 2012 for removal of this waste from these tanks. Therefore, alternative treatments are needed for the waste streams. This plan investigated waste elimination opportunities as well as treatment alternatives. The alternatives, and the criteria for ranking these alternatives, were identified through Value Engineering meetings with all of the waste generators. The most promising alternatives were compared by applying weighting factors to each based on how well the alternative met the established criteria. From this information, an overall ranking of the various alternatives was obtained and a path forward recommended.

C. B. Millet; J. L. Tripp; K. E. Archibald; L. Lauerhauss; M. D. Argyle; R. L. Demmer

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

MHK Technologies/Pulse Stream 100 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pulse Stream 100 Pulse Stream 100 < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Pulse Stream 100.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Pulse Tidal Ltd Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Pulse Stream 100 Demonstration Project Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5/6: System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The 100kW Humber prototype system uses tidal streams to oscillate horizontal blades rather than extracting energy in the same way as a wind turbine through rotary blades. This mode of operation is the key to the device's unique access to shallow water and has so far shown that it can harness enough energy to power 70 homes. The device is connected to the national grid through nearby industrial process plant Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and Ethernet connected through neighbouring resin manufacturing company Cray Valley.

449

Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish October 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge scientists Kelly Roy, left, and Trent Jett collect fish samples in 2011 to support research on the impacts of the treatment in Tims Branch, a small stream at the Savannah River Site. Oak Ridge scientists Kelly Roy, left, and Trent Jett collect fish samples in 2011 to support research on the impacts of the treatment in Tims Branch, a small stream at the Savannah River Site. The M1 Air Stripper system at Savannah River Site, pictured here, was modified in 2007 to remove mercury. The M1 Air Stripper system at Savannah River Site, pictured here, was modified in 2007 to remove mercury. Oak Ridge scientists Kelly Roy, left, and Trent Jett collect fish samples in 2011 to support

450

How to use streaming chart? | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How to use streaming chart? How to use streaming chart? Home > Groups > Databus Hi, how do you use the built-in streaming chart? How do you form the URL for it? Thanks, Submitted by Hopcroft on 31 October, 2013 - 16:40 1 answer Points: 0 Go to My Databus->Data Streams and you can now click a graph of how the data comes from the tables and aggregagate it, spline it, range clean, etc. etc and then click finish and this will fill a url in for you now. Otherwise there is help in the help section for creating urls as well and you can create your own url but the editor is much easier now. Deanhiller on 11 November, 2013 - 11:03 Groups Menu You must login in order to post into this group. Recent content Go to My Databus->Data Streams... yes, it is done the same way y... Update rows?

451

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

How to use streaming chart? | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How to use streaming chart? How to use streaming chart? Home > Groups > Databus Hi, how do you use the built-in streaming chart? How do you form the URL for it? Thanks, Submitted by Hopcroft on 31 October, 2013 - 16:40 1 answer Points: 0 Go to My Databus->Data Streams and you can now click a graph of how the data comes from the tables and aggregagate it, spline it, range clean, etc. etc and then click finish and this will fill a url in for you now. Otherwise there is help in the help section for creating urls as well and you can create your own url but the editor is much easier now. Deanhiller on 11 November, 2013 - 11:03 Groups Menu You must login in order to post into this group. Recent content Go to My Databus->Data Streams... yes, it is done the same way y... Update rows?

454

Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions  

SciTech Connect

There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; (CIW); (RITS)

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

456

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and are generated by many sources. Though the potential of PAH-rich mixtures to cause health effects has been known for almost a century, there are still unanswered questions about the levels of PAHs in the environment, the potential for human exposure to PAHs, the health effects associated with exposure, and how genetic susceptibility influences the extent of health effects in individuals. The first objective of this research was to quantify concentrations of PAHs in samples of settled house dust collected from homes in Azerbaijan, China, and Texas. The trends of PAH surface loadings and percentage of carcinogenic PAHs were China > Azerbaijan > Texas, indicating that the risk of health effects from exposure to PAHs in house dust is highest in the Chinese population and lowest in the Texas population. PAHs in China and Azerbaijan were derived mainly from combustion sources; Texas PAHs were derived from unburned fossil fuels such as petroleum. The second objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pregnane X receptor (PXR) on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). BaP treatment resulted in significantly lower DNA adduct levels in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells than in parental HepG2 cells. Total GST enzymatic activity and mRNA levels of several metabolizing enyzmes were significantly higher in cells overexpressing PXR. These results suggest that PXR protects cells against DNA damage by PAHs such as BaP, possibly through a coordinated regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The third objective of this research was to investigate biomarkers of exposure in house mice (Mus musculus) exposed to PAH mixtures in situ. Mice and soil were collected near homes in Sumgayit and Khizi, Azerbaijan. Mean liver adduct levels were significantly higher in Khizi than in Sumgayit. Mean lung and kidney adduct levels were similar in the two regions. The DNA lesions detected may be a combination of environmentally-induced DNA adducts and naturally-occurring I-compounds. PAHs were present at background levels in soils from both Khizi and Sumgayit. It appears that health risks posed to rodents by soil-borne PAHs are low in these two areas.

Naspinski, Christine S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

458

High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

459

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P{sub 450} reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates. 1 fig. 2 tab.

Shelnutt, J.A.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid hydrocarbon stream" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or mang